WorldWideScience

Sample records for twilight zone-a child-sensitive

  1. Very fine Twilights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boico, Vladimir

    1992-04-01

    The author is describing a very fine twilight on 3 January 1992 at 17 h25 m LT (The Sunset was at 16h48m LT) of red - terracotta color. The author is relating this twilight with the volcanic erruption of Pinatubo on the Philipines islands from June 1991. The author is describing the following phenomena related with Volcanic erruption: twilights, the greenish of the Moon's surface, a change in the color of Day Sky to white, Haloes around the Sun. The author is pointing out, that the phenomena mentioned could prolonge in time 2 or 3 years.

  2. Twilight at Gusev

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Here is the martian twilight sky at Gusev crater, as imaged by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit around 6:20 in the evening of the rover's 464th martian day, or sol (April 23, 2005). Spirit was commanded to stay awake briefly after sending that sol's data to Mars Odyssey at sunset. This small panorama of the western sky was obtained using camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer color filters. This filter combination allows false color images to be generated that are similar to what a human would see, but with the colors exaggerated. In this image, the bluish glow in the sky above where the Sun had just set would be visible to us if we were there, but the redness of the sky farther from the sunset is exaggerated compared to the daytime colors of the martian sky. These kinds of images are beautiful and evocative, but they also have important scientific purposes. Specifically, twilight images are occasionally acquired by the science team to determine how high into the atmosphere the martian dust extends, and to look for dust or ice clouds. Other images have shown that the twilight glow remains visible, but increasingly fainter, for up to two hours before sunrise or after sunset. The long martian twilight compared to Earth's is caused by sunlight scattered around to the night side of the planet by abundant high altitude dust. Similar long twilights or extra-colorful sunrises and sunsets sometimes occur on Earth when tiny dust grains that are erupted from powerful volcanoes scatter light high in the atmosphere. These kinds of twilight images are also more sensitive to faint cloud structures, though none were detected when these images were acquired. Clouds have been rare at Gusev crater during Spirit's 16-month mission so far.

  3. The Twilight Saga : Motion pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2013-01-01

    The Twilight Saga is a series of five romance fantasy films from Summit Entertainment based on the four novels by the American author Stephenie Meyer. The films star Kristen Stewart, Robert Pattinson, and Taylor Lautner. The first installment, Twilight, was released on November 21, 2008. The second installment, New Moon, followed on November 20, 2009. The third installment, Eclipse, was released on June 30, 2010, and was the first Twilight film to be released in IMAX.

  4. Influence of a solar eclipse on twilight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, E H; Hoffmann, M; Volland, H

    1994-07-20

    The morning twilight of the presunrise sky was measured at the Hoher-List Observatory during the total eclipse of 22 July 1990. The location of observation was far away from the central eclipse zone. The luminance showed a deep minimum in twilight during the main phase of the solar eclipse compared with normal conditions. A first order scattering model explains the observations reasonably well and shows that the sky radiation during the first phase of twilight at a location far away from the central umbra depends primarily on the height profile of the air pressure between ~ 100 and 200 km.

  5. Twilight reloaded: the peptide experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenberger, Christian X.; Pozharski, Edwin; Rupp, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The de facto commoditization of biomolecular crystallography as a result of almost disruptive instrumentation automation and continuing improvement of software allows any sensibly trained structural biologist to conduct crystallo­graphic studies of biomolecules with reasonably valid outcomes: that is, models based on properly interpreted electron density. Robust validation has led to major mistakes in the protein part of structure models becoming rare, but some depositions of protein–peptide complex structure models, which generally carry significant interest to the scientific community, still contain erroneous models of the bound peptide ligand. Here, the protein small-molecule ligand validation tool Twilight is updated to include peptide ligands. (i) The primary technical reasons and potential human factors leading to problems in ligand structure models are presented; (ii) a new method used to score peptide-ligand models is presented; (iii) a few instructive and specific examples, including an electron-density-based analysis of peptide-ligand structures that do not contain any ligands, are discussed in detail; (iv) means to avoid such mistakes and the implications for database integrity are discussed and (v) some suggestions as to how journal editors could help to expunge errors from the Protein Data Bank are provided. PMID:28291756

  6. Twilight og det gode monster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Vampyren er et tvetydigt væsen. Det signalerer de første tre fortællinger i Stephanie Meyers populære romanserie såvel som de første tre filmatiseringer af romanerne allerede i titlerne. Det engelske ord ’twilight’, som også er titlen på første film i serien fra 2008, betyder ’tusmørke’, og er en...... første tre fortællinger i The Twilight Saga dette ambivalente møde mellem lys og mørke, det gode og det onde, samt det tiltrækkende og det frastødende. Ligesom vampyren.......Vampyren er et tvetydigt væsen. Det signalerer de første tre fortællinger i Stephanie Meyers populære romanserie såvel som de første tre filmatiseringer af romanerne allerede i titlerne. Det engelske ord ’twilight’, som også er titlen på første film i serien fra 2008, betyder ’tusmørke’, og er en...

  7. Twilight Phenomena Caused by the Eruption of Agung Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, F E

    1964-05-29

    Increase in twilight glow and in the dust stripes in the twilight arch have been observed from several places in the northern hemisphere from the fall of 1963 until now. Measurements of the twilight brightness indicate a considerable increase of dustiness in the stratosphere; this turbidity may be due to drifting ashes from the eruption of Agung volcano on Bali.

  8. Measuring and modeling twilight's purple light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2003-01-01

    During many clear twilights, much of the solar sky is dominated by pastel purples. This purple light's red component has long been ascribed to transmission through and scattering by stratospheric dust and other aerosols. Clearly the vivid purples of post-volcanic twilights are related to increased stratospheric aerosol loading. Yet our time-series measurements of purple-light spectra, combined with radiative transfer modeling and satellite soundings, indicate that background stratospheric aerosols by themselves do not redden sunlight enough to cause the purple light's reds. Furthermore, scattering and extinction in both the troposphere and the stratosphere are needed to explain most purple lights.

  9. Off the Shelves: Analyzing Style and Intertextuality in "Twilight"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.; Bull, Kelly Byrne

    2009-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" offers readers romance, mystery, suspense, and action. This young adult novel tells the story of the forbidden relationship between Bella and Edward, exploring complexities that cause readers to consider how love involves sacrifice and choice. "Twilight," a Best Book for Young Adults and Quick-Pick for Reluctant Young…

  10. Twilight spectral dynamics and the coral reef invertebrate spawning response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Alison M; Boch, Charles A; Johnsen, Sonke; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    There are dramatic and physiologically relevant changes in both skylight color and intensity during evening twilight as the pathlength of direct sunlight through the atmosphere increases, ozone increasingly absorbs long wavelengths and skylight becomes increasingly blue shifted. The moon is above the horizon at sunset during the waxing phase of the lunar cycle, on the horizon at sunset on the night of the full moon and below the horizon during the waning phase. Moonlight is red shifted compared with daylight, so the presence, phase and position of the moon in the sky could modulate the blue shifts during twilight. Therefore, the influence of the moon on twilight color is likely to differ somewhat each night of the lunar cycle, and to vary especially rapidly around the full moon, as the moon transitions from above to below the horizon during twilight. Many important light-mediated biological processes occur during twilight, and this lunar effect may play a role. One particularly intriguing biological event tightly correlated with these twilight processes is the occurrence of mass spawning events on coral reefs. Therefore, we measured downwelling underwater hyperspectral irradiance on a coral reef during twilight for several nights before and after the full moon. We demonstrate that shifts in twilight color and intensity on nights both within and between evenings, immediately before and after the full moon, are correlated with the observed times of synchronized mass spawning, and that these optical phenomena are a biologically plausible cue for the synchronization of these mass spawning events.

  11. Off the Shelves: Analyzing Style and Intertextuality in "Twilight"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.; Bull, Kelly Byrne

    2009-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" offers readers romance, mystery, suspense, and action. This young adult novel tells the story of the forbidden relationship between Bella and Edward, exploring complexities that cause readers to consider how love involves sacrifice and choice. "Twilight," a Best Book for Young Adults and Quick-Pick for Reluctant Young…

  12. The twilight zone of cis element alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alvaro; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Sequence alignment of proteins and nucleic acids is a routine task in bioinformatics. Although the comparison of complete peptides, genes or genomes can be undertaken with a great variety of tools, the alignment of short DNA sequences and motifs entails pitfalls that have not been fully addressed yet. Here we confront the structural superposition of transcription factors with the sequence alignment of their recognized cis elements. Our goals are (i) to test TFcompare (http://floresta.eead.csic.es/tfcompare), a structural alignment method for protein-DNA complexes; (ii) to benchmark the pairwise alignment of regulatory elements; (iii) to define the confidence limits and the twilight zone of such alignments and (iv) to evaluate the relevance of these thresholds with elements obtained experimentally. We find that the structure of cis elements and protein-DNA interfaces is significantly more conserved than their sequence and measures how this correlates with alignment errors when only sequence information is considered. Our results confirm that DNA motifs in the form of matrices produce better alignments than individual sequences. Finally, we report that empirical and theoretically derived twilight thresholds are useful for estimating the natural plasticity of regulatory sequences, and hence for filtering out unreliable alignments.

  13. Screening Twilight: critical approaches to a cinematic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Wickham; Harman, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The Twilight saga, a series of five films adapted from Stephanie Meyer's four vampire novels, has been a sensation, both at the box office and through the attention it has won from its predominantly teenaged fans. This series has also been the subject of criticism and sometimes derision - often from critics and on occasion even from fans. However, it also offers rich opportunities for analytic and critical attention, which the contributors to Screening Twilight demonstrate with energy and sty...

  14. "The rabid fans that take [Twilight] much too seriously": The construction and rejection of excess in Twilight antifandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Marie Pinkowitz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The group of Twilight antifans known as the Anti-Twilight Movement has constructed themselves as a safe "us" in relation to the threatening and inappropriate Other that they have defined through their characterization of "rabid" Twilight fans and antifans' "them." Fearful of a low ranking on the cultural hierarchy, they have created their own internal fan hierarchy that, according to cultural notions about the superiority of class, education, and the elite over the uneducated and the popular, as well as of the dismissability of girl culture, ensures the dominance and safety of their own affected rationality over the characterized emotional and excessive behavior of rabid Twilight fans and antifans. Part of the performance of such scholarly affectation involves appropriating discourses of academia into their literary criticism of Twilight, so as to overcome any negative connotations of excess or susceptibility to the mass media. Their often feminine-gendered constructions of rabid emotionality and irrationality, while also perhaps revealing some element of self-hatred, showcases a group of antifans attempting to assign the same policing and consequential narratives and discourses that have traditionally been assigned to fanatics by the dominant culture to certain "threatening" fans and antifans within their own community, the ultimate means of identity construction and self-preservation.

  15. Twilight policing: private security and violence in urban South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their

  16. Critical Development Theory: moving out of the twilight zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the onslaught of neoliberal triumphalism from the 1980s onwards, critical development theory increasingly found itself in a sort of academic twilight zone. With few exceptions development research became characterised by an emphasis on empiricism, quantitative methodologies and policy-oriented

  17. Sedimentology of Martian Gravels from Mardi Twilight Imaging: Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, James B.; Malin, Michael C.; Minitti, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative sedimentologic analysis of gravel surfaces dominated by pebble-sized clasts has been employed in an effort to untangle aspects of the provenance of surface sediments on Mars using Curiosity's MARDI nadir-viewing camera operated at twilight Images have been systematically acquired since sol 310 providing a representative sample of gravel-covered surfaces since the rover departed the Shaler region. The MARDI Twilight imaging dataset offers approximately 1 millimeter spatial resolution (slightly out of focus) for patches beneath the rover that cover just under 1 m2 in area, under illumination that makes clast size and inter-clast spacing analysis relatively straightforward using semi- automated codes developed for use with nadir images. Twilight images are utilized for these analyses in order to reduce light scattering off dust deposited on the front MARDI lens element during the terminal stages of Curiosity's entry, descent and landing. Such scattering is worse when imaging bright, directly-illuminated surfaces; twilight imaging times yield diffusely-illuminated surfaces that improve the clarity of the resulting MARDI product. Twilight images are obtained between 10-30 minutes after local sunset, governed by the timing of the end of the no-heat window for the camera. Techniques were also utilized to examine data terrestrial locations (the Kau Desert in Hawaii and near Askja Caldera in Iceland). Methods employed include log hyperbolic size distribution (LHD) analysis and Delauney Triangulation (DT) inter-clast spacing analysis. This work extends the initial results reported in Yingst et al., that covered the initial landing zone, to the Rapid-Transit Route (RTR) towards Mount Sharp.

  18. The Twilight of Determinism: At Least in Biophysical Novelties

    OpenAIRE

    Gilead, Amihud

    2015-01-01

    In the 1990s, Richard Lewontin referred to what appeared to be the twilight of determinism in biology. He pointed out that DNA determines only a little part of life phenomena, which are very complex. In fact, organisms determine the environment and vice versa in a nonlinear way. Very recently, biophysicists, Shimon Marom and Erez Braun, have demonstrated that controlled biophysical systems have shown a relative autonomy and flexibility in response which could not be predicted. Within the boun...

  19. Effects Of Aerosol And Multiple Scattering On The Polarization Of The Twilight Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, O S; Maslov, I A

    2003-01-01

    The paper contains the review of a number of wide-angle polarization CCD-measurements of the twilight sky in V and R color bands with effective wavelengths equal to 550 and 700 nm. The basic factors effecting (usually decreasing) on the polarization of the twilight sky are the atmospheric aerosol scattering and multiple scattering. The method of multiple scattering separation is being considered. The results are compared with the data of numerical simulation of radiation transfer in the atmosphere for different aerosol models. The whole twilight period is divided on the different stages with different mechanisms forming the twilight sky polarization properties.

  20. Tøser & Twilight – for romantisk til at være gys?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Diskussion af ny antologi og hvorfor tøser elsker Twilight – bøgerne, filmene og fan-sites’ene på nettet – mens mænd nedgør fænomenet. Antologi: Interdiscipliary Approaches to Twilight: Studies in Fiction, Media, and a Contemporary Cultural Experience, redigeret af Mariah Larsson og Ann Steiner. ...

  1. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  2. Twilight and Photoperiod Affect Behavioral Entrainment in the House Mouse (Mus musculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comas, M.; Hut, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of twilight transitions on entrainment of C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice (Mus musculus) was studied using light-dark cycles of different photoperiods (6, 12, and 18 h) and twilight transitions of different durations (0, 1, and 2 h). Phase angle differences of the onset, center of gravity, and offset

  3. Film in the College Classroom: Using "Twilight" to Examine Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagsold, Jennifer T.; Decuir-Gunby, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The hit movie saga "Twilight" has made an impact on viewers of all ages. This article seeks to explore the uses of film in psychology classes with a focus on ways in which instructors may find scenes from the "Twilight" series helpful and engaging for students. The authors describe scenes and themes from the first three movies…

  4. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  5. The Twilight of Determinism: At Least in Biophysical Novelties

    CERN Document Server

    Gilead, Amihud

    2015-01-01

    In the 1990s, Richard Lewontin referred to what appeared to be the twilight of determinism in biology. He pointed out that DNA determines only a little part of life phenomena, which are very complex. In fact, organisms determine the environment and vice versa in a nonlinear way. Very recently, biophysicists, Shimon Marom and Erez Braun, have demonstrated that controlled biophysical systems have shown a relative autonomy and flexibility in response which could not be predicted. Within the boundaries of some restraints, most of them genetic, this freedom from determinism is well maintained. Marom and Braun have challenged not only biophysical determinism but also reverse-engineering, naive reductionism, mechanism, and systems biology.

  6. Observations of Twilight Fireballs over Kiev in 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, Klim; Steklov, Aleksey; Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Dashkiev, Grigoriy

    2016-07-01

    The phenomenon of "Chelyabinsk bolide" 15.02.2013, resulted in damage to more than 1000 buildings and injure more than 500 people, after the explosion of fireball's body in the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk. The question about the dangers of such astronomical phenomena for life and health of citizens and for the existence of entire countries, arose with renewed vigor. Normally, bolides leave bright trace from ionized gas and dust. Traces of ionization can be seen particularly well at night. If a meteorite invades at the daytime at the cloudless sky and bright sunshine, the phenomenon of the fireball may not be visible. But if the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Typically, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified

  7. Fine-tuning structural RNA alignments in the twilight zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Stefanie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widely used method to find conserved secondary structure in RNA is to first construct a multiple sequence alignment, and then fold the alignment, optimizing a score based on thermodynamics and covariance. This method works best around 75% sequence similarity. However, in a "twilight zone" below 55% similarity, the sequence alignment tends to obscure the covariance signal used in the second phase. Therefore, while the overall shape of the consensus structure may still be found, the degree of conservation cannot be estimated reliably. Results Based on a combination of available methods, we present a method named planACstar for improving structure conservation in structural alignments in the twilight zone. After constructing a consensus structure by alignment folding, planACstar abandons the original sequence alignment, refolds the sequences individually, but consistent with the consensus, aligns the structures, irrespective of sequence, by a pure structure alignment method, and derives an improved sequence alignment from the alignment of structures, to be re-submitted to alignment folding, etc.. This circle may be iterated as long as structural conservation improves, but normally, one step suffices. Conclusions Employing the tools ClustalW, RNAalifold, and RNAforester, we find that for sequences with 30-55% sequence identity, structural conservation can be improved by 10% on average, with a large variation, measured in terms of RNAalifold's own criterion, the structure conservation index.

  8. Sky brightness and twilight measurements at Jogyakarta city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2016-11-01

    The sky brightness measurements were performed using a portable photometer. A pocket-sized and low-cost photometer has 20 degree area measurement, and spectral ranges between 320-720 nm with output directly in magnitudes per arc second square (mass) unit. The sky brightness with 3 seconds temporal resolutions was recorded at Jogyakarta city (110° 25’ E; 70° 52’ S; elevation 100 m) within 136 days in years from 2014 to 2016. The darkest night could reach 22.61 mpass only in several seconds, with mean value 18.8±0.7 mpass and temperature variation 23.1±1.2 C. The difference of mean sky brightness between before and after midnight was about -0.76 mpass or 2.0 times brighter. Moreover, the sky brightness and temperature fluctuations were more stable in after midnight than in before midnight. It is suggested that city light pollution affects those variations, and subsequently duration of twilight. By comparing twilight brightness for several places, we also suggest a 17° solar dip or about 66 minutes before sunrise for new time of Fajr prayer.

  9. Mesosphere Study by Wide-Field Twilight Polarization Measurements: First Results beyond the Polar Circle

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains the observations description and first results of mesosphere temperature and dust study based on twilight wide-field polarization analysis started in 2015 in Apatity, northern Russia (67.6 deg N, 33.4 deg E) with original all-sky camera. It is the first twilight polarization measurements set in the polar region and the first one during the winter and early spring epoch. The general polarization properties of the twilight sky and single scattering separation procedure are described. The basic results are the Boltzmann temperature decrease above 70 km and lack of mesosphere dust that is typical for this season.

  10. Twilight An Illustration Of A Potentially Negative Social Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Griggs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the classic example of the series Twilight we can see how society plays a critical role in our thought process and examine the dangers it can create by leaving some vulnerable to negative lifestyles. Taking a closer look at the science behind how our brain processes information we can see how problems may arise. Addictions caused by social programming leaves much concern for those who experience the cognitive dissonance created by their surroundings. It is our social responsibility to ensure people are not establishing unhealthy lifestyles or destructive behaviors. By understanding the mechanics of the mind we can help find healthy solutions for fantasy to be enjoyed without interrupting the livelihood of others.

  11. The romanticization of abstinence: Fan response to sexual restraint in the Twilight series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Stevens Aubrey, Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz, and Melissa A. Click

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Meyer's Twilight series has been criticized for its regressive gender representations. To understand its continuing appeal, we problematize the messages of abstinence and romance in the series, and contextualize fans' response with a discussion of postfeminist culture.

  12. Quadrantids 2008 and 2009: Detection of Dust in the Atmosphere by Polarization Twilight Sky Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S

    2009-01-01

    The paper contains the results of the polarization measurements of twilight sky background during the wintertime including the epoch of Quadrantids activity in January 2008 and 2009 in Crimea (Ukraine). Analysis of the twilight sky polarization behavior had shown the barely detectable depolarization effect at the scattering altitudes above 90 km right after the Quadrantids maximum. This effect can be related with the meteoric dust in the upper atmosphere of the Earth.

  13. An Analysis of Intrinsic Elements in Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Farina Rizki

    2010-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul “An Analysis of Intrinsic Elements in Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight”. Analisis mengenai unsur intrinsik yakni karakter, tema, plot dan setting yang terdapat pada novel karangan Stephenie Meyer yang berjudul Twilight. Di dalam skripsi ini secara keseluruhan, penulis ingin membuktikan keterkaitan antara unsur intrinsik yang terdapat pada novel Twilight karya Stephenie Meyer. Adapun metode yang di pakai penulis dalam penulisan skripsi ini adalah metode analisis deskriptif. K...

  14. Structures of twilight patrol in the "Churyumov's Unified network" to ensure continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.

    2016-10-01

    1. Three types of astronomical observations, and three classes of astronomical observatories. Over 70% of the observer's time in astronomical observatories accounted for the night of observation after the end of astronomical twilight. Prior to 15.02.2013, from the famous invasion of the Chelyabinsk large meteoroid in morning twilight, astronomers practically no carried out the twilight observations. But it is such morning and evening twilight observation, became the main "highlight" of the authors in the past four years [3, 5, 7]. Results were unexpected, and they allowed us to state that in our time the astronomical observatory (AO) should be divided into AO for nighttime astronomical observations (NAO), daily astronomical observations (DAO) and AO for twilight astronomical observations (SAO). 2. The real problem of AO DAO and SAO. We affirm, that in the interest of health and safety the inhabitants of our cities, astronomers are obliged significantly expand a circle and list of observations; need to include in it astrophysical observations and registration of facts and traces of all kinds of hazardous aerospace invasions into the sky over our cities. Society and the state allocate their money on the development of astronomical observatories, and therefore are entitled to demand recoil in the form of constant monitoring to ensure nocturnal, daytime and twilight control, for their safety the realities of modern complex time. And it is, in the conditions of aggravation of ecological problems, at climate evolution and of the increasing amount of harmful technogenic pollutants emissions in conditions of constant asteroid and comet hazard [10, 11], and especially within the present conditions of hybrid wars [8, 9]. That is why it is necessary give off sufficient observational time for the monitoring control on the facts and trail of all sorts of dangerous invasions. All astronomical observatories could create their own sectors, which would provide ground and space

  15. The Effect of atmospheric humidity level to the determination of Islamic Fajr/morning prayer time and twilight appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, Nihayatur

    2016-11-01

    Islamic prayer times are based on the astronomical position of the Sun in the sky. One of them is the Fajr prayer. It is marked by some indicators in the morning twilight which is white light spread in the Eastern horizon. However, determining the true time of twilight can be difficult. One of the reasons is the effect of atmospheric humidity to the appearance of morning twilight. The higher the humidity, the redder twilight sky appearance. This paper discusses this effect. It is shown that despite of the same Sun's position, sky color can vary considerably. Observations of various solar dip angle have been made to study this effect. Visibility for different angle can change accordingly. We obtained that the average solar dip for Fajr prayer by morning twilight images was -18°39'29.4".

  16. From Threat to Thrill : A Comparative Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula and Stephenie Meyer's Twilight

    OpenAIRE

    Nävsjö, Dana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay was to compare the classic vampire narrative, Bram Stoker's Dracula, to a more contemporary vampire narrative using the first book, Twilight, in Stephenie Meyer's Twilight series as a prime example.  By looking at the world of the vampire, the figure of the vampire and the interaction between the vampire and the main female characters in each respective story, the goal was to see how much the vampire narrative has evolved.  The argument was that the movement from Dra...

  17. Virtuous Vampires and Voluptuous Vamps: Romance Conventions Reconsidered in Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkola, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    It is presumed that readers of Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" enjoy the sexual tension between Bella and Edward; a tension that remains unresolved until the couple are married. This very traditional solution to the couple's carnal desires is just one of many ways in which the novels adhere to the conventions of romance writing for young people.…

  18. The Twilight of Feminism? Stephenie Meyer's Saga and the Contradictions of Contemporary Girlhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" Saga has achieved extraordinary popularity and scholars have interrogated the nature of its appeal from a variety of perspectives. Its popularity raises questions because in many ways it mirrors romantic fictions from the 1960s and 1970s. Such fictions have been read by critics as expressions of female…

  19. Time verification of twilight begin and end at Matrouh of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Hassan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twilight observations were carried out in the period «1983–1985» in different seasons at different sites mainly to deduce the beginning and the end of twilight. One of these sites was Matrouh. These observations were gathered using a refractor (an alt-azimuth scanner of 10 cm diameter associated with a photoelectric tube of the type (φ → Y − 51 using 3-filters namely; the blue, visual and red filters. The photoelectric system was calibrated with the international photoelectric color system. The phenomena were followed in steps each 10° in both altitude and azimuth. The depression of the sun below the horizon was calculated from the local time of each scan. The results indicated (at a = 5° and A = 10° for the latitude of Matrouh that the end and the beginning of the twilight occurred when the depression of the sun (Do was between 18° and 20°, while the dawn times were found to be between 14° and 16°. The brightness of the twilight phenomena was followed, however, to different altitudes and azimuths [0° ⩽ a° ⩽ 60° and 0° ⩽ A° ⩽ 60°].

  20. Twilight ascents by common swifts, Apus apus, at dawn and dusk: acquisition of orientation cues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Dokter; S. Akesson; H. Beekhuis; W. Bouten; L.S. Buurma; H. van Gasteren; I. Holleman

    2013-01-01

    Common swifts are specialist flyers spending most of their life aloft, including night-time periods when this species roosts on the wing. Nocturnal roosting is preceded by a vertical ascent in twilight conditions towards altitudes of up to 2.5 km, behaviour previously explained as flight altitude se

  1. Emotion & Motivation System (EMS) for characters in the computer game "Twilight"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nikolaj

    "According to cognitive emotion theory, human action is directed by the human emotional and motivational system. Research into this field guides the design of characters in the game "Twilight", functioning as a showcase for the research- and development project "OpenGame". Using this project...

  2. Emotion & Motivation System (EMS) for characters in the computer game "Twilight"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nikolaj

    "According to cognitive emotion theory, human action is directed by the human emotional and motivational system. Research into this field guides the design of characters in the game "Twilight", functioning as a showcase for the research- and development project "OpenGame". Using this project...

  3. The Twilight of Feminism? Stephenie Meyer's Saga and the Contradictions of Contemporary Girlhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" Saga has achieved extraordinary popularity and scholars have interrogated the nature of its appeal from a variety of perspectives. Its popularity raises questions because in many ways it mirrors romantic fictions from the 1960s and 1970s. Such fictions have been read by critics as expressions of female…

  4. Virtuous Vampires and Voluptuous Vamps: Romance Conventions Reconsidered in Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkola, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    It is presumed that readers of Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" enjoy the sexual tension between Bella and Edward; a tension that remains unresolved until the couple are married. This very traditional solution to the couple's carnal desires is just one of many ways in which the novels adhere to the conventions of romance writing for young people.…

  5. An Analysis on the Vampire Image in the Western Culture - Edward in Twilight as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐路

    2016-01-01

    Vampire, has become a well-known screen image all over world and loved by the young people and teenagers, and after Twilight released, let this cultural image of vampire go to the top. This image of vampire in literary works has long been favored by readers, not by chance; deriving the film Twilight series, define the vampire image with a new angle for the audience, so that the vampire has a more rich face, make the vampire present a more rich multi-faceted, it also opened up a new world for the film of vampire theme. A good image can promote the development of the plot, describe a story more vividly, help it gain more success. The author of the series Stephanie Meyer portrays a perfect figure, Edward. We can see that Meyer depicts a handsome vampire image who is always melancholy and moody, but readers see more is a brave and kind man who is willing to pay for love.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of English and Chinese Versions of Twilight from the Perspective of Three Metafunctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪莹

    2013-01-01

    The Twilight Saga written by American novelist Stephenie Meyer, tells the love story about an ordinary girl, Bella, and a handsome vampire, Edward. The novel sales hit the one hundred million mark from its release. And its Chinese version also gains much popularity among Chinese readers. Up to now, fantasy novel and its translation have drawn increasing attention of scholars from home and abroad. This paper focuses on a fantasy novel which has never been analyzed from this perspective. The paper makes a comparison between the English and Chinese versions of the novel Twilight from the perspective of Halliday’s three metafunctions, interpersonal function, ideational function and textual function, to give an in-depth study on the similarities and differences of two different languages and then put forward some beneficial suggestions for translators to understand and trans-late fantasy novel comprehensively.

  7. Naked eye observations for morning twilight at different sites in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twilight observations were carried out in the period between 1984 and 1987 in different seasons at different sites of Egypt (Baharia, Matrouh, Kottamia and Aswan through a cooperation project between Dar El-Iftaa’ and the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. Naked eye observations of the first light of the dawn were done in parallel to the photoelectric measurements of the twilight phenomena. The depression of the sun below the horizon corresponding to the first light was calculated from the time of observations. Our estimates show that the normal eye can just discriminate the dawn (the first white light thread at a depression of 14.7° with a maximum value of 15.08° and a minimum value of 12.01°. This result agrees with result obtained by our previous photoelectric measurements.

  8. Noctilucent Clouds Polarimetry: Twilight Measurements in a Wide Range of Scattering Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S; Kozelov, Boris V; Dlugach, Janna M

    2015-01-01

    Wide-field polarization measurements of the twilight sky background during the several nights with bright and expanded noctilucent clouds in central and northern Russia in 2014 and 2015 are used to build the phase dependency of polarization of emission scattered by clouds particles in a wide range of scattering angles (from 40 to 130 degrees). This range covers the polarization maximum near 90 degrees and large-angle slope of the curve which are most sensitive to the particle size. The method of separation of scattering on clouds particles on the twilight background is presented. Results are compared with T-matrix simulations for different sizes and shapes of ice particles, the most probable radius of particles (0.06 microns) and maximum radius (about 0.1 microns) are estimated.

  9. Brightness and color variation for evening and morning twilights at Bahria of Egypt IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectric observations of twilight (evening and morning Bahria (φ = 28° 42.94′ N, λ = 28° 59.99′ E in Egypt were done in the period between 1983 and 1985. A semiautomatic photoelectric scanner equipped with a refractor of diameter D = 10 cm and focal length f = 24 cm was used. The phenomena were followed in altitude and azimuth each 10°. For evening twilight, we find a minimum value in the color index (CI curves at Do = 12.5°. The color index (CI is found to be in the range between −1.5 and 3. A decrease on both sides of the CI toward large and small depressions is seen indicating a red background. This red color decreases on both sides of the maximum although being positive. No change of the maximum values is noticed with the azimuth. The (B–R curves show positive maximum values at 11° ⩽ Do ⩽ 13° with a decrease on both sides. Color indices are studied for the three bands (B–V, (B–R and (V–R for morning and evening twilights. For morning twilight, the (B–V color index curves show minimum (CI values with positive (B–V at Do around 8°. This can denote a dominating yellow color of the sky till Do ≈ 8–10°, where the sky is as bright in the yellow as in the blue. Stability is reached at Do = 12–14°. We believe that, the dawn shows itself at Do ⩽ 15°, while the nightfall shows itself at Do ⩽ 18°.

  10. Virtue as Adventure and Excess: Intertextuality, Masculinity, and Desire in the Twilight Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lindén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vampire is still primarily a literary figure. The vampires we have seen on TV and cinema in recent years are all based on literary models. The vampire is at the same time a popular cultural icon and a figure that, especially women writers, use to problematize gender, sexuality and power. As a vampire story the Twilight se-ries both produces and problematizes norms in regard to gender, class and ethnici-ty. As the main romantic character in Twilight, Edward Cullen becomes interesting both as a vampire of our time and as a man. In a similar way as in the 19th century novel the terms of relationship are negotiated and like his namesake Edward Rochester, Edward Cullen has to change in important ways for the “happy end-ing” to take place. In spite of a strong interest in sexuality and gender norms in relation to vampires very few studies have focused exclusively on masculinity. This article examines the construction of masculinity in relation to vampirism in the Twilight series. It offers an interpretation of Stephenie Meyer’s novels and the character of Edward as part of a broader field of feminist (re-uses of the vampire in modern literature with its roots in the literary tradition from Austen and the Brontë-sisters as well as from classic Gothic fiction.

  11. The results of observations of the twilight fireballs over Kyiv and their classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, E. A.; Dashkiev, G. N.

    2015-09-01

    Fireball - a meteoritic phenomenon brighter -4m. If such dust track illuminated by rays of the just-gone sun, it can be visible as a bright silvery stripe against the twilight sky. We therefore called them twilight fireballs. In recent years the US geostationary satellites has repeatedly registered in Earth's atmosphere flash brighter -17m. The characteristic initial size of such stony body is 1-3 m. If these meteoroids are composed of ice and snow (fragments of comet nuclei), their size increases up to tens of meters. After the event of Chelyabinsk bolide researchers suggested that such sight should be expected in 100-150 years. But in the evening of 29.03.2013 we were able to register a rare phenomenon of three fireball traces in the twilight sky over Kiev. They were formed during the 12 seconds after falling of three large fragments perhaps of cometary nucleus [1]. Traces were visible for about 20 minutes. In the evening of 10/27/2013 we again observed a falling of bright (-16m) fireball over Kiev. Its dust trail was visible about 50 minutes. Over 2 years we have received several thousands of different "tracks in the sky." We propose [2] to classify them into the following four types: AM - aerometeorological, AT - aero-technical, AK - aerospace, others - not yet classified. A detailed study of our photo library allows to make such conclusions. 1. We have discovered a new class of astronomical objects - fragments of cometary nuclei, "scratching" the Earth (erdgreyzery). 2. is proposed and tested a new class of effective twilight observations of fireballs. References. [1] Churjumov K. I., Vidmachenko A. P., Steklov A. F., Steklov E. A. Three bright bolides in Kiev sky on 29 March 2013 // Conference "Meteoroids 2013". Program and abstracts. 26-30 Aug. 2013, Poznan;, Poland P. 77. [2] Churyumov K. I., Steklov O. F., Vidmachenko A. P., Steklov E. A. Traces on sky: the classification and the results of regular observations of twilight fireballs // Astronomical School

  12. Summer Mesosphere Temperature Distribution from Wide-Angle Polarization Measurements of the Twilight Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S

    2012-01-01

    The paper contains the results of wide-angle polarization camera (WAPC) measurements of the twilight sky background conducted in summer 2011 and 2012 at 55.2 degs.N, 37.5 degs.E, southwards from Moscow. The method of single scattering separation based on polarization data is suggested. The obtained components of scattering matrixes show the domination of Rayleigh scattering in the mesosphere for all observation days. It made possible to retrieve the altitude distribution of temperature in the mesosphere. The results are compared with the temperature data by TIMED/SABER and EOS Aura/MLS instruments for nearby dates and locations.

  13. What Accounts for the Popularity of Twilight Saga-From the Perspec-tive of Culture Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Qin

    2016-01-01

    The huge success of Twilight series and its adapted films is a blockbuster in the field of literature and film industry, at-tracting a great amount of audience and creating a box-office marvel. The book series also receives a wide attention from literary critics with analysis of different perspectives. This study aims to explore what accounts for Twilight’s popularity with cultural studies, including aspects of teenage culture, masculinity, psychoanalysis, gender and sexuality. A comprehensive angel is pro-vided to look at Twilight and its transformation to a classic.

  14. A protein block based fold recognition method for the annotation of twilight zone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, V; Ganesan, K; Parthasarathy, S

    2013-03-01

    The description of protein backbone was recently improved with a group of structural fragments called Structural Alphabets instead of the regular three states (Helix, Sheet and Coil) secondary structure description. Protein Blocks is one of the Structural Alphabets used to describe each and every region of protein backbone including the coil. According to de Brevern (2000) the Protein Blocks has 16 structural fragments and each one has 5 residues in length. Protein Blocks fragments are highly informative among the available Structural Alphabets and it has been used for many applications. Here, we present a protein fold recognition method based on Protein Blocks for the annotation of twilight zone sequences. In our method, we align the predicted Protein Blocks of a query amino acid sequence with a library of assigned Protein Blocks of 953 known folds using the local pair-wise alignment. The alignment results with z-value ≥ 2.5 and P-value ≤ 0.08 are predicted as possible folds. Our method is able to recognize the possible folds for nearly 35.5% of the twilight zone sequences with their predicted Protein Block sequence obtained by pb_prediction, which is available at Protein Block Export server.

  15. On The Subtitle of Twilight Saga from the Perspective of Nida’s Func⁃tional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄帆

    2012-01-01

      More and more foreign movies and TV series has been translated into Chinese, but there is still no mature theory to guide the subtitle translation. The subtitle of Twilight Saga has been selected as examples to discuss how to apply Eugene A. Ni⁃da’s“Functional Equivalence Theory”into the movie translation to achieve expected effect.

  16. Assessing the applicability of template-based protein docking in the twilight zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Jacopo; Mosca, Roberto; Aloy, Patrick

    2014-09-02

    The structural modeling of protein interactions in the absence of close homologous templates is a challenging task. Recently, template-based docking methods have emerged to exploit local structural similarities to help ab-initio protocols provide reliable 3D models for protein interactions. In this work, we critically assess the performance of template-based docking in the twilight zone. Our results show that, while it is possible to find templates for nearly all known interactions, the quality of the obtained models is rather limited. We can increase the precision of the models at expenses of coverage, but it drastically reduces the potential applicability of the method, as illustrated by the whole-interactome modeling of nine organisms. Template-based docking is likely to play an important role in the structural characterization of the interaction space, but we still need to improve the repertoire of structural templates onto which we can reliably model protein complexes.

  17. Mapping the Twilight Zone—What We Are Missing between Clouds and Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Schwarz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions can profit from an analysis of the transition regions between pure aerosol and pure clouds as detected in satellite data. This study identifies and evaluates pixels in this region by analysing the residual areas of aerosol and cloud products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS satellite sensor. These pixels are expected to represent the “twilight zone” or transition zone between aerosols and clouds. In the analysis period (February and August, 2007–2011, about 20% of all pixels are discarded by both MODIS aerosol and cloud retrievals (“Lost Pixels”. The reflective properties and spatial distribution of Lost Pixels are predominantly in between pure aerosol and cloud. The high amount of discarded pixels underlines the relevance of analyzing the transition zone as a relevant part of the Earth’s radiation budget and the importance of considering them in research on aerosol-cloud interactions.

  18. Background Stratospheric Aerosol Investigations Using Multi-Color Wide-Field Polarization Measurements of the Twilight Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S

    2016-01-01

    First results of multi-wavelength polarization measurements of the twilight sky background using Wide-Angle Polarization Camera (WAPC) with RGB-color CCD conducted in spring and early summer of 2016 in central Russia (55.2 deg N, 37.5 deg E) are discussed. They show the effect of aerosol scattering at altitudes up to 35 km which significantly increases to the long-wave range (620 nm, R channel). Analysis of sky color behavior during the light period of twilight with account of ozone Chappuis absorption allows to retrieve the angle dependencies of intensity and polarization of scattering on the stratospheric aerosol particles. This is used to find their effective radius, being close to 0.18-0.19 microns for stratospheric altitude range.

  19. Mesospheric Temperatures and Meteoric Dust Detection based on Wide-angle Polarization Measurements of the Twilight Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg; Maslov, Igor

    The work is based on fast all-sky polarization measurements of the twilight background started in 2011 in central Russia (55.2 deg N, 37.5 deg E). The data is used to build the polarization scattering functions of the mesospheric medium depending on the altitude. These functions can be used for dust scattering detection and study. The problem is hard to be solved by space or lidar measurements providing the data just for one definite scattering angle, however, the twilight technique is the least expensive method for the mesospheric research. The method described in (Ugolnikov, Maslov, 2013) is used to separate single and multiple scattering, which is the basic problem of the twilight remote sensing. Light scattering in the mesosphere is turned out to be Rayleigh-dominated for the most part of observation dates. This allows finding the altitude dependencies of pressure and the temperatures in the mesosphere. The values of temperature are in good agreement with TIMED/SABER and EOS Aura/MLS space limb data for nearby locations. Admixture of dust scattering was occasionally observed, reaching the maximum during the Perseids meteor shower activity in 2013. The scattering functions analysis gives the value of moderated dust layer in the mesosphere (81-83 km) and helps to estimate the particles size. The work is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant 12-05-00501-a. References Ugolnikov O.S., Maslov I.A. Summer mesosphere temperature distribution from wide-angle polarization measurements of the twilight sky // Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, V.105-106, P.8-14, 2013.

  20. High-Society Framing: The Brooklyn Eagle and the Popularity of Twilight Sleep in Brooklyn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bethany; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2017-01-01

    Twilight Sleep (TS) is an obstetric intervention during which a laboring woman enters a semiconscious state via injection. TS received enthusiastic support in Brooklyn, NY, in The Brooklyn Eagle (TBE) newspaper between 1914 and 1918. The purpose of this article is to analyze the framing of TS in TBE as the most popular obstetric intervention among wealthy, White socialites in Brooklyn during the period. The coverage in TBE prompted a nearly universally positive perception of TS among the newspaper's wider readership. After extensive historiographical research and rhetorical analysis of newspaper coverage of TS in TBE, we discovered a form of framing we call "high-society framing," rooted in both wealth and notoriety. We discuss four possible effects of high-society framing: The first is the ability of high-society framing to attract or repel the public regarding a health care issue, and the second is the impact of high-society framing on public perception of medical interventions, procedures, or pharmaceuticals. A third possible effect of high-society framing is that it can alter notions of necessity, and a fourth is that high-society framing can elicit a tacit acceptance of medical interventions, procedures, and pharmaceuticals, thus obfuscating risk. Finally, we argue that high-society framing has implications for the discussion of health care in present-day mediated discourses.

  1. Interference filter spectral imaging of twilight O+(2P-2D emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens

    Full Text Available A spectral imager specifically designed to measure the O+(2P-2D emission in the thermosphere during twilight has been constructed and tested in Toronto (43.8°N, 79.3°W, and found to show promise for long-term and campaign-mode operations. A modification of the mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager (MORTI, it consists basically of a narrow-band interference filter (0.14 nm bandwidth to separate wavelengths as a function of off-axis angle, a lens to focus the spectrum into a series of concentric rings, and a focal plane array (CCD to record the spectral images in digital form. The instrument was built with two fields of view, one for the zenith and one for 20° above the horizon, movable to track the azimuth of the Sun, in order to provide appropriate data for inversion. Data gathered during June 1991 provided measurements of the column-integrated emission rate with a precision of about 3%. An atomic oxygen profile was deduced that showed good agreement with that predicted by the MSIS-90 model atmosphere. Geomagnetically induced variations of the O+ lines, calcium spectra resulting from meteor showers, and OH nightglow were also observed.

  2. The Relevance Concept of Dawn and Twilight in the Book of Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi for Determine Isya’ and Subuh Pray Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Eko Atmanto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Morning dawn and phenomenon twilight phenomenon are interesting for the sci- entists not only for weather forecast and navigation but also setting time prayer times for muslims. The concept of the morning dawn and evening twilight were introduced by al-Biruni in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi. Al-Biruni described the scene at morning dawn and evening twilight in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi and concluded that the twilight occur when the position of the sun is at an altitude of -18°. The concept of al-Biruni is recognized by modern science, astronomy, and the prophetic tradition for its conformity. Besides, the discovery of al-Biruni on the height of the sun is so far used by several religious organizations in some coun- tries to set the time for isha and fajr prayers. By using content analysis, this study discussed the relevance of the concept of morning dawn and evening twilight in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi for determining maghrib prayer time, the praying time for isha and fajr as well.

  3. SCPRED: Accurate prediction of protein structural class for sequences of twilight-zone similarity with predicting sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structure prediction methods provide accurate results when a homologous protein is predicted, while poorer predictions are obtained in the absence of homologous templates. However, some protein chains that share twilight-zone pairwise identity can form similar folds and thus determining structural similarity without the sequence similarity would be desirable for the structure prediction. The folding type of a protein or its domain is defined as the structural class. Current structural class prediction methods that predict the four structural classes defined in SCOP provide up to 63% accuracy for the datasets in which sequence identity of any pair of sequences belongs to the twilight-zone. We propose SCPRED method that improves prediction accuracy for sequences that share twilight-zone pairwise similarity with sequences used for the prediction. Results SCPRED uses a support vector machine classifier that takes several custom-designed features as its input to predict the structural classes. Based on extensive design that considers over 2300 index-, composition- and physicochemical properties-based features along with features based on the predicted secondary structure and content, the classifier's input includes 8 features based on information extracted from the secondary structure predicted with PSI-PRED and one feature computed from the sequence. Tests performed with datasets of 1673 protein chains, in which any pair of sequences shares twilight-zone similarity, show that SCPRED obtains 80.3% accuracy when predicting the four SCOP-defined structural classes, which is superior when compared with over a dozen recent competing methods that are based on support vector machine, logistic regression, and ensemble of classifiers predictors. Conclusion The SCPRED can accurately find similar structures for sequences that share low identity with sequence used for the prediction. The high predictive accuracy achieved by SCPRED is

  4. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sun-stones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180 degrees field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  5. Harlequin, vampírur og mömmuklám. Um formúlu Twilight og Fifty Shades

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnheiður Jóhannsdóttir 1989

    2013-01-01

    Formúla Twilight seríunnar og Fifty Shades þríleiksins er tekin fyrir og skoðuð í samræmi við söguþráð Harlequin bækurnar, þar á eftir eru þær greindar út frá menningarlegu viðhorfi nútímans til fórnarlamba og gerenda, betur þekkt sem nauðgunarmenning.

  6. Twilight, a Novel Circadian-Regulated Gene, Integrates Phototropism with Nutrient and Redox Homeostasis during Fungal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhen Deng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Phototropic regulation of circadian clock is important for environmental adaptation, organismal growth and differentiation. Light plays a critical role in fungal development and virulence. However, it is unclear what governs the intracellular metabolic response to such dark-light rhythms in fungi. Here, we describe a novel circadian-regulated Twilight (TWL function essential for phototropic induction of asexual development and pathogenesis in the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. The TWL transcript oscillates during circadian cycles and peaks at subjective twilight. GFP-Twl remains acetylated and cytosolic in the dark, whereas light-induced phosphorylation (by the carbon sensor Snf1 kinase drives it into the nucleus. The mRNA level of the transcription/repair factor TFB5, was significantly down regulated in the twl∆ mutant. Overexpression of TFB5 significantly suppressed the conidiation defects in the twl∆ mutant. Furthermore, Tfb5-GFP translocates to the nucleus during the phototropic response and under redox stress, while it failed to do so in the twl∆ mutant. Thus, we provide mechanistic insight into Twl-based regulation of nutrient and redox homeostasis in response to light during pathogen adaptation to the host milieu in the rice blast pathosystem.

  7. Precipitation estimates from MSG SEVIRI daytime, night-time and twilight data with random forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlein, Meike; Appelhans, Tim; Thies, Boris; Nauss, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new rainfall retrieval technique based on MSG SEVIRI data which aims to retrieve rainfall rates in a continuous manner (day, twilight and night) at high temporal resolution. Due to the deficiencies of existing optical rainfall retrievals, the focus of this technique is on assigning rainfall rates to precipitating cloud areas in connection with extra-tropical cyclones in mid-latitudes including both convective and advective-stratiform precipitating cloud areas. The technique is realized in three steps: (i) Precipitating cloud areas are identified. (ii) The precipitating cloud areas are separated into convective and advective-stratiform precipitating areas. (iii) Rainfall rates are assigned to the convective and advective-stratiform precipitating areas, respectively. Therefore, considering the dominant precipitation processes of convective and advective-stratiform precipitation areas within extra-tropical cyclones, satellite-based information on the cloud top height, cloud top temperature, cloud phase and cloud water path are used to retrieve information about precipitation. The approach uses the ensemble classification and regression technique random forests to develop the prediction algorithms. Random forest models contain a combination of characteristics that make them well suited for its application in precipitation remote sensing. One of the key advantages is the ability to capture non-linear association of patterns between predictors and response which becomes important when dealing with complex non-linear events like precipitation. Using a machine learning approach differentiates the proposed technique from most state-of-the-art satellite-based rainfall retrievals which generally use conventional parametric approaches. To train and validate the model, the radar-based RADOLAN RW product from the German Weather Service (DWD) is used which provides area-wide gauge-adjusted hourly precipitation information. Beside the overall performance of the

  8. Twilight Limb Observations of the Martian North Polar Hood by MAVEN IUVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Daniel; Yelle, Roger; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Jain, Sonal Kumar; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Stiepen, Arnaud; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Michael H.; Chaffin, Michael S.; Crismani, Matteo; McClintock, William; Clarke, John T.; Holsclaw, Gregory; Lefevre, Franck; Jacosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    In northern winter, a broad distribution of ice aerosols appears in the north polar atmosphere of Mars, commonly referred to as the North Polar Hood (NPH). The NPH is thought to be formed as a result of condensation from lowered temperatures associated with both seasonal and diurnal variations in solar heating. The spatial extent and density of the NPH is highly variable, with a maximum latitudinal extent spanning 30-80°N, and a maximum density at 10-30 km altitude.The NPH has been extensively observed by both ground-based telescopes and instruments in orbit around Mars. However, the majority of these observations are nadir-pointing. This observation geometry has two significant limitations. Firstly, they poorly probe the vertical structure of the NPH. Secondly, column densities are determined by monitoring the intensity of various spectral features associated with the ice composing the NPH, against a strong background with similar features from the frost that has condensed on the surface in the winter season, resulting in low sensitivities. Limb observations removes both limitations, allowing us to study the vertical distribution of the aerosols that make up the NPH at high sensitivities.We present new limb observations of the NPH by IUVS (Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph) on the MAVEN (Mars Atmospheric and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft. These observations represent the first ultraviolet limb observations of the NPH, opening a new window for understanding the structure and composition of the NPH. The observations are also of the twilight limb, with sunlight being scattered from the dayside into the nightside over large solar zenith angles. This illumination geometry allows us to avoid the high dayside intensities that would drown out the signal from the thinner sections of the NPH. We determine the latitudinal extent of the NPH to be 30-60°N. We also find that an exponential altitude distribution of aerosols is able to reproduce the observed intensities, with a

  9. Ground-Based Lidar Measurements During the CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, Timothy; Qian, Li; Kleidman, Richard; Stewart, Sebastian; Welton, Ellsworth; Li, Zhu; Holbem, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The CALIPSO and Twilight Zone (CATZ) field campaign was carried out between June 26th and August 29th of 2007 in the multi-state Maryland-Virginia-Pennsylvania region of the U.S. to study aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions during overpasses of the CALIPSO satellite. Field work was conducted on selected days when CALIPSO ground tracks occurred in the region. Ground-based measurements included data from multiple Cimel sunphotometers that were placed at intervals along a segment of the CALIPSO ground-track. These measurements provided sky radiance and AOD measurements to enable joints inversions and comparisons with CALIPSO retrievals. As part of this activity, four ground-based lidars provided backscatter measurements (at 523 nm) in the region. Lidars at University of Maryland Baltimore County (Catonsville, MD) and Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, MD) provided continuous data during the campaign, while two micro-pulse lidar (MPL) systems were temporarily stationed at various field locations directly on CALIPSO ground-tracks. As a result, thirteen on-track ground-based lidar observations were obtained from eight different locations in the region. In some cases, nighttime CALIPSO coincident measurements were also obtained. In most studies reported to date, ground-based lidar validation efforts for CALIPSO rely on systems that are at fixed locations some distance away from the satellite ground-track. The CATZ ground-based lidar data provide an opportunity to examine vertical structure properties of aerosols and clouds both on and off-track simultaneously during a CALIPSO overpass. A table of available ground-based lidar measurements during this campaign will be presented, along with example backscatter imagery for a number of coincident cases with CALIPSO. Results indicate that even for a ground-based measurements directly on-track, comparisons can still pose a challenge due to the differing spatio-temporal properties of the ground and satellite

  10. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.

    2008-04-10

    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  11. Predictors of natively unfolded proteins: unanimous consensus score to detect a twilight zone between order and disorder in generic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiana Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natively unfolded proteins lack a well defined three dimensional structure but have important biological functions, suggesting a re-assignment of the structure-function paradigm. To assess that a given protein is natively unfolded requires laborious experimental investigations, then reliable sequence-only methods for predicting whether a sequence corresponds to a folded or to an unfolded protein are of interest in fundamental and applicative studies. Many proteins have amino acidic compositions compatible both with the folded and unfolded status, and belong to a twilight zone between order and disorder. This makes difficult a dichotomic classification of protein sequences into folded and natively unfolded ones. In this work we propose an operational method to identify proteins belonging to the twilight zone by combining into a consensus score good performing single predictors of folding. Results In this methodological paper dichotomic folding indexes are considered: hydrophobicity-charge, mean packing, mean pairwise energy, Poodle-W and a new global index, that is called here gVSL2, based on the local disorder predictor VSL2. The performance of these indexes is evaluated on different datasets, in particular on a new dataset composed by 2369 folded and 81 natively unfolded proteins. Poodle-W, gVSL2 and mean pairwise energy have good performance and stability in all the datasets considered and are combined into a strictly unanimous combination score SSU, that leaves proteins unclassified when the consensus of all combined indexes is not reached. The unclassified proteins: i belong to an overlap region in the vector space of amino acidic compositions occupied by both folded and unfolded proteins; ii are composed by approximately the same number of order-promoting and disorder-promoting amino acids; iii have a mean flexibility intermediate between that of folded and that of unfolded proteins. Conclusions Our results show that

  12. Predictors of natively unfolded proteins: unanimous consensus score to detect a twilight zone between order and disorder in generic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Natively unfolded proteins lack a well defined three dimensional structure but have important biological functions, suggesting a re-assignment of the structure-function paradigm. To assess that a given protein is natively unfolded requires laborious experimental investigations, then reliable sequence-only methods for predicting whether a sequence corresponds to a folded or to an unfolded protein are of interest in fundamental and applicative studies. Many proteins have amino acidic compositions compatible both with the folded and unfolded status, and belong to a twilight zone between order and disorder. This makes difficult a dichotomic classification of protein sequences into folded and natively unfolded ones. In this work we propose an operational method to identify proteins belonging to the twilight zone by combining into a consensus score good performing single predictors of folding. Results In this methodological paper dichotomic folding indexes are considered: hydrophobicity-charge, mean packing, mean pairwise energy, Poodle-W and a new global index, that is called here gVSL2, based on the local disorder predictor VSL2. The performance of these indexes is evaluated on different datasets, in particular on a new dataset composed by 2369 folded and 81 natively unfolded proteins. Poodle-W, gVSL2 and mean pairwise energy have good performance and stability in all the datasets considered and are combined into a strictly unanimous combination score SSU, that leaves proteins unclassified when the consensus of all combined indexes is not reached. The unclassified proteins: i) belong to an overlap region in the vector space of amino acidic compositions occupied by both folded and unfolded proteins; ii) are composed by approximately the same number of order-promoting and disorder-promoting amino acids; iii) have a mean flexibility intermediate between that of folded and that of unfolded proteins. Conclusions Our results show that proteins unclassified by SSU

  13. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James K. B.; Wood, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by ˜100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting 3 weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75°N 158°W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47 °N 161°E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C org, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in 51 μm size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C org and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient ( C P) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 μM m -1 conversion factor. At K2, C P profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed ˜40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 μm C org of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 μm C org, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 μm Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO 4 precipitating Acantharia. Notable at K2 were major changes in water column inventories of many particulate components to 700 m over 10 days

  14. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the Twilight Zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.B.; Wood, T.J.

    2008-03-25

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERTIGO (VERtical Transformations In the Global Ocean) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by {approx}100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting three weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75{sup o}N 158{sup o}W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47{sup o}N 161{sup o}E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C{sub org}, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in <1, 1-51, and >51 {micro}m size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C{sub org} and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient (C{sub P}) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 {micro}M m{sup -1} conversion factor. 26 At K2, C{sub P} profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed {approx}40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 {micro}m C{sub org} of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 {micro}m C{sub org}, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 {micro}m Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO{sub 4

  15. The "hour of pink twilight": lesbian poetics and queer encounters on the fin-de-siècle street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the cultural representation of women's encounters on the fin-de-siècle street and, in particular, the uncertainties that clustered around the possibilities of mutual, or one-sided, same-sex desire accompanying such meetings. It argues, through an examination of lyric poetry, paintings, and short fiction, for the usefulness of twilight--a time of shadowy ambiguity--as a trope to suggest these uncertainities. More than this, it maintains that the lyric and the developing genre of the short story were modes ideally suited to an invocation of the fluid, the uncertain, and the unnamable. This argument is advanced through a close reading of Charlotte Mew's strange short story "Passed," which is read as representative of a transitional moment in lesbian literary history.

  16. PENGARUH PRODUCT PLACEMENT VOLVO DI DALAM FILM TWILIGHT SAGA: BREAKING DAWN PART 1 & PART 2 TERHADAP BRAND RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghygha Yunus Widya Prasetya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Movie scenes have become attractive means for many industries to present their products without enforced impression. Through careful designed product placement strategy, Twilight movie became the perfect promotional media for Volvo in promoting their products. Volvo is one of the premium automotive brands under the auspices of Indomobil. This well-known brand always put and positions their product merely for the target premium. Product placement is an example of a hybrid message or an attempt to influence audience at an affordable cost. Some benefits in advertising through product placement are a lot of audiences see the products so that the brand awareness and the products’ credibility would significantly increase. In conclusion, consumer’s behavior in recognizing and remembering a product might be affected by their vision, hearing, and admiration.

  17. 《暮光之城》中女性哥特式特征%Female Gothic features in “Twilight Saga "

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓君

    2013-01-01

    As a female literary rookie, Stephanie Meyer creates Twilight Saga as vampire series of novels. It has gained recognition and passionate adoration from the public since the release. Even today, the serious academic research of Twilight Saga is comparatively few at both home and abroad. This thesis argues that Twilight Saga has obvious female gothic characteristics from the description of characterization, atmosphere and theme.%  女性文坛新秀斯蒂芬妮·梅尔创作了《暮光之城》吸血鬼系列小说。这部小说自面世以来就广受大众的追捧和推崇。但时至今日,国内外关于该作品的学术文章寥寥无几。本文试图从女性哥特小说的视角分析《暮光之城》系列小说在人物塑造、环境氛围描写及主题等方面展现出独特的,具有明显女性哥特的特征。

  18. Beyond the Twilight Zone: automated prediction of structural properties of proteins by recursive neural networks and remote homology information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Catherine; Pollastri, Gianluca

    2009-10-01

    The prediction of 1D structural properties of proteins is an important step toward the prediction of protein structure and function, not only in the ab initio case but also when homology information to known structures is available. Despite this the vast majority of 1D predictors do not incorporate homology information into the prediction process. We develop a novel structural alignment method, SAMD, which we use to build alignments of putative remote homologues that we compress into templates of structural frequency profiles. We use these templates as additional input to ensembles of recursive neural networks, which we specialise for the prediction of query sequences that show only remote homology to any Protein Data Bank structure. We predict four 1D structural properties - secondary structure, relative solvent accessibility, backbone structural motifs, and contact density. Secondary structure prediction accuracy, tested by five-fold cross-validation on a large set of proteins allowing less than 25% sequence identity between training and test set and query sequences and templates, exceeds 82%, outperforming its ab initio counterpart, other state-of-the-art secondary structure predictors (Jpred 3 and PSIPRED) and two other systems based on PSI-BLAST and COMPASS templates. We show that structural information from homologues improves prediction accuracy well beyond the Twilight Zone of sequence similarity, even below 5% sequence identity, for all four structural properties. Significant improvement over the extraction of structural information directly from PDB templates suggests that the combination of sequence and template information is more informative than templates alone.

  19. Dissolution of calcite in the twilight zone: bacterial control of dissolution of sinking planktonic carbonates is unlikely.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bissett

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of bacterial communities to colonize and dissolve two biogenic carbonates (Foraminifera and oyster shells. Bacterial carbonate dissolution in the upper water column is postulated to be driven by metabolic activity of bacteria directly colonising carbonate surfaces and the subsequent development of acidic microenvironments. We employed a combination of microsensor measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and image analysis and molecular documentation of colonising bacteria to monitor microbial processes and document changes in shell surface topography. Bacterial communities rapidly colonised shell surfaces, forming dense biofilms with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS deposits. Despite this, we found no evidence of bacterially mediated carbonate dissolution. Dissolution was not indicated by Ca²⁺ microprofiles, nor was changes in shell surface structure related to the presence of colonizing bacteria. Given the short time (days settling carbonate material is actually in the twilight zone (500-1000 m, it is highly unlikely that microbial metabolic activity on directly colonised shells plays a significant role in dissolving settling carbonates in the shallow ocean.

  20. A Warm World in Twilight%浅析《暮光之城》中的温馨世界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越风

    2014-01-01

    通过对《暮光之城》系列故事之暮色、新月、月食、破晓的深入赏析,来品味其中所蕴涵的温馨世界———温馨的爱情、温馨的家庭、温馨的生活,寻找此其打动人心的源动力。主人公伊莎贝拉和吸血鬼爱德华之间爱情是超越人类现实生活的美好又纯真的爱情,让人感到温馨的爱情;与伊莎贝拉的离异家庭相比,爱德华所在的吸血鬼家庭所表现出的相互支持、高度团结的品质,也让人感觉到丝丝温馨;吸血鬼爱德华一家轻松快活的生活状态,以及其他吸血鬼和狼人家族在爱德华一家遇到困难时对他们全力以赴的帮助,也都是人类社会所向往的温馨生活。因此,故事中虽然有种种嗜血的片段,让人产生惊悚之感,但作品真正所倡导的却是亲情、爱情和友情,展现了人类社会所向往的温馨世界。%Based on the Twilight stories series( Twilight,New Moon,Eclipse,Breaking Dawn),what is worth deep appreciating is the warm world in it concerning the warmth of love,the warm family and the warm life and searching for the source of power which touches the people. The beautiful and pure love between the heroine Isabella and the vampire Edward is beyond the reality of human life and let us feel the warmth of love. Compared with Isabellaˊs divorced family, it also makes us feel warm by the strong solidarity and mutual supports among the Edwardˊs vampire family members,as well as their happy life state. It is the selfless spirit of other vampires and wolfˊs family to the Edward family when they come across difficulties that the human society is dreaming of. Therefore,although there are some bloodthirsty fragments in these stories and let us feel a sense of horror,what the films and the works really show are affection,love and friend-ship,which is indeed warm world that the human society is looking forward to.

  1. How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a 'twilight board', which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and -8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago.

  2. How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Ádám; Barta, András; Åkesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a ‘twilight board’, which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and −8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago. PMID:24910520

  3. D-region electron density and effective recombination coefficients during twilight – experimental data and modelling during solar proton events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tereschenko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of electron density in the lower D-region (below 70 km altitude are rarely made. This applies both with regard to measurements by ground-based facilities and by sounding rockets, and during both quiet conditions and conditions of energetic electron precipitation. Deep penetration into the atmosphere of high-energy solar proton fluxes (during solar proton events, SPE produces extra ionisation in the whole D-region, including the lower altitudes, which gives favourable conditions for accurate measurements using ground-based facilities. In this study we show that electron densities measured with two ground-based facilities at almost the same latitude but slightly different longitudes, provide a valuable tool for validation of model computations. The two techniques used are incoherent scatter of radio waves (by the EISCAT 224 MHz radar in Tromsø, Norway, 69.6° N, 19.3° E, and partial reflection of radio-waves (by the 2.8 MHz radar near Murmansk, Russia, 69.0° N, 35.7° E. Both radars give accurate electron density values during SPE, from heights 57–60 km and upward with the EISCAT radar and between 55–70 km with the partial reflection technique. Near noon, there is little difference in the solar zenith angle between the two locations and both methods give approximately the same values of electron density at the overlapping heights. During twilight, when the difference in solar zenith angles increases, electron density values diverge. When both radars are in night conditions (solar zenith angle >99° electron densities at the overlapping altitudes again become equal. We use the joint measurements to validate model computations of the ionospheric parameters f+, λ, αeff and their variations during solar proton events. These parameters are important characteristics of the lower ionosphere structure which cannot be determined by other methods.

  4. Technical Versus Public Spheres: A Feminist Analysis of Women's Rhetoric in the Twilight Sleep Debates of 1914-1916.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bethany; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Twilight Sleep (TS) describes the delivery, via an injection, of an amnestic drug cocktail to a parturient woman throughout labor. In order to understand the development of modern-day rhetoric surrounding childbirth methods and procedures, this article explores the debate over TS between the public and technical sphere in New York City between 1914 and 1916 and examines the ways in which this debate altered obstetric health care for middle- and upper-class White women. The public response to this campaign posed a direct challenge to male obstetricians in New York City, many of whom were ill-equipped, both literally and figuratively, to use this procedure. Using a feminist rhetorical criticism, we examined the pro-TS rhetoric of women writers in New York City, the methods they borrowed from the women's movement, and the ensuing dialogue between the public and technical spheres. For this study, we analyzed journal and newspaper articles, a pamphlet, a collection of pro-TS organizational documents, letters to the editor, and books published about TS and the history of birth. Lastly, we analyzed theoretical notions of childbirth in women's health and communication studies. After examining the TS debate, we found that birth practices for middle- and upper-class women in New York City shifted and the obstetric community gained ascendancy over female midwifery. We also found that in certain instances, the rhetoric of pro-TS activists was more technically accurate than the rhetoric of some physicians. Hence the TS debate emerged from an argument over the right to use technical language in the technical and/or the public sphere. Conclusions and implications offered by this historical, feminist analysis question our current understanding of women's health and birthing practices, doctor-patient communication, and patient empowerment and access to technical knowledge.

  5. A method for the retrieval of atomic oxygen density and temperature profiles from ground-based measurements of the O(+)(2D-2P) 7320 A twilight airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, J. A.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.; Torr, M. R.; Sharp, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for extracting thermospheric profiles of the atomic-oxygen density and temperature, using ground-based measurements of the O(+)(2D-2P) doublet at 7320 and 7330 A in the twilight airglow. In this method, a local photochemical model is used to calculate the 7320-A intensity; the method also utilizes an iterative inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method described by Press et al. (1986). The results demonstrate that, if the measurements are only limited by errors due to Poisson noise, the altitude profiles of neutral temperature and atomic oxygen concentration can be determined accurately using currently available spectrometers.

  6. 母と娘の構図Ⅲ--Twilight Sleepに描かれる母性の喪失と女性のアイデンティティ

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 栄子

    2009-01-01

     Both of Wharton’s “The Old Maid”(1924) and The Mother’s Recompense (1925) have the same theme of the relationship between motherhood and female’s sexuality.  Twilight Sleep (1927), published two years later The Mother’s Recompense, adds another theme to it.  It also focuses on an icon of family’s identity,especially mother and daughter.  Therefore, as seen in Lewis’s comments, this novel might be “the most plotted of Edith Wharton’s novels.”  While Wolff is critical to it as “Twilight Sleep ...

  7. Late summer particulate organic carbon export and twilight zone remineralisation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Planchon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the GEOTRACES Bonus-GoodHope (BGH expedition (January–March 2008 in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, particulate organic carbon (POC export was examined from the surface to the mesopelagic twilight zone using water column distributions of total 234Th and biogenic particulate Ba (Baxs. Surface POC export production was estimated from steady state and non steady state modelling of 234Th fluxes, which were converted into POC fluxes, using the POC/234Th ratio of large, potentially sinking particles (> 53 μm collected via in situ pumps. Deficits in 234Th activities were observed at all stations from the surface to the bottom of the mixed layer, yielding 234Th export fluxes from the upper 100 m of 496 ± 214 dpm m−2 d−1 to 1195 ± 158 dpm m−2 d−1 for the steady state model and of 149 ±517 dpm m−2 d−1 to 1217 ± 231 dpm m−2 d−1 for the non steady state model. Using the POC/234Thp ratio of sinking particles (ratios varied from 1.7 ± 0.2 μmol dpm−1 to 4.8 ± 1.9 μmol dpm−1 POC export production at 100 m was calculated to range between 0.9 ± 0.4 and 5.1 ± 2.1 mmol C m−2 d−1,assuming steady state and between 0.3 ± 0.9 m−2 d−1 and 4.9 ± 3.3 mmol C m−2 d−1, assuming non steady state. From the comparison of both approaches, it appears that during late summer export decreased by 56 to 16% for the area between the sub-Antarctic zone and the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF, whereas it remained rather constant over time in the HNLC area south of the SACCF. POC export represented only 6 to 54% of new production, indicating that export efficiency was, in general, low, except in the vicinity of the SACCF

  8. The Cultural Twilight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…

  9. The identification of lymphocyte-like cells and lymphoid-related genes in amphioxus indicates the twilight for the emergence of adaptive immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonghua Huang

    Full Text Available To seek evidence of a primitive adaptive immune system (AIS before vertebrate, we examined whether lymphocytes or lymphocyte-like cells and the related molecules participating in the lymphocyte function existed in amphioxus. Anatomical analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of lymphocyte-like cells in gills, and these cells underwent morphological changes in response to microbial pathogens that are reminiscent of those of mammalian lymphocytes executing immune response to microbial challenge. In addition, a systematic comparative analysis of our cDNA database of amphioxus identified a large number of genes whose vertebrate counterparts are involved in lymphocyte function. Among these genes, several genes were found to be expressed in the vicinity of the lymphocyte-like cells by in situ hybridization and up-regulated after exposure to microbial pathogens. Our findings in the amphioxus indicate the twilight for the emergence of AIS before the invertebrate-vertebrate transition during evolution.

  10. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM and afternoon twilight (CV. The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving during the CV. Auchenipterus nuchalis, Pellona castelnaeana, Triportheus angulatus and T. albus were the most common and concentrated species collected in the CM and Pimelodus blochii was the most common species collected in the CV.

  11. Mesopause temperatures calculated from the O2(a1Δg twilight airglow emission recorded at Maynooth (53.2°N, 6.4°W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Galligan

    Full Text Available Spectra of the O2(a1Δg airglow emission band at 1.27 µm have been recorded during twilight at Maynooth (53.2°N, 6.4°W using a Fourier transform spectrometer. Synthetic spectra have been generated for comparison with the recorded data by assuming a particular temperature at the emitting altitude, and modelling the absorption of each line in the band as it propagates downward through the atmosphere. The temperature used in generating the synthetic spectra was varied until an optimum fit was obtained between the recorded and synthetic data; this temperature was then attributed to the altitude of the emitting layer. Temperatures derived using this technique for 91 twilight periods over an 18-month period exhibit a strong seasonal behaviour with a maximum in winter and minimum in summer. Results from this study are compared with temperatures calculated from the OH(3, 1 Meinel band recorded simultaneously. In winter OH temperatures exceed O2 values by about 10 K, whereas the opposite situation pertains in summer; this result is interpreted in terms of a possible change in the altitude of the mesopause as a function of season. Estimates of the twilight O2(0, 0 total band intensity indicate that its intensity is lower and that its decay is more rapid in summer than in winter, in agreement with earlier observations.

  12. Late summer particulate organic carbon export and twilight zone remineralisation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Planchon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Bonus-GoodHope (BGH expedition (Jan–Mar 2008 we studied the water column distribution of total 234Th and biogenic particulate Ba (Baxs in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The objective was to assess the export flux of particulate organic carbon (POC from the surface to the mesopelagic twilight zone along a section between the Cape Basin and Weddell Gyre. Export production of POC was estimated from steady state and non steady state export fluxes of 234Th which were converted into POC fluxes, using the POC/234Th ratio of large (>53 μm suspended particles, collected via in-situ pumps. Deficits in 234Th activities were observed at all stations from the surface to the bottom of the mixed-layer. 234Th export fluxes from the upper 100 m ranged from 496 ± 57 dpm m−2 d−1 to 1195 ± 120 dpm m−2 d−1 for the steady state model and from 149 ± 18 dpm m−2 d−1 to 1217 ± 146 dpm m−2 d−1 for the non steady state model calculated for a time window of 15 to 22 days preceding the timing of the present cruise. The POC/234Thp ratio of large, potentially sinking particles (>53 μm, was observed to increase with latitude, from 1.9 ± 0.2 μmol dpm−1 and 1.7 ± 0.3 μmol dpm−1 in the Subtropical Zone (STZ and Subantarctic Zone (SAZ, respectively, to 3.0 ± 0.2 μmol dpm−1 in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ, 4.8 ± 1.9 μmol dpm−1 at the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF to 4.1 ± 1.7 μmol dpm−1 in the northern Weddell Gyre, in line with an increasing contribution of larger cell diatoms. Steady state and non steady state POC export from the upper 100 m ranged from 0.9 ± 0.2 mmolC m−2 d−1 to 5.1 ± 2.1 mmolC m−2 d−1 and

  13. El ocaso del sujeto (la crisis de la identidad moderna: Kleist, Nietzsche, Musil The twilight of the subject (the crisis of modern identy: Kleist, Nietzsche, Musil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Carles Mèlich

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo se defienden tres tesis. La primera podría formularse diciendo que lo verdaderamente característico de la modernidad tardía, del "final de trayecto" en el que vivimos, no es tanto la muerte de Dios cuanto la crisis del hombre, de lo humano. La segunda sería que esta crisis del hombre (o del sujeto hunde sus raíces en el romanticismo alemán y resurge en la filosofía de Nietzsche, alcanzando su apogeo en la Viena de principios del siglo XX. La tercera diría: no es posible pensar la educación sin alguna idea de sujeto, pero tampoco se puede pensar el sujeto al margen de la crisis de la modernidad, de su ocaso moderno.This paper defends three theses that could be formulated as follows: (1 Much more than the death of God, the utmost feature of late modernity, of this "end of journey" we are living, is the crisis of man, of the human. (2 Although this crisis of man (or of the subject saw its roots collapse during German Romanticism, it revived in Nietzsche's philosophy to reach its apogee in the early XXth century Viena. (3 One cannot think education without any idea of what a subject is, nor think this subject on the fringes of the crisis of modernity, of its modern twilight.

  14. Vampire Image and Its Aesthetic Significance of Twilight Series%《暮光》系列中的吸血鬼形象及其审美意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莹

    2014-01-01

    Success of Twilight series,the long-last attraction of the blood-sucking vampire topics and the favor of vampire image in medium for a long term,are not accidental,but have their inevitability.Twilight series have redefined the vampire for the audience,which has shown more diversity in the audience's heart, and also found out new ways to the success of vampire movies.%《暮光》系列电影的成功,吸血鬼题材的电影长久不衰,吸血鬼形象在影视中长期受到青睐,并不是偶然,有其必然性。《暮光》系列电影为观众重新定义了吸血鬼,使吸血鬼在观众心中呈现出更为多元的形象,也为吸血鬼题材电影找到了新的出路。

  15. Twilight og det gode monster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    mellemting mellem lys og mørke. Det er i tusmørketimerne ikke blevet helt mørkt endnu, men lyset er ved at forsvinde. Anden film fra 2009 hedder New Moon, hvilket for det første peger på, at lyset fra månen er på sit svageste, men lyset – på vej mod fuldmåne – er tiltagende. Med andre ord er det den omvendte...

  16. The twilight of national sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, P

    2000-01-01

    The institution envisaged in the Moscow Declaration, refined in the Atlantic Charter, and elaborated at Dunbarton Oaks, was called 'the United Nations'. The Preamble to its Charter began with the words 'We the peoples', and Articles 3 and 4 provided that its members should be states. The underlying assumption appeared to be that the words 'nation', 'people' and 'state' were interchangeable. To challenge that assumption may appear to be playing at word games, equivalent to doing the Times crossword. But since language is the vehicle by which we formulate and communicate our thinking, words have always been invested with a power, and certainly a life, of their own. Words have legal consequences. If the word 'A' is synonymous with 'B', then all the rights and obligations pertaining to an 'A' attach to a 'B', although that may not have occurred to us when we cheerfully used that label. Perhaps even more importantly, they have psychological consequences. If we can secure acceptance that 'B' means 'A', then all the legitimacy invoked by an 'A', is assumed by a 'B'. The argument that I want to advance is that those who drafted the Charter did so on the assumption that the wellbeing and the integrity of a people, or of a nation, are equivalent to the integrity and wellbeing of the specific state to which they are attached on a one-to-one basis. I want to go on to argue that that proposition was never wholly true, and that it is becoming increasingly remote from the real world. I decided to begin by attempting definitions of the three words, but I quickly discovered that the task, if achievable, would require greater leisure, not to mention a wiser head, than is available to me. The first conclusion I reached is that all three words have eel-like qualities. When you think that you have grasped a meaning, it slips through your fingers. Not only do meanings change from generation to generation but they change contemporaneously according to the purpose of those who use them.

  17. Microbial gardening in the ocean's twilight zone: detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus: fragmentation of refractory detritus by zooplankton beneath the euphotic zone stimulates the harvestable production of labile and nutritious microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard; Giering, Sarah L C; Anderson, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Sinking organic particles transfer ∼10 gigatonnes of carbon into the deep ocean each year, keeping the atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly lower than would otherwise be the case. The exact size of this effect is strongly influenced by biological activity in the ocean's twilight zone (∼50-1,000 m beneath the surface). Recent work suggests that the resident zooplankton fragment, rather than ingest, the majority of encountered organic particles, thereby stimulating bacterial proliferation and the deep-ocean microbial food web. Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of 'microbial gardening', a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the 'gardener's' access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life. We demonstrate the potential gains that zooplankton stand to make from microbial gardening using a simple steady state model, and we suggest avenues for future research.

  18. 49 CFR 173.226 - Materials poisonous by inhalation, Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A. 173.226 Section 173.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A. Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Zone A poisonous by inhalation (see § 173... performance test requirements of subpart M of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I...

  19. Predicting a double mutant in the twilight zone of low homology modeling for the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel subunit beta-1 (Nav1.4 β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure modeling of the β1 subunit of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.4 was carried out in the twilight zone of very low homology. Structural significance can per se be confounded with random sequence similarities. Hence, we combined (i not automated computational modeling of weakly homologous 3D templates, some with interfaces to analogous structures to the pore-bearing Nav1.4 α subunit with (ii site-directed mutagenesis (SDM, as well as (iii electrophysiological experiments to study the structure and function of the β1 subunit. Despite the distant phylogenic relationships, we found a 3D-template to identify two adjacent amino acids leading to the long-awaited loss of function (inactivation of Nav1.4 channels. This mutant type (T109A, N110A, herein called TANA was expressed and tested on cells of hamster ovary (CHO. The present electrophysiological results showed that the double alanine substitution TANA disrupted channel inactivation as if the β1 subunit would not be in complex with the α subunit. Exhaustive and unbiased sampling of “all β proteins” (Ig-like, Ig resulted in a plethora of 3D templates which were compared to the target secondary structure prediction. The location of TANA was made possible thanks to another “all β protein” structure in complex with an irreversible bound protein as well as a reversible protein–protein interface (our “Rosetta Stone” effect. This finding coincides with our electrophysiological data (disrupted β1-like voltage dependence and it is safe to utter that the Nav1.4 α/β1 interface is likely to be of reversible nature.

  20. iZone: A Location-Based Mobile Social Networking System

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless technology, the extensive use of mobile phones and the availability of location information are facilitating personalized location-based applications. Easy to carry, easy to use and easy to buy, smart phones with certain software are of great advantage. Consequently, mobile social networking (MSN) systems have emerged rapidly, being a revolution for our everyday life. Based on the analysis of general requirements of MSN and location-based services (LBS), this paper presents the design of iZone, a mobile social networking system, as well as a prototype implementation. This platform exploits mobile GIS (Geographic Information Systems), LBS and J2ME technologies, combining geographical data to display map on mobile phones. It can provide a number of social networking services via smartphones.

  1. Infinity: The Twilight Zone of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The theorems and proofs presented are designed to enhance student understanding of the theory of infinity as developed by Cantor and others. Three transfinite numbers are defined to express the cardinality of infinite algebraic sets, infinite sets of geometric points and infinite sets of functions. (DC)

  2. Telomere--the twilight to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Samarth; Acharya, Sourya; Rajput, Devendra; Vagha, S; Grover, Shobha

    2010-09-01

    Besides forming a very important component of the chromosome, the telomeres have extremely significant modes of action and functions, right from maintaining a basic infrastructure and integrity of the chromosome vis a vis the other chromosomes, telomeres are responsible for the cell divisions and replicative senescence of the cell. The number of mitotic divisions which a cell will go through in its life span while passing through the cell cycle is governed inturn by these telomeres, the crux of the entire functioning of these chromosomal components suggests that they are the ticking clocks of the cell and when they diminish or are worn out so does the cell reach it's senility at the fag end of it's replicative life--resulting fate being--the cell is sent to it's grave yard (the final destination). Clinical implications include--regulation of cell life spans, regulating the cell's replicative behavior and it's utility in forming cells which usually are impossible to divide or replicate, telomeres regulate the cloning process,the telomeres play a major role in predicting the fate of a neoplastic cell and finally enhancing the life span of a single cell, the organ, the body as a whole by enzymes which expand the telomeres--the telomerase.

  3. REGIONALISM: THE TWILIGHT ZONE OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borges Polesso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article  intent to partially review the history of literature, focusing on regionalism, here understood as a literary category, in Rio Grande do Sul. The analysis is from the Brazilian romantic period to the Brazilian realism and it presents a discussion, in a historic and cultural panorama, about some changes in cultural perspective, as well as their implications in the Brazilian literature and its canon that occur in Brazil and specifically in Rio Grande do Sul, in the course of history and how these changes have affected literature as a cultural process.

  4. The Twilight of the Scientific Age

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This brief article presents the introduction and draft of the fundamental ideas developed at length in the book of the same title, which gives a challenging point of view about science and its history/philosophy/sociology. Science is in decline. After centuries of great achievements, the exhaustion of new forms and fatigue have reached our culture in all of its manifestations including the pure sciences. Our society is saturated with knowledge which does not offer people any sense in their lives. There is a loss of ideals in the search for great truths and a shift towards an anodyne specialized industry.

  5. ISME and the Twilight of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bianconi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the International Musicological Society there exists an International Society for Music Education, an association (affiliated with UNESCO that gathers music educators from over 80 countries. Between the end of the last century and the beginning of the present one, the ISME issued three main policy papers: “Declaration of Beliefs for Worldwide Promotion of Music Education” (1994-96; “Policy on Music Education” (2002; and “Vision and Mission: Leading and Supporting Music Education Worldwide” (2006. A comparative analysis of the three ‘manifestos’ reveals that, while in 1994-96 the ISME explicitly included the triad ‘history – culture – aesthetics’ in its conception, and regarded the ‘listening’ of music as an educationally significant activity, after just a few years the first and third notions (‘history,’ ‘aesthetics’ have all but vanished, and music listening has also disappeared from the agenda. The fact that the notion of ‘history’ and the aesthetic approach to musical art have disappeared from the perspective of music educators worldwide may have to do with scruples about political correctness, motivated by the “Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies” of UNESCO (1982, where the notion of ‘culture’ had already replaced that of ‘history’. To be sure, this ignorance, or suspicion, about the historical aspects of music production does not in any way facilitate the task of musicologists (or of ethnomusicologists, nor that of music education teachers.

  6. Blue twilight in a simple atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    2002-09-01

    Assuming a curved exponential atmosphere with beam attenuation and isotropic scattering both proportional to density, we model three regimes that each become dominant in turn as the sun sets. This drastic simplification of the earth's real atmosphere both provides insight to guide system design and is able to fit over an irradiance range exceeding nine decades a set of narrowband measurements of blue light intensity made in the natural environment on clear days. The single-scattering regime involves only overall illumination (or cloudiness) as an adjustable parameter and appears especially relevant to animal geolocation based on measurement of diffuse irradiance.

  7. Striking the Notes of the Twilight Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The first Sunbeam Amateur PianoContest was held in the BeijingYouth Palace.More than 400people signed up and 130 of them wereselected to perform on stage.Theyoungest was 45 years old and the oldestwas 80.Most came from the BeijingTraining Class for Middle-aged andElderly People but some came from asfar away as Liaoning and Hubei.The

  8. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  9. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  10. Bistability of the climate around the habitable zone: a thermodynamic investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Boschi, Robert; Pascale, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential multistability of the climate of a planet around the habitable zone. A thorough investigation of the thermodynamics of the climate system is performed for very diverse conditions of energy input and infrared atmosphere opacity. Using PlaSim, an Earth-like general circulation model, the solar constant S* is modulated between 1160 and 1510 Wm-2 and the CO2 concentration, [CO2], from 90 to 2880 ppm. It is observed that in such a parameter range the climate is bistable, i.e. there are two coexisting attractors, one characterised by warm, moist climates (W) and one by completely frozen sea surface (Snowball Earth, SB). Linear relationships are found for the two transition lines (W\\rightarrowSB and SB\\rightarrowW) in (S*,[CO2]) between S* and the logarithm of [CO2]. The dynamical and thermodynamical properties - energy fluxes, Lorenz energy cycle, Carnot efficiency, material entropy production - of the W and SB states are very different: W states are dominated by t...

  11. Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzylowska, Eliza M; Jacobson, John D; Bareh, Gihan M; Ko, Edmund Y; Corselli, Johannah U; Chan, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    The study examined the effect the life-long vegetarian diet on male fertility and focused on vegetarians living in the Loma Linda blue zone, a demographic area known for life longevity. The objective was to compare sperm characteristics of vegetarian with non-vegetarian males. The cross-sectional observational study was based on semen analyses of 474 males from 2009 to 2013. Patients categorized themselves as either life-long lacto-ovo vegetarians (N=26; vegetable diet with dairy and egg products), vegans (N=5; strictly vegetables with no animal products) or non-vegetarians (N=443; no diet restrictions). Sperm quality was assessed using a computer-aided sperm analyzer and strict morphology and chromatin integrity were manually evaluated. Lacto-ovo vegetarians had lower sperm concentration (50.7±7.4M/mL versus non-vegetarians 69.6±3.2M/mL, mean±S.E.M.). Total motility was lower in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups (33.2±3.8% and 51.8±13.4% respectively) versus non-vegetarians (58.2±1.0%). Vegans had lowest hyperactive motility (0.8±0.7% versus lacto-ovo 5.2±1.2 and non-vegetarians 4.8±0.3%). Sperm strict morphologies were similar for the 3 groups. There were no differences in rapid progression and chromatin integrity. The study showed that the vegetables-based food intake decreased sperm quality. In particular, a reduction in sperm quality in male factor patients would be clinically significant and would require review. Furthermore, inadequate sperm hyperactivation in vegans suggested compromised membrane calcium selective channels. However, the study results are cautiously interpreted and more corroborative studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coseismic and interseismic displacements at a subduction zone - a parameter study using finite-element modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hampel, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Tide-gauge and geodetic measurements of coseismic and interseismic displacements in the forearc of subduction zones showed that the coastal region undergoes uplift during the interseismic phase and subsidence during the coseismic phase, while opposite vertical movements are observed in the neighbouring regions (e.g., Savage & Thatcher 1992; Hyndman & Wang 1995). Horizontal displacements during the interseismic phase are typically directed landward, whereas the forearc moves seaward during the earthquake (e.g., Klotz et al. 1999). Here we use two-dimensional finite-element modelling to evaluate how the friction coefficient along the plate interface, the length and the position of the downdip end of the locked zone affect the coseismic and interseismic displacements. Our model consists of a deformable, rheologically stratified upper plate and an undeformable oceanic plate, which rotates at a prescribed angular velocity (cf. Cailleau & Oncken, 2008). The frictional plate interface is divided - from the trench to the base of the continental lithosphere - into a seismogenic zone, a transition zone and a landward free slip zone. During an initial phase, the seismogenic zone is locked, which leads to the accumulation of elastic strain in the forearc. During the subsequent coseismic phase, the strain is released and causes sudden slip of several meters on the plate interface. During the next interseismic phase, the seismogenic zone is locked again. Our model results show patterns of vertical and horizontal displacements that are in general agreement with geodetically observed patterns. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the magnitude of the vertical displacements is strongly influenced by the friction coefficients of the seismogenic zone and the transition zone. The location of the zones of maximum interseismic uplift and coseismic subsidence in the coastal regions depends on the length and position of the locked zone. Preliminary results from three-dimensional models

  13. 《暮光之城》中女性哥特式的环境描写与超自然因素的应用%Application of environment description and"supernatural"factors in Female Gothic“Twilight Saga”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓君

    2014-01-01

    As a female literary rookie, Stephanie Meyer creates Twilight Saga as vampire series of novels. This article attempts to analyze the environmental description and the use of the supernatural factors from the perspective of female gothic. It shows unique female gothic characteristics of the combination of horror suspense and female romantic feelings.%女性文坛新秀斯蒂芬妮·梅尔创作了《暮光之城》吸血鬼系列小说。本文试图从女性哥特小说的视角分析《暮光之城》系列小说在环境描写及超自然因素的运用展现出独特的,具有明显女性哥特的特征,将恐怖悬念与女性的浪漫情感巧妙地结合在一起。

  14. Determinants of farmers’ willingness to participate in subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones - a choice experiment study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Oersted

    2011-01-01

    Danish farmers have been far less interested in agri-environmental subsidy schemes (AES) than anticipated. In order to examine how to improve the appeal of such schemes, a choice experiment was conducted concerning 444 Danish farmers’ preferences for subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones....... A random parameter logit framework was used to capture heterogeneity among farmers. Our results indicate that 1) the vast majority of farmers are willing to trade off the size of the subsidy for less restrictive scheme requirements and that 2) the amount of the subsidy they are willing to trade off varies...... to participate in AES. While the trade off's that farmers are willing to make between subsidy size and individual scheme requirements are case specific, our results concerning increased use of farm advisors, farmers ability of valuing different types of flexibility, and our attempt to place a monetary value...

  15. Collaborative Learning in a Boundary Zone: A Case Study of Innovative Inter-institutional Collaboration in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Tabak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study focused on the collaboration between a school district and a college of education in Israel and aimed to explore how the participants created common understanding in order to promote educational change. The theoretical approach involved analyzing the institutional interconnections based on boundary practices and boundary objects and the ways these interconnections shaped the collaborative learning process, promoted educational change, and fostered educational leadership in the district and in the college. The study observed the formation of a community of practice within the boundary zone, which was developed over a three-year period by a group of 20 superintendents, the district head, and two teacher educators. Beyond concrete outcomes, such as improvement of pupils' scores on the state-mandated achievement tests, the study showed a transformation in the superintendents' perception of their roles and a cultural change in the district. 


Tabak, E. & Margolin, I. (2013. Collaborative Learning in a Boundary Zone: A Case Study of Innovative Inter-Institutional Collaboration in Israel. International Journal of Education Policy & Leadership 8(4. Retrieved from www.ijepl.org .

  16. Pride and Twilight: updating the Bennet-Darcy myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel-Baldellou, Marta

    2010-01-01

    El mito Bennet-Darcy, como representante del amor romántico, ha sido explorado en numerosas manifestaciones culturales desde la publicación de la novela Orgullo y Prejuicio de Jane Austen en 1813. No obstante, su retrato contemporáneo parece haber perdido el propósito primigenio de la novela de Austen que, pese a enclavarse en la tradición sentimental, retrataba la condición y subyugación de las mujeres en el periodo de la Regencia inglesa. Como exponente contemporáneo de la cultura popular, ...

  17. Peaceful Twilight: Grand Strategy for a Power in Relative Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    a firestorm that consumes everything in its path. In addition to nationalism, China’s changing demographics will present the government with a...fighting against is…loss of empire and danger from the animosities incurred in its exercise. Besides, to recede is no longer possible, if indeed any of... animosity between China and Japan have a much greater chance of spiraling out of control should the United States withdraw. In the Middle East, a

  18. Pride and Twilight: updating the Bennet-Darcy myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel-Baldellou, Marta

    2010-01-01

    El mito Bennet-Darcy, como representante del amor romántico, ha sido explorado en numerosas manifestaciones culturales desde la publicación de la novela Orgullo y Prejuicio de Jane Austen en 1813. No obstante, su retrato contemporáneo parece haber perdido el propósito primigenio de la novela de Austen que, pese a enclavarse en la tradición sentimental, retrataba la condición y subyugación de las mujeres en el periodo de la Regencia inglesa. Como exponente contemporáneo de la cultura popular, ...

  19. "Twilight or Middlemarch?" A Teacher's Refusal to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandhya P.

    2015-01-01

    What should children and young adolescents read? Recent changes in the English curriculum have once again shifted the focus towards more canonical texts, but does featuring such texts on the course necessarily equate to rigorous teaching and in-depth learning? Through a self-examination of her own reading history, the author argues for a dialogic…

  20. "Twilight or Middlemarch?" A Teacher's Refusal to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandhya P.

    2015-01-01

    What should children and young adolescents read? Recent changes in the English curriculum have once again shifted the focus towards more canonical texts, but does featuring such texts on the course necessarily equate to rigorous teaching and in-depth learning? Through a self-examination of her own reading history, the author argues for a dialogic…

  1. Twilight Zones and Cornerstones. A Gnat Robot Double Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    dies will be constructed to either snap into exactly prescribed places (like Legos ) or possibly to simply adhere to the plastic body with wide placement...potential break- through in bum therapy . VII. Conclusion We have shown that all the component technologies necessary to build a gnat robot are plau

  2. Cerebellar Zones: A Personal History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogd (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCerebellar zones were there, of course, before anyone noticed them. Their history is that of young people, unhindered by preconceived ideas, who followed up their observations with available or new techniques. In the 1960s of the last century, the circumstances were fortunate because thr

  3. A decade of an HIV workplace programme in armed conflict zones; a social responsibility response of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mortier, Stéphane; Mukangu, Silas; Sagna, Charles; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya

    2016-01-01

    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in fragile States and in armed conflict zones. Some of them are affected by the HIV pandemic. Within the framework of its social responsibility programme concerning HIV affecting its staff members, the organization has implemented an HIV workplace programme since 2004. We carried out a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Data collected were initially essentially qualitative and process-oriented, but were complemented over the years by data on annual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake and on direct annual costs covering awareness, testing and antiretroviral therapy. The number of people covered by the programme grew from none in 2003 to 4,438 in 2015, with an increase in annual VCT uptake over the years increasing from 376 persons (14 %) in 2007 to 2,663 in 2015 (60 %). Over the years, the services were expanded from awareness raising to bringing VCT to the workplace, as well as offering testing and health coverage of other conditions and innovative approaches to facing challenges linked to situations of violence. Within its social responsibility framework, the ICRC has shown the importance and feasibility of a workplace HIV programme in conflict zones. A sustainable workplace programme in these conflict settings requires constant adaptation, with regular follow-up given the relatively high turnover of staff, and ensuring sustainable stocks of condoms and antiretroviral drugs.

  4. Treatment outcome of immediate, early and conventional single-tooth implants in the aesthetic zone : a systematic review to survival, bone level, soft-tissue, aesthetics and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2008-01-01

    den Hartog L, Huddleston Slater JJR, Vissink A, Meijer HJA, Raghoebar GM. Treatment outcome of immediate, early and conventional single-tooth implants in the aesthetic zone: a systematic review to survival, bone level, soft-tissue, aesthetics and patient satisfaction. J Clin Periodontol 2008; 35: 10

  5. [Child for child: sensitization of eight thousand school children in the Lukula district of the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Many children in Africa drop out of the country¿s formal educational system before finishing elementary school. Young students in Africa are often saddled with household chores, including taking care of the youngest children in the household while their mothers manage other household responsibilities. However, many problems and accidents can occur while the mother leaves her children at home. The best way to help these school-aged children take care of their younger brothers and sisters is to train them for that function. The ¿Child-to-Child¿ approach aims to teach children typical scholastic disciplines, but also to train them in hygiene, health, and disease prevention so they can apply what they learn in the community with their families and friends. 8000 students in 43 Mayumbe primary schools, their 315 teachers and heads, and community members were trained accordingly. The intervention took place in the Lukula area of Congo. The project was made possible through the financial support of 3 nongovernmental organizations. Project implementation, motivating teachers, and project evaluation are discussed. Project evaluation demonstrated students¿ capacity to differentiate between facts and beliefs, and that this educational approach is a valid, long-term investment.

  6. Twilight of the Slogans: A Heuristic Investigation of Linguistic Memes Using Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Curt Paul

    2013-01-01

    Slogans, or linguistic memes, are short, memorable phrases that are present in commercial, political, and everyday discourse. Slogans propagate similarly to other memes, or cultural units, through an evolutionary mechanism first proposed by Dawkins (1976). Heuristic inquiry, as presented by Moustakas (1990), provided a template from which to…

  7. Solving creditor problems in the twilight zone : Superfluous law and inadequate private solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Fiduciary duties are an integral part of the corporate law landscape. The law and economics analysis of these duties, especially the duty of directors to maximize shareholder wealth, shows that these duties fill contractual gaps, saving on transaction costs. Although duties to shareholders are well

  8. Photon hunting in the twilight zone: visual features of mesopelagic bioluminescent sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Julien M; Partridge, Julian C; Hart, Nathan S; Garza-Gisholt, Eduardo; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Mallefet, Jérôme; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-01-01

    The mesopelagic zone is a visual scene continuum in which organisms have developed various strategies to optimize photon capture. Here, we used light microscopy, stereology-assisted retinal topographic mapping, spectrophotometry and microspectrophotometry to investigate the visual ecology of deep-sea bioluminescent sharks [four etmopterid species (Etmopterus lucifer, E. splendidus, E. spinax and Trigonognathus kabeyai) and one dalatiid species (Squaliolus aliae)]. We highlighted a novel structure, a translucent area present in the upper eye orbit of Etmopteridae, which might be part of a reference system for counterillumination adjustment or acts as a spectral filter for camouflage breaking, as well as several ocular specialisations such as aphakic gaps and semicircular tapeta previously unknown in elasmobranchs. All species showed pure rod hexagonal mosaics with a high topographic diversity. Retinal specialisations, formed by shallow cell density gradients, may aid in prey detection and reflect lifestyle differences; pelagic species display areae centrales while benthopelagic and benthic species display wide and narrow horizontal streaks, respectively. One species (E. lucifer) displays two areae within its horizontal streak that likely allows detection of conspecifics' elongated bioluminescent flank markings. Ganglion cell topography reveals less variation with all species showing a temporal area for acute frontal binocular vision. This area is dorsally extended in T. kabeyai, allowing this species to adjust the strike of its peculiar jaws in the ventro-frontal visual field. Etmopterus lucifer showed an additional nasal area matching a high rod density area. Peak spectral sensitivities of the rod visual pigments (λmax) fall within the range 484-491 nm, allowing these sharks to detect a high proportion of photons present in their habitat. Comparisons with previously published data reveal ocular differences between bioluminescent and non-bioluminescent deep-sea sharks. In particular, bioluminescent sharks possess higher rod densities, which might provide them with improved temporal resolution particularly useful for bioluminescent communication during social interactions.

  9. Multicoil2: predicting coiled coils and their oligomerization states from sequence in the twilight zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Trigg

    Full Text Available The alpha-helical coiled coil can adopt a variety of topologies, among the most common of which are parallel and antiparallel dimers and trimers. We present Multicoil2, an algorithm that predicts both the location and oligomerization state (two versus three helices of coiled coils in protein sequences. Multicoil2 combines the pairwise correlations of the previous Multicoil method with the flexibility of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs in a Markov Random Field (MRF. The resulting algorithm integrates sequence features, including pairwise interactions, through multinomial logistic regression to devise an optimized scoring function for distinguishing dimer, trimer and non-coiled-coil oligomerization states; this scoring function is used to produce Markov Random Field potentials that incorporate pairwise correlations localized in sequence. Multicoil2 significantly improves both coiled-coil detection and dimer versus trimer state prediction over the original Multicoil algorithm retrained on a newly-constructed database of coiled-coil sequences. The new database, comprised of 2,105 sequences containing 124,088 residues, includes reliable structural annotations based on experimental data in the literature. Notably, the enhanced performance of Multicoil2 is evident when tested in stringent leave-family-out cross-validation on the new database, reflecting expected performance on challenging new prediction targets that have minimal sequence similarity to known coiled-coil families. The Multicoil2 program and training database are available for download from http://multicoil2.csail.mit.edu.

  10. Book review: twilight of impunity: the war crimes trial of Slobodan Milosevic

    OpenAIRE

    Wadi, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    A vital read for students and researchers interested in the ramifications and contradictions of international law and justice, Ramona Wadi finds that Judith Armatta’s detailed narration and analysis of Milosevic’s trial an important contribution to the field\\ud \\ud

  11. Humor in the "Twilight Zone": My Work as a Medical Clown With Patients With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Amnon

    2014-09-01

    Medical clowning has been primarily identified with working with children in pediatrics wards in hospitals. Over the past decade, more and more medical clowns have been working with adults and with patients with dementia as part of holistic care. Along with traditional medical care by hospital staff, the medical clown treats the patient's emotional side. Furthermore, medical clowning has unique advantages in working with patients with dementia. Several studies have shown that humor assists in improving the quality of life of patients with dementia. The clown, as the ultimate comic figure, creates interactions with patients based on humor, which empowers, calms, and strengthens the patient while reinforcing the patient's connection with the surroundings. Medical clowning is an interdisciplinary therapeutic art, and the medical clown has a "kit" of multiple skills (including humor, drama, music, and dance), all of which have a beneficial, therapeutic impact on patients. The current article presents and analyzes case studies from my work as a medical clown with patients with dementia.

  12. Building Twilight "Light Sensors" to Study the Effects of Light Pollution on Fireflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thancharoen, Anchana; Branham, Marc A.; Lloyd, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Light pollution negatively affects many nocturnal organisms. We outline two experiments that can be conducted by students to examine the effects of light pollution on firefly behavior. Inexpensive electronic light sensors, which are easy to construct and calibrate, are used to sample light levels along transects in spaces where fireflies are…

  13. Teenage Turning Point. Does Adolescence Herald the Twilight of Girls' Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is research related to the self-esteem of adolescents in the United States. Studies conducted by the American Association of University Women (AAUW), Carol Gilligan, and others are highlighted. (CW)

  14. Pedro Nuñez and the first printed treatise on twilight observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsden, M.

    Pedro Nuñez (the name is also written variously as Nunes, Nonius, Nonnius, and Nunnius) was born at Alcacer do Sol, Portugal, in 1502, and died in 1578. In that period and in that country, it was inevitable that his interests were in cosmography and navigation. His principal claim to fame is as author of the major treatise De Arte Atque Ratione Navigandi, which was published in 1546.

  15. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Ballast of Surface Aggregates Sinking through the Twilight Zone

    OpenAIRE

    de Jesus Mendes, Pedro A.; Laurenz Thomsen

    2012-01-01

    The dissolution of CaCO(3) is one of the ways ocean acidification can, potentially, greatly affect the ballast of aggregates. A diminution of the ballast could reduce the settling speed of aggregates, resulting in a change in the carbon flux to the deep sea. This would mean lower amounts of more refractory organic matter reaching the ocean floor. This work aimed to determine the effect of ocean acidification on the ballast of sinking surface aggregates. Our hypothesis was that the decrease of...

  16. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  17. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-Infrared Properties of Poststarburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, K; Bitsakis, T; Brown, M J I; Ciesla, L; Appleton, P N; Beaton, R L; Cales, S L; Crossett, J; Falcon-Barroso, J; French, K D; Kewley, L J; Kelson, D D; Kriek, M; Lanz, L; Medling, A M; Mulchaey, J S; Nyland, K; Rich, J A; Urry, C M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of "E+A" identified poststarburst galaxies, including a deep analysis on 190 poststarbursts detected in the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog. The poststarburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone (IRTZ). Furthermore, we find that poststarbursts occupy a distinct region [3.4]-[4.6] vs. [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broad band photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of poststarbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that mid-infrared (4--12\\micron) properties of poststarbursts are consistent with either 11.3um polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or Thermally Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended poststarburst galaxies with 22um emission detected with signal to noise >3 re...

  18. Twilight of the Slogans: A Heuristic Investigation of Linguistic Memes Using Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Curt Paul

    2013-01-01

    Slogans, or linguistic memes, are short, memorable phrases that are present in commercial, political, and everyday discourse. Slogans propagate similarly to other memes, or cultural units, through an evolutionary mechanism first proposed by Dawkins (1976). Heuristic inquiry, as presented by Moustakas (1990), provided a template from which to…

  19. The dimension hunters a twilight zone may materialise at CERN's new collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Chown, M

    2000-01-01

    Researchers at Cambridge University believe it may be possible to find KK echoes of gravitons with the LHC when it comes online. This would provide evidence that space actually has extra dimensions, a requirement in many theories attempting to unify the fundamental forces of nature (1 page).

  20. Solving creditor problems in the twilight zone : Superfluous law and inadequate private solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    Fiduciary duties are an integral part of the corporate law landscape. The law and economics analysis of these duties, especially the duty of directors to maximize shareholder wealth, shows that these duties fill contractual gaps, saving on transaction costs. Although duties to shareholders are well

  1. The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Sergey I.; Berney, Cédric; Fahrni, José F.; Bolivar, Ignacio; Polet, Stephane; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Aleshin, Vladimir V.; Petrov, Nikolai B.; Pawlowski, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revealed the extraordinary diversity of single-celled eukaryotes. However, the proper assessment of this diversity and accurate reconstruction of the eukaryote phylogeny are still impeded by the lack of molecular data for some major groups of easily identifiable and cultivable protists. Among them, amoeboid eukaryotes have been notably absent from molecular phylogenies, despite their diversity, complexity, and abundance. To partly fill this phylogenetic gap, we present here combined small-subunit ribosomal RNA and actin sequence data for the three main groups of “Heliozoa” (Actinophryida, Centrohelida, and Desmothoracida), the heliozoan-like Sticholonche, and the radiolarian group Polycystinea. Phylogenetic analyses of our sequences demonstrate the polyphyly of heliozoans, which branch either as an independent eukaryotic lineage (Centrohelida), within stramenopiles (Actinophryida), or among cercozoans (Desmothoracida), in broad agreement with previous ultrastructure-based studies. Our data also provide solid evidence for the existence of the Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of mainly amoeboid eukaryotes that includes desmothoracid heliozoans, all radiolarians, Sticholonche, and foraminiferans, as well as various filose and reticulose amoebae and some flagellates. PMID:15148395

  2. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  3. The uneven patterning of welfare benefits at the twilight of AFDC: assessing the influence of institutions, race, and citizen preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Dixon, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have been slow to test welfare state theories on the extensive subnational variation in the United States during the recent period of retrenchment. We assess institutional politics theories, literature on race and social policy, and public opinion arguments relative to levels of support in states' Aid to Families Dependent Children programs from 1982 until its elimination in 1996. Pooled time-series results demonstrate that the determinants of spending during retrenchment are mostly similar to those driving development and expansion. Pro-spending actors and professionalized state institutions limit benefit curtailment, while jurisdictions with larger African- American populations have lower benefits. Additionally, liberal citizens positively impact support and strengthen the effects of state institutions, but this effect is attenuated in states with larger African-American populations.

  4. The Owl of Minerva Flies at Twilight: Doctrinal Change and Continuity and the Revolution in Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Is rapidly fadin’ And the first one now Wi laltr be last For the times they are a-changin’. Bob Dylan Bob Dylan’s emphasis on change resonates for the...in that "revolution" are to be understood in the present which, in Bob Dylan’s words, *will later be past." Thinking in such time streams will

  5. Twilight of dawn or of evening? A century of research methods in the Journal of Applied Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Jose M; Aguinis, Herman; DeShon, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    We offer a critical review and synthesis of research methods in the first century of the Journal of Applied Psychology. We divide the chronology into 6 periods. The first emphasizes the first few issues of the journal, which, in many ways, set us on a methodological course that we sail to this day, and then takes us through the mid-1920s. The second is the period through World War II, in which we see the roots of modern methodological concepts and techniques, including a transition from a discovery orientation to a hypotheticodeductive model orientation. The third takes us through roughly 1970, a period in which many of our modern-day practices were formed, such as reliance on null hypothesis significance testing. The fourth, from 1970 through 1989, sees an emphasis on the development of measures of critical constructs. The fifth takes us into the present, which is marked by greater plurality regarding data-analytic approaches. Finally, we offer a glimpse of possible and, from our perspective, desirable futures regarding research methods. Specifically, we highlight the need to conduct replications; study the exceptional and not just the average; improve the quality of the review process, particularly regarding methodological issues; emphasize design and measurement issues; and build and test more specific theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Tender heroes and twilight lovers: re-reading the romance in mass-market pulp novels, 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine V

    2014-01-01

    In mid-century popular presses published paperbacks about lesbians, gay men, and characters with male and female lovers.  Barbara Grier was the first to catalog novels featuring lesbian subplots by classifying stories based on the extent and style of lesbian content.  I perform a content analysis of 49 novels, motivated by these questions:  How did novels with lesbian and gay characters differ from heterosexual romances?  What do differences reveal about cultural understandings of love, gender, and sexuality?  I find uniformity in the structural logic of novels.  However, there are different narrative strategies, and protagonists' gender and sexuality predict a novel's trajectory.

  7. Commentary: Hebephilia--a would-be paraphilia caught in the twilight zone between prepubescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentky, Robert; Barbaree, Howard

    2011-01-01

    This commentary addresses the controversy surrounding the proposed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Revision (DSM-5) diagnosis of pedohebephilia. We examine adult male sexual attraction to young pubescent females and whether such attraction is deviant and constitutes a mental disorder, and, independent of that question, whether there is any defensible basis for asserting that hebephilia is a legitimate paraphilia. We conclude our analysis by looking at three profiles: adults with sexualized interest in pre- and postpubescent children, adults with sexualized interest in adult and pubescent adolescent women, and adults with exclusive sexualized interest in young pubescent women. We suggest that in the third instance of exclusivity, the Criterion B requirement of impairment may become critical to legitimizing a diagnosis of hebephilia.

  8. Tower bells and time zones, a history of synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    The Astrarium made by Jacopo Dondi dell'Orologio in Padua in 1344 is one of the first public horologia in the World, their public utility is also shown through the history of the tower bell of Our Lady of Suffragio in Turin, made by the mathematician Francesco Fa\\`a di Bruno in 1866. The tower bell of St. Anthony in Lanciano made by Antonio Cibotti was inaugurated by the Pope Paul VI in 1973 through a radio impulse, and now many tower bells are radio synchronized to the Central European Time within a single second of accuracy.

  9. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are not alone. Many troops wrestle with reintegration issues. Time spent in a war zone changes ... recognize your Social support is critical to successful reintegration. emotion when someone close to you points it ...

  10. The Solute-Exclusion Zone: A Promising Application for Mirofluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shuo Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While unique phenomena exist at fluid-solid phase intersections, many interfacial phenomena manifest solely on limited scales—i.e., the nm-mm ranges—which stifles their application potential. Here, we constructed microfluidic chips that utilize the unique long-distance interface effects of the Solute-Exclusion Zone (EZ phenomenon to mix, separate, and guide samples in desired directions within microfluidic channels. On our “EZ Chip”, we utilized the interfacial force generated by EZs to transport specimens across streamlines without the need of an off-chip power source. The advantages of easy-integration, low fabrication cost, and no off-chip energy input make the EZ suitable for independent, portable lab-on-chip system applications.

  11. Numerical Modelling of Subduction Zones: a New Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficini, Eleonora; Dal Zilio, Luca; Doglioni, Carlo; Gerya, Taras V.

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zones are one of the most studied although still controversial geodynamic process. Is it a passive or an active mechanism in the frame of plate tectonics? How subduction initiates? What controls the differences among the slabs and related orogens and accretionary wedges? The geometry and kinematics at plate boundaries point to a "westerly" polarized flow of plates, which implies a relative opposed flow of the underlying Earth's mantle, being the decoupling located at about 100-200 km depth in the low-velocity zone or LVZ (Doglioni and Panza, 2015 and references therein). This flow is the simplest explanation for determining the asymmetric pattern of subduction zones; in fact "westerly" directed slabs are steeper and deeper with respect to the "easterly or northeasterly" directed ones, that are less steep and shallower, and two end members of orogens associated to the downgoing slabs can be distinguished in terms of topography, type of rocks, magmatism, backarc spreading or not, foredeep subsidence rate, etc.. The classic asymmetry comparing the western Pacific slabs and orogens (low topography and backarc spreading in the upper plate) and the eastern Pacific subduction zones (high topography and deep rocks involved in the upper plate) cannot be ascribed to the age of the subducting lithosphere. In fact, the same asymmetry can be recognized all over the world regardless the type and age of the subducting lithosphere, being rather controlled by the geographic polarity of the subduction. All plate boundaries move "west". Present numerical modelling set of subduction zones is based on the idea that a subducting slab is primarily controlled by its negative buoyancy. However, there are several counterarguments against this assumption, which is not able to explain the global asymmetric aforementioned signatures. Moreover, petrological reconstructions of the lithospheric and underlying mantle composition, point for a much smaller negative buoyancy than predicted, if any (e.g., Doglioni et al., 2007; Afonso et al., 2008). Therefore we attempt to generate a different model setup in which are included both a decoupling at the lithosphere base and the "westward" drift of the lithosphere that implies a relative "eastward" mantle flow. The method used for this task is an implementation of I2VIS code, a 2D thermomechanical code incorporating both a characteristics based marker-in-cell method and conservative finite-difference (FD) schemes (Gerya and Yuen, 2003). The implementation involves both the integration of the LVZ and the application of an incoming and outgoing mantle flow through the lateral boundaries of the rectangular box (that represent the basic setup of the models). This new insight in numerical modelling of subduction zones could help to have a more accurate comprehension on what is actually influencing subduction zones dynamics in order to successively explain what are the causes of this fundamental process and what are its implications on plate tectonics dynamics.

  12. Dosing antiretroviral medication when crossing time zones: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Volny-Anne, Alain; Waitt, Catriona; Boffito, Marta; Khoo, Saye

    2016-01-01

    International tourism continues to increase worldwide, and people living with HIV and their clinicians are increasingly confronted with the problem of how to dose antiretroviral therapy during transmeridian air travel across time zones. No guidance on this topic currently exists. This review is a response to requests from patient groups for clear, practical and evidence-based guidance for travelling on antiretroviral therapy; we present currently available data on the pharmacokinetic forgiveness and toxicity of various antiretroviral regimens, and synthesize this data to provide guidelines on how to safely dose antiretrovirals when travelling across time zones.

  13. Playing at the Literate Zone: A Challenge for Argentinian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    Considers traditions, new trends, linkage of literacy and play, and implementation of literacy play in schools in Argentina. Notes that traditional approaches to literacy education do not work well in Latin America and supports the connection between literacy and children's play. (DLH)

  14. [AOR characterization and zoning: a dosimeter for blue light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, R; Uva, J; Di Lecce, V; Quarto, A

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained thanks to an innovative experimental device for the assessment of artificial optical radiation (AOR) exposure in workplace. This . device was developed by 'Politecnico di Bari-DIASS'. The wearable personal dosimeter has three sensors: one is used for measuring head position/movement, therefore there is a color light sensor to determine the AOR and finally there is a video camera to localize sources. Our system is connected to a netbook via USB cable that allows one to obtain the real and extimated value of worker's exposure, also with "augmented reality". The aim of this paper is realizing work place safety zoning for the classifacation of not only specific dangerous areas through the analysis of overlapping information from the device.

  15. CERN Open Days 2013, Meyrin Campus, ZONE A

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo Service, CERN

    2013-01-01

    A1 : L’exposition au Globe ; A2 : MICROCOSM ; A3 : Technologies that change your lives ; A4 : Public Lectures / Conférences ; A5 : Public Lectures / Conférences ; A6 : Fun with Physics ; A7 : International Village ; A8 : Fun Zone

  16. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits.

  17. Natural Denitrification in the Saturated Zone: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, Scott F.

    1992-06-01

    Denitrification is increasingly recognized for its ability to eliminate or reduce nitrate concentrations in groundwater. With this awareness comes a desire to predict the rate and extent of denitrification in aquifers. The limiting factor in making predictive models, however, is our limited knowledge of the physical characteristics of this process. This review synthesizes the published literature on natural aquifer denitrification. A background section discusses denitrification requirements and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, which occurs in environments similar to those where denitrification occurs, and gives a historical perspective on denitrification. Other sections discuss denitrification with organic carbon serving as the electron donor (heterotrophic denitrification) and with reduced inorganic compounds serving as the electron donor (autotrophic denitrification). The section on heterotrophic denitrification is structured around two tables that summarize natural aquifer denitrification rates reported by laboratory studies and natural aquifer denitrification rates reported by field studies. The section on autotrophic denitrification discusses denitrification with reduced iron and reduced sulfur. Thus far, most studies only consider a single electron donor or donor type, whether heterotrophic or autotrophic. This review demonstrates, however, that multiple electron donors may be present in a given aquifer. Future research efforts are recommended to determine the factors affecting the availability of electron donors and their denitrification rates. Additional research is also suggested on how dissolved oxygen affects denitrification rates and on the factors influencing the partitioning of nitrate reduction products to nitrous oxide, a potential contributor to the destruction of the ozone layer, and to ammonium.

  18. Distracted drivers in school zones : a national report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowski, J.G. & Goodman, S.

    2014-01-01

    This is an in-depth research report on distracted driving in school zones conducted by Safe Kids Worldwide and its member coalitions throughout the United States. The study found that one in six drivers in a school zone was driving distracted. (Author/publisher)

  19. Entropy in the Critical Zone: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quijano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic entropy was initially proposed by Clausius in 1865. Since then it has been implemented in the analysis of different systems, and is seen as a promising concept to understand the evolution of open systems in non-equilibrium conditions. Information entropy was proposed by Shannon in 1948, and has become an important concept to measure information in different systems. Both thermodynamic entropy and information entropy have been extensively applied in different fields related to the Critical Zone, such as hydrology, ecology, pedology, and geomorphology. In this study, we review the most important applications of these concepts in those fields, including how they are calculated, and how they have been utilized to analyze different processes. We then synthesize the link between thermodynamic and information entropies in the light of energy dissipation and organizational patterns, and discuss how this link may be used to enhance the understanding of the Critical Zone.

  20. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) located in the community in addition to their medical centers. Find a facility near you. Each medical center has: ■ ■ An OEF/OIF Program Manager to help all recent returnees. ■ ■ Health and Mental ...

  1. The Himalayan Seismogenic Zone: A New Frontier for Earthquake Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry; Hubbard, Judith; Karplus, Marianne; Klemperer, Simon; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake that occurred on April 25 of this year was a dramatic reminder that great earthquakes are not restricted to the large seismogenic zones associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. Not only does Himalayan seismogenesis represents important scientific and societal issues in its own right, it constitutes a reference for evaluating general models of the earthquake cycle derived from the studies of the oceanic subduction systems. This presentation reports results of a Mini-Workshop sponsored by the GeoPrisms project that was held in conjunction with the American Geophysical Union on December 15, 2015, designed to organize a new initiative to study the great Himalaya earthquake machine. The Himalayan seismogenic zone shares with its oceanic counterparts a number of fundamental questions, including: a) What controls the updip and downdip limits of rupture? b) What controls the lateral segmentation of rupture zones (and hence magnitude)? c) What is the role of fluids in facilitating slip and or rupture? d) What nucleates rupture (e..g. asperities?)? e) What physical properties can be monitored as precursors to future events? f) How effectively can the radiation pattern of future events be modeled? g) How can a better understanding of Himalayan rupture be translated into more cost effective preparations for the next major event in this region? However the underthrusting of continental, as opposed to oceanic, lithosphere in the Himalayas frames these questions in a very different context: h) How does the greater thickness and weaker rheology of continental crust/lithosphere affect locking of the seismogenic zone? i) How does the different thermal structure of continental vs oceanic crust affect earthquake geodynamics? j) Are fluids a significant factor in intercontinental thrusting? k) How does the basement morphology of underthrust continental crust affect locking/creep, and how does it differ from the oceanic case? l) What is the significance of blind splay faulting in accommodating slip? m) Do lithologic contrasts juxtaposed across the continental seismogenic zone play a role in the rheological behavior of the SZ in the same manner as proposed for the ocean SZ? Major differences in the study of the continental vs oceanic seismogenic zone include the fact that Himalaya structures are open to: a) direct geological observation via field mapping b) dense and wide aperture monitoring of surface strain via GPS and INSAR c) extensive sampling of geofluids via surface flows and shallow drill holes d) cost effective deployment of long term geophysical arrays (e.g. seismic and MT) designed to detect subtle variations if physical properties within the seismogenic zone, and ultimately, e) a fixed platform for deep drilling of past and future rupture zones It remains to be established whether the Himalayan seismogenic zone has the potential for earthquakes of the greatest magnitudes (e.g. 9.0+). However, there is no question that future ruptures in this system represent a serious threat to major population centers (megacities) in the Indian subcontinent. For this reason alone the HSZ is deserving of a major new international, multidisciplinary effort.

  2. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone: a perspective for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Faaborg; Margaret Brittingham; Therese Donovan; John Blake

    1993-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation occurs when a large, fairly continuous tract of vegetation is converted to other vegetation types such that only scattered fragments of the original type remain. Problems associated with habitat fragmentation include overall habitat loss, increase in edge habitat and edge effects (particularly higher parasitism and nest predation rates), and...

  3. 没落的历史与叙述:《黄昏清兵卫》%The Declined History and the Narration:Twilight Samurai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江

    2004-01-01

    十八世纪中期,日本明治维新前夜的海坂藩。武十井口清兵卫新丧妻,工作收入寥寥,又须奉养老母和两个女儿,家境贫困因而时常仪容不整,被同僚谑称作“黄昏清兵卫”,讽刺他败坏了武士的形象。与酒鬼丈夫解除婚姻关系的饭沼朋江回到娘家,清兵卫与朋江两人常年埋十心中的感情复燃,但都没有表白。一夜朋江前夫登门骚扰,

  4. Twilight on self-regulation : A socio-legal evaluation of conservation and sustainable use of agrobiodiversity by industry self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel-van Saane, M.H.J.W. van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to understand how reliable industry self-regulations of food suppliers on the Dutch market are. Reliability is defined as the competence of a food supplier to prove, and at all times guarantee that agrobiodiversity objectives are being achieved through industry self-regulatio

  5. From "The Twilight Zone" to "Avatar": Science Fiction Engages the Intellect, Touches the Emotions, and Fuels the Imagination of Gifted Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutler, Susan Lee

    2011-01-01

    Dabrowski's Theory of Overexcitabilities suggests that gifted and creative children experience the world via heightened levels of psychomotor, sensual, intellectual, emotional, and imaginational intensity. According to Dabrowski and Piechowski (1977), "intellectual, emotional, and imaginational linkages are the basis for highly creative…

  6. When the "twilight of justice" meets the "dawn of nanotechnology": A critique of transhumanism and the technological imperative in the light of George Grant's moral philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Janna Metcalfe

    This dissertation examines how contemporary Western ethical perspectives frame moral judgements about technologies intended to expand or enhance human abilities. Of particular interest are technological advances that involve nanotechnology, a realm of technoscience that seeks the precise control of matter through deliberately designing structures, devices, and processes with novel and useful properties at the molecular scale. In this thesis I analyze trends in the emerging dialogue about the social and ethical implications of nanotechnology. There is growing awareness that technological "progress" should not outpace critical reflection over the means and ends of those advances, but I argue that there is a tension between the role of ethics and the practice of technoscience. By ethics I mean ongoing public discussion that contemplates what it means to live a "good life" and that maintains limits to human actions. By contrast, the practice of technoscience appears to be guided by the "technological imperative" which holds that we can only know what is good by first figuring out what is possible. Despite concerted interdisciplinary efforts to address the broad range of ethical issues posed by nanotechnology's proposed goals, the prevailing tone of the current discussion tends to reveal what I call a "technoprogressive" bias, or the belief that technological development is a primary way to improve the human estate and that it leads inevitably to cumulative progress. However, because technoprogressive commentary on nanotechnology focuses on concerns that are framed mainly in terms of risk assessment, cost-benefit analyses, and utilitarian principles, technoprogressive ethics overlooks crucial ethical questions of a different nature, questions that deal with the limits of human action, the nature of justice, and the meaning of being human. To analyze the implications of technoprogressive ethics, I employ the moral philosophy of Canadian thinker George Grant because he articulates an underrepresented yet valuable critique of Western society's relationship with technology. Grant speaks for a type of transcendental moral realism that challenges the primacy of the technological imperative, insisting that justice ultimately must be grounded upon non-negotiable limits, and that there are objective norms to which human freedom and human self-assertion have to answer.

  7. From "The Twilight Zone" to "Avatar": Science Fiction Engages the Intellect, Touches the Emotions, and Fuels the Imagination of Gifted Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutler, Susan Lee

    2011-01-01

    Dabrowski's Theory of Overexcitabilities suggests that gifted and creative children experience the world via heightened levels of psychomotor, sensual, intellectual, emotional, and imaginational intensity. According to Dabrowski and Piechowski (1977), "intellectual, emotional, and imaginational linkages are the basis for highly creative…

  8. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  9. Atraumatic surgical extrusion using periotome in esthetic zone: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The technique presented is an alternative approach to periodontal surgical procedures consisting orthodontic extrusion and osseous recontouring. It does not result in functional or esthetic deformities especially in the anterior esthetic zone.

  10. Mobile Innovations, Executive Functions, and Educational Developments in Conflict Zones: A Case Study from Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Elizabeth; Kim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to conflict can negatively impact the development of executive functioning, which in turn can affect academic performance. Recognizing the need to better understand the potentially widespread executive function deficiencies among Palestinian students and to help develop educational resources targeted to youth…

  11. Radon measurements in an area of tectonic zone: A case study in Central Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzeš, Andrej; Marko, František; Porubčanová, Barbara; Bartošová, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    General overviews of the spatial distribution of radon and other natural radionuclides in the geological basement as commonly presented on regional or country maps tend to offer a low density of information, insufficient for gaining relevant knowledge of the environmental impact, especially in the areas of tectonic zones often assumed to be radon prone and therefore dangerous for the human population. An additional survey, employing radon measurements in soil and indoor air, was carried out seeking to provide a more detailed characterization of the expressive fault zone of the Malá Magura in the Horná Nitra region of Central Slovakia. Eventually, the results of soil (222)Rn volume activity measurements along two short profiles crossing the assumed fault line did not reveal any indication of active nature of local tectonics, but merely pointed to an existence of a zone of contact between different types of rocks. The results of indoor radon measurements in dwellings of two villages lying on the studied fault showed values that were lower than those commonly observed on the Slovak territory, ruling out any negative health impact on population. Nevertheless, in order to add new findings to an already well established study of geological structure of the region, the indoor radon data collected through a previous survey require a further analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Science to Improve Management of the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    cooperative activities of several partnering networks. For example, the Gulf of Mexico Alliance ( GOMA ), a partnership developed by the states of Alabama...The GOMA was formed in 2005 in response to the U.S. Ocean Action Plan’s call for regional ocean governance, with the overarching goal to increase...Zone, as a priority need. GOMAs commitment to address the hypoxic zone was strengthened in the subsequent Governor’s Action Plan II (http

  13. Adult neural stem cells from the subventricular zone: a review of the neurosphere assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Perotín, Sara; Duran-Moreno, María; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Ramírez, Mónica; García-Belda, Paula; García-Verdugo, José Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of obtaining large numbers of cells with potential to become functional neurons implies a great advance in regenerative medicine. A source of cells for therapy is the subventricular zone (SVZ) where adult neural stem cells (NSCs) retain the ability to proliferate, self-renew, and differentiate into several mature cell types. The neurosphere assay, a method to isolate, maintain, and expand these cells has been extensively utilized by research groups to analyze the biological properties of aNSCs and to graft into injured brains from animal models. In this review we briefly describe the neurosphere assay and its limitations, the methods to optimize culture conditions, the identity and the morphology of aNSC-derived neurospheres (including new ultrastructural data). The controversy regarding the identity and "stemness" of cells within the neurosphere is revised. The fine morphology of neurospheres, described thoroughly, allows for phenotypical characterization of cells in the neurospheres and may reveal slight changes that indirectly inform about cell integrity, cell damage, or oncogenic transformation. Along this review we largely highlight the critical points that researchers have to keep in mind before extrapolating results or translating experimental transplantation of neurosphere-derived cells to the clinical setting.

  14. Acoustic Transients of the Marginal Sea Ice Zone: A Provisional Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    0.3 Hz 64 SUPPORTING DATA SORE IHUW Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae W and E boundaries of N Atlantic, N Pacific. Off Novaya Zemlya, Finmark...1981) Variations in Vocalizations of Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, in the St. Lawrence River . M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, 126...pp. EDDS, P. L. (1982) Vocalizations of the Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus, in the St. Lawrence River . J. Mammalogy, 63, 345-347. ELLIS, R. (1980

  15. Glyphosate in Runoff Waters and in the Root-Zone: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndsay E. Saunders

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most commonly-used herbicide in the world. The present review summarizes the discovery, prevalence, chemical and physical properties, mode of action and effects in plants, glyphosate resistance and the environmental fate of glyphosate. Numerous studies are reviewed that demonstrate that glyphosate may run off of fields where it is applied, while other studies provide evidence that plant roots can take up glyphosate. Non-target vegetation may be exposed to glyphosate in the root-zone, where it has the potential to remove aqueous glyphosate from the system. Further study on the effects of root-zone glyphosate on non-target vegetation is required to develop best management practices for land managers seeking to ameliorate the effects of root-zone glyphosate exposure.

  16. Fighting in the Gray Zone: A Strategy to Close the Preemption Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-12

    USAF Christopher J. Reddish, Colonel, USA National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 12 June 2004 HARVARD UNIVERSITY... Discussion Paper Series 97-03 (Cambridge, MA:Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1997)12-21. 5 Julian Borger and Oliver... Paper Series 97-03. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1997. Carter, Ashton B. and William J. Perry. “Back to

  17. Evaluation of Nutrition Interventions in Children in Conflict Zones: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Grace J; Lama, Sonam D; Martinez-Brockman, Josefa L; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Food and nutrition insecurity becomes increasingly worse in areas affected by armed conflict. Children affected by conflict, or in war-torn settings, face a disproportionate burden of malnutrition and poor health outcomes. As noted by humanitarian response reviews, there is a need for a stronger evidence-based response to humanitarian crises. To achieve this, we systematically searched and evaluated existing nutrition interventions carried out in conflict settings that assessed their impact on children's nutrition status. To evaluate the impact of nutrition interventions on children's nutrition and growth status, we identified published literature through EMBASE, PubMed, and Global Health by using a combination of relevant text words and Medical Subject Heading terms. Studies for this review must have included children (aged ≤18 y), been conducted in conflict or postconflict settings, and assessed a nutrition intervention that measured ≥1 outcome for nutrition status (i.e., stunting, wasting, or underweight). Eleven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Five different nutrition interventions were identified and showed modest results in decreasing the prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight, reduction in severe or moderate acute malnutrition or both, mortality, anemia, and diarrhea. Overall, nutrition interventions in conflict settings were associated with improved children's nutrition or growth status. Emergency nutrition programs should continue to follow recent recommendations to expand coverage and access (beyond refugee camps to rural areas) and ensure that aid and nutrition interventions are distributed equitably in all conflict-affected populations. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Core body temperature and the thermoneutral zone: a longitudinal study of normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgill, T W; Bergersen, T K; Pirhonen, J

    2011-04-01

    Using a longitudinal study design, we investigated changes in maternal core temperature and ambient temperatures before and after a localized cooling procedure to the right hand. Fifteen pregnant women participated. The experiments were sequentially performed for 21 month periods on each subject: from the 8th week of gestation to 1 year after delivery on seven separate occasions (gestational weeks 8, 16, 26, 36 and 12, 24, 52 weeks post-partum). The experiments were conducted in a climactic chamber, allowing ambient temperature adjustment to each subjects' thermoneutral zone determined using Doppler ultrasound of the digital artery. Maternal core temperature decreased from 37.1 °C (week 8) towards term, reaching a nadir (36.4 °C) at 12 weeks post-partum (P temperature required to reach the thermoneutral zone changed significantly from 26.5 °C (week 8) falling to its lowest point: 23.0 °C (week 36) (P temperature is highest in the first trimester but falls during pregnancy to a nadir 3 months post-partum. The ambient temperature required to reach the thermoneutral zone was 4 °C lower at 36 weeks of gestation compared with early pregnancy and late post-partum. Human temperature regulation is altered in pregnancy and for at least 3 months post-partum.

  19. Metastability of Subducted Slabs in the Mantle Transition Zone: A Collaborative Geodynamic, Petrologic, and Seismological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, J. M.; Billen, M. I.; Duncan, M. S.; Roy, C.; Ibourichene, A. S.; Olugboji, T.; Celine, C.; Rodríguez-González, J.; Grand, S. P.; Madrigal, P.; Sandiford, D.; Valencia-Cardona, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Subducted slabs exhibit a range of geometries in the mantle transition zone. Studies of this phenomenon suggest that olivine and/or pyroxene metastability may profoundly alter the slab density profile, leading to slab flattening (e.g., King et al., 2015) and potentially yielding a resolvable seismological signature (e.g., Kawakatsu and Yoshioka, 2011; Yoshioka et al., 2015). Such metastability may also be critical for deep earthquake generation. Geodynamic modelling of this process is typically done with a simplified petrologic model of the downgoing slab, whereas petrologic studies of phase assemblages in subducted slabs typically impose an idealized geodynamic model with an unrealistic thermal structure. Connecting these two approaches should lead to a better understanding of the consequences of metastable assemblages on subducting slabs. Here, we present a new methodology that combines geodynamic, seismic and petrologic approaches to assess the impact of mineral metastability on dynamic subduction models, developed in a collaborative effort begun at the 2016 NSF CIDER summer program in Santa Barbara, CA. We use two parallel approaches to extrapolate equilibrium rock properties to metastable regions and impose these data on extracted time-slices from robust thermo-mechanical geodynamic models, allowing us to quantify the density and buoyancy changes in the slab that result from considering metastable phase assemblages. Our preliminary results suggest that metastable assemblages can yield a 10-30% density decrease over the subducted slab relative to an equilibrium reference model. We then generate a seismic velocity profile of the slab, and compute waveforms based on the 2D finite-difference method (e.g., Vidale & Helmberger, 1987) to determine whether metastable phases could reasonably be detected by different seismic approaches. Continuing analyses will be aimed at coupling the evolution of geodynamic models with phase metastability to model the feedback between these two analytical techniques.

  20. Gingival recession following apical surgery in the esthetic zone: a clinical study with 70 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Salvi, Giovanni E; Janner, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated gingival recession 1 year following apical surgery of 70 maxillary anterior teeth (central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars). A visual assessment of the mid-facial aspect of the gingival level and of papillary heights of treated teeth was carried out...... using photographs taken at pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up appointments. In addition, changes in the gingival margin (GM) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were calculated with the use of clinical measurements, that is, pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up pocket probing depth and level of gingival...... margin. Changes in GM and CAL were then correlated with patient-, tooth-, and surgery-related parameters. The following parameters were found to significantly influence changes in GM and CAL over time: gingival biotype (P gingival recession than thick biotype...

  1. Early Earth melt production in a subduction zone, a petrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, V.; Bouilhol, P.; Van Hunen, J.; Moyen, J.

    2013-12-01

    A large part of the Archean continental crust is made of a composite rock assemblage dominated by granitoids belonging to the TTG series (tonalite-trondhejmeite-granodiorite). The modus operandi of this sodic granitoids still disputed. If the modern processes leading to continental crust formation at convergent margins are well constrained, the extrapolation to early Earth conditions is hazardous, because the composition of Earth's early crust can be achieved through several processes. However, an 'arc' signature seems to be present in TTGs, suggesting a formation of continental crust in subduction zone settings. Moreover, they show strong similarities with modern adakites, which are thought to be formed by melting of the oceanic subducting crust. We present the results of a study where numerical models of subduction are integrated with a thermodynamic database. Our goal is to investigate under which conditions slab melting can be achieved if at all. We particularly focus our attention on the fate of water, since it is a component that is essential to the formation of TTG series, independently of the petrogenetical scenario preferred. The amount and composition of water bearing fluids in a subduction zone is controlled by slab devolatilization, and influence both the melting regime and the melt composition. Our reference model of an early Earth regime, with a high mantle potential temperature, show that the slab dehydrates early, ending up being composed of a dry eclogites. Importantly, our models show that dehydration melting is not achieved in the slab crust; yet, water-present melting of the 'dry' eclogites can be achieved if a dehydration reaction occurs in the deeper portion of the slab, fuelling the melting reaction with water. Moreover, the dehydration reactions that occurred within the slab are able to metasomatize the overlying mantle wedge, forming hydrated peridotites, that becomes a melt source when dragged down by corner-flow. Our results show the crucial role of dehydration and re-hydration reactions on slab and mantle wedge melting potential. We investigate the effect of different important parameters, such as, mantle potential temperature, subduction velocity and slab composition, on the dehydration and melting processes, to be able to specify the different types of magmas that can be generated in an early-Earth subduction zone.

  2. Estimating medically fragile population in storm surge zones: a geographic information system application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James L; Little, Ruth; Novick, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    To develop a simple, cost-effective method for determining the size and geographic distribution of medically fragile (MF) individuals at risk from tropical storm surges for use by emergency management planners. The study used Geographic Information System (GIS) spatially referenced layers based on secondary data sources from both state and federal levels. The study setting included the eastern North Carolina coastal counties that would be affected by tropical storm surges. The initial MF population was extrapolated from national estimates for five conditions and then applied to US Census block population. These conditions included insulin dependent diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, end stage renal disease, and patients receiving long-term oxygen treatment. The main outcome of this study was a series of local and regional maps that portrayed the geographic distribution and estimated counts of potentially at-risk MF population from a tropical storm surge scenario. Maps depicting the geographic distribution and potential numbers of MF individuals are important information for planning and preparedness in emergency management and potentially engaging the public.

  3. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life will stabilize following demobilization. Below are common physical, mental/ emotional, and behavioral reactions that your service Common ... younger) may react to changes in their schedule, physical environment, or the caretaker’s mood and availability. They may show apathy, refuse to eat, or ...

  4. The bright zone, a specialized dorsal eye region in the male blowfly Chrysomyia megacephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Hardie, R.C.; Laughlin, S.B.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In the compound eye of the male Chrysomyia megacephala the facets in the ventral part of the eye are only ca. 20 µm in diameter, but increase abruptly to ca. 80 µm above the equator of the eye. Correspondingly there is a large and abrupt increase in the rhabdomere diameter from 2 to as much as 5 µm.

  5. The bright zone, a specialized dorsal eye region in the male blowfly Chrysomyia megacephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Hardie, R.C.; Laughlin, S.B.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    1. In the compound eye of the male Chrysomyia megacephala the facets in the ventral part of the eye are only ca. 20 µm in diameter, but increase abruptly to ca. 80 µm above the equator of the eye. Correspondingly there is a large and abrupt increase in the rhabdomere diameter from 2 to as much as 5

  6. Wind erosion in the alpine zone - a case study at Latschuelfurgga (Davos, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, F.; Gromke, Ch.

    2012-04-01

    Protection against wind erosive processes ranks among the most important challenges in natural hazard mitigation, worldwide. Today, it is generally accepted that the (re-)establishment of a protective vegetation cover is the most promising and efficient measure in restoring degraded land in the long term. Sustainable protection against wind erosion requires adequate information about suitable plant species regarding ecological aspects as well as with respect to their proper contribution to wind erosion control. The latter, however, is widely lacking. Within a broader conceptual framework, wind tunnel studies have been performed using naturally grown vegetation covers. The use of live plants aimed at simulating the behaviour of natural canopies as accurately as possible compared to previous studies using artificial objects. The goals of the presented field study are to record reliable data on windblown erosion rates under natural alpine conditions on the one hand and, on the other hand, to interrelate the findings with the results of the wind tunnel experiments with live plants. The wind erosion test field was established at 2409 m a.s.l. on a small saddle like pass in an alpine meadow and includes two east-west orientated test tracks of the dimension 2x10 m2. One track is left as is, representing the naturally alpine vegetated soil (15-20% plant cover). The other track is equipped with a plastic covering sheet, mimicking desertified soil (0% plant cover) and serving as control plot as well as providing a direct link to the wind tunnel experiments. Blue and red quartz sand (grain size: 0.2-0.6 mm) was spread on the vegetated and sheet-covered track, respectively, to visualise and measure the effect of vegetation on wind erosion control. During summer and fall 2010 field experiments were performed of which experiment no. 4 is presented here as a case study as well as compared with and discussed in relation to a wind tunnel run with medium-density configuration (16% plant cover). The measuring equipment consists of three climate stations recording wind direction and wind speed at 50, 100, and 200 cm, air temperature and humidity, incoming and reflected short- and long wave radiation, as well as precipitation. Leeward of the two test tracks, panels and ground-plates were installed equipped with sticky foils to trap and quantify vertical and horizontal particle transport. Compared to the desertified soil (0% plant cover) it was found that only small amounts of sand from the vegetated plot (15-20% plant cover) were transported, even during heavy wind events. Overall the ratio varied from 1:50 to 1:175 depending on the position of the panels and ground plates. Qualitatively similar findings, however quantitatively less pronounced, resulted from the wind tunnel experiments (ratio = 1:15). The difference between the field study and the wind tunnel results is quite remarkable and implies that the sheltering effect of vegetation under natural conditions is 3 to 12 times higher than found for the medium-density experiment in the wind tunnel (16% plant cover). However, this conclusion needs careful reflection. After all, the two studies differ in several aspects of their set-up. Correspondingly, the data are speculatively discussed, particularly with respect to meteorological parameters (wind speed, turbulence intensity, humidity, temperature), ecological aspects, and hydrological processes.

  7. Regulation of ion gradients across myocardial ischemic border zones: a biophysical modelling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Niederer

    Full Text Available The myocardial ischemic border zone is associated with the initiation and sustenance of arrhythmias. The profile of ionic concentrations across the border zone play a significant role in determining cellular electrophysiology and conductivity, yet their spatial-temporal evolution and regulation are not well understood. To investigate the changes in ion concentrations that regulate cellular electrophysiology, a mathematical model of ion movement in the intra and extracellular space in the presence of ionic, potential and material property heterogeneities was developed. The model simulates the spatial and temporal evolution of concentrations of potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ions and carbon dioxide across an ischemic border zone. Ischemia was simulated by sodium-potassium pump inhibition, potassium channel activation and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. The model predicted significant disparities in the width of the border zone for each ionic species, with intracellular sodium and extracellular potassium having discordant gradients, facilitating multiple gradients in cellular properties across the border zone. Extracellular potassium was found to have the largest border zone and this was attributed to the voltage dependence of the potassium channels. The model also predicted the efflux of [Formula: see text] from the ischemic region due to electrogenic drift and diffusion within the intra and extracellular space, respectively, which contributed to [Formula: see text] depletion in the ischemic region.

  8. Acoustic Transients of the Marginal Sea Ice Zone: A Provisional Catalog. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Classification and Comparison of Vocalizations of Captive Killer Whales (Orcinus orca ). J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 72, 661-670. DENKER, J.S. (1986) AlP Conference...coastal and insular areas, and in captivity at an LOCATION [oceanarium Sounds produced as animals moved about near the surface. CONDITIONS I The bell-like...seldom attack them. Cautious, difficult to capture and hold in captivity , will threaten boats and men at sea. LIFE HISTORY TRANSIENT Extremely vociferous

  9. Mass Transfer Limited Enhanced Bioremediation at Dnapl Source Zones: a Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    The success of enhanced bioremediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) relies on accelerating contaminant mass transfer from the organic to the aqueous phase, thus enhancing the depletion of DNAPL source zones compared to natural dissolution. This is achieved by promoting biological activity that reduces the contaminant's aqueous phase concentration. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated that high reaction rates are attainable by specialized microbial cultures in DNAPL source zones, field applications of the technology report lower reaction rates and prolonged remediation times. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the reaction rates are limited by the rate at which the contaminant partitions from the DNAPL to the aqueous phase. In such cases, slow mass transfer to the aqueous phase reduces the bioavailability of the contaminant and consequently decreases the potential source zone depletion enhancement. In this work, the effect of rate limited mass transfer on bio-enhanced dissolution of DNAPL chlorinated ethenes is investigated through a numerical study. A multi-phase, multi-component groundwater transport model is employed to simulate DNAPL mass depletion for a range of source zone scenarios. Rate limited mass transfer is modeled by a linear driving force model, employing a thermodynamic approach for the calculation of the DNAPL - water interfacial area. Metabolic reductive dechlorination is modeled by Monod kinetics, considering microbial growth and self-inhibition. The model was utilized to identify conditions in which mass transfer, rather than reaction, is the limiting process, as indicated by the bioavailability number. In such cases, reaction is slower than expected, and further increase in the reaction rate does not enhance mass depletion. Mass transfer rate limitations were shown to affect both dechlorination and microbial growth kinetics. The complex dynamics between mass transfer, DNAPL transport and distribution, and dechlorination kinetics were reflected in a transient, spatially heterogeneous bioavailability number and dissolution enhancement. In agreement with the literature, source zone architecture largely determined the impact of mass transfer on potential dissolution enhancement, with bioavailability decreasing the most at high ganglia to pool ratios. The results of this study suggest that if mass transfer rate limitations are not considered in designing bioremediation applications at DNAPL source zones, the enhancement of DNAPL depletion and the overall effectiveness of enhanced bioremediation may be significantly overestimated.

  10. Immediate placement of dental implants in the esthetic zone : a systematic review and pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W; den Hartog, Laurens; Bakker, Nicolaas A; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    Background: Research interest on immediate placement of dental implants has shifted from implant survival toward optimal preservation of soft and hard tissues. The aim of this study is to systematically assess the condition of implant survival, peri-implant hard and soft tissue changes, esthetic

  11. Immediate provisional restoration of a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sung Fu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Immediate implant restoration of single implants may demonstrate a positive effect on peri-implant soft tissue. Placement of a provisional restoration following implant surgery can create soft tissue contours that resemble normal gingival topography before placement of the definitive prosthesis. This article describes a staged approach of the mandibular permanent right central incisor, which was congenital missing. The proper space for restoration of the missing incisor was created through orthodontic treatment. The scheduled implant site was reconstructed using autogenous bone harvested from the chin region. After a healing period of four months, an implant was installed with the connection of a fixed provisional crown to a prefabricated temporary abutment. The soft tissue around the implant healed according to the contours of the provisional restoration and the emergence profile was used to duplicate the definitive restoration. Peri-implant esthetics was achieved through the staged approach and immediate restoration of the implant.

  12. [Different multidisciplinary approaches of two traumatic teeth fractures in the esthetic zone: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xue-ting; Zhen, Min; Hu, Wen-jie; Liu, Yun-song

    2015-10-18

    In this article, different methods to deal with teeth fractures were discussed by presenting a case of traumatic crown-root fracture in the anterior esthetic zone. The traumatic crown-root fracture is a common problem in clinic. When a fracture line locates in close proximity to or below the alveolar bone crest, the fracture most likely involve the junctional epithelium and the connective tissue attachment. This type of fracture becomes a challenge for restorative dentists because it involves biologic, functional, and esthetic considerations, especially when the fracture occurs in an esthetic area. In this case, a young patient presented with two fractured upper anterior teeth to the Department of Periodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. After the comprehensive clinical evaluation, the right central incisor was decided to extract for implant therapy and the right lateral incisor was decided to retain by one modified crown lengthening surgery. The most common technique applied to save a retained root is a clinical crown lengthening procedure. However, the aggressive alveolar bone resection of both target and adjacent teeth to reestablish the bone width and periodontal health may compromise functional and esthetic outcomes. To reduce loss of excessive osseous tissue during osteotomy procedure, the modified crown lengthening of the right lateral incisor was performed, including minor bone resection and root reshaping. Regarding the right central incisor, the retained root was all located below the alveolar bone crest. The extraction and implant procedure, combined with guided bone graft were performed to avoid the damage to neighbor teeth during traditional restorative therapy and to reshape a preferable buccal contour. At the last visit, the patient was recalled with healthy periodontium, normal tooth function and favorable esthetic results.

  13. A protocol for classifying ecologically relevant marine zones, a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Els; Degraer, Steven; Schelfaut, Kristien; Willems, Wouter; Van Lancker, Vera

    2009-06-01

    Mapping ecologically relevant zones in the marine environment has become increasingly important. Biological data are however often scarce and alternatives are being sought in optimal classifications of abiotic variables. The concept of 'marine landscapes' is based on a hierarchical classification of geological, hydrographic and other physical data. This approach is however subject to many assumptions and subjective decisions. An objective protocol for zonation is being proposed here where abiotic variables are subjected to a statistical approach, using principal components analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis. The optimal number of clusters (or zones) is being defined using the Calinski-Harabasz criterion. The methodology has been applied on datasets of the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS), a shallow sandy shelf environment with a sandbank-swale topography. The BPNS was classified into 8 zones that represent well the natural variability of the seafloor. The internal cluster consistency was validated with a split-run procedure, with more than 99% correspondence between the validation and the original dataset. The ecological relevance of 6 out of the 8 zones was demonstrated, using indicator species analysis. The proposed protocol, as exemplified for the BPNS, can easily be applied to other areas and provides a strong knowledge basis for environmental protection and management of the marine environment. A SWOT-analysis, showing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the protocol was performed.

  14. ZONE: a finite element mesh generator. [In FORTRAN IV for CDC 7600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, M. J.

    1976-05-01

    The ZONE computer program is a finite-element mesh generator which produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two-dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The output from ZONE is essentially the input file to NAOS, HONDO, and other axisymmetric finite element programs. 14 figures. (RWR)

  15. Illinois' Early Childhood Innovation Zones: A New Model for State Policy? IERC 2017-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradford R.; Colaninno, Carol E.; Doll, Mimi; Lewandowski, Holly

    2017-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of efforts made by Illinois Action for Children (IAFC), with oversight from the Illinois Governor's Office for Early Childhood Development (OECD), to test, support, and facilitate innovations in the early childhood system in 11 communities across the state. The Early Childhood Innovation Zones (IZ) initiative, funded…

  16. Implant placement and immediate loading in aesthetic zone- A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Deshmukh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Single teeth replaced by implants in the aesthetic zone are one of the most challenging situations faced by a clinician. Recent studies have encouraged a progressive shortening of the healing period for single-tooth implants with immediate implantation and immediate loading being proposed for the aesthetic zone in the maxilla. The present report describes three cases with single tooth replacement in the anterior maxillary region by implant therapy with flapless technique followed by immediate provisionalization of the implant with all-ceramic crown. The patients exhibited no clinical or radiologic complications 1 year after loading. Implant placement and immediate loading of single tooth can provide an attractive treatment option in the aesthetic zone. Careful assessment must be made of mucosal and bone volumes in relation to implant placement for optimum aesthetic outcome.

  17. Management of Contaminants Stored in Low Permeability Zones - A State of the Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    229 USEPA, 2006. Evaluation of the Role of Dehalococcoides Organisms in the Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Ground Water. US...Supporting Information for Section 4: Transport in Heterogeneous Media Appendix D. Screening Method To Estimate if a Chlorinated Solvent Site is...effort is a conviction that managing contaminants in low k zones is central to developing sound solutions at sites where releases of chlorinated

  18. Immediate non-occlusal loading of single implants in the aesthetic zone : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stellingsma, Kees; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2011-01-01

    P>Aim This study compared the outcome of immediate non-occlusal loading with conventional loading for single implants in the maxillary aesthetic zone. It was hypothesized that immediate non-occlusal loading is not inferior to conventional loading. Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients with a miss

  19. Use of a portable biofeedback device to improve insomnia in a combat zone, a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Robert N; Spira, James L

    2009-12-01

    Insomnia is a common problem in situations of stress. Some forms of stress, however, may contraindicate the use of traditional, pharmacological interventions. Working in a combat zone is such a situation. Alternative means of improving sleep are clearly needed for Service Members. We report a case involving a medical provider who was serving in a military, emergency-services facility in Iraq, and who presented with anxiety, depressed mood, and insomnia. Symptoms were sub-threshold for major depressive disorder or acute stress disorder. Mood and anxiety symptoms responded to traditional therapy techniques, but problems with insomnia remained. The patient was given a portable biofeedback device that employs an infrared sensor photoplethysmograph to measure heart rate variability (HRV) from peripheral finger pulse. One week later, sleep was significantly improved. Symptom improvement lasted to at least 6 weeks while in theater. One year later, a check-in with the patient revealed that after returning home, he had been diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD symptoms had resolved after 6 months of psychopharmacology and cognitive behavioral therapy. These results indicate that biofeedback may be a useful means of improving sleep in a combat zone, but that such improvements may not necessarily prevent the development of more serious symptoms later. No clear causality can be inferred from a single case, and further study is needed to determine if this finding have wider applicability.

  20. Glyphosate in Runoff Waters and in the Root-Zone: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndsay E. Saunders; Reza Pezeshki

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most commonly-used herbicide in the world. The present review summarizes the discovery, prevalence, chemical and physical properties, mode of action and effects in plants, glyphosate resistance and the environmental fate of glyphosate. Numerous studies are reviewed that demonstrate that glyphosate may run off of fields where it is applied, while other studies provide evidence that plant roots can take up glyphosate. Non-target vegetation may be exposed to glyphosate in the r...

  1. Fluid migration in the subduction zone: a coupled fluid flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Huismans, Ritske; Rondenay, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone are the main entry point of water into earth's mantle and play an important role in the global water cycle. The progressive release of water by metamorphic dehydration induce important physical-chemical process in the subduction zone, such as hydrous melting, hydration and weakening of the mantle wedge, creation of pore fluid pressures that may weaken the subduction interface and induce earthquakes. Most previous studies on the role of fluids in subduction zones assume vertical migration or migration according to the dynamic pressure in the solid matrix without considering the pore fluid pressure effect on the deformation of the solid matrix. Here we investigate this interaction by explicitly modeling two-phase coupled poro-plastic flow during subduction. In this approach, the fluid migrates by compaction and decompaction of the solid matrix and affects the subduction dynamics through pore fluid pressure dependent frictional-plastic yield. Our preliminary results indicate that: 1) the rate of fluid migration depends strongly on the permeability and the bulk viscosity of the solid matrix, 2) fluid transfer occurs preferentially along the slab and then propagates into the mantle wedge by viscous compaction driven fluid flow, 3) fluid transport from the surface to depth is a prerequisite for producing high fluid pore pressures and associated hydration induced weakening of the subduction zone interface.

  2. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doing healthy things to relieve stress: ■ ■ Exercise, including yoga. ■ ■ Meditate, do breathing exercises. ■ ■ Get enough sleep (8- ... mTBI can parallel those of PTSD, such as: ■ ■ Insomnia ■ ■ Impaired memory EVEN IF YOUR LOVED ONE does ...

  3. Immediate placement of dental implants in the esthetic zone : a systematic review and pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W; den Hartog, Laurens; Bakker, Nicolaas A; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research interest on immediate placement of dental implants has shifted from implant survival toward optimal preservation of soft and hard tissues. The aim of this study is to systematically assess the condition of implant survival, peri-implant hard and soft tissue changes, esthetic out

  4. Covering the screw-access holes of implant restorations in the esthetic zone: a clinical report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Saboury

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screw-retained implant restorations have an advantage of predictable retention as well as retrievability, and obviate the risk of excessive sub-gingival cement commonly associated with cement retained implant restorations. Screw-retained restorations generally have screw access holes, which can compromise esthetics and weaken the porcelain around the holes. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of a separate overcasting crown design to cover the screw access hole of implant screw-retained prosthesis for improved esthetics.

  5. Wildland firefighter safety zones: A review of past science and summary of future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler

    2014-01-01

    Current wildland firefighter safety zone guidelines are based on studies that assume flat terrain, radiant heating, finite flame width, constant flame temperature and high flame emissivity. Firefighter entrapments and injuries occur across a broad range of vegetation, terrain and atmospheric conditions generally when they are within two flame heights of the fire....

  6. SafeZone: A Hierarchical Inter-Domain Authenticated Source Address Validation Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jie; Xu, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Next generation Internet is highly concerned about the issue of reliability. Principally, the foundation of reliability is authentication of the source IP address. With the signature-and-verification based defense mechanisms available today, unfortunately, there is a lack of hierarchical architecture, which makes the structure of the trust alliance excessively flat and single. Moreover, with the increasing scale of the trust alliance, costs of validation grow so quickly that they do not adapt to incremental deployment. Via comparison with traditional solutions, this article proposes a hierarchical, inter-domain authenticated source address validation solution named SafeZone. SafeZone employs two intelligent designs, lightweight tag replacement and a hierarchical partitioning scheme, each of which helps to ensure that SafeZone can construct trustworthy and hierarchical trust alliances without the negative influences and complex operations on de facto networks. Extensive experiments also indicate that SafeZone ...

  7. Nutrient management for coastal zones: a case study of the nitrogen load to the Stockholm Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharin, H

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates cost-effective solutions of decreasing the nutrient load to a coastal area, using a drainage basin approach. The study is applied to the Stockholm Archipelago, a coastal area of the Baltic Sea suffering from eutrophication caused by the load of nutrients entering the area. Nitrogen is the nutrient of concern in this study since it is the limiting nutrient of the Archipelago. The main sources of nitrogen are wastewater plants, agriculture, and atmospheric depositions. The final impact of a deposition depends on the buffering capabilities it is subject to on its trajectory from the source to the recipient. This is the reason for using a recipient oriented approach, in which the focus is to reduce the final impact of a deposition. The model integrates data over hydrology, land cover, land use, and economy in order to find the optimal allocation of measures. Results indicate that in order to achieve cost effectiveness, the major part of nitrogen load reduction to the Archipelago should be done at the wastewater plants and by constructing wetlands. The minimum annual cost of reaching a 50% reduction of the load to the Archipelago was estimated to around 191 million Swedish crowns (around $19 million).

  8. The ecohydrology of the soil-vegetation system restoration in arid zones: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Arid zones, which cover approximately 40 percent of the earth’s land surface, support complicated and widely varied ecological systems. As such, arid zones are an important composition of the global terrestrial ecosystem, and water is the key and abiotic lim-ited factor in ecosystem-driven processes in these areas. Ecohydrology is a new cross discipline that provides, in an objective and comprehensive manner, novel ideas and approaches to the evaluation of the interaction and feedback mechanisms involved in the soil-vegetation systems in arid zones. In addition, ecohydrology provides a theoretical basis of ecological restoration that is cen-tered on vegetation construction. In this paper, long-term monitoring and local observations in the transitional belt between a de-sertified steppe and a steppified desert at the Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Tengger Desert, in northern China, were evaluated. The primary achievements and related research progress regarding ecohydrology in arid zones were analyzed and summarized, as a keystone, and the response of soil ecohydrological processes to the changes in the species composition, structure, and function of sandland vegetation was discussed. Meanwhile, the long-term ecological effects and mechanism of regulation of vegetation on soil habitat and on water-cycling were considered. As a vital participant in the ecohydrological processes of soil-vegetation systems, the studies on biological soil crusts was also summarized, and related theoretical models of restoration based on the water balance was reviewed.

  9. The Critical Zone: A Necessary Framework for Understanding Surface Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2016-12-01

    One definition of the critical zone is: the thin veneer of Earth that extends from the top of the vegetation to the base of weathered bedrock. With this definition we can envision the critical zone as a distinct entity with a well-defined top and a fairly well-defined bottom that is distributed across terrestrial earth landscapes. It is a zone of co-evolving processes and, importantly, much of this zone is well below the soil mantle (and commonly more than 10 times thicker than the soil). Weathering advance into fresh bedrock creates a hydrologically-conductive skin that mediates runoff and solute chemistry, stores water used by vegetation, releases water as baseflow to streams, influences soil production and hillslope evolution, and feeds gasses to the atmosphere. Especially in seasonally dry environments, rock moisture in the critical zone, i.e. moisture that is exchangeable and potentially mobile in the matrix and fractures of the bedrock, can be a significant source of water to plants and is a previously unrecognized large component of the water budget that matters to climate models. First observations on the systematic variation of the critical zone across hillslopes have led to four distinct theories representing four distinct processes for what controls the depth to fresh bedrock (and thus the thickness of this zone across a hillslope). These theories are motivating geophysical surveys, deep drilling, and other actions to parameterize and explore the power of these models. Studies at the NSF-supported Critical Zone Observatories have taught us that the critical zone is an entity and that enduring field studies reveal key processes. A challenge we now face is how to include this emerging understanding of the critical zone into models of reactive transport, hydrologic processes and water supply, critical zone structure, landscape evolution, and climate.

  10. Cross-shore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone: A fieldbased parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Black, Kerry; Greenwood, Brian

    2002-01-01

    sediment transport, sediment concentrations, incident waves, undertow, morphodynamics, beach processes......sediment transport, sediment concentrations, incident waves, undertow, morphodynamics, beach processes...

  11. DCS Hydrology Submission for Zone A Analyses, Logan River and Bear River in Cache County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. Nitrate sensing by the maize root apex transition zone: a merged transcriptomic and proteomic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Sara; Manoli, Alessandro; Ravazzolo, Laura; Botton, Alessandro; Pivato, Micaela; Masi, Antonio; Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate is an essential nutrient for plants, and crops depend on its availability for growth and development, but its presence in agricultural soils is far from stable. In order to overcome nitrate fluctuations in soil, plants have developed adaptive mechanisms allowing them to grow despite changes in external nitrate availability. Nitrate can act as both nutrient and signal, regulating global gene expression in plants, and the root tip has been proposed as the sensory organ. A set of genome-wide studies has demonstrated several nitrate-regulated genes in the roots of many plants, although only a few studies have been carried out on distinct root zones. To unravel new details of the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to nitrate availability in a major food crop, a double untargeted approach was conducted on a transition zone-enriched root portion of maize seedlings subjected to differing nitrate supplies. The results highlighted a complex transcriptomic and proteomic reprogramming that occurs in response to nitrate, emphasizing the role of this root zone in sensing and transducing nitrate signal. Our findings indicated a relationship of nitrate with biosynthesis and signalling of several phytohormones, such as auxin, strigolactones, and brassinosteroids. Moreover, the already hypothesized involvement of nitric oxide in the early response to nitrate was confirmed with the use of nitric oxide inhibitors. Our results also suggested that cytoskeleton activation and cell wall modification occurred in response to nitrate provision in the transition zone.

  13. The long-term evolution of subduction zones : a modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The motion of oceanic and continental lithosphere, volcanic activity, earthquakes, and other tectonic activities are expressions of processes in the Earth's mantle. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that these phenomena are related to convective flow in the mantle, which forms the mechanism to turn he

  14. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  15. Aesthetic perception of single implants placed in the anterior zone. A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgueño-Barris, Genís; Cortés-Acha, Berta; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background Several aesthetic indexes have been described to assess implant aesthetics. The aim of this study was to compare the aesthetic assessment made by dental professionals and students of single-tooth implants placed in the upper incisors. Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey study using a subjective questionnaire to assess the aesthetics in 3 implant supported single-tooth cases in the anterior maxilla was performed. The interviewed subjects were divided into 4 groups: dentists with experience in implant treatment, dentists without experience in implants and 3rd and 5th year dental students. The questionnaire consisted of 2 visual analogue scales (VAS) to evaluate aesthetics, the pink esthetic score (PES), the white esthetic score (WES) and the simplified papilla index (PI). Results One-hundred dentists and one-hundred dental students filled the aesthetic assessment questionnaire. The results showed that the subjects were more critical than reference values, specially concerning prosthetic issues. The differences between groups were more obvious in the case with the best result. On the other hand, few differences were detected in the remaining cases. Regarding soft tissue and crown features, experienced dentists in implant dentistry were the most demanding. Cronbach’s Alpha showed values ≥ 0,8 in the questionnaire in every case, which indicates an adequate reliability. Conclusions Dentists and dental students have different opinions when assessing aesthetics of single tooth implant supported cases. Experience and area of expertise seem to influence the evaluation of aesthetics in the anterior region. Key words:Dental implant, anterior area, aesthetics. PMID:27031072

  16. Mapping Educational Opportunity Zones: A Geospatial Analysis of Neighborhood Block Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The author uses geospatial analysis to examine the "educational opportunity spaces" of two adjacent urban neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Organizing insights are gathered from Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological perspectives on human development, which posit that students are significantly impacted by multiple environmental…

  17. The long-term evolution of subduction zones : a modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The motion of oceanic and continental lithosphere, volcanic activity, earthquakes, and other tectonic activities are expressions of processes in the Earth's mantle. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that these phenomena are related to convective flow in the mantle, which forms the mechanism to turn he

  18. 'I remember oblivion best...'; 'the sea brightens between the twilight of buoys...'; 'the whip which chastises the skin from within...'; 'during the gibberish eclipse everything...'; 'saber-toothed I eat up the tiger...'; 'an eyeless reserved seat on

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehin, Andres, 1940-2011

    1997-01-01

    Orig.: "ma mäletan kõige paremini unustust..."; "poihämaruste vahel valgeneb meri..."; "piits, mis nuhtleb nahka seestpoolt..."; "lobavarjutuse ajal kõik..."; "mõõkhambuline mina tiigri ära sööb..."; "silmitu platskaart selles kõrvutus rongis..."; "rookatusel haigutab olematu maavanema..."

  19. 'I remember oblivion best...'; 'the sea brightens between the twilight of buoys...'; 'the whip which chastises the skin from within...'; 'during the gibberish eclipse everything...'; 'saber-toothed I eat up the tiger...'; 'an eyeless reserved seat on

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehin, Andres, 1940-2011

    1997-01-01

    Orig.: "ma mäletan kõige paremini unustust..."; "poihämaruste vahel valgeneb meri..."; "piits, mis nuhtleb nahka seestpoolt..."; "lobavarjutuse ajal kõik..."; "mõõkhambuline mina tiigri ära sööb..."; "silmitu platskaart selles kõrvutus rongis..."; "rookatusel haigutab olematu maavanema..."

  20. O crepúsculo da ética imperial habsburga em Bruno Schulz e Joseph Roth The twilight of the Habsburg imperial ethics in Bruno Schulz and Joseph Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis S. Krausz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os escritores Bruno Schulz e Joseph Roth entraram para a história da literatura, respectivamente, como representantes da literatura polonesa e austríaca, como se pertencessem a mundos diversos. Entretanto ambos compartilharam de uma memória comum, que era a vida nas províncias orientais do Império Austro-Húngaro, nas cidades de Drohobycz e Brody, hoje pertencentes à Ucrânia. As obras de ficção de Schulz e de Roth fazem referência ao universo austro-húngaro e habsburgo, um reino milenar que via a si mesmo não simplesmente como uma realidade política, mas como um império que tinha como missão trazer a seus súditos uma forma de vida considerada superior do ponto de vista espiritual, ético e moral. A idéia do Sacro Império Romano Germânico, que se considerava portador de uma mensagem humana, subsistiu, até o século 20, no longo reinado do Kaiser Francisco José e neste sentido a 1ª Guerra Mundial significa não simplesmente o desmembramento político do Império Austro-Húngaro em seus diferentes componentes, mas também a falência de uma idéia de Estado que transcendia à esfera do meramente político para tornar-se um lar espiritual e cultural para seus súditos. O mundo que sobreveio à 1ª Guerra Mundial é marcado pelas tendências fáustico-titânicas de um individualismo materialista, que devota todas suas energias à produção e à acumulação de capital, e é sobre este novo mundo que Schulz e Roth olham em suas obras, sempre do ponto de vista de um universo anterior, marcado pela nostalgia de um exílio irreversível. Palavras-chave: Nostalgia. Exílio. Império Habsburgo. Joseph Roth. Bruno Schulz. Bruno Schulz and Joseph Roth figure in the history of literature as Representatives of Polish and Austrian literature, respectively, as if they were part of different worlds. However, both share a common memory: the life in the eastern provinces of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, in the cities of Drohobycz and Brody, which are now part of Ukraine. The works of Schulz and Roth make reference to the Austrian-Hungarian and Habsburg universe, a millenarian kingdom that saw itself not only as a political reality, but also as an empire with the mission of giving its subjects a lifestyle considered superior from the spiritual, ethical and moral points of view. The idea of the Holy Roman and German Empire, which considered itself as the bearer of a human message, persisted until the XX century in the reign of Kaiser Francisco José. In this sense, the First World War means not only the political dismemberment of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in its different parts, but also the collapse of the idea of a State that transcended the mere political sphere, turning into a spiritual and cultural home to its people. The world that emerged with the First World War is marked by the Faustian and titanic tendencies of a materialistic individualism, which focus its energies to the production and accumulation of capital. This is the world Schulz and Roth look at in their work, always from the point of view of the previous universe, characterized by the nostalgia of an irreversible exile. Keywords: Nostalgia. Exile. Habsburg Empire. Joseph Roth. Bruno Schulz.

  1. O declínio da soberania ou a emergência de normas cosmopolitanas?: repensando a cidadania em tempos voláteis = Twilight of sovereignty or the emergence of cosmopolitan norms?: rethinking citizenship in volatile times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhabib, Seyla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio examina os recentes debates relacionados à emergência de normas cosmopolitanas como aquelas pertinentes aos direitos humanos universais, crimes contra a humanidade, bem como o status de refugiado, imigrante e exilado. O que alguns veem como a difusão de um novo regime de direitos humanos e uma nova ordem mundial, outros denunciam como a “expansão do império” ou caracterizam como “lei sem um estado”. Em contraste, concentrando-se no relacionamento do capitalismo global com a lei desterritorializada, este ensaio distingue entre a disseminação das normas dos direitos humanos e a desterritorialização dos regimes legais. Embora tanto as normas cosmopolitanas como a lei desterritorializada desafiem o estado-nação e ameacem escapar do controle por meio de legislaturas democráticas, argumenta-se que as normas cosmopolitanas melhoram a soberania popular enquanto muitas outras formas de direito global a debilitam. Conclui-se pleiteando uma visão do “federalismo republicano” e de “iterações democráticas”, os quais aumentariam a soberania popular através do estabelecimento de interconexões entre o local, o nacional e o global

  2. Intimate partner communication from the war zone: a prospective study of relationship functioning, communication frequency, and combat effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Wayne Talcott, G; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined (a) the association between relationship functioning prior to and during deployment, and the frequency of communication during deployment; and (b) the association between relationship functioning and depression during deployment and their influence on service members' ratings of duty performance. Participants were 144 partnered Airmen assessed immediately before and during a one-year high-risk deployment to Iraq. Results showed an overall high frequency of partner communication during deployment. High relationship distress at predeployment predicted lower frequency of communication during deployment. Changes in relationship distress from before deployment to during deployment independently predicted frequency of communication, above and beyond predeployment distress levels. Level of relationship distress and depression during deployment independently predicted service members' ratings of impact on duty performance. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  3. Effects of grain size on landscape patterns in mineral resource zones:a case study of Wu’an, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Zhang; Yongheng Rao; Yang Xu; Meichen Fu

    2014-01-01

    A mineral resource zone, rich in resources and energy, is intensively developed and disturbed by human activities, which causes an obvious change of landscapes. Taking Wu’an of Hebei Province, China, as a case study, this paper extracts landscape information of mineral resource zones through overlapping mineral resources distribution map and landscape pattern map. And then, various landscape indices are selected for analyzing the effects of grain size (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 m) on landscape patterns. Due to different kinds of landscape information transmitted by indices, the changing trends vary with the increase of grain sizes. Accordingly the landscape indices are classified into three types of effects:disturbance, continuity and sustainability, and each type of effect has its own optimal range for grain sizes. Then the optimal range of grain size on landscape patterns in mineral resource zones is gained through a comparison of the effects in various grain sizes of landscape indices. The best first domain of scale covers 30–90 m, with a suitable grain size of 30–60 m before intensive mining and a suitable grain size of 60–90 m after intensive mining. Besides, the suitable grain sizes for reflecting disturbance, continuity and sustainability before intensive mining are 30–60, 30–60 and 30–90 m, respectively, however, the sizes are changed to 60–90, 60–90 and 30–90 m, respectively, after intensive mining. The results are helpful for rational land use and optimal landscape allocation.

  4. Metamorphic conditions in the Nilgiri Granulite Terrane and the adjacent Moyar and Bhavani Shear Zones: A reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, M.; Hengst, C.; Nagel, B.; Bhattacharya, A.; Srikantappa, C.

    1988-01-01

    Data were presented on pressure and temperature determinations from the Nilgiri Hills. About 70 samples were analyzed by probe and several calibrations of garnet-pyroxene thermometry and barometry applied. Most calibrations gave considerable scatter; however, a new calibration by Bhattacharya, Raith, Lal, and others, accounting for nonideality in both garnet and orthopyroxene, gave consistent results of 754 + or - 52 C and 9.2 + or - 0.7 kbar. On the regional scale, a pressure increase of 6.5 to 7 kbar in the SW to 11 kbar in the NE was related to block tilting. A continuous pressure gradient into the Moyar shear zone suggests that the zone is not a suture juxtaposing unrelated blocks.

  5. Impending sources of energy to replace fire wood in semi arid climatic zones: A case study in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret Dananto Ulsido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study paper shows an alternative source of energy that can decrease the extensive use of fire wood in Ethiopia. The country’s entire rural area and significant part of urban population is completely dependent on fire wood as a source of energy. This practice takes its own toll, the forest is on the verge of being wiped out and as a result a clear change of climate and loss of natural biodiversity resources is visible. Fire wood is not the only source of energy available in the country. In this paper, based on their low cost, construction material availability and the required unskilled labor it is shown that biogas and solar energy are potentially feasible source of energy to replace firewood for cooking.

  6. Double-Difference Tomography in the West Bohemia Seismic Zone: A Study of the 2011 Earthquake Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löberich, Eric; Alexandrakis, Catherine; Calo, Marco; Vavryčuk, Václav; Buske, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Fluid migration, gas springs and particularly earthquake swarms are indications of ongoing geodynamic processes in the Bohemian Massif. This tectonically active region can be subdivided into several microplates, such as the Moldanubian and Saxothuringian and the block of the Teplá-Barrandian, which formed a complex sutured crust during the Variscian collision. Beyond this subdivision, the geological situation of the Bohemian Massif is further defined by the Eger Rift, the Cheb basin and the Smrčiny pluton. Moreover a thinned crust and lithosphere is typical for the region, whereby the seismic activity is controlled by the Mariánske Láznĕ Fault and the Počatky-Plesná Shear Zone. Former investigations have shown a relationship between the activated fault and the occurrence of swarm earthquakes. In this study, the analysis of the 2011 earthquake swarm was in the focus of the consideration, following previous findings from the 2008 earthquake swarm. Here, the aim is to improve the understanding between the mantle fluids and the generation of earthquake swarms in the West Bohemia Seismic Zone. Thereby double-difference tomography (tomoDD) was applied to the 2011 earthquake swarm data, leading to an enhanced location accuracy of the hypocenters and a sharper image of the fault system, which can be further controlled by hypoDD relocations. The rupture time series and clustering are also investigated. Additionally, a 3D velocity model for the P- and S-wave are derived and evaluated by considering the results of synthetic tests. The P- to S- wave velocity ratio, which is sensitive to the presence of fluids, is calculated directly from the P- and S-wave model and interpreted in relation to the potential presence of mantle fluids. In summary, this study combines the past knowledge about the fault systems and swarms, with the newly calculated velocity model, source migration pattern and cluster analysis. Moreover the earthquake characteristics are investigated in relation to the role of fluid migration as a possible periodic trigger of seismic energy release.

  7. "We're certainly not in our comfort zone": a qualitative study of GPs' dementia-care educational needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Tony; Boyle, Siobhán; Jennings, Aisling; Smithson, W Henry

    2017-05-22

    Rising dementia prevalence rates rise combined with the policy objective of enabling people with dementia to remain living at home, means that there will be a growing demand for dementia care in the community setting. However, GPs are challenged by dementia care and have identified it as an area in which further training is needed. Previous studies of GPs dementia care educational needs have explored the views of GPs alone, without taking the perspectives of people with dementia and family carers into account. The aim of the study was to explore GPs' dementia care educational needs, as viewed from multiple perspectives, in order to inform the design and delivery of an educational programme for GPs. A qualitative study of GPs, people with dementia and family carers in a community setting was undertaken. Face-to-face interviews were performed with GPs, people with dementia and with family carers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Thirty-one people were interviewed, consisting of fourteen GPs, twelve family carers and five people with dementia. GPs expressed a wish for further education, preferentially through small group workshops. Five distinct educational needs emerged from the interviews, namely, diagnosis, disclosure, signposting of local services, counselling and the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). While GPs focused on diagnosis, disclosure and BPSD in particular, people with dementia and family carers emphasised the need for GPs to engage in counselling and signposting of local services. The triangulation of data from multiple relevant sources revealed a broader range of GPs' educational needs, incorporating both medical and social aspects of dementia care. The findings of this study will inform the content and delivery of a dementia educational programme for GPs that is practice-relevant, by ensuring that the curriculum meets the needs of GPs, patients and their families.

  8. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to the successful governance of such projects, including any that may involve development of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone or beyond. Three supplemental files of coded data accompany this dissertation.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of SAUR gene family in citrus and its transcriptional correlation with fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Dong, Cuicui; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-11-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) gene family is large, and the members of which can be rapidly induced by auxin and encode highly unstable mRNAs. SAUR genes are involved in various developmental and physiological processes, such as leaf senescence, fruitlet abscission, and hypocotyl development. However, their modes of action in citrus remain unknown. Hereby, a systematic analysis of SAUR gene family in citrus was conducted through a genome-wide search. In this study, a total of 70 SAUR genes, referred to as CitSAURs, have been identified in citrus. The evolutionary relationship and the intro-exon organization were analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation and the expansion of particular functional genes during plant evolution. Expression analysis showed that the major of CitSAUR genes were expressed in at least one tissue and showed distinctive expression levels, indicating the SAUR gene family play important roles in the development and growth of citrus organs. However, there were more than 20 CitSAUR genes such as CitSARU36, CitSAUR37, and CitSAUR54 exhibiting very low expression level in all tissue tested. Twenty-three out of 70 CitSAUR genes were responded to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatment, of which just CitSAUR19 was down-regulated. Additionally, 14 CitSAUR genes exhibited distinct changes during fruitlet abscission, however just 5 of them including CitSAUR06, CitSAUR08, CitSAUR44, CitSAUR61, and CitSAUR64 were associated with fruitlet abscission. The current study provides basic information for the citrus SAUR gene family and will pave the way for deciphering the precise role of SAURs in citrus development and growth as well as fruitlet abscission.

  10. Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing Control in the Exclusive Economic Zone: a Brief Appraisal of Regulatory Deficits and Accountability Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosello Mercedes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of fish stocks in the world’s exclusive economic zones (EEZs, which collectively harbour the vast majority of marine-living resources, is the primary responsibility of coastal States. As the effects of failures by coastal States to protect those stocks from the impacts of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing may extend beyond domestic boundaries, this paper questions whether and how coastal States may be made accountable in respect of their regulatory deficits. With the proliferation of non-legal conduct rules to guide the regulatory role of States and their agencies, non-judicial mechanisms have the potential to foster coastal State stewardship of domestic fisheries. Outlining a number of international, transnational and domestic approaches, this paper gives consideration to the opportunities and limitations they present in order to strengthen coastal State accountability for IUU fishing control deficits.

  11. Health care workers in danger zones: a special report on safety and security in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J; Sekhar, Sharonya N; Persaud, Christine R

    2014-10-01

    Violence against humanitarian health care workers and facilities in situations of armed conflict is a serious humanitarian problem. Targeting health care workers and destroying or looting medical facilities directly or indirectly impacts the delivery of emergency and life-saving medical assistance, often at a time when it is most needed. Attacks may be intentional or unintentional and can take a range of forms from road blockades and check points which delay or block transport, to the direct targeting of hospitals, attacks against medical personnel, suppliers, patients, and armed entry into health facilities. Lack of access to vital health care services weakens the entire health system and exacerbates existing vulnerabilities, particularly among communities of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled, or anyone else in need of urgent or chronic care. Health care workers, especially local workers, are often the target. This report reviews the work being spearheaded by the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement on the Health Care in Danger initiative, which aims to strengthen the protections for health care workers and facilities in armed conflicts and ensure safe access for patients. This includes a review of internal reports generated from the expert workshops on a number of topics as well as a number of public sources documenting innovative coping mechanisms adopted by National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The work of other organizations is also briefly examined. This is followed by a review of security mechanisms within the humanitarian sector to ensure the safety and security of health care personnel operating in armed conflicts. From the existing literature, a number of gaps have been identified with current security frameworks that need to be addressed to improve the safety of health care workers and ensure the protection and access of vulnerable populations requiring assistance. A way forward for policy, research, and practice is proposed for consideration. While there is work being done to improve conditions for health care personnel and patients, there need to be concerted actions to stigmatize attacks against workers, facilities, and patients to protect the neutrality of the medical mission.

  12. Water and forests in the Mediterranean hot climate zone: a review based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares David, T.; Assunção Pinto, C.; Nadezhdina, N.; Soares David, J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Water scarcity is the main limitation to forest growth and tree survival in the Mediterranean hot climate zone. This paper reviews literature on the relations between water and forests in the region, and their implications on forest and water resources management. The analysis is based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning. Area of the study: The review covers research carried out in the Mediterranean hot climate zone, put into perspective of wider/global research on the subject. The scales of analysis range from the tree to catchment levels. Material and Methods: For literature review we used Sc opus, Web of Science and Go ogle Scholar as bibliographic databases. Data from two Quercus suber sites in Portugal were used for illustrative purposes. Main results: We identify knowledge gaps and discuss options to better adapt forest management to climate change under a tree water use/availability perspective. Forest management is also discussed within the wider context of catchment water balance: water is a constraint for biomass production, but also for other human activities such as urban supply, industry and irrigated agriculture. Research highlights: Given the scarce and variable (in space and in time) water availability in the region, further research is needed on: mapping the spatial heterogeneity of water availability to trees; adjustment of tree density to local conditions; silviculture practices that do not damage soil properties or roots; irrigation of forest plantations in some specific areas; tree breeding. Also, a closer cooperation between forest and water managers is needed. (Author)

  13. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the conventional oil. The application of CO2EOR to ROZ enables a significant contribution to a field's recoverable reserves [3]. This work identifies for the first time the plays of geological conditions that create naturally occurring residual oil zones in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. We present a screening workflow to identify such zones and a methodology for assessing the resource potential and CO2 storage capacity for a number of different fields. Lastly we examine the economic consequences on CO2 storage of the incremental oil produced, and the carbon balance life-cycle. [1] Melzer, S., Koperna, G., Kuuskraa, V. 2006. The Origin and Resource Potential of Residual Oil Zones. SPE Annual and Technical Conference, San Antonio, Texas, Society. [2] Koperna, G., Melzer. S.L., Kuuskraa, V. 2006. Recovery of Oil Resources From the Residual and Transitional Oil Zones of the Permian Basin.. SPE Annual Technical Conference, San Antonia, Texas. Society of Petroleum Engineers. [3] Advanced Resources International, 2005. Assessing Technical and Economic Recovery of Residual Oil Zones. U.S Department of Energy.

  14. Urban Market Gardening and Rodent-Borne Pathogenic Leptospira in Arid Zones: A Case Study in Niamey, Niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier Dobigny

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis essentially affects human following contact with rodent urine-contaminated water. As such, it was mainly found associated with rice culture, recreational activities and flooding. This is also the reason why it has mainly been investigated in temperate as well as warm and humid regions, while arid zones have been only very occasionally monitored for this disease. In particular, data for West African countries are extremely scarce. Here, we took advantage of an extensive survey of urban rodents in Niamey, Niger, in order to look for rodent-borne pathogenic Leptospira species presence and distribution across the city. To do so, we used high throughput bacterial 16S-based metabarcoding, lipL32 gene-targeting RT-PCR, rrs gene sequencing and VNTR typing as well as GIS-based multivariate spatial analysis. Our results show that leptospires seem absent from the core city where usual Leptospira reservoir rodent species (namely R. rattus and M. natalensis are yet abundant. On the contrary, L. kirschneri was detected in Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus, two rodent species that are restricted to irrigated cultures within the city. Moreover, the VNTR profiles showed that rodent-borne leptospires in Niamey belong to previously undescribed serovars. Altogether, our study points towards the importance of market gardening in maintain and circulation of leptospirosis within Sahelian cities. In Africa, irrigated urban agriculture constitutes a pivotal source of food supply, especially in the context of the ongoing extensive urbanization of the continent. With this in mind, we speculate that leptospirosis may represent a zoonotic disease of concern also in arid regions that would deserve to be more rigorously surveyed, especially in urban agricultural settings.

  15. Urban Market Gardening and Rodent-Borne Pathogenic Leptospira in Arid Zones: A Case Study in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Garba, Madougou; Tatard, Caroline; Loiseau, Anne; Galan, Max; Kadaouré, Ibrahima; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Picardeau, Mathieu; Bertherat, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis essentially affects human following contact with rodent urine-contaminated water. As such, it was mainly found associated with rice culture, recreational activities and flooding. This is also the reason why it has mainly been investigated in temperate as well as warm and humid regions, while arid zones have been only very occasionally monitored for this disease. In particular, data for West African countries are extremely scarce. Here, we took advantage of an extensive survey of urban rodents in Niamey, Niger, in order to look for rodent-borne pathogenic Leptospira species presence and distribution across the city. To do so, we used high throughput bacterial 16S-based metabarcoding, lipL32 gene-targeting RT-PCR, rrs gene sequencing and VNTR typing as well as GIS-based multivariate spatial analysis. Our results show that leptospires seem absent from the core city where usual Leptospira reservoir rodent species (namely R. rattus and M. natalensis) are yet abundant. On the contrary, L. kirschneri was detected in Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus, two rodent species that are restricted to irrigated cultures within the city. Moreover, the VNTR profiles showed that rodent-borne leptospires in Niamey belong to previously undescribed serovars. Altogether, our study points towards the importance of market gardening in maintain and circulation of leptospirosis within Sahelian cities. In Africa, irrigated urban agriculture constitutes a pivotal source of food supply, especially in the context of the ongoing extensive urbanization of the continent. With this in mind, we speculate that leptospirosis may represent a zoonotic disease of concern also in arid regions that would deserve to be more rigorously surveyed, especially in urban agricultural settings.

  16. Fluid-assisted zircon and monazite growth within a shear zone: a case study from Finnmark, Arctic Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Christopher L.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Slagstad, Trond

    2009-11-01

    The U-Pb ages, REE content, and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon rims developed within a major shear zone in the Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC), Arctic Norway have been determined along with the age of monazite crystals. Different generations of granitic veins have been distinguished based on both field criteria and monazite ages of 446 ± 3 and 424 ± 3 Ma. Within each of these veins, inherited zircon cores are mantled by homogeneous low CL-response zircon rims which yield a range of concordant U-Pb dates of ca. 470-360 Ma. Significant numbers of zircon rims coincide with the timing of monazite crystallization. The zircon rims have moderate light REE enrichment compared to cores, distinctive (Sm/La) n values of less than 12, and La between 0.3 and 10 ppm. This indicates free elemental exchange between newly formed zircon rims and the surrounding matrix. The rims have calculated accumulated alpha-radiation dosages corresponding with a crystalline structure and δ18O values of 1‰. This implies rim crystallization directly from a zirconium-saturated hydrothermal fluid which was modified by some silicate melt. Growth of the zircon rims was prolonged and locally variable due to preferential fluid flow. A third type of zircon can be recognized, forming both rims and cores, with high alpha-radiation doses, and significant enrichment in La, Pr, and Eu. These are interpreted as low-temperature hydrothermally altered metamict zircons. The high volatile input and partial melting in the shear zone favoured prolonged zircon rim growth due to its ability to easily nucleate on inherited seeds. On the other hand, monazite, susceptible to dissolution and re-growth, crystallized in brief episodes, as has been predicted from theoretical phase diagrams. From a regional perspective, these results elucidate cryptic Ar-Ar cooling ages, providing the first record of a Late Ordovician heating and cooling phase within the KNC prior to the climactic Scandian collision.

  17. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeboom, H J; Brasseur, S; Leopold, M; Scheidat, M [IMARES, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, H J [NoordzeeWind, 2e Havenstraat 5b, 1976 CE IJmuiden (Netherlands); Bergman, M J N; Daan, R [Royal NIOZ, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands); Bouma, S; Fijn, R C; Dirksen, S; Krijgsveld, K L [Bureau Waardenburg, PO Box 365, 4100 AJ Culemborg (Netherlands); De Haan, D; Van Hal, R; Hille Ris Lambers, R; Ter Hofstede, R, E-mail: han.lindeboom@wur.nl [IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  18. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, H. J.; Kouwenhoven, H. J.; Bergman, M. J. N.; Bouma, S.; Brasseur, S.; Daan, R.; Fijn, R. C.; de Haan, D.; Dirksen, S.; van Hal, R.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; ter Hofstede, R.; Krijgsveld, K. L.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M.

    2011-07-01

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  19. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone. A compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Brasseur, S.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M. [IMARES, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, H.J. [NoordzeeWind, 2e Havenstraat 5b, 1976 CE IJmuiden (Netherlands); Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R. [Royal NIOZ, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands); Bouma, S.; Fijn, R.C.; Dirksen, S.; Krijgsveld, K.L. [Bureau Waardenburg, PO Box 365, 4100 AJ Culemborg (Netherlands); De Haan, D.; Van Hal, R.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; Ter Hofstede, R. [IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  20. Illinois' Early Childhood Innovation Zones: A New Model for State Policy? IERC 2017-1. Research Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradford R.; Colaninno, Carol E.; Doll, Mimi; Lewandowski, Holly

    2017-01-01

    The Early Childhood Innovation Zones initiative was established by Illinois Action for Children (IAFC), with guidance from the Illinois Governor's Office for Early Childhood Development. Funded by a Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge grant, this initiative supported capacity building efforts for organizations working with young children in…

  1. The Lake Gordan mylonite zone: A link between the Nutbush Creek and Hylas zones of Eastern Piedmont fault system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, J.W. Jr.; Sacks, P.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Berquist, C.R. Jr.; Marr, J.D. Jr. (Virginia Div. of Mineral Resources, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Druhan, R.M. (Robert M. Carolina Friends School, Durham, NC (United States)); Butler, J.R. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary results of geologic mapping indicate that the Nutbush Creek and Hylas mylonite zone of the lake Paleozoic Eastern Piedmont fault system are not coextensive, as has been proposed. In south-central Virginia and northern North Carolina, a separate NNE-trending, orogen-parallel mylonite zone, the Lake Gordon mylonite zone, lies between the Nutbush Creek and Hylas zone and may link them. The Lake Gordon mylonite zone, named for exposures near Lake Gordon Mecklenburg Co., Va., lies mainly along the eastern flank of the Buggs Island granite pluton and has been mapped for a distance of about 80 km. Reconnaissance between Blackstone and Kenbridge, Va., suggests that the Lake Gordon mylonite zone is linked to the Hylas zone by either a releasing bend or an en echelon right step. The Lake Gordon and Nutbush Creek mylonite zone converge southward and are separated by only 3 km of granitic gneiss at the southern limit of mapping near Henderson, N.C. Mylonitic foliation in the Lake Gordon mylonite zone strikes 10--25[degree] E., dips subvertically to steeply northwest, and is parallel to the mapped boundaries of the zone. Intensity of mylonitization varies across the 1.5--3.6-km width of the zone. Subhorizontal mineral-elongation lineation is common in the plane of mylonitic foliation. Asymmetric porphyroclasts and shear bands indicate dextral simple shear. Coincidence of the Lake Gordon and Nutbush Creek mylonite zones, respectively, with the eastern and western margins of the highly elongate Buggs Island granite pluton suggests that the mylonite zones influenced emplacement of the pluton. These map relations, combined with very localized mylonitic fabric in the granite, suggest that mylonite in the Lake Gordon zone, like that in the Nutbush Creek zones is partly coeval with the Pennsylvanian-age Buggs Island granite. Postmylonitic brittle faulting is found locally in both the Lake Gordon and the Nutbush Creek zones.

  2. PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN A CONTAMINATED VADOSE ZONE: A STABLE AND RADIOACTIVE CARBON ISOTOPE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of soil gas compositions and stable and radioactive carbon isotopes in the vadose zone above an alluvial aquifer were conducted at an organic solvent disposal site in southeast Phoenix, AZ. The study investigated the source and movement of carbon dioxide above a plume of...

  3. From mantle to critical zone: A review of large and giant sized deposits of the rare earth elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements are unusual when defining giant-sized ore deposits, as resources are often quoted as total rare earth oxide, but the importance of a deposit may be related to the grade for individual, or a limited group of the elements. Taking the total REE resource, only one currently known deposit (Bayan Obo would class as giant (>1.7 × 107 tonnes contained metal, but a range of others classify as large (>1.7 × 106 tonnes. With the exception of unclassified resource estimates from the Olympic Dam IOCG deposit, all of these deposits are related to alkaline igneous activity – either carbonatites or agpaitic nepheline syenites. The total resource in these deposits must relate to the scale of the primary igneous source, but the grade is a complex function of igneous source, magmatic crystallisation, hydrothermal modification and supergene enrichment during weathering. Isotopic data suggest that the sources conducive to the formation of large REE deposits are developed in subcontinental lithospheric mantle, enriched in trace elements either by plume activity, or by previous subduction. The reactivation of such enriched mantle domains in relatively restricted geographical areas may have played a role in the formation of some of the largest deposits (e.g. Bayan Obo. Hydrothermal activity involving fluids from magmatic to meteoric sources may result in the redistribution of the REE and increases in grade, depending on primary mineralogy and the availability of ligands. Weathering and supergene enrichment of carbonatite has played a role in the formation of the highest grade deposits at Mount Weld (Australia and Tomtor (Russia. For the individual REE with the current highest economic value (Nd and the HREE, the boundaries for the large and giant size classes are two orders of magnitude lower, and deposits enriched in these metals (agpaitic systems, ion absorption deposits may have significant economic impact in the near future.

  4. The taxation jurisdiction of the ISSQN in the exclusive economic zone; A competencia tributaria do ISSQN na zona economica exclusiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Rodrigo Luis Keller [Keller Raposo Escritorio Juridico, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil and natural gas exploitation in the Exclusive Economic Zone will propel the economy of the country, states and municipalities, due to tax revenues, jobs creation. It will also attract new businesses needed to support all the demand created by the main service and correlates. The Tax Service, under the municipal jurisdiction, is a major source of revenue. As the services are performed on the high seas and there is no law to regulate the territorial extent of each municipality, it can be argued that certain Artificial Island (oil platform, for example) is located within the extension of municipal sovereignty, which will allow the ISS taxation, problems will arise. This paper addresses these problems. (author)

  5. Multilayer stress from gravity and its tectonic implications in urban active fault zone: A case study in Shenzhen, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Wang, Hai-hong; Luo, Zhi-cai; Ning, Jin-sheng; Liu, Hua-liang

    2015-03-01

    It is significant to identify urban active faults for human life and social sustainable development. The ordinary methods to detect active faults, such as geological survey, artificial seismic exploration, and electromagnetic exploration, are not convenient to be carried out in urban area with dense buildings. It is also difficult to supply information about vertical extension of the deeper faults by these methods. Gravity, reflecting the mass distribution of the Earth's interior, provides an alternative way to detect faults, which is more efficient and convenient for urban active fault detection than the aforementioned techniques. Based on the multi-scale decomposition of gravity anomalies, a novel method to invert multilayer horizontal tectonic stresses is proposed. The inverted multilayer stress fields are further used to infer the distribution and stability of the main faults. In order to validate our method, the multilayer stress fields in the Shenzhen fault zone are calculated as a case study. The calculated stress fields show that their distribution is controlled significantly by the strike of the main faults and can be used to derive depths of the faults. The main faults in Shenzhen may range from 4 km to 20 km in the depth. Each layer of the crust is nearly equipressure since the horizontal tectonic stress has small amplitude. It indicates that the main faults in Shenzhen are relatively stable and have no serious impact on planning and construction of the city.

  6. IMMEDIATE LOADING AND CUSTOMIZED RESTORATION OF A SINGLE IMPLANT IN THE MAXILLARY ESTHETIC ZONE : A CLINICAL REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stellingsma, Kees; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The replacement of a single missing anterior tooth with an implant-supported crown Is a demanding therapy. This report describes a treatment in which an anterior maxillary implant was immediately restored with a provisional restoration. During the provisional phase, an optimal emergence profile was

  7. Record of the Cretaceous magnetic quiet zone: A precursor to the understanding of evolutionary history of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Desa, M.; Rao, M.M.M.; Subrahmanyam, C.

    magnetic smooth zone sandwiched between the known Late Cretaceous anomaly A34 (approx equal to 84 Myr) and the younger magnetic anomaly sequence of Early Cretaceous crust, reproesnted by MO (approx equal to 118 Myr). The smooth magnetic zone seems to have...

  8. Numerical modeling of fluid flow in a fault zone: a case of study from Majella Mountain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2017-04-01

    The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a numerical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). This fault zone is considered a good analogue for the massive presence of fluid migration in the form of tar. Faults are mechanical features and cause permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead the fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier, or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing information and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., type of fractures, statistical properties, geometrical and petro-physical characteristics). In our model the damage zones of the fault are described as discretely fractured medium, while the core of the fault as a porous one. Our model utilizes the dfnWorks code, a parallelized computational suite, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), that generates three dimensional Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) of the damage zones of the fault and characterizes its hydraulic parameters. The challenge of the study is the coupling between the discrete domain of the damage zones and the continuum one of the core. The field investigations and the basic computational workflow will be described, along with preliminary results of fluid flow simulation at the scale of the fault.

  9. From mantle to critical zone:A review of large and giant sized deposits of the rare earth elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.P. Smith; K. Moore; D. Kavecsánszki; A.A. Finch; J. Kynicky; F. Wall

    2016-01-01

    The rare earth elements are unusual when defining giant-sized ore deposits, as resources are often quoted as total rare earth oxide, but the importance of a deposit may be related to the grade for indi-vidual, or a limited group of the elements. Taking the total REE resource, only one currently known deposit (Bayan Obo) would class as giant (>1.7 ? 107 tonnes contained metal), but a range of others classify as large (>1.7 ? 106 tonnes). With the exception of unclassified resource estimates from the Olympic Dam IOCG deposit, all of these deposits are related to alkaline igneous activity e either car-bonatites or agpaitic nepheline syenites. The total resource in these deposits must relate to the scale of the primary igneous source, but the grade is a complex function of igneous source, magmatic crystal-lisation, hydrothermal modification and supergene enrichment during weathering. Isotopic data suggest that the sources conducive to the formation of large REE deposits are developed in subcontinental lithospheric mantle, enriched in trace elements either by plume activity, or by previous subduction. The reactivation of such enriched mantle domains in relatively restricted geographical areas may have played a role in the formation of some of the largest deposits (e.g. Bayan Obo). Hydrothermal activity involving fluids from magmatic to meteoric sources may result in the redistribution of the REE and increases in grade, depending on primary mineralogy and the availability of ligands. Weathering and supergene enrichment of carbonatite has played a role in the formation of the highest grade deposits at Mount Weld (Australia) and Tomtor (Russia). For the individual REE with the current highest economic value (Nd and the HREE), the boundaries for the large and giant size classes are two orders of magnitude lower, and deposits enriched in these metals (agpaitic systems, ion absorption deposits) may have significant economic impact in the near future.

  10. Carbon processing at the deep-sea floor of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: A tracer approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzato, L.; van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have elucidated the trophic interactions in the foodweb of sediments from and close to the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea. Sediment cores from inside (885 m depth) and outside (1791 m depth) the OMZ were manipulated onboard by adding 13C-enriched phytodetritus. The incorporation of

  11. Groundwater recharge estimation in semi-arid zone: a study case from the region of Djelfa (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rahmani, S. E.; Chibane, Brahim; Boucefiène, Abdelkader

    2017-09-01

    Deficiency of surface water resources in semi-arid area makes the groundwater the most preferred resource to assure population increased needs. In this research we are going to quantify the rate of groundwater recharge using new hybrid model tack in interest the annual rainfall and the average annual temperature and the geological characteristics of the area. This hybrid model was tested and calibrated using a chemical tracer method called Chloride mass balance method (CMB). This hybrid model is a combination between general hydrogeological model and a hydrological model. We have tested this model in an aquifer complex in the region of Djelfa (Algeria). Performance of this model was verified by five criteria [Nash, mean absolute error (MAE), Root mean square error (RMSE), the coefficient of determination and the arithmetic mean error (AME)]. These new approximations facilitate the groundwater management in semi-arid areas; this model is a perfection and amelioration of the model developed by Chibane et al. This model gives a very interesting result, with low uncertainty. A new recharge class diagram was established by our model to get rapidly and quickly the groundwater recharge value for any area in semi-arid region, using temperature and rainfall.

  12. Young volcanoes in the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone: A statistical approach to eruption prediction based on time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierma, Y.; Wehrmann, H.

    2010-03-01

    Forecasting volcanic activity has long been an aim of applied volcanology with regard to mitigating consequences of volcanic eruptions. Effective disaster management requires both information on expected physical eruption behaviour such as types and magnitudes of eruptions as typical for the individual volcano, usually reconstructed from deposits of past eruptions, and the likelihood that a new eruption will occur within a given time. Here we apply a statistical procedure to provide a probability estimate for future eruptions based on eruption time series, and discuss the limitations of this approach. The statistical investigation encompasses a series of young volcanoes of the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone. Most of the volcanoes considered have been active in historical times, in addition to several volcanoes with a longer eruption record from Late-Pleistocene to Holocene. Furthermore, eruption rates of neighbouring volcanoes are compared with the aim to reveal possible regional relations, potentially resulting from local to medium-scale tectonic dynamics. One special focus is directed to the two currently most active volcanoes of South America, Llaima and Villarrica, whose eruption records comprise about 50 historical eruptions over the past centuries. These two front volcanoes are considered together with Lanín Volcano, situated in the back-arc of Villarrica, for which the analysis is based on eight eruptions in the past 10 ka. For Llaima and Villarrica, affirmed tests for independence of the repose times between successive eruptions permit to assume Poisson processes; which is hampered for Lanín because of the more limited availability of documented eruptions. The assumption of stationarity reaches varying degrees of confidence depending on the time interval considered, ameliorating towards the more recent and hence probably more complete eruption record. With these pre-requisites of the time series, several distribution functions are fit and the goodness of their fits is evaluated. The mixture of exponentials distribution (MOED), adopted from Mendoza-Rosas and De la Cruz-Reyna (2008), facilitates statistical evaluation of non-stationary eruptive regimes. Despite providing the least good fit of the data, the MOED proves particularly useful for Lanín Volcano, where stationarity can not be assessed because of possible gaps in the eruption record. In general, the Weibull, exponential and log-logistic distributions imply a higher likelihood of future eruptions within a given time, while the Bayesian and MOED analyses predict lower hazard probabilities. This study does not take into account the complexly interacting geophysical and geochemical processes triggering volcanic eruptions. Our aim is to contribute this statistical prediction to the integrative hazard assessment currently performed in the area by the SFB 574 ("Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones"), complementing regional recording of seismic activity and quiescent gas release, as well as tectonic and geochemical characteristics of the investigated volcanic centres.

  13. Cost of riparian buffer zones: A comparison of hydrologically adapted site-specific riparian buffers with traditional fixed widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, T.; Lundström, J.; Kuglerová, L.; Laudon, H.; Öhman, K.; Ågren, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Traditional approaches aiming at protecting surface waters from the negative impacts of forestry often focus on retaining fixed width buffer zones around waterways. While this method is relatively simple to design and implement, it has been criticized for ignoring the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in the riparian zone. Alternatively, a variable width buffer zone adapted to site-specific hydrological conditions has been suggested to improve the protection of biogeochemical and ecological functions of the riparian zone. However, little is known about the monetary value of maintaining hydrologically adapted buffer zones compared to the traditionally used fixed width ones. In this study, we created a hydrologically adapted buffer zone by identifying wet areas and groundwater discharge hotspots in the riparian zone. The opportunity cost of the hydrologically adapted riparian buffer zones was then compared to that of the fixed width zones in a meso-scale boreal catchment to determine the most economical option of designing riparian buffers. The results show that hydrologically adapted buffer zones were cheaper per hectare than the fixed width ones when comparing the total cost. This was because the hydrologically adapted buffers included more wetlands and low productive forest areas than the fixed widths. As such, the hydrologically adapted buffer zones allows more effective protection of the parts of the riparian zones that are ecologically and biogeochemically important and more sensitive to disturbances without forest landowners incurring any additional cost than fixed width buffers.

  14. Lateral water flux in the unsaturated zone: A mechanism for the formation of spatial soil heterogeneity in a headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Gannon; Kevin J. McGuire; Scott W. Bailey; Rebecca R. Bourgault; Donald S. Ross

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of soil water potential and water table fluctuations suggest that morphologically distinct soils in a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire formed as a result of variations in saturated and unsaturated hydrologic fluxes in the mineral soil. Previous work showed that each group of these soils had distinct water table...

  15. Habitat Fragmentation in Arid Zones: A Case Study of Linaria nigricans Under Land Use Changes (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  16. Water and forests in the Mediterranean hot climate zone: a review based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Soares David

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Water scarcity is the main limitation to forest growth and tree survival in the Mediterranean hot climate zone. This paper reviews literature on the relations between water and forests in the region, and their implications on forest and water resources management. The analysis is based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning. Area of the study: The review covers research carried out in the Mediterranean hot climate zone, put into perspective of wider/global research on the subject. The scales of analysis range from the tree to catchment levels. Material and Methods: For literature review we used Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as bibliographic databases. Data from two Quercus suber sites in Portugal were used for illustrative purposes. Main results: We identify knowledge gaps and discuss options to better adapt forest management to climate change under a tree water use/availability perspective. Forest management is also discussed within the wider context of catchment water balance: water is a constraint for biomass production, but also for other human activities such as urban supply, industry and irrigated agriculture. Research highlights: Given the scarce and variable (in space and in time water availability in the region, further research is needed on: mapping the spatial heterogeneity of water availability to trees; adjustment of tree density to local conditions; silvicultural practices that do not damage soil properties or roots; irrigation of forest plantations in some specific areas; tree breeding. Also, a closer cooperation between forest and water managers is needed. Keywords: tree hydraulics; tree mortality; climate change; forest management; water resources.

  17. The Pinto shear zone; a Laramide synconvergent extensional shear zone in the Mojave Desert region of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael L.; Beyene, Mengesha A.; Spell, Terry L.; Kula, Joseph L.; Miller, David M.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2005-09-01

    The Pinto shear zone is one of several Late Cretaceous shear zones within the eastern fringe of the Mesozoic magmatic arc of the southwest Cordilleran orogen that developed synchronous with continued plate convergence and backarc shortening. We demonstrate an extensional origin for the shear zone by describing the shear-zone geometry and kinematics, hanging wall deformation style, progressive changes in deformation temperature, and differences in hanging wall and footwall thermal histories. Deformation is constrained between ˜74 and 68 Ma by 40Ar/ 39Ar thermochronology of the exhumed footwall, including multi-diffusion domain modeling of K-feldspar. We discount the interpretations, applied in other areas of the Mojave Desert region, that widespread Late Cretaceous cooling results from refrigeration due to subduction of a shallowly dipping Laramide slab or to erosional denudation, and suggest alternatively that post-intrusion cooling and exhumation by extensional structures are recorded. Widespread crustal melting and magmatism followed by extension and cooling in the Late Cretaceous are most consistent with production of a low-viscosity lower crust during anatexis and/or delamination of mantle lithosphere at the onset of Laramide shallow subduction.

  18. Investigating extreme flood response to Holocene palaeoclimate in the Chinese monsoonal zone: A palaeoflood case study from the Hanjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Zhou, Yali; Wang, Longsheng; Zhang, Yuzhu; Hu, Guiming

    2015-06-01

    Palaeoflood events recorded by slackwater deposits (SWDs) were investigated extensively by sedimentological criteria of palaeohydrology along the upper Hanjiang River valley. Modern flood SWDs were collected for comparison with palaeoflood SWD in the same reaches. Three typical palaeoflood SWDs were observed within Holocene loess-soil blanket on the first river terrace land. The grain size distributions of palaeoflood SWDs are similar to modern flood SWDs, whereas they are different from eolian loess and soil. Palaeoflood SWD lies in three major pedo-stratigraphic boundaries (TS/L0, L0/S0, and S0/Lt) in the Holocene loess-soil profiles. The chronology of three palaeoflood episodes was established by OSL dating and pedo-stratigraphic correlation with the well-dated Holocene loess-soil profiles in the upper Hanjiang River basin. Holocene palaeoflood events were dated to 9500-8500, 3200-2800, and 1800-1700 a B.P., respectively. Palaeoflood discharges were estimated by the palaeoflood model (i.e., slope-area method and step-backwater method). The highest discharges are 51,680-53,950 m3 s- 1 at the 11,500-time scale in the Xunyang reach of the upper Hanjiang River valley. Holocene extraordinary hydroclimatic events in the Hanjiang River often result from abnormal atmospheric circulations from Southwest monsoons in the Chinese monsoonal zone. These results provide a regional expression of extreme flood response to Holocene palaeoclimate to understand the effects of global climatic variations on the river system dynamics.

  19. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP pinhole bone scintigraphic feature of fibrovascular zone: a new diagnostic sign of osteoid osteoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hoon; Choi, Yeong Jin [Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Osteoid osteoma is a common benign tumor. Histologically, the tumor is characterized by the presence of the nidus, fibrovascular zone (FVZ) and reactive host bone scleroses of various intensities. A nidus consists of core meshwork of osteoid trabeculae, woven bone and osteoblastic rim and a FVZ, 1-2 mm rim, is composed of loose fibrovascular tissue and nerve fibers. The nidus and FVZ are readily identifiable on pathological specimen and CT when sclerosis is not too extensive. Recently on pinhole bone scan, we observed a peculiar rim sign that denoted FVZ in a patient with pathologically proven osteoid osteoma. Not previously described the sign appears to be pathognomonic of osteoid osteoma, uniquely providing metabolic information. The finding was correlated with that of radiography, CT and MRI and low power light microscopy.

  20. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  1. Coupling Aggressive Mass Removal with Microbial Reductive Dechlorination for Remediation of DNAPL Source Zones: A Review and Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John A. Christ; C. Andrew Ramsburg; Linda M. Abriola; Kurt D. Pennell; Frank E. Löffler

    The infiltration of dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) into the saturated subsurface typically produces a highly contaminated zone that serves as a long-term source of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination...

  2. Illinois' Early Childhood Innovation Zones: A New Model for State Policy? IERC 2017-1. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradford R.; Colaninno, Carol E.; Doll, Mimi; Lewandowski, Holly

    2017-01-01

    This evaluation reviews efforts made by Illinois Action for Children (IAFC), with guidance from the Illinois Governor's Office for Early Childhood Development, to spur experimentation with new systemic change strategies to increase the number of children from priority populations--those considered to be the most vulnerable, with multiple risk…

  3. Seismic anisotropy beneath the Mississippi Embayment and the New Madrid Seismic Zone: A study of shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Powell, Christine A.

    2016-11-01

    Shear wave splitting associated with the Mississippi Embayment (ME) is determined using teleseismic SKS phases recorded by the Northern Embayment Lithosphere Experiment (NELE), the USArray Transportable Array (TA), and the New Madrid seismic network for the period 2005-2016. Our data set consists of 5900 individual splitting measurements from 257 earthquakes recorded at 151 stations within and outside the ME. Stations outside of the ME exhibit significant shear wave splitting, with average delay times between 0.4 s and 1.8 s. To the northeast and east of the ME, nearly all observed fast orientations are approximately oriented northeast-southwest, in agreement with absolute plate motion (APM) predicted by HS3-Nuvel-1A. The homogeneity of the fast orientations in this region suggests that the splitting is due to active flow in the asthenosphere. A counterclockwise rotation in the splitting orientation is observed moving northeast to northwest across the study area. Inside the ME, some stations show large and systematic deviations of the measured fast orientations from the APM. The delay times within the entire ME range from 0.9 s to 2.1 s. Splitting complexity is attributed to relic lithospheric fabrics formed during past tectonic events including passage of a hot spot in mid-Cretaceous time. The anisotropy may also be linked to the presence of a southwest dipping region of low P and S wave velocities below the ME or to deeper flow in the asthenosphere.

  4. The development of the asparagus miner (Ophiomyia simplex Loew; Diptera: Agromyzidae) in temperate zones: a degree-day model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Andresen, Jeffrey; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-07-01

    The asparagus miner is a putative vector of Fusarium spp., which have been implicated in globally declining asparagus production. Growers currently apply broad-spectrum insecticides for the asparagus miner, but lack management guidelines for adequately controlling the pest. Our aims were (1) to determine the lower developmental threshold of the asparagus miner, (2) develop and validate a degree-day model describing its phenology, and (3) create a developmental time budget for the asparagus miner to help guide growers' management decisions. We found that the lower developmental threshold for the asparagus miner was 12.1 °C, and that the phenology of the asparagus miner could be reliably predicted over the course of a two-year study. Predictions from the model match well with previously published information on the bionomics of the asparagus miner, but fit better for sampling data collected from the midwestern and eastern United States than for the United Kingdom. The life cycle of the asparagus miner likely requires between 1500 and 2000 degree-days to complete; the longest developmental time requirement was for the pupal stagen This study provides tools for the targeted management of the asparagus miner by offering a degree-day model that may be used to predict its life stages in the north-eastern United States. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Development of the asperity-matrix structure in fault zones: a model for strength reduction and generation of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, T.

    2014-12-01

    Seismologists have now believed that the fault interface is characterized by the asperity-matrix structure, where the upper and lower plates are strongly coupled at the asperity, and the matrix, which surrounds the asperity, is deformed by creeping. Earthquakes are generated by dynamic rupture only in the non-creeping hard asperity, where the strain energy is accumulated if the asperity and matrix are mechanically coupled to a certain degree. In this presentation, we will argue that this structure is developed as brittle fracturing proceeds aided by dissolution-precipitation creep in particular at the brittle-ductile transition zone, which leads to the strength reduction and seimogenesis in both crust and subduction zones. We have been studying deformation processes and mechanisms in rocks at brittle-ductile transition conditions, based on microstructural analyses in naturally deformed rocks. For example, we reported that pervasive micro-faulting in the high-P/T Sambagawa quartz schist at brittle-ductile transition conditions, where a volume fraction of micro-shear zones consisting of both very-fine grained dynamically recrystallized quartz and white mica increased with increasing deformation (Takeshita and El-Fakharani, 2013). We believe that the resultant structure, "undeformed lenses surrounded by microshear zones" can be correlated with the asperity-matrix structure in the thin section scale, which could have occurred in the mesoscopic to macroscopic scales (cf. Schrank et al., 2008). It is inferred that the rocks became softened with increasing volume fraction of micro-shear zones, because dissolution-precipitation creep could have occurred at low differential stresses in the sheared zones. Further, cataclasites were formed along the Median Tectonic Line in the Cretaceous to Paleogene, where new minerals precipitated from fluids in the space created by fracturing at the conditions of brittle-ductile transition. The fracturing was accompanied by element migration via fluids, the degree of which increased with increasing degree of fracturing. In conclusion, deformation occurred by dissolution-mass transfer-precipitation assisted by fracturing under the conditions of brittle-ductile transition, by which significant weakening could have been generated in rocks.

  6. The mechanisms of driving lithospheric deformation in India-Asia collision zone: a perspective from 3-D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.

  7. The Old and New Meanings of Cloud 'Belt' and 'Zone': A Study of Jovian and Saturnian Atmospheric Banding

    CERN Document Server

    Mallama, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The brightness of cloud bands on Jupiter and Saturn as a function of latitude is reported. Bright Jovian bands near the equator are located in regions of anti-cyclonic circulation of the atmosphere. By contrast, bright equatorial bands on Saturn are associated with cyclonic motion. Modern definitions of the cloud band terms 'zone' and 'belt' are distinguished from their old meanings.

  8. Immediate Single-Tooth Implant Placement in Bony Defects in the Esthetic Zone : A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to assess, with regard to marginal bone level (MBL), whether the outcome of immediate implant placement in bony defects in the esthetic zone was non-inferior to delayed implant placement after 1 year. Methods: Forty patients with a failing tooth in the esthetic zone and a

  9. The structuring role of microhabitat type in coral degradation zones: a case study with marine nematodes from Kenya and Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, M.; de Troch, M.; Ndaro, S. G. M.; Muthumbi, A.; Guilini, K.; Vanreusel, A.

    2007-03-01

    Nematode genus assemblages were identified from four locations in coral degradation zones (CDZs) along the African east coast: Watamu and Tiwi Beach (Kenya) and Matemwe and Makunduchi (Zanzibar). Three microhabitat types were distinguished: coralline sediment, coral gravel and coral fragments. Nematode community composition was comparable to that of other studies dealing with the same habitat. The presence of a common genus pool in CDZs was reflected in the considerable similarities between samples. The addition of coral fragments as a habitat for nematodes resulted in an increased importance of taxa typical for coarse sediments and large substrata. Local and regional turnover were of the same order of magnitude. The structuring effect of microhabitat type clearly overrode the effect on a local and regional scale. Differences in sediment characteristics were more important in structuring the nematode assemblages than differences between the coralline sediment and coral fragments. No effect related to the three-dimensional structure of coral fragments was found. Differences between nematode assemblages in the coralline sediment and on coral fragments were attributed to the exposed nature of the latter habitat, its large surface area and its microbial or algal cover. Differences in available food sources were reflected in nematode trophic composition.

  10. Community vulnerability assessment index for flood prone savannah agro-ecological zone: A case study of Wa West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effah Kwabena Antwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The savannah regions of Northern Ghana are characterized by smallholder farming systems and high levels of poverty. Over the past two decades, communities in the regions have become more prone to climate and human-induced disasters in the form of annual floods and droughts. This study evaluates the degree and magnitude of vulnerability in four communities subjected to similar climate change induced flood events and propose intervention options. The study employs rural participatory research approaches in developing four vulnerability categories namely socio-economic, ecological, engineering and political; which were used to develop indicators that aided the calculation of total community vulnerability index for each community. The findings indicate that the state of a community's vulnerability to flood is a composite effect of the four vulnerability index categories which may act independently or concurrently to produce the net effect. Based on a synthesis of total vulnerability obtained in each community, Baleufili was found to be the least vulnerable to flood due to its high scores in engineering, socio-economic and political vulnerability indicators. Baleufili and Bankpama were the most ecologically vulnerable communities. The selection of vulnerability index categories and associated indicators were grounded in specific local peculiarities that evolved out of engagement with community stakeholders and expert knowledge of the socioecological landscape. Thus, the Total Community Vulnerability Assessment Framework (TCVAF provides an effective decision support for identifying communities’ vulnerability status and help to design both short and long term interventions options that are community specific as a way of enhancing their coping and adaptive capacity to disasters.

  11. Habitat fragmentation in arid zones: a case study of Linaria nigricans under land use changes (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  12. Natural entrainment without dawn and dusk : The case of the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, RA; van Oort, BEH; Daan, S; Oort, Bob E.H. van

    Observational data collected in the field and in enclosures show that diurnal, burrow-dwelling European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) never were above ground during twilight at dawn or at dusk. The animals emerged on average 4.02 h (SD = 0.45) after civil twilight at dawn and retreated in

  13. Bottom of the Iceberg: The Archontic Text - Review of Fanged Fan Fiction (McFarland, 2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Lindgren, Maria og Malin Isaksson, Fanged Fan Fiction: Variations on Twilight, True Blood and The Vampire Diaries (McFarland, 2013)......Anmeldelse af Lindgren, Maria og Malin Isaksson, Fanged Fan Fiction: Variations on Twilight, True Blood and The Vampire Diaries (McFarland, 2013)...

  14. Natural entrainment without dawn and dusk : The case of the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, RA; van Oort, BEH; Daan, S; Oort, Bob E.H. van

    1999-01-01

    Observational data collected in the field and in enclosures show that diurnal, burrow-dwelling European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) never were above ground during twilight at dawn or at dusk. The animals emerged on average 4.02 h (SD = 0.45) after civil twilight at dawn and retreated in

  15. VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean): A study of particle sources and flux attenuation in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, K. O.; Trull, T. W.; Steinberg, D. K.; Silver, M. W.; Siegel, D. A.; Saitoh, S.-I.; Lamborg, C. H.; Lam, P. J.; Karl, D. M.; Jiao, N. Z.; Honda, M. C.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Brown, S. L.; Boyd, P. W.; Bishop, J. K. B.; Bidigare, R. R.

    2008-07-01

    The VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study examined particle sources and fluxes through the ocean's "twilight zone" (defined here as depths below the euphotic zone to 1000 m). Interdisciplinary process studies were conducted at contrasting sites off Hawaii (ALOHA) and in the NW Pacific (K2) during 3-week occupations in 2004 and 2005, respectively. We examine in this overview paper the contrasting physical, chemical and biological settings and how these conditions impact the source characteristics of the sinking material and the transport efficiency through the twilight zone. A major finding in VERTIGO is the considerably lower transfer efficiency ( Teff) of particulate organic carbon (POC), POC flux 500/150 m, at ALOHA (20%) vs. K2 (50%). This efficiency is higher in the diatom-dominated setting at K2 where silica-rich particles dominate the flux at the end of a diatom bloom, and where zooplankton and their pellets are larger. At K2, the drawdown of macronutrients is used to assess export and suggests that shallow remineralization above our 150-m trap is significant, especially for N relative to Si. We explore here also surface export ratios (POC flux/primary production) and possible reasons why this ratio is higher at K2, especially during the first trap deployment. When we compare the 500-m fluxes to deep moored traps, both sites lose about half of the sinking POC by >4000 m, but this comparison is limited in that fluxes at depth may have both a local and distant component. Certainly, the greatest difference in particle flux attenuation is in the mesopelagic, and we highlight other VERTIGO papers that provide a more detailed examination of the particle sources, flux and processes that attenuate the flux of sinking particles. Ultimately, we contend that at least three types of processes need to be considered: heterotrophic degradation of sinking particles, zooplankton migration and surface feeding, and lateral sources of suspended and sinking

  16. VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean): A study of particle sources and flux attenuation in the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Trull, T.W.; Steinberg, D.K.; Silver, M.W.; Siegel, D.A.; Saitoh, S.-I.; Lamborg, C.H.; Lam, P.J.; Karl, D.M.; Jiao, N.Z.; Honda, M.C.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Brown, S.L.; Boyd, P.W.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Bidigare, R.R.

    2008-06-10

    The VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study examined particle sources and fluxes through the ocean's 'twilight zone' (defined here as depths below the euphotic zone to 1000 m). Interdisciplinary process studies were conducted at contrasting sites off Hawaii (ALOHA) and in the NW Pacific (K2) during 3 week occupations in 2004 and 2005, respectively. We examine in this overview paper the contrasting physical, chemical and biological settings and how these conditions impact the source characteristics of the sinking material and the transport efficiency through the twilight zone. A major finding in VERTIGO is the considerably lower transfer efficiency (T{sub eff}) of particulate organic carbon (POC), POC flux 500/150 m, at ALOHA (20%) vs. K2 (50%). This efficiency is higher in the diatom-dominated setting at K2 where silica-rich particles dominate the flux at the end of a diatom bloom, and where zooplankton and their pellets are larger. At K2, the drawdown of macronutrients is used to assess export and suggests that shallow remineralization above our 150 m trap is significant, especially for N relative to Si. We explore here also surface export ratios (POC flux/primary production) and possible reasons why this ratio is higher at K2, especially during the first trap deployment. When we compare the 500 m fluxes to deep moored traps, both sites lose about half of the sinking POC by >4000 m, but this comparison is limited in that fluxes at depth may have both a local and distant component. Certainly, the greatest difference in particle flux attenuation is in the mesopelagic, and we highlight other VERTIGO papers that provide a more detailed examination of the particle sources, flux and processes that attenuate the flux of sinking particles. Ultimately, we contend that at least three types of processes need to be considered: heterotrophic degradation of sinking particles, zooplankton migration and surface feeding, and lateral sources of

  17. "Churyumov Unified Network": new tasks for astronomical observatories to protect society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.

    2016-10-01

    As a result of observations in nearly four years the authors have identified a class of twilight bolides. Traces of Twilight bolides are observed from a few minutes to two hours. The paper considers simultaneous observation of the evening twilight fireball in the sky over the Kiev region 08.07.2016. Base distance between the photographing points was 25.8 km. Thermal explosion, flashing and decay of the body invaded into the atmosphere over Kiev region began at altitude of 55-65 km. It flared up and slowly moving along the inclined path disappeared at the height of about 30-33 km.

  18. The twilight of medical reform-interview with Chen Tianming, director of public health Dept. of Nanjing High Officer Talk%践行"医改"现峥嵘——对话南京市卫生局局长陈天明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊娟

    2007-01-01

    @@ 医改,又一次把南京这个古老的现代城市推向了风口浪尖上,医改"南京模式"成为了人们关注的焦点.南京医改的先行探索不仅为破解"看病难看病贵"难题提供了重要借鉴,也给深化医疗卫生体制改革带来了许多有益的启示,更让人们看到了医疗卫生改革的前景.与此同时,一个身影也越来越引起大家的注意,不仅因为他是一个又一个医改风暴的发起者,而且因为他身上具有决策者的勇气、改革者的智慧和实践者的奉献独特魅力.他就是南京市卫生局局长陈天明.

  19. On Popularity and Revival of Vampire Culture —Exampled by Movie Twilight%浅析吸血鬼文化的复兴和流行现象——以电影《暮光之城》系列为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2012-01-01

    吸血鬼是近年来西方电影常见的题材,《暮光之城》系列更是运用了多种手段吸引大量观众,该片将吸血鬼的塑造作了多层处理,使其极具观赏和评价的价值.本文从对电影的主题和吸血鬼外在形象的分析,阐释吸血鬼文化在西方电影中流行和复兴的现象.

  20. Eliminação adiada: o ocaso das classes populares no interior da escola e a ocultação da (má qualidade do ensino Deferred elimination: the twilight of the popular classes within schools and the concealment of the (bad quality of teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo faz-se uma crítica às formas de implementar políticas de avaliação baseadas em "responsabilização", em curso no MEC-INEP, bem como se propõe uma forma alternativa de lidar com o problema, baseada em "qualidade negociada" com envolvimento bilateral do Estado e da escola. Propõem-se elementos iniciais para uma política de Estado no campo da avaliação e localiza-se o processo de avaliação institucional da escola como o elo entre a avaliação externa de sistema e a escola e seus profissionais. Alerta-se para o fato de que as políticas de responsabilização unilaterais conduzirão à configuração de escolas para pobres e escolas para ricos, bem como se alerta para o risco de que os sistemas de avaliação externa centralizados na Federação ocultem, em indicadores estatísticos como o IDEB, as dificuldades que as classes populares estão tendo para aprender no interior da escola, legitimando estratégias que somente conduzem ao adiamento da exclusão destas - apesar do discurso da transparência e responsabilidade.This study criticizes the ways MEC-INEP is implementing assessment policies based on "responsabilization". It also proposes an alternative form to deal with the problem based on "negotiated quality" in a bilateral involvement of the State and school. It suggests initial elements for a State policy in the field of assessment and sees the process of the institutional assessment of school as the link between the external assessment of system and school and its professionals. It alerts to the fact that unilateral responsabilization policies will lead to configure schools for the poor and schools for the rich. It also highlights the risk that the external assessment systems centralized at government level conceal, with such statistical indicators as the IDEB, the difficulties faced by the popular classes to learn within school, and legitimate strategies that only lead to deferring their exclusion - despite a discourse of transparency and responsibility.

  1. Gija Kantscheli Projekte und Events zum 70. Geburtstag 2005

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Artiklis mainitud gruusia helilooja Gija Kantscheli teose "Werk für gemischten Chor und Saxophonquartett" esiettekandest mais 2006 Madalmaade Kammerkoori esituses ja Tõnu Kaljuste dirigeerimisel ning teose "Twilight" esiettekandest 27. jaan. 2005 Salzburgis kammerorkestri Kremerata Baltica esituses

  2. Bringing together the Best of the East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 current students, alumni, and faculty from Washington University in St.Louis and Shanghai's Fudan University gathered at the JW Marriott in Shanghai on June 4 for a twilight reception hosted by Zheng Zukan,

  3. Defense AT&L (Volume 34, Number 5, September-October 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    non- toxic thickening agent used in a vari- ety of common prod- ucts, including ice cream) and miniscule glass particles, said Eric Wetzel, who heads...attended a twilight tattoo on the White House ellipse

  4. Del present imperfecte i dels futurs de probabilitat, o entorn de la filologia, la lingüística, l'anàlisi crítica del discurs i les ciències de la comunicació

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Payrató

    2014-10-01

    anything but unemployable professionals? A clever (indirect answer: although we may only be a fully-fledged nation in the preamble (not in the text we should try hard to rescue our philology from the twilight zone.

  5. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel ... military personnel, construction workers, and people who do research outdoors at night or twilight. However, even short- ...

  6. 'Disrespectful men, disrespectable women': men's perceptions on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex in a Sri Lankan Free Trade Zone - a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Öhman, Ann; Essén, Birgitta; Olsson, Pia

    2015-02-07

    Gender norms have been challenged by unmarried rural women's migration for employment to urban Sri Lankan Free Trade Zones (FTZ). Men are described as looking for sexual experiences among the women workers, who are then accused of engaging in premarital sex, something seen as taboo in this context. Increased sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) risks for women workers are reported. To improve SRHR it is important to understand the existing gender ideals that shape these behaviours. This qualitative study explores men's perspectives on gender relations in an urban Sri Lankan FTZ, with a focus on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex. Further, possible implications for SRHR of women workers in FTZs are discussed. Eighteen qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with men living or working in an urban Sri Lankan FTZ and were analysed using thematic analysis. Two conflicting constructions of masculinity; the 'disrespectful womaniser' and the 'respectful partner', were discerned. The 'disrespectful womaniser' was perceived to be predominant and was considered immoral while the 'respectful partner' was considered to be less prevalent, but was seen as morally upright. The migrant women workers' moral values upon arrival to the FTZ were perceived to deteriorate with time spent in the FTZ. Heterosexual relationships and premarital sex were seen as common, however, ideals of female respectability and secrecy around premarital sex were perceived to jeopardize contraceptive use and thus counteract SRHR. The 'disrespectful' masculinity revealed in the FTZ is reflective of the patriarchal Sri Lankan society that enables men's entitlement and sexual domination over women. Deterioration of men's economic power and increase of women's economic and social independence may also be important aspects contributing to men's antagonistic attitudes towards women. The promotion of negative attitudes towards women is normalized through masculine peer pressure. This and ambivalence towards women's premarital sex are undermining the SRHR and well-being of women, but also men, in the FTZ. Awareness and counteraction of destructive gender power relations are essential for the improvement of the SRHR of women and men in the FTZ and the surrounding society.

  7. Survival status and predictors of mortality among severely acute malnourished children <5 years of age admitted to stabilization centers in Gedeo Zone: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girum, Tadele; Kote, Mesfin; Tariku, Befikadu; Bekele, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs) continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3%) children had died, and 414 (76%) and 26 (4.8%) children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days), respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101–7.329), altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579–9.763), altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05–16.867), shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829–7.919), anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148–5.97), nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18–8.575), hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279–5.87) and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638–13.9) were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death were in the acceptable ranges of national and international standards. Intervention to further reduce deaths has to focus on young children with comorbidities and altered general conditions. PMID:28176953

  8. Using Coarse Resolution Land Surface Temperature Time Series Data for Vegetation Analysis in the Taiga Tundra Transition Zone. a Case Study for Yamal, Krasnoyarsk Kray and Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, M.; Schmullius, C. C.; Hese, S.; Herold, M.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions from Global Climate Models have shown increasing trends of global temperature for the 21th century. Since the arctic regions are highly vulnerable to global climate changes, rising temperatures will lead to an intensification of vegetation activity which benefits the extension of the boreal forest into tundra areas. Especially the recruitment of trees into the northern regions, which were controlled by summer temperature and the length of the growing season, is of high importance for the Global Climate System. The tree line movement will lead to a positive feedback in climate conditions since dark forest areas will reduce the albedo which leads to higher warming rates. A multi scale concept for the monitoring of the arctic tree line and changes in vegetation structure in the taiga tundra transition zone of Siberia using Earth Observation data and products on coarse, medium and high spatial resolution is presented. On coarse scale, global land surface temperature data from TERRA, AQUA, ERS and ENVISAT as well as land cover, biomass and phenological information will be integrated to analyze the vegetation composition within the taiga tundra transition zone. On medium spatial resolution, optical and SAR remote sensing data with a pixel size of approx. 30 m will be used to analyze the vegetation structure at the tree line. On very high spatial scale recent Rapideye and Corona imagery from the 1960s will be used to identify vegetation changes and the movement of trees within this 40-50 year time period. As this is a multi-scale approach, the findings on all spatial scales can be connected to each other to verify the results. The first results at coarse scale level have shown the relation between the mean summer temperature and the location of the arctic tree line, which was extracted from the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) by Walker et al. (2005). The assumption is that trees have their optimal growing conditions at a mean summer temperature of 10 °C. MODIS land surface temperature values from 8-day composites with a spatial resolution of 1 km were used to identify the location of the arctic tree line by this 10 °C temperature threshold. At the Yamal Peninsula deviations of the mean summer temperatures and the tree line reference is observable. Since the tree growth might be limited by factors like available nutrients, hydrology and length of growing season, additional information like land cover data, Normalized Differenced Vegetation Indices (NDVI) time series and soil maps will be integrated into the analysis.

  9. Survival status and predictors of mortality among severely acute malnourished children <5 years of age admitted to stabilization centers in Gedeo Zone: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girum T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tadele Girum,1 Mesfin Kote,2 Befikadu Tariku,2 Henok Bekele3 1Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolkite University, Wolkite, 2Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, 3Department of Planning, Adare Hospital, Southern Region Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia Abstract: Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children <5 years of age admitted to SCs in Gedeo Zone. Data was entered by Epi Info version 7 and analyzed by STATA version 11. Cox proportional hazards model was built by forward stepwise procedure and compared by the likelihood ratio test and Harrell’s concordance, and fitness was checked by Cox–Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3% children had died, and 414 (76% and 26 (4.8% children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days, respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101–7.329, altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579–9.763, altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05–16.867, shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829–7.919, anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148–5.97, nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18–8.575, hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279–5.87 and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638–13.9 were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death were in the acceptable ranges of national and international standards. Intervention to further reduce deaths has to focus on young children with comorbidities and altered general conditions. Keywords: severe acute malnutrition, survival status, children less than 5 years of age, treatment outcome, child mortality, Gedeo Zone

  10. Measuring coordination of economy-society and resource environment based on major function oriented zoning: a case study of Pearl River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zhong-quan; WANG Zhang-jun

    2010-01-01

    A reasonable coordination degree assessment of the social-economic development level and the resource-environment quality level are essential to identify the key factors of the development,and vital to deter-mine the approprtate development strategy and achieve sustainable development.The major function oriented zoning plays a role in spatial coordination mainly by spatial guidance and restriction,so.the proposal of major function oriented zoning gives a new train of thought to generate a coordination evaluation of economy-society and the resource-environment system.From the view of major function oriented zoning that considers resource environmental bearing capacity,existing development density and development potential,this paper constructs an index system and model of coordination evaluation with a case study on Pearl River Delta.The results have shown:(1)It can reveal the conflicts of economic-social development and resource-environment quality to accurately consider resource environmental bearing capacity,existing development density and development potential;(2)The coordination degree between social-economy system and resource-environment system in Pearl River Delta continued to decline in the past 10 years.The spatial extent of coordination evolves from coordination in the whole Pearl River Delta to imbalance in the core areas,and at present,the uncoordinated areas have already diffused from core areas to the outlying regions;(3)Most regions of the Pearl River Delta are in uncoordinated condition when considering the coordination degree of economic-social development and resourceenvironment quality,not as coordinated as some scholars considered.

  11. Formulation and Application of a Physically-Based Rupture Probability Model for Large Earthquakes on Subduction Zones: A Case Study of Earthquakes on Nazca Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Galgana, G.; Shen-Tu, B.; Klein, E.; Pontbriand, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Most time dependent rupture probability (TDRP) models are basically designed for a single-mode rupture, i.e. a single characteristic earthquake on a fault. However, most subduction zones rupture in complex patterns that create overlapping earthquakes of different magnitudes. Additionally, the limited historic earthquake data does not provide sufficient information to estimate reliable mean recurrence intervals for earthquakes. This makes it difficult to identify a single characteristic earthquake for TDRP analysis. Physical models based on geodetic data have been successfully used to obtain information on the state of coupling and slip deficit rates for subduction zones. Coupling information provides valuable insight into the complexity of subduction zone rupture processes. In this study we present a TDRP model that is formulated based on subduction zone slip deficit rate distribution. A subduction zone is represented by an integrated network of cells. Each cell ruptures multiple times from numerous earthquakes that have overlapping rupture areas. The rate of rupture for each cell is calculated using a moment balance concept that is calibrated based on historic earthquake data. The information in conjunction with estimates of coseismic slip from past earthquakes is used to formulate time dependent rupture probability models for cells. Earthquakes on the subduction zone and their rupture probabilities are calculated by integrating different combinations of cells. The resulting rupture probability estimates are fully consistent with the state of coupling of the subduction zone and the regional and local earthquake history as the model takes into account the impact of all large (M>7.5) earthquakes on the subduction zone. The granular rupture model as developed in this study allows estimating rupture probabilities for large earthquakes other than just a single characteristic magnitude earthquake. This provides a general framework for formulating physically-based rupture probability models for large earthquakes on subduction zones that is consistent with their true locking state and earthquake history. We will present the formulation of the proposed model and its application to the Nazca plate subduction zone.

  12. Deployment of infrastructure configurations for large-scale CO2 capture in industrial zones a case study for the Rotterdam Botlek area (part B)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Niels; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, André

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a method to assess deployment pathways for CO2 capture infrastructure configurations in industrial zones. This method was demonstrated for the Botlek area consisting of 16 emitters (7.1 MtCO2/y). Pathways were developed for two optimal infrastructures: Post-Recsor based on

  13. Rheologic evolution of low-grade metasedimentary rocks and granite across a large strike-slip fault zone: A case study of the Kellyland fault zone, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W. A.; Monz, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    We examine a large strike-slip fault zone that juxtaposes low-grade clastic metasedimentary rocks with coarse-grained granite near the brittle-ductile transition. The load-bearing matrixes in granite-derived ultramylonites and pelite and wacke metasedimentary intervals are texturally similar, and all deformed by diffusion-assisted granular flow. Granite underwent rapid strengthening as the pluton cooled followed by rapid weakening driven by brittle grain-size reduction and mixing that catalyzed ultramylonite formation. The textural and mineralogical similarity of pelitic intervals across the zone indicates they experienced little textural and reaction weakening. Wacke intervals record progressive textural and reaction weakening in an open system. Quartz recrystallized grain sizes in granite-derived ultramylonites record ∼2-times more differential stress than those in metasedimentary rocks in the interior of the zone. The relative weakness of metasedimentary rocks is correlated with fluid influx that likely enhanced diffusion and grain-boundary sliding in pelitic and wacke intervals and catalyzed textural and reaction weakening in wacke intervals. The lack of evidence for fluid and ionic communication with granitic rocks indicates that fluid movement was restricted to foliation-parallel pathways within single rock units. This localized fluid influx is the best explanation for the strength contrasts between texturally similar fault rocks deformed by similar mechanisms.

  14. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  15. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration by numerical modeling of water flow in the unsaturated zone: a case study in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesanelli, Andrés; Guarracino, Luis

    2009-03-01

    A method is presented to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ETA) from potential evapotranspiration (ETP) by numerical modeling of water flow in the unsaturated zone. Water flow is described by the Richards equation with a sink term representing the root water uptake. Evaporation is included in the model as a Neumann boundary condition at the soil surface. The Richards equation is solved in a one-dimensional domain using a mixed finite element method. The values of ETA are obtained by applying a water stress factor to ETP to account for soil moisture changes during the simulation period. The proposed numerical model is used to estimate ETA in an experimental plot located in a flatland area in Buenos Aires (Argentina). Numerical results show that the proposed model is a useful tool for evaluating evapotranspiration under different scenarios.

  16. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  17. Early Inflammatory Responses Following Cell Grafting in the CNS Trigger Activation of the Subventricular Zone: A Proposed Model of Sequential Cellular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jelle; Santermans, Eva; Daans, Jasmijn; Le Blon, Debbie; Hoornaert, Chloé; Goossens, Herman; Hens, Niel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Berneman, Zwi; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    While multiple rodent preclinical studies, and to a lesser extent human clinical trials, claim the feasibility, safety, and potential clinical benefit of cell grafting in the central nervous system (CNS), currently only little convincing knowledge exists regarding the actual fate of the grafted cells and their effect on the surrounding environment (or vice versa). Our preceding studies already indicated that only a minor fraction of the initially grafted cell population survives the grafting process, while the surviving cell population becomes invaded by highly activated microglia/macrophages and surrounded by reactive astrogliosis. In the current study, we further elaborate on early cellular and inflammatory events following syngeneic grafting of eGFP(+) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) in the CNS of immunocompetent mice. Based on obtained quantitative histological data, we here propose a detailed mathematically derived working model that sequentially comprises hypoxia-induced apoptosis of grafted mEFs, neutrophil invasion, neoangiogenesis, microglia/macrophage recruitment, astrogliosis, and eventually survival of a limited number of grafted mEFs. Simultaneously, we observed that the cellular events following mEF grafting activates the subventricular zone neural stem and progenitor cell compartment. This proposed model therefore further contributes to our understanding of cell graft-induced cellular responses and will eventually allow for successful manipulation of this intervention.

  18. Minimally invasive preparation and design of a cantilevered, all-ceramic, resin-bonded, fixed partial denture in the esthetic zone: a case report and descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwacz, Christopher A; Hernandez, Marcela; Husemann, R Henry

    2014-01-01

    Resin-bonded, fixed partial dentures have the potential to offer a minimally invasive, fixed-prosthetic approach to tooth replacement in patients who may not be candidates for implant therapy. However, traditional preparation protocols often recommend extensive preparation designs on two abutment teeth, thereby potentially compromising the long-term health of the adjacent abutments and often resulting in unilateral debonding of one of the retainers in the long term. In light of advances in high-strength ceramic systems capable of being reliably bonded to tooth structure and offering improved esthetic outcomes, as well as clinical and case-series research demonstrating improved survivability of cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial dentures, new preparation designs and methodologies can be advocated. The following case report demonstrates the clinical application of sonoabrasion, coupled with a dental operating microscope, to minimally prepare a single abutment for a cantilevered, all-ceramic resin-bonded fixed partial denture. Relevant historic and contemporary literature regarding double versus single-retainer resin-bonded fixed partial dentures are reviewed, as well as clinical conditions that are most favorable for such restorations to have an optimal long-term prognosis. If appropriate clinical conditions exist, a cantilevered, all-ceramic, resin-bonded, fixed partial denture may be the most conservative means of tooth replacement in a patient who is not a candidate for an endosseous implant. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Early and Middle Jurassic mires of Bornholm and the Fennoscandian Border Zone: a comparison of depositional environments and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppelhus, Eva B.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Suitable climatic conditions for peat formation existed during Early–Middle Jurassic times in the Fennoscandian Border Zone. Autochthonous peat and allochthonous organic matter were depositedfrom north Jylland, south-east through the Kattegat and Øresund area, to Skåne and Bornholm. The increase in coal seam abundance and thickness from north Jylland to Bornholm indicates that the most favourable peat-forming conditions were present towards the south-east. Peat formation and deposition of organic-rich muds in the Early Jurassic coastal mires were mainly controlled by a continuous rise of relative sea level governed by subsidence and an overall eustatic rise. Watertable rise repeatedly outpaced the rate of accumulation of organic matter and terminated peat formationby lacustrine or lagoonal flooding. Organic matter accumulated in open-water mires and in continuously waterlogged, anoxic and periodically marine-influenced mires. The latter conditionsresulted in huminite-rich coals containing framboidal pyrite. The investigated Lower Jurassic seams correspond to peat and peaty mud deposits that ranged from 0.5–5.7 m in thickness, but were generallyless than 3 m thick. It is estimated that on Bornholm, the mires existed on average for c. 1200 years in the Hettangian–Sinemurian and for c. 2300 years in the Late Pliensbachian; the Early Jurassic(Hettangian–Sinemurian mires in the Øresund area existed for c. 1850 years. Aalenian uplift of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High and major parts of the Danish Basin caused a significant change in the basinconfiguration and much reduced subsidence in the Fennoscandian Border Zone during the Middle Jurassic. This resulted in a more inland position for the Middle Jurassic mires which on occasionenabled peat accumulation to keep pace with, or temporarily outpace, watertable rise. Thus, peat formation was sometimes sustained for relatively long periods, and the mires may have existed for up to 7000 years in the Øresund area, and up to 19 000 years on Bornholm. The combination of the inland position of the mires, a seasonal climate, and on occasion a peat surface above groundwater level caused temporary oxidation of the peat surfaces and formation of inertinite-rich coals. The spore and pollen assemblages from coal seams and interbedded siliciclastic deposits indicate that the dominant plant groups in both the Early and Middle Jurassic mires were ferns and gymnosperms. However, significant floral differences are evident. In the Lower Jurassic coals, the palynology testifies to a vegetation rich in cycadophytes and coniferophytes (Taxodiaceae family whereas club mosses were of lesser importance. Conversely, in the Middle Jurassic coals, the palynology indicates an absence of cycadophytes, a minor proportion of coniferophytes (Taxodiaceaeand a significant proportion of club mosses. These variations are probably related to adaptation by different plants to varying environmental conditions, in particular of hydrological character.

  20. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation of Farmland Use Change in a Farming–Pastoral Zone: A Case Study of Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Bai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Farmland is the most basic material condition for guaranteeing rural livelihoods and national food security, and exploring management strategies that take both stable rural livelihoods and sustainable farmland use into account has vital significance in theory and practice. Farmland is a complex and self-adaptive system that couples human and natural systems, and natural and social factors that are related to its changing process need to be considered when modeling farmland changing processes. This paper uses Qianjingou Town in the Inner Mongolian farming–pastoral zone as a study area. From the perspective of the relationship between household livelihood and farmland use, this study establishes the process mechanism of farmland use change based on questionnaire data, and constructs a multi-agent simulation model of farmland use change using the Eclipse and Repast toolbox. Through simulating the relationship between natural factors (including geographical location and household behavior, this paper systematically simulates household farmland abandonment and rent behaviors, and accurately describes the dynamic interactions between household livelihoods and the factors related to farmland use change. These factors include natural factors (net primary productivity, road accessibility, slope and relief amplitude and social factors (household family structures, economic development and government policies. Ultimately, this study scientifically predicts the future farmland use change trend in the next 30 years. The simulation results show that the number of abandoned and sublet farmland plots has a gradually increasing trend, and the number of non-farming households and pure-outworking households has a remarkable increasing trend, whereas the number of part-farming households and pure-farming households has a decreasing trend. Household livelihood sustainability in the study area is confronted with increasing pressure, and household non-farm employment has an increasing trend, while regional appropriate-scale agricultural management is maintained. The research results establish the theoretical foundation and a basic method for developing sustainable farmland use management that can meet the willingness of households and guarantee grain and ecological security.

  1. Estimating the exposure of small mammals at three sites within the Chernobyl exclusion zone--a test application of the ERICA Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J; Chizhevsky, I; Strømman, G; Oughton, D H; Wright, S M; Maksimenko, A; Copplestone, D

    2008-09-01

    An essential step in the development of any modelling tool is the validation of its predictions. This paper describes a study conducted within the Chernobyl exclusion zone to acquire data to conduct an independent test of the predictions of the ERICA Tool which is designed for use in assessments of radiological risk to the environment. Small mammals were repeatedly trapped at three woodland sites between early July and mid-August 2005. Thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted on collars were fitted to Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus spp. to provide measurements of external dose rate. A total of 85 TLDs were recovered. All animals from which TLDs were recovered were live-monitored to determine (90)Sr and (137)Cs whole-body activity concentrations. A limited number of animals were also analysed to determine (239,240)Pu activity concentrations. Measurements of whole-body activity concentrations and dose rates recorded by the TLDs were compared to predictions of the ERICA-Tool. The predicted (90)Sr and (137)Cs mean activity concentrations were within an order of magnitude of the observed data means. Whilst there was some variation between sites in the agreement between measurements and predictions this was consistent with what would be expected from the differences in soil types at the sites. Given the uncertainties of conducting a study such as this, the agreement observed between the TLD results and the predicted external dose rates gives confidence to the predictions of the ERICA Tool.

  2. Hydrometeorological observations from the rain-to-snow transition zone: a dataset from the Johnston Draw catchment, Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Enslin, Clarissa L.; Godsey, Sarah E.; Marks, Danny; Kormos, Patrick R.; Seyfried, Mark S.; McNamara, James P; Link, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed hydrometeorological data from the rain-to-snow transition zone in mountain regions are limited. As the climate warms, the transition from rain to snow is moving to higher elevations, and these changes are altering the timing of down slope water delivery. To understand how these changes impact hydrological and biological processes in this climatologically sensitive region, detailed observations from the rain-to-snow transition zone are required. We present a complete hydrometeorologic...

  3. Epidemiologic studies in the areas with a high level of natural radioactivity; Etudes epidemiologiques dans des zones a haut niveau de radioactivite naturelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurier, D.; Martin, J.M.; Hubert, Ph

    2000-10-01

    Since 1970, numerous studies have been interested in high level of natural radiations areas (H.L.N.R.A.) or high background radiation areas (H.B.R.A.). An international conference stands every four years, and the last one was at Munich (Germany). The aim of this note is to make a review of epidemiologic studies made with the populations living in H.L.N.R.A. and to present a synthesis of achieved results. The cytogenetic studies are equally mentioned but not detailed. (N.C.)

  4. Cellular organization of the central canal ependymal zone, a niche of latent neural stem cells in the adult mammalian spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L K; Truong, M K V; Bednarczyk, M R; Aumont, A; Fernandes, K J L

    2009-12-15

    A stem cell's microenvironment, or "niche," is a critical regulator of its behaviour. In the adult mammalian spinal cord, central canal ependymal cells possess latent neural stem cell properties, but the ependymal cell niche has not yet been described. Here, we identify important similarities and differences between the central canal ependymal zone and the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ), a well-characterized niche of neural stem cells. First, direct immunohistochemical comparison of the spinal cord ependymal zone and the forebrain SVZ revealed distinct patterns of neural precursor marker expression. In particular, ependymal cells in the spinal cord were found to be bordered by a previously uncharacterized sub-ependymal layer, which is relatively less elaborate than that of the SVZ and comprised of small numbers of astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitors and neurons. Cell proliferation surrounding the central canal occurs in close association with blood vessels, but unlike in the SVZ, involves mainly ependymal rather than sub-ependymal cells. These proliferating ependymal cells typically self-renew rather than produce transit-amplifying progenitors, as they generate doublets of progeny that remain within the ependymal layer and show no evidence of a lineage relationship to sub-ependymal cells. Interestingly, the dorsal pole of the central canal was found to possess a sub-population of tanycyte-like cells that express markers of both ependymal cells and neural precursors, and their presence correlates with higher numbers of dorsally proliferating ependymal cells. Together, these data identify key features of the spinal cord ependymal cell niche, and suggest that dorsal ependymal cells possess the potential for stem cell activity. This work provides a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding ependymal cell regulation under normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Geological records of recent and historical ruptures of the Chilean subduction zone: a latitudinal transect of earthquake deformation and tsunami inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Emma; Garrett, Ed

    2016-04-01

    Historical and instrumental records provide evidence for multiple great earthquakes and tsunami along the Chilean megathrust. However, as the written history of Chile only commenced with Spanish colonisation in the mid-16th century, these records are too short to adequately assess the recurrence of the greatest magnitude seismic hazards, and instead we must rely on geological investigations of sediments to obtain long-term patterns. Here we present the results from recent palaeoseismic investigations in south-central Chile, assessing vertical deformation associated with two of the most recent ruptures of the Valdivia seismic segment and the lateral extent of the associated tsunami deposits. We present data from tidal marshes in a north-south transect between Concepción and Isla de Chiloé, including Chaihuin, Pucatrihue, Llico and Chucalén, where sediments record evidence of the 1960 and up to three earlier events. We quantify vertical deformation using a diatom transfer function based on an expanded modern training set, and show variability in the magnitude of deformation both between events at the same site, and between sites for the same event. The deformation episodes are accompanied by the occurrence of coarse sand layers with thicknesses between 0.5 and 30 cm. We use sedimentological characteristics and diatom compositions to infer a tsunamigenic origin for these sand layers.

  6. Care zoning. A pragmatic approach to enhance the understanding of clinical needs as it relates to clinical risks in acute in-patient unit settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kris; Guy, Stuart; Stewart, Linda; Ayling, Mark; Miller, Graham; Anthony, Anne; Bajuk, Anne; Brun, Jo Le; Shearer, Dianne; Gregory, Rebecca; Thomas, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The process of risk assessment which should inform and help identify clinical needs is often seen as a tick box and task-focussed approach. While on the surface this provides a sense of security that forms have been completed, we often fail to communicate in a meaningful manner about the clinical needs identified, which would assist in supporting the care planning delivery processes. A clinical practice improvement (CPI) project implemented a care zoning framework as an evidenced-based process that provides pragmatic support to nurses who are required to continually assess, implement, and evaluate plans to address clinical need across three acute mental health inpatient settings. Risk descriptors informed by the New South Wales (NSW) Mental Health Assessment & Outcome Tools (MHAOT) criteria were developed and described in behavioural contexts in order to improve the project's reliability and translation. A pragmatic traffic light tool was used to share clinical information across three agreed care zones, red (high clinical need), amber (medium clinical need), and green (low clinical need). Additionally nurses were asked to utilise a shift review form in the context of supporting the recording of care zoning and promoting action-orientated note writing. The introduction of care zoning has enthused the nursing teams and the mental health service to adopt care zoning as a supervisory framework that increases their capacity to communicate clinical needs, share information, and gain invaluable support from one another in addressing clinical needs. This includes increased opportunities for staff to feel supported in asking for assistance in understanding and addressing complex clinical presentations.

  7. Buccal bone thickness at dental implants in the aesthetic zone : A 1-year follow-up cone beam computed tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Sufficient buccal bone thickness (BBT) is important for an optimal aesthetic outcome of implant treatment in the aesthetic zone. The aim of the study was to assess BBT at dental implants placed in the aesthetic zone (incisor, canine or first premolar in the maxilla) (immediate or delayed, with or wi

  8. Cytokine production by leukocytes of military personnel with depressive symptoms after deployment to a combat-zone: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam van Zuiden

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is frequently diagnosed in military personnel returning from deployment. Literature suggests that MDD is associated with a pro-inflammatory state. To the best of our knowledge, no prospective, longitudinal studies on the association between development of depressive symptomatology and cytokine production by peripheral blood leukocytes have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of depressive symptomatology six months after military deployment is associated with the capacity to produce cytokines, as assessed before and after deployment. 1023 military personnel were included before deployment. Depressive symptoms and LPS- and T-cell mitogen-induced production of 16 cytokines and chemokines in whole blood cultures were measured before (T0, 1 (T1, and 6 (T2 months after return from deployment. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM was used for data reduction into cytokine patterns. Multiple group latent growth modeling was used to investigate differences in the longitudinal course of cytokine production between individuals with (n = 68 and without (n = 665 depressive symptoms at T2. Individuals with depressive symptoms after deployment showed higher T-cell cytokine production before deployment. Moreover, pre-deployment T-cell cytokine production significantly predicted the presence of depressive symptomatology 6 months after return. There was an increase in T-cell cytokine production over time, but this increase was significantly smaller in individuals developing depressive symptoms. T-cell chemokine and LPS-induced innate cytokine production decreased over time and were not associated with depressive symptoms. These results indicate that increased T-cell mitogen-induced cytokine production before deployment may be a vulnerability factor for development of depressive symptomatology in response to deployment to a combat-zone. In addition, deployment to a combat-zone affects the capacity of T-cells and monocytes to produce cytokines and chemokines until at least 6 months after return.

  9. Replacement of missing anterior tooth using screw retained implant prosthesis in the esthetic zone: a case report with 3 years of follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Manawar; Dhanasekar, B; Aparna, I N; Naim, Hina

    2014-09-01

    As more and more dental practitioners are focusing on implant-supported fixed restorations, some clinicians favor the use of cement retained restorations while others consider screw-retained prosthesis to be the best choice. As both types of prostheses have certain advantages and disadvantages, clinicians should be aware of the limitations of each type. Screw-retained implant restorations have an advantage of predictable retention, retrievability and lack of potentially retained sub-gingival cement. However, a few disadvantages exist such as precise placement of the implant for optimal and esthetic location of the screw access hole and obtaining passive fit. On the other hand, cement retained restorations eliminates unaesthetic screw access holes; have passive fit of castings; reduce stress to splinted implants because of minor misfit of the framework; reduced complexity of lab procedures; enhanced esthetics; reduced cost factors and non disrupted morphology of the occlusal table. This case report presents the replacement of missing left central incisor using screw-retained implant prosthesis due to palatal trajectory of the implant placement and inadequate abutment height for retention of cement retained prosthesis.

  10. Ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography for mapping bedrock topography and fracture zones: a case study in Viru-Nigula, NE Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Sibul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Base Map (GBM, presenting an elongated buried valley running beneath the Varudi bog, triggered the geophysical studies near Viru-Nigula borough in northeastern Estonia. After the Geological Survey of Estonia had compiled the GBM map set, the course and extent of the valley still remained indistinct. Principally the morphology of the Varudi valley had been determined just by one borehole characterizing the 30 m thick Quaternary succession within the valley. The thickness of Quaternary sediments is, however, just a few metres in adjacent boreholes. We used ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT for acquiring extra knowledge about the extent and morphology of the Varudi structure. Ground-penetrating radar enabled us to specify the thickness and composition of Quaternary deposits, and to recognize dislocations of the bedrock blocks. As the radar images provided information on the topmost ~4 m only, ERT (Wenner and Wenner–Schlumberger arrays was applied to define deeper, down to 40 m, electrical resistivity anomalies. The ERT studies revealed two fracture zones where regular Ordovician carbonate beds have been crushed and replaced by Quaternary sediments. The Varudi valley coincides with the southern zone. Both fracture zones probably acted as groundwater flow channels and sediment pathways in the Late Pleistocene, and hence supported the creation of the Varudi bog.

  11. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  12. The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig‐Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

    2013-01-01

    The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

  13. Multi-agent modeling and simulation of farmland use change in the farming-pastoral zone: A case study of Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.

    2015-12-01

    Farmland is the most basic material conditions for guaranteeing rural livelihoods and national food security, and exploring management strategies that take both of the sustainable rural livelihoods and sustainable farmland use into account has vital significance of theory and practice. Farmland is a complex and self-adaptive system that couples human and natural systems together, and natural factors and social factors that are related to its changing process need to be considered when modeling farmland changing process. This paper takes Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia farming-pastoral zone as study area. From the perspective of the relationship between households' livelihoods and farmland use, this study builds the process mechanism of farmland use change based on questionnaires data, and constructs multi-agent simulation model of farmland use change with the help of Eclipse and Repast toolbox. Through simulating the relationship between natural factors (with geographical location) and households' behaviors, this paper systematically simulates households' renting and abandoning farmland behaviors, and truly describes dynamic interactions between households' livelihoods and factors related to farmland use change. These factors include natural factors (net primary productivity, road accessibility, slope and relief amplitude) and social factors (households' family structures, economic development and government policies). In the end, this study scientifically predicts farmland use change trend in the future 30 years. The simulation results show that, the number of abandoned and sublet farmland plots has a gradually increasing trend, the number of non-farm households and pure-outwork households has a remarkable increasing trend, and the number of part-farm households and pure-farm households shows a decreasing trend. Households' livelihoods sustainability in the study area is confronted with increasing pressure, and households' nonfarm employment has an increasing trend, while regional appropriate-scale agricultural management can be maintained. The research results establish the theory foundation and basic method for developing sustainable farmland use managements that can both meet households' willing and guarantee grain and ecology security.

  14. Nitrogen transfers and air-sea N2O fluxes in the upwelling off Namibia within the oxygen minimum zone: a 3-D model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paulmier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As regions of high primary production and being often associated to Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N cycle. Indeed, by exporting the Organic Matter (OM and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. Losses of fixed inorganic N, through denitrification and anammox processes and through nitrous oxide (N2O emissions to the atmosphere, take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and alleviate the role of these regions as a source of N. In the present study, we developed a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical (ROMS/BioBUS model for investigating the full N budget in the Namibian sub-system of the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS. The different state variables of a climatological experiment have been compared to different data sets (satellite and in situ observations and show that the model is able to represent this biogeochemical oceanic region. The N transfer is investigated in the Namibian upwelling system using this coupled model, especially in the Walvis Bay area between 22° S and 24° S where the OMZ is well developed (O2 2 l−1. The upwelling process advects 24.2 × 1010 mol N yr−1 of nitrate enriched waters over the first 100 m over the slope and over the continental shelf. The meridional advection by the alongshore Benguela current brings also nutrient-rich waters with 21.1 × 1010 mol N yr−1. 10.5 × 1010 mol N yr−1 of OM are exported outside of the continental shelf (between 0 and 100-m depth. 32.4% and 18.1% of this OM are exported by advection in the form of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matters (DOM and POM, respectively, however vertical sinking of POM represents the main contributor (49.5% to OM export outside of the first 100-m depth of the water column on the continental shelf. The continental slope also represents a net N export (11.1 × 1010 mol N yr−1 between 0 and 100-m depth: advection processes export 14.4% of DOM and 1.8% of POM, and vertical sinking of POM contributes to 83.8%. Between 100 and 600-m depth, water column denitrification and anammox constitute a fixed inorganic N loss of 2.2 × 108 mol N yr−1 on the continental shelf and slope, which will not significantly influence the N transfer from the coast to the open ocean. At the bottom, an important quantity of OM is sequestrated in the upper sediments of the Walvis Bay area. 78.8% of POM vertical sinking at 100-m depth is sequestrated on the shelf sediment. Only 14% of POM vertical sinking reaches the sediment on the slope without being remineralized. From our estimation, the Walvis Bay area (0–100 m, can be a substantial N source (28.7 × 1010 mol N yr−1 for the eastern part of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. Assuming the same area for the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre as the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, this estimation is equivalent to 3.7 × 10−2 mol N m−2 yr−1 for the Walvis Bay area, and 0.38 mol N m−2 yr−1 by extrapolating for the entire Benguela upwelling system. This last estimation is of the same order as other possible N sources sustaining primary production in the subtropical gyres. The continental shelf off Walvis Bay area does not represent more than 1.2% of the world's major eastern boundary regions and 0.006% of the global ocean, its estimated N2O emission (2.9 × 108 mol N2O yr−1, using a parameterization based on oxygen consumption, contributes to 4% of the emissions in the eastern boundary regions, and represents 0.2% of global ocean N2O emission. Hence, even if the Walvis Bay area is a small domain, its N2O emissions have to be taken into account in the atmospheric N2O budget.

  15. Cyanobacteria isolated from the high-intertidal zone: a model for studying the physiological prerequisites for survival in low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; Watson, Jonathan S.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2013-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of surviving the adverse conditions of low Earth orbit (LEO). We have previously demonstrated that Gloeocapsa strain OU_20, Chroococcidiopsis and akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica were able to survive 548 days of exposure to LEO. Motivated by an interest to understand how cyanobacteria can survive in LEO, we studied the strategies that Gloeocapsa strain OU_20 employs to survive in its natural environment, the upper region of the intertidal zone. Here, cyanobacteria are exposed to fluctuations in temperature, UV radiation, desiccation and salinity. We demonstrated that an increase in salinity from 6.5‰ (BG-11 medium) to 35.7‰ (similar to that of seawater), resulted in increased resistance to UV radiation (254 nm), vacuum (0.7×10-3±0.01 kPa) and cold temperatures (-20 °C). Concomitantly, biochemical analyses demonstrated that the amount of fatty acids and mycosporine-like amino acids (a UV absorbing pigment) were higher in the stressed cells. Morphological analysis demonstrated that the electron density and thickness of the mucilaginous sheath were also greater than in the control cells. Yet, the control and stressed cells both formed aggregates. As a result of studying the physiological adaptation of Gloeocapsa strain OU_20 in response to salinity, we postulate that survival in the high-intertidal zone and LEO involves a dense extracellular mucilaginous sheath and the formation of aggregates. We conclude that studying the physiological adaptation of cyanobacteria in the intertidal zone provides insight into understanding survival in LEO.

  16. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  17. How Deep is the Critical Zone: A Scientific Question with Potential Impact For Decision-makers in Areas of Shale-Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Citizens living in areas of shale-gas development such as the Marcellus gas play in Pennsylvania and surrounding states are cognizant of the possibility that drilling and production of natural gas -- including hydraulic fracturing -- may have environmental impacts on their water. The Critical Zone is defined as the zone from vegetation canopy to the lower limits of groundwater. This definition is nebulous in terms of the lower limit, and yet, defining the bottom of the Critical Zone is important if citizens are to embrace shale-gas development. This is because, although no peer-reviewed study has been presented that documents a case where hydraulic fracturing or formation fluids have migrated upwards from fracturing depths to drinking water resources, a few cases of such leakage have been alleged. On the other hand, many cases of methane migration into aquifers have been documented to occur and some have been attributed to shale-gas development. The Critical Zone science community has a role to play in understanding such contamination problems, how they unfold, and how they should be ameliorated. For example, one big effort of the Critical Zone science community is to promote sharing of data describing the environment. This data effort has been extended to provide data for citizens to understand water quality by a team known as the Shale Network. As scientists learn to publish data online, these efforts must also be made accessible to non-scientists. As citizens access the data, the demand for data will grow and all branches of government will eventually respond by providing more accessible data that will help the public and policy-makers make decisions.

  18. Comparison of mobile apps for the leading causes of death among different income zones: a review of the literature and app stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-De-Abajo, Beatriz

    2014-01-09

    The advances achieved in technology, medicine, and communications in the past decades have created an excellent scenario for the improvement and expansion of eHeath and mHealth in particular. Mobile phones, smartphones, and tablets are exceptional means for the application of mobile health, especially for those diseases and health conditions that are the deadliest worldwide. The main aim of this paper was to compare the amount of research and the number of mobile apps dedicated to the diseases and conditions that are the leading causes of death according to the World Health Organization grouped by different income regions. These diseases and conditions were ischemic heart disease; stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases; lower respiratory infections; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; diarrheal diseases; HIV/AIDS; trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers; malaria; and Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Two reviews were conducted. In the first, the systems IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed were used to perform a literature review of applications related to the mentioned diseases. The second was developed in the currently most important mobile phone apps stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, and Windows Phone Apps+Games. Search queries up to June 2013 located 371 papers and 557 apps related to the leading causes of death, and the following findings were obtained. Alzheimer disease and other dementias are included in the diseases with more apps, although it is not among the top 10 causes of death worldwide, whereas lower respiratory infections, the third leading cause of death, is one of the less researched and with fewer apps. Two diseases that are the first and second of low-income countries (lower respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases) have very little research and few commercial applications. HIV/AIDS, in the top 6 of low-income and middle-income zones, is one of the diseases with more research and applications, although it is not in the top 10 in high-income countries. Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers are the third cause of death in high-income countries but are one of the least researched diseases with regard to apps. Concerning mobile apps, there is more work done in the commercial field than in the research field, although the distribution among the diseases is similar in both fields. In general, apps for common diseases of low- and middle-income countries are not as abundant as those for typical diseases of developed countries. Nevertheless, there are some exceptions such as HIV/AIDS, due to its important social conscience; and trachea, bronchus and lung cancers, which was totally unexpected.

  19. Design of Solar Optical Fiber Lighting System for Enhanced Lighting in Highway Tunnel Threshold Zone: A Case Study of Huashuyan Tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the principle, structural composition, materials, and characteristics of solar optical fiber lighting system were discussed. The different luminance requirements of different zones of highway tunnel were identified on the basis of the analysis of tunnel lighting considering drivers’ visually self-accommodating physiological function for luminance change. Taken Huashuyan Tunnel of G109 Highway located in Hohhot of Inner Mongolia in China as the case study, the system design of solar optical fiber lighting for enhanced lighting in threshold zone of highway tunnel was made. It was indicated through calculation that the design length of solar optical fiber enhanced lighting was related to the design speed, longitudinal slope, and overhead clearance of the tunnel, and the design luminance of solar optical fiber enhanced lighting was related to the luminance outside the tunnel, the design speed, and the design traffic flow of the tunnel. Luminance analysis of the solar optical fiber lighting system of Huashuyan Tunnel was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the 3D illuminance simulation results by DIALux software were made to indicate that the solar optical fiber lighting system in Huashuyan Tunnel still well met the enhanced lighting demand even not considering the contribution of LED lighting.

  20. Compression-extension transition of continental crust in a subduction zone: A parametric numerical modeling study with implications on Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Cathaysia Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lung Sang; Gao, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The Cathaysia Block is located in southeastern part of South China, which situates in the west Pacific subduction zone. It is thought to have undergone a compression-extension transition of the continental crust during Mesozoic-Cenozoic during the subduction of Pacific Plate beneath Eurasia-Pacific Plate, resulting in extensive magmatism, extensional basins and reactivation of fault systems. Although some mechanisms such as the trench roll-back have been generally proposed for the compression-extension transition, the timing and progress of the transition under a convergence setting remain ambiguous due to lack of suitable geological records and overprinting by later tectonic events. In this study, a numerical thermo-dynamical program was employed to evaluate how variable slab angles, thermal gradients of the lithospheres and convergence velocities would give rise to the change of crustal stress in a convergent subduction zone. Model results show that higher slab dip angle, lower convergence velocity and higher lithospheric thermal gradient facilitate the subduction process. The modeling results reveal the continental crust stress is dominated by horizontal compression during the early stage of the subduction, which could revert to a horizontal extension in the back-arc region, combing with the roll-back of the subducting slab and development of mantle upwelling. The parameters facilitating the subduction process also favor the compression-extension transition in the upper plate of the subduction zone. Such results corroborate the geology of the Cathaysia Block: the initiation of the extensional regime in the Cathaysia Block occurring was probably triggered by roll-back of the slowly subducting slab. PMID:28182640

  1. Traces on sky. Unexpected results of regular observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, N. G.; Steklov, E. A.

    2016-08-01

    If the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Usually, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified into the following types: AMT - aero-meteorological tracks, AST - aero-space, ATT - aero-technical, and NST - not yet classified tracks of unknown nature. During the short period of our observations (from March 2013 to 2016), was fixed falling at least a dozen fragments of cometary nuclei, at least five of sufficiently large and dozens of smaller fragments of meteoroids. The results of our observations also showed that during the morning and evening twilight over Kiev clearly visible the plume of aerosols of technical nature from the plants, factories and other production facilities.

  2. Having Second Thoughts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; WANDI

    2011-01-01

    In an early morning in July 1945,a strange mushroom cloud a rose in the basin of northern New Mexico,the United States,splitting the dark sky with brilliant light.That was not the first twilight of another day,but the twilight of the atomic age.Dramatically,the first explosion of a nuclear bomb was tested under the code name," The Gadget," by a team of scientists at Los Alamos under their

  3. Advances in Sensors and Their Integration into Aircraft Guidance and Control Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    apparent surface subtends a negligibly small area and also because it appears above the horizon only near twilight when scattered sunlight is still the...the range some 5 orders of magnitude below twilight cond’tions (10 lux) but as shown elsewhere in this review, practical systems fall short of this...Garner, D.: The Saga of the Plastic Autopilot. Sport Aviat., Mar. 1974, pp. 45-59. (10) Garner, D.: Construction Notes on Electr--Fluidic Wing Levelers

  4. Ears and Eyes in the Sky: The Evolution of Manned Airborne ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    Research Agency (AFHRA). 15 Ibid. 16 Curtis Peebles, Twilight Warriors (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005), 9. 17 Norman Polmar and Thomas... Saga of the 46th/72nd Reconnaissance Squadrons (Turlock, CA: Seeger’s Printing, 1992), 1. 28 Alwyn T. Lloyd, A Cold War Legacy: A Tribute to SAC...Press, 1991. _____. Shadow Flights: America’s Secret War Against the Soviet Union. Novato, CA: Presidio Press Inc., 2000. _____. Twilight

  5. Civil-Military Change in China: Elites, Institutes, and Ideas After the 16th Party Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    unclear, however, how much we can generalize from these incidents because they took place during the twilight of Jiang Zemin. Until Jiang’s inevitable...military, particularly in Beijing, require further exploration. This section will analyze the initial PLA coverup of SARS cases in Beijing, the saga of...tempered in the twilight struggle of Beijing’s internecine power plays, and both are by all accounts superbly intelligent, so they must know their limits

  6. Soviet Policy in the Post-Tito Balkans. Volume 4. Studies in Communist Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    history has been a saga of domination by foreign powers and constant threats of partition. 5 Al- bania had to struggle to liberate itself from the Ottoman...A. Ross Johnson, Yugoslavia in the Twilight of Tito. The Washington Papers. vol. 2. No. 16. (Beverly Hills and London: Sage Publications. 1974). p. 36...Ross Johnson, Yugoslavia in the Twilight of Tito, pp. 31-42. 96. PR, March 19, 1976, p. 32. 97. For a full study of Yugoslav foreign policy see Lars

  7. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories Report on Research, July 1972 - June 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    have absorptions at vations. Nitric oxide is an important ioniza- least seven orders of magnitude smaller. ble gas at twilight and at night for the E The...Ag) Absorption Bands in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Res. Svc.) 29th Ann. Symp. on Mol. Structure and Spectroscopy, Rocket Measurement of Ozone at Twilight ...Bordeaux, Fr., 21.22 Sep. 1973 (1973) CornicE, D. A. CASTELLI, J. P. Report of Observatories: Saga more Hill Radio Observatory Invetigtio qfSola Raio urs

  8. Terrorism: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-30

    Fragmentation." Infantry, 61:44-49, September-October 1971. Collins, J. Erik. "The Twilight War--Diverse Aspects of the Hostile Threat." Army Digest, 24:4-9...Offenses in the Law and Practice of Extradition." American Journal of International Law, 27: 247, 1933. Deerin, James B. "Northern Ireland’s Twilight ...34Sad Days in Recife; Abductions of Operation Hope Workers." Commonweal, December 7, 1973, p. 256. " Saga of the Anzoategul: Hijacking of Venezuelan

  9. Historical Resources Evaluation, St. Paul District Locks and Dams on the Mississippi River and Two Structures at St. Anthony Falls; Locks and Dams in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Northern Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Iowa with brief consideration of the Mississippi River as an important trans- portation artery. Havighurst, Walter. Upper Mississippi, A Wilderness Saga ...forces and public works until completion in the twilight of the New Deal. Like riverboat traffic, the improvement of the upper Mississippi River can be...navigation to Minneapolis, ironically at the twilight of the steamboat era. (Fullerton 1906: 497; Kane 1966: 175) The two structures were to be built

  10. Popularność literackiego tematu wampirów na przykładzie sagi "Zmierzch" Stephenie Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Gamus, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the characteristics of entertainment system, which was built with the release of Stephenie Meyer’s "Twilight" series. It shows the transformation of the literary theme of vampire and identifies the specific impact of Meyer’s novel on the creation of similar characters in popular literature. Polish edition of the novel and other available on the Polish market products associated with "Twilight" were discussed in detail. Entertainment system components presented in the art...

  11. New stratospheric UV/visible radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Marceau

    Full Text Available A stratospheric balloon was launched on 12 October 1986 from the "CNES" base at Aire sur l'Adour (France to record twilight radiance in the stratosphere. The near-UV and visible radiances were continuously monitored by a photometer during sunrise. Some observations are presented for different viewing azimuthal planes and viewing elevation angles. They show the influence of aerosols layers and clouds which can be also seen on related photographs. The results as a whole may be used for testing some radiative models, especially for twilight conditions.

  12. Return of the Flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Across the blue horizon that divides Pale twilight skies from twilight-darkened earth A shepherd leads beneath a crescent moon His bending line of pliant moon-eyed sheep. The laggards and the leaders, nipped by dogs, Swirl from a formless mass of flesh and wool Toward faces separated yet the same, Soon lost to sun in starlight like the stars. The shepherd in procession grasps his staff, His right hand parting his cloak to show within His long blue shirt, a bishop’s under-robe, Literal symbols...

  13. PARAMETERS, U.S. Army War College Quarterly. Volume 24, Number 3, Autumn 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    host of doctrinal manuals dealing with all categories of OOTW. This focus on OOTW is a direct result of the end of the Cold War--the long twilight ...Newton Minnow, quoted in McNulty, p. 32. Walter B. Wriston, in The Twilight of Soverei"ny (New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1992), argues that modern...S.~ __W lack of them) of Philippine land reform. Connolly presents his readers with a some- what rambling but not entirely predictable saga of land

  14. Selected Current Acquisitions and Articles from Periodicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    ROOSEVELT FAMILY. Collier, Peter. The Roosevelts : an American saga . New York Simon & Schuster, c1994. E747 .C66 1994 RULE OF THE ROAD AT SEA. Smith...A World Without Hegemony. Pakistan Horizon 46:9-16 Jul-Oct 󈨡. Holmes, Kim R. The New Twilight Struggle: Freedom and Power in the Post-Cold War Era...New World Order: The Clinton Administration and Foreign Policy in 1993. International Relations 12:109-127 Apr 󈨢. Holmes, Kim R. The New Twilight

  15. Influence of custom-made implant designs on the biomechanical performance for the case of immediate post-extraction placement in the maxillary esthetic zone: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhiguang; Chen, Xianshuai; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-01-29

    Due to the increasing adoption of immediate implantation strategies and the rapid development of the computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing technology, a therapeutic concept based on patient-specific implant dentistry has recently been reintroduced by many researchers. However, little information is available on the designs of custom-made dental implant systems, especially their biomechanical behavior. The influence of the custom-made implant designs on the biomechanical performance for both an immediate and a delayed loading protocol in the maxillary esthetic zone was evaluated by means of the finite element (FE) method. FE models of three dental implants were considered: a state of the art cylindrical implant and two custom-made implants designed by reverse engineering technology, namely a root-analogue implant and a root-analogue threaded implant. The von Mises stress distributions and micro-motions around the bone-implant interfaces were calculated using ANSYS software. In a comparison of the three implant designs for both loading protocols, a favorable biomechanical performance was observed for the use of root-analogue threaded implant which approximated the geometry of natural anterior tooth and maintained the original long-axis. The results indicated that bone-implant interfacial micro-motion was reduced and a favorable stress distribution after osseointegration was achieved.

  16. Empirical Study on the Sustainable Development of Ecological Tourism Zone---A Case Study of Oolong Gap%生态旅游区可持续发展实证研究--以乌龙峡为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常亚楠; 李悦铮

    2015-01-01

    This paper to adjust our economic structure, transform the mode of development of research opportunities, restructuring and development of Datong green background, with Oolong Gap eco-tourism area for the study. Based on questionnaires Oolong Gap area first-hand information and statistical data, analyzes the current situation Oolong Gap tourism eco-tourism area and future development of the strengths, weaknesses and other issues. In this analysis, based on the proposed targeted countermeasures Oolong Gap sustainable future eco-tourism area, ideas, designed to pro-vide facts and theoretical basis for further planning and develop-ment of eco-tourism market in Datong.%本篇论文以我国调整经济结构,转变发展方式为研究契机,大同市绿色转型发展为研究背景,以乌龙峡生态旅游区为研究对象。基于乌龙峡景区问卷调查及统计数据等一手资料,分析了乌龙峡生态旅游区的旅游现状及未来发展的优势、劣势等问题。在此分析基础上,有针对性的提出未来乌龙峡生态旅游区可持续发展的对策、构想,旨在为大同市生态旅游市场的进一步规划与开发提供事实与理论依据。

  17. How well does wind speed predict air-sea gas transfer in the sea ice zone? A synthesis of radon deficit profiles in the upper water column of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, B.; Kelly, R. P.; Bigdeli, A.; Williams, W.; Krishfield, R.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Moran, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    We present 34 profiles of radon-deficit from the ice-ocean boundary layer of the Beaufort Sea. Including these 34, there are presently 58 published radon-deficit estimates of air-sea gas transfer velocity (k) in the Arctic Ocean; 52 of these estimates were derived from water covered by 10% sea ice or more. The average value of k collected since 2011 is 4.0 ± 1.2 m d-1. This exceeds the quadratic wind speed prediction of weighted kws = 2.85 m d-1 with mean-weighted wind speed of 6.4 m s-1. We show how ice cover changes the mixed-layer radon budget, and yields an "effective gas transfer velocity." We use these 58 estimates to statistically evaluate the suitability of a wind speed parameterization for k, when the ocean surface is ice covered. Whereas the six profiles taken from the open ocean indicate a statistically good fit to wind speed parameterizations, the same parameterizations could not reproduce k from the sea ice zone. We conclude that techniques for estimating k in the open ocean cannot be similarly applied to determine k in the presence of sea ice. The magnitude of k through gaps in the ice may reach high values as ice cover increases, possibly as a result of focused turbulence dissipation at openings in the free surface. These 58 profiles are presently the most complete set of estimates of k across seasons and variable ice cover; as dissolved tracer budgets they reflect air-sea gas exchange with no impact from air-ice gas exchange.

  18. Third Generation (3G) Site Characterization: Cryogenic Core Collection and High Throughput Core Analysis - An Addendum to Basic Research Addressing Contaminants in Low Permeability Zones - A State of the Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    samples A = microbiological analysis B = methanol extraction C = water extraction 4.3 Analytical Methods 4.3.1 Biological Analysis For... microbiological analysis, half of each sample disk was wrapped in aluminum foil and returned to the freezer (-80°C) until DNA extraction. Note low DNA...are not available for unfrozen core (e.g., chopping into 1-inch “hockey pucks” and sectioning those disks into quarters with a sterile chisel). 6.1.6

  19. Crustal basement controls granitoid magmatism, and implications for generation of continental crust in subduction zones: A Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic study from the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Yang, Jin-Hui; Qin, Zheng-Wei; Duan, Rui-Chun; Zhou, Lian; Yang, Sai-Hong

    2017-06-01

    Ascertaining the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks in subduction zones holds the key for understanding the processes of how continental crust is produced. The synchronous Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons occur in two different geological units of the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen of central China. They provide an optimal opportunity for a study to address the role of the crustal basement in generating voluminous granitoid magmatism in subduction zones. The Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons have identical U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 440-444 Ma, which are temporally related to northward subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean. The Taoyuan samples show high SiO2 (73.36-79.16%) and low Al2O3 (12.00-13.45%) contents, Mg numbers (20.6-38.2), and Sr/Y (2.04-10.1) and (La/Yb)N (2.34-7.32) ratios with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.33-0.93). They yielded positive εNd(t) (+ 3.0 to + 6.7) and εHf(t) (+ 11.8 to + 13.2) values, elevated initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7040-0.7057) and relatively low zircon δ18O values of 4.62-5.39‰. These suggest that they were produced through partial melting of hydrothermally altered lower crust of the accreted Erlangping oceanic arc. In contrast, the Huanggang samples exhibit variable whole-rock geochemical and isotopic compositions with SiO2 contents of 57.01-64.42 wt.%, initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7065-0.7078, and εNd(t) values of - 5.7 to - 9.4. Additionally, they have high zircon δ18O values of 7.57-8.45‰ and strongly negative zircon εHf(t) values of - 14.4 to - 10.5. They were suggested to have been mainly derived from ancient continental crust of the Kuanping crustal unit with the addition of 20-40% juvenile, mantle-derived material. Accordingly, the granitoids in both oceanic and continental arcs are likely to be mainly derived from intracrustal melting of their crustal basement. It is revealed by the Huanggang pluton that little net continental crust growth occurs in continental arcs, and addition of new volume of continental crust may be balanced by the loss of old mafic lower continental crust. Continental growth was likely achieved through the accretion and subsequent differentiation of oceanic arcs, as manifested by the Taoyuan pluton.

  20. 生物因子促进牵张成骨区骨生成与矿化的研究进展%Biological factors promoting bone formation and mineralization in distraction osteogenesis zone:a research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红浩; 康庆林; 贾亚超; 王亚洲

    2015-01-01

    牵张成骨(distraction osteogenesis,DO)是一种利用骨痂愈合机制产生新骨的内源性组织工程学技术.随着近几年大量基础研究和临床应用的深入,牵张成骨在矫正先天性肢体不等长、创伤后遗症,创伤性骨髓炎、肿瘤术后重建等方面展现了广阔的应用前景.如何促进牵张成骨区骨生成与矿化、缩短患者疾病的治疗周期已成为国内外矫形外科领域研究的热点之一,本文就生物因子促进骨生成与矿化的应用进行综述.

  1. 边缘地旅游形象的层次构建--以肇庆为例%Two-dimensional Construction of Tourism Image in Fringe Zone---A Case of Zhaoqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖继武

    2013-01-01

    The tourism image is not clear in fringe zone because of the property of connection and transition,which affects the spread of tourism image.The contraction of tourism image should be from the perspective of the property of fringe zone.Taking the fringe zone in the Pearl River Delta - Zhaoqing as a case,this paper studies the construction method of tourism image in fringe zone and the impaction on the tourism image from the fringe zone.The nature of fringe zone can produce a double impact on the tourism image.One of the impaction is to make the tourism image deviating from whole tourism image in the region;the oth-er is a shielding effect,assimilation effect and compression effect,which makes it hard for tourists to perceive the tourism image. The building of tourist image needs to study comprehensively the factors of natural conditions,history,culture,economy and so-ciety from two levels of core and peripheral markets.The tourism image in Zhaoqing should include“beautiful landscape in Zhaoqing,the origin of Guangfu culture”and “The capital of China ink stone,the famous tourism city of the Pearl River Delta”.%边缘地因过渡交接属性而使旅游形象不鲜明,影响旅游形象传播,需要从边缘属性提炼旅游形象。以珠三角边缘地---肇庆为案例,实证分析了边缘地对旅游形象的影响及旅游形象的构建方法。边缘属性对旅游形象产生双重影响,使旅游形象偏离区域整体形象,同时产生屏蔽作用、同化作用与挤压作用,使旅游形象不易被感知。旅游形象构建需要综合自然条件、历史文化与经济社会等因素,从核心与外围市场两个层次构建。肇庆应重点打造“山水肇庆、广府之源”与“中国砚都、珠三角旅游名城”的旅游形象。

  2. Consolidation and Using Oriented Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Soils of Hollowed Villages of Plain Agricultural Zones:A Case Study of Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yu-rui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hollow village renovation is an important content of rural land comprehensive consolidation. Under the core goal of sustainable utilization of land, revealing heavy metal pollution in typical soils of hollow village is the guiding link of the consolidation work, especially the reconstruction of farmland. Taking Yucheng City of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain as an example, this paper aims to analyze the content of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in seven kinds of typical soils, namely the village roads, sunning grounds, pit-pond sediments, woodland topsoils, courtyard farmlands, courtyard soils and clay wall soils which may be involved in the reconstruction of typical hollow village. Individual pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were used to evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution according to the relevant national standards in order to provide the basis for safe and rational soil utilization during the hollow village consolidation. The results showed that in the above 7 types of tested soils, except for the pollution index of courtyard farmland was 0.85(pollution level Ⅱ, belong to "less clean" soil, other six types were <0.7(pollution level Ⅰ, belong to "clean" soil, which could be directly used in the hollow village consolidation for reconstruction of topsoil for agriculture. This study revealed the heavy metal pollution condition in the typical soils of plain agricultural areas. It has important reference value to the consolidation of hollow villages scientifically and the reconstruction of safe and high standard farmland.

  3. Crustal melting and recycling: geochronology and sources of Variscan syn-kinematic anatectic granitoids of the Tormes Dome (Central Iberian Zone). A U-Pb LA-ICP-MS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moro, F. J.; López-Plaza, M.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; López-Carmona, A.; Hofmann, M.; Romer, R. L.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report U-Pb Laser Ablation ICP-MS zircon and ID-TIMS monazite ages for peraluminous granitoid plutons (biotite ± muscovite ± cordierite ± sillimanite) in the Tormes Dome, one of the gneiss-cored domes located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Variscan belt of northern Spain. Textural domains in zircon, interpreted to represent the magmatic crystallization of the granitoids (and one monazite fraction in the Ledesma pluton) yielded ages around 320 Ma, in agreement with other geochronological studies in the region. This age is interpreted to date the timing of decompression crustal melting driven by the extensional collapse of the orogenic belt in this domain of the Variscan chain of western Europe. In addition, there are several populations of inherited (xenocrystic) zircon: (1) Carboniferous zircon crystals (ca. 345 Ma) as well as one of the monazite fractions in the coarse-grained facies of the Ledesma pluton that also yielded an age of ca. 343 Ma. (2) Devonian-Silurian zircon xenocrysts with scattered ages between ca. 390 and 432 Ma. (3) Middle Cambrian-Ordovician (ca. 450-511 Ma). (4) Ediacaran-Cryogenian zircon ages (ca. 540-840 Ma). (5) Mesoproterozoic to Archaean zircon (900-2700 Ma). The abundance of Carboniferous-inherited zircon shows that crustal recycling/cannibalization may often happen at a fast pace in orogenic scenarios with only short lapses of quiescence. In our case study, it seems plausible that a "crustal layer" of ca. 340 Ma granitoids/migmatites was recycled, partially or totally, only 15-20 My after its emplacement.

  4. Spatio-temporal forest cover characterisation of mascareignite zones of reunion Island; Caracterisation spatio-temporelle du couvert vegetal des zones a mascareignite des hauts de l'Ile de la Reunion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouar, S

    1998-07-01

    The endo-soils of the reunion island often present a particularity: the presence of a light soil level on surface, of vegetable composition, the mascareignite. In the framework of this study, mascareignite soils have been localized on the wet face of the island and have been compared with those of the dry face. The floristic past of these soils has been reconstituted with the pedo-anthracology tool (charcoal dating and identification). Ages given by the {sup 14}C measures show that the mascareignite genesis is anterior to the human being presence in the island. The study of the actual vegetable cover distribution has been realized by satellite data. (A.L.B.)

  5. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  6. Research on Two Types of Buffer Zone Impact on Surrounding Office Space Environment in Winter in Cold Climate Zone-a Fieldwork in Architectural Design Institute Building of Tsinghua University, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeHao Song; JunJie Li; Ning Zhu; JiaLiang Wang; ShiMeng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Building buffer zone space is not only one of essential approaches for better mental quality of interior building space, but also an important factor that may influence interior thermal comfort and energy consumption. This study aims to analyze regulative advantages of buffer zone to the surrounding functional spaces. Based on a fieldwork test in a typical office building in cold climate zone in Beijing, China, the monitor data show interior physical performance in the Winter. The research selects two types of different buffer zones in the same building. One is a south⁃faced greenhouse which has large dimension with plenty of vegetation, and the other is a simple atrium in the middle of five floor building with mount of skylights. The factors and their influence to surrounding functional spaces and the whole building are found out from the comparisons of collected data by floor to floor monitor test on both buffer zones at the same time. The comparisons of two types of buffer zones conclude that the greenhouse is more effective to air quality regulation but not so clearly well⁃performed to thermal buffering as expected due to the dominate active central heating in the Winter. This fieldwork test results for building performance can be helpful for both architects and engineers in the early phase of sustainable design.

  7. Behavioural activity of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus under semi-natural rearing systems: establishing a seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Díez Valle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of 2 populations of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, L. 1758, consisting of 14 adults (>9 mo of age each (4 males and 10 females, was analysed over 2 consecutive years. Rabbits were captured in the wild and kept in 2 separate enclosures of 0.5 ha, with each enclosure divided into 2 zones: a smaller area where warrens were located (breeding area and a larger area where food and water were provided (feeding area. Seven rabbits in each enclosure were individually tagged with a microchip (2 males and 5 females and, after installing 2 detection devices, it was possible to identify which of the 2 areas they were located in and record the length of time spent in each. To regulate the size of the breeding population, young rabbits produced in the enclosures were captured and removed regularly. Considering the number of movements between areas and the time spent in the feeding area, a circadian activity pattern was found, reporting 2 maximum activity peaks coinciding with twilight (18.35% of the total movements, 6-8 a.m. and daybreak (22.95%, 7-10 p.m. while activity was dramatically decreased during the midday hours (1.86%, 10 a.m.-4 p.m.. Rabbits displayed a seasonal pattern throughout the year, with maximum activity levels during winter (45.76% of the total movements, January-March and spring (42.91%, April-June, which could be related to higher reproductive activity at this time of the year as a higher breeding output was reported in June and September. The levels of activity exhibited by males (13.44% daily activity rate were significantly higher than those displayed by females (9.80%. No significant differences were found regarding time spent on the feeding area in relation to season or gender. The average duration of each foray to the feeding area was higher during the summer, higher for females than males and higher during the middle of the night than the rest of the day.

  8. Supervisor Circuit Decides When Solar Array Can Power A Load

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sun powered electronic devices may suffer in twilight conditions. In particular microprocessors (widely used to perform solar power conditioning, such MPPTs) do not like unstable power or smooth edges on power on. The proposed circuit offers some nice supervision performance at the price of 3 transistors.

  9. Arctic Glitters With Shades of Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese ice and snow art debuts in Finland Reindeer and panda stand side by side in front of a wall of bamboo paintings with flute and the cry of birds echoing nearby. Standing at the entrance of ICIUM-Wonderworld of Ice theme park, they greet visitors in a traditional Chinese way in the Arctic twilight.

  10. Ray Bradbury: Hieroglyphics of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Beverly S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how Ray Bradbury's script for the one hundredth episode of "The Twilight Zone" and the short story of the same title, "I Sing the Body Electric," rings so true in 2002. Notes that this "simple story" has never failed to generate some of the best discussions and papers. Discusses how the author teaches this…

  11. An Age-old Old-age Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More facilities and caregivers are needed to help China’s elderly enjoy the twilight of their lives Zhang Lilan, a 65-year-old Beijing resident, was finally admitted to her top choice retirement home at the Beijing No. 1 Social Welfare Institution in June

  12. [Uued heliplaadid] / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    1999-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide tutvustus: Moby "Play", Hurricane #1 "Only The Strongest Will Survive", Vonda Shepard "Songs From Ally McBeal" ja "By 7:30", Incognito "No Time Like The Future", Pretenders "Viva El Amor!", Village People "We Want You - Greatest Hits", Pavement "Terror Twilight"

  13. 77 FR 32879 - Prayer for Peace, Memorial Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ..., who stood post through a long twilight struggle, who saw terror and extremism threaten our world's... have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fifth day of May, in the year of our Lord two thousand twelve, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth...

  14. Forging Partnerships to Improve Teaching: A Science Specialist School Shows a Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingley, Phil; Jarvis, Tina

    2009-01-01

    In September 2005, Beaumont Leys Secondary School gained Specialist Science status. As part of this new role the secondary school decided to support its ten feeder primary schools, which were close enough geographically to allow both daytime and twilight activities. Having gathered information about their in-service needs, Beaumont Leys offered a…

  15. Ray Bradbury: Hieroglyphics of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Beverly S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how Ray Bradbury's script for the one hundredth episode of "The Twilight Zone" and the short story of the same title, "I Sing the Body Electric," rings so true in 2002. Notes that this "simple story" has never failed to generate some of the best discussions and papers. Discusses how the author teaches this…

  16. Observations of diurnal variations of BrO and OClO at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (78S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S.; Sanders, R. W.; Carroll, M. A.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the diurnal variations of OClO and BrO during austral spring, 1987 using long-path visible and near-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy are presented and compared to simplified model calculations. It is shown that care must be taken to compare model calculations and measurements along the line of sight of the instrument. Evening twilight observations of OClO are shown to be broadly consistent with current photochemical schemes, assuming ClO and BrO levels near 50 mb of about 0.5 ppbv and 7 pptv, respectively, throughout the observing period from late Aug. to mid-Oct. Nighttime observations of OClO obtained using the moon as a light source display evidence for growth through the night in late-Aug., but not in late-Sept. Further, the observed morning twilight OClO abundances are in agreement with model calculations in late August, but generally fall below in late September and October. Observations of BrO in mid-Sept. systematically show far greater evening twilight than morning twilight abundances.

  17. Contrasting feeding strategies among wintering common eiders linked to white-tailed sea eagle predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Mosbech, Anders; Sonne, Christian

    activity of the eiders indicated that predation by white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla groenlandicus) was the key to understand the segregation between the fjord habitats and coastal habitats. We found that eiders in the fjords were feeding along the shoreline, but only during twilight...

  18. [Uued heliplaadid] / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    1999-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide tutvustus: Moby "Play", Hurricane #1 "Only The Strongest Will Survive", Vonda Shepard "Songs From Ally McBeal" ja "By 7:30", Incognito "No Time Like The Future", Pretenders "Viva El Amor!", Village People "We Want You - Greatest Hits", Pavement "Terror Twilight"

  19. Eha-ehted / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Endise A-Galerii ruumides Tallinnas Hobusepea tänaval on avatud uus A-Galerii. Avanäituseks on Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ehteeriala ja Firenze Alchimia ehtekooli ühisnäitus "Hämarus/Twilight". Näituse töödest

  20. Fietsen bij schemer / duisternis : een benadering van de kans op een botsing tussen een fietser en een rijdend motorvoertuig bij schemer / duisternis en mogelijkheden voor het verhogen van de waarneembaarheid bij schemer / duisternis van de achterzijde van de fiets(er).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1973-01-01

    The chance for a collision between a cyclist and a driving motor vehicle, by which the cyclist is fatally wounded, is much greater in twilight and darkness than in daylight. It is expected that there will be a decrease in such accidents when the cycle has a red reflector with a retroreflectorizing v

  1. Naughty or Not? : Exploring Controversial Content and Core Universal Themes in Contemporary Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannion, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    A reader might assume contemporary society has progressed beyond literary censorship. However, as recently as 2008, the "Gossip Girl" and "Twilight" young adult literature series both faced challenges in distinct sectors of United States society (American Library Association (ALA), 2009: Martindale, 2008). A number of concerned…

  2. A night sky model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  3. Naughty or Not? : Exploring Controversial Content and Core Universal Themes in Contemporary Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannion, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    A reader might assume contemporary society has progressed beyond literary censorship. However, as recently as 2008, the "Gossip Girl" and "Twilight" young adult literature series both faced challenges in distinct sectors of United States society (American Library Association (ALA), 2009: Martindale, 2008). A number of concerned…

  4. Nietzsche’s “Love” for Socrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Hyland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I contest the prevailing view that Nietzsche almost exclusively criticizes Socrates, by a careful consideration of his encounter with Socrates in the Birth of Tragedy and Twilight of the Idols. By showing that in Nietzsche’s own sense he “loved” Socrates, I am able to raise a number of important issues for further consideration.

  5. The Borderlands of Southeast Asia: Geopolitics, Terrorism, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    impermanence, transience, and twilight nature of bordered spaces among the planet’s 192 territorially defined states. But we have another motivation in...Irrawaddy, Magwe, Mandalay, Rakhine, Rangoon, Sagaing , and Shan). DISPLACED POPULATIONS IN BURMA’S BORDERLANDS 199 Map 8–1. Refugee and Resettlement Sites

  6. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Palestinian Refugee Problem. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 (O’Brien, Connor Cruise. The Sieg. The Saga of brael and Zionism. New York...James Wallace. "The Twilight War," U.S. News and World Report, 104, No. 17, May 2, 1988, 30-34. Dunn, Michael Collins. "Israel: New Priorities for a

  7. Defense Manpower Commission Staff Studies and Supporting Papers. Volume 3. Military Recruitment and Accessions and Future of the All Volunteer Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    officers of the Regular Force completing their terms of service were e0e160ed to Re- cruiting Services for their " twilight tours". Duriag the draft...departments/sections conducts a broad market communications program. Efforts range from preparation and placement of printed ads in saga - Zino

  8. Naval War College Review. Volume 64, Number 1, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    types he [Damon] lacks political savoir faire.”90 Myrer’s sprawling saga E V A N S 4 7 NWCR_Winter2011.ps \\\\data1\\john.lanzieri.ctr$\\msdata\\Desktop...not in hindsight). First, there was at least about one hour of good visibility (sundown that day was at 1917 and end of civil twilight at 1945; plus

  9. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 79, Number 1, January-February 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    1936-02-01

    baseball team, under the direction of Captain Morrow, won the city championship by winning the series in the Twilight League and then defeating the...instructions which the British War Office sent in to their agents in occupied territory. . It is a splendid book; it is a saga of patience and intel

  10. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 81, Number 1, January-February 1938

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-02-01

    which had not even unlimbered. Before twilight he was outside their lines at the intrenched camp of Mill Springs. There he directed the placing of his...won’t stayed glued together . However, The Great Adventure is a saga of the fir~t American lads who fought in the clouds. If that doesn r appeal, then

  11. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    credibility, and mass appeal, and become fluid, porous, malleable, and transient. Incumbent gods and demi-gods enter the twilight zone as the rising...Fairclough, Gordon, “Pyongyang Place: The Family Saga of Kim Jong Il,” The Wall Street Journal, p. A1, October 10, 2003; “Japanese Weekly Examines

  12. The Intelligence Revolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    noting that "the general unreliability of all information" ensured that military action occurred "in a kind of twilight , which, like fog or moonlight...all fronts the continuing saga of Glasnost and Perestroika, the Gorbachev revolution. Developments in this area can have fundamental, global

  13. The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    rescheduled visit to South Korea) left the two nations in a twilight zone between the Cold War and a new era of cooperation. The Chinese Threat. After Russia...production of high-tech military systems. The latter was, after all, what the Japan Air Self-Defense Force UASDF) wanted at the begin- ning of the FSX saga

  14. The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: The War in Northern Laos, 1954-1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    nonmilitary flights, including two a week between Hanoi and Vientiane. Since the intercepts were limited to the late afternoon and twilight , the odds...56 01 The saga of Muong Soui did not close with Swan Lake. During the evacuation, a Raven forward air controller, Capt. Michael E. Cavanaugh, and a

  15. C3I: Issues of Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The next event in the saga , then, is the struggle for physical control of the terrorists. You’ll recall the plan was to use US Special Forces to...never return to their Service—they wouldn’t be wanted. They would be in the twilight of their careers But u isn’t a foregone conclusion that a sailor

  16. Naval War College Review. Volume 63, Number 3, Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    last opera- tional assignment was as chief of staff for Cruiser- Destroyer Group 3. His most recent book is Leave No Man Behind: The Saga of Combat...actions leading from the end of the First World War until May 1940, the end of what he called the “ Twilight War.” All six volumes are masterful

  17. Religious Radicalism and Security in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    fate of Kashmiris moves us, it is because it has become a twentieth-century saga . One feels an eerie premonition and vulnerability before the spectacle...more popu- lar as destinations for people in the twilight of their lives. Now historians have invested a great deal of intellectual and politi- cal

  18. Leaders Can Learn from Druyun’s Ethical Lapses and Their Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    Human Toll One author titled the whole affair the “Sad Saga ” of Darleen Druyun. All the churn and turmoil it has caused the U.S. government is...No. 04-150-A, Supplemental Statement of Facts, July 2004, 2-3. 31 John A. Tirpak, “Tanker Twilight Zone,” Air Force Magazine Online, February 2004

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-27

    Issyk-Kul, which took over the shore at Koy-Sara, praised even in ancient sagas , for industrial facilities. I am also convinced that the shores of...colony is a fact. One life is the one that is on display. The other life, the twilight life, begins during the hours when the yellow lantern of the

  20. A History of The North Pacific Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    8217 200 After reaching Fort Yukon in July, Raymond was frustrated by the twilight that lasted all night. He was finally able to make one observation...first workers at the Rampart Canyon site shared enthusiasm for this engineering challenge. Like the ALCAN highway, the saga of men and equipment

  1. The War Against Trucks Aerial Interdiction in Southern Laos 1968-1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    characterized the airplane as a “disaster.”11 As the saga of the B–57G demonstrated, finding the target presented the great- est challenge to...and for the full use of sensors like infrared, which even the twilight blinded. When within reach of the numerous and dangerous 37-mm and 57-mm guns

  2. Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Huthi Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    interim phase: the Bani Hushaysh trial and the European hostage saga . During the Bani Hushaysh trial of June–July 2009, seven Huthi supporters were...al- Qa‘ida threat and southern discontent, the Huthi conflict complicates matters during the likely twilight of ‘Ali ‘Abdullah Saleh’s rule. Having

  3. The Brigade: A History. Its Organization and Employment in the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-15

    soon developed into waves of attacks, the first two being disjointed regimental attacks, the third an all out attack in the pending twilight by the...Cross, the Saga of the Americal Division. Washington, DC: Combat Forces Press, 1971. Crossland, Richard B., and James T. Currie. Twice the Citizen: A

  4. Report on Research at AFGL, January 1979-December 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    being prepared for * uv airglow belts, and twilight effects, as an early shuttle flight. The full comple- well as the airglow and solar-scattering ment of...system. tested at the Air Weather Service Saga - At 65 degrees corrected geomagnetic more Hill Radio Observatory in Mas- latitude, GBIO is optimally

  5. Makers of the United States Air Force,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    air missions, doc- trine, and strategy within the Army air arm between 1907 and 1941. Carroll V. Glines, The Saga of the Air Mail (D. Van Nostrand, 1968... twilight stroll with him, dined with him, and stressed the need to con- tinue daylight operations. Spaatz, who wanted to return to England to resume

  6. Compendium of Aerospace Medicine. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    observed on inhabi- tants of the subpolar twilight zones and on animals kept under similar constant conditions in the laboratory. 4. A shift in the phases...remember the ancient saga that Icarus, against the advice of his father Daedalus, flew too close to the Sun and ran into heat problems; his wings melted

  7. Growth & Governance in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Terengganu. The Anwar saga also threw UMNO into a crisis of confidence, drove a wedge into Malay political culture, and, almost overnight, transformed it...Aklahi Foundation, Inc., 1989). 6 C.B. O’Briend, “The Show of State in a Neo-Colonial Twilight : Francophone Africa,” in J. Manor (ed), Rethinking Third

  8. The Intelligence Revolution: A Historical Perspective: Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (13th) Held in Colorado Springs, Colorado on 12-14 October 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    military action occurred "in a kind of twilight , which, like fog or moonlight, often tends to make things seem grotesque and larger than they really are...continuing saga of Glasnost and Perestioika, tie Gorbachev revolution. Developments In this aiea can have ftndamental, global significance. E. Recognize that

  9. Mind the Gap: Bridging the Divide between Non-Readers and Lifelong Readers with Hi-Lo Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…

  10. Mind the Gap: Bridging the Divide between Non-Readers and Lifelong Readers with Hi-Lo Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…

  11. Beyond Traditional Outcome-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.; Marshall, Kit J.

    1991-01-01

    Transitional outcome-based education lies in the twilight zone between traditional subject matter curriculum structures and planning processes and the future-role priorities inherent in transformational OBE. Districts go through incorporation, integration, and redefinition stages in implementing transitional OBE. Transformational OBE's guiding…

  12. Uso de redes de espera no estudo de ritmos circadianos de algumas espécies de peixes nos lagos de várzea do rio Solimões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Borge Barthem

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic activity patterns are demonstrated for 15 species of fish in várzea lakes of the Solimões river by analyzing catch per hour-of-day data. Supplemented by visual observation, an array of six gillnets of equal length but different mesh size was used for collecting. The data, in general, show a bimodal pattern of activity. The two peaks of catch can be related to movement during twilight periods, while low catches can be ascribed to reduced activity during times close to mid-day or night Observed activity peaks correspond to local displacements of fish between feeding and shelter sites. In the case of piscivorous fishes, activity peaks could be explained by facility in prey localization, which is greatest during twilight periods when prey species are moving.

  13. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States, 1989. Annual Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-14

    MARIN TWILIGHT !61361 ! 112!3435! 𔄁.5! ’.Z! 4.0! 1200! - ! 35.0!ONE !CA RICHMOND 1979 I ! . 7.)! c. ! 0! I KARIN DECK ’ - !A - 7.’ - ! 1030...511111t 108.01 23.01 3.51 3501 - I 41051NONE ITL GALENA 1 1971 1 1 ! 147.01 27.51 3.21 1 4001 ! TWILIGHT 1914629 1 6611A111 124.01 26.01 3.51 7001l I...1 ! 160.01 38.01 6.51 1 $1 1I CITY I I SAGA SERVICE 1640553 1 192|1F031 158.01 40.01 12.01 4500! 660! 69.0!NONE ILA HARVEY 1 1981 1 I I ! 166.01

  14. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    75.0! 22.61 10.01 1 1 KARIN TWILIGHT 1614861 1 11213A361 67.51 28.C! 8.01 12001 1 35.01NONE ICA RICHMOND 1 1979 1 67.31 25.0l 6.01 - 1 I MARIN-DAVN...48.51NONE IIL GALENA 1 1971 I I 1 1147.01 27.51 3.21 4001 1 TWILIGHT |914629 1 6otIA1l1 1200 26.01 5.51 7001| I 48,51NoNE IIL GALENA 1 199? 1 1 537.01 30.01...38.01 12.01 17001 5301 69.01LtQUID MUD TANKSILA MORGAN 1 1981 I- I I 1160.01 38.0! 6.51 8! 1 1 CITY 1 SAGA -SERVICE 1640553 1 192!1F031 - I - 1 12.01 45001

  15. Ülemkivi linn ja ehte mõte / Julia Maria Künnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnap, Julia Maria

    2007-01-01

    2007. a. mais Saksamaal Idar-Obersteinis toimunud ehtekunsti sündmusest "Schmuck-Denken". Trieri ülikooli ehteeriala professori Theo Smeetsi eestvedamisel korraldatud teaduskonverentsist ehteteooria alal. Eestist esines Kadri Mälk. Avati Bernhard Schobingeri näitus villa Bengelis, Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Firenze ehtekooli Alchimia ühisnäitus "Twilight" Bengeli tootmisruumides ja Jakob Bengeli fondi stipendiaatide ühisnäitus koolimajas

  16. Ground Wave Emergency Network Final Operational Capability: Environmental Assessment for Central Utah Relay Node, Site Number RN 8C920UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-16

    white strobe light at the top, which emits 40 flashes per minute and is rated at 20,000 candelas for daytime and twilight use and 2,000 candelas for...lynx Felix lynx canadensis North American wolverine Gulo gulo luscus Wasatch pika Ochotona princeps wasatchensis Heliotrope pika Ochotona princeps...free oxygen Aquifer A water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel D-5 Candela A unit of meastre of the in.ensity of light eoual to the

  17. 看《吸血鬼日记》学英语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂一星

    2012-01-01

    The Vampire Diaries随着《暮光之城》《The TwilightSaga)、《真爱如血》(True Blood)、《吸血鬼日记》(The VampireDiaries)等吸血鬼题材的影视作品在美国持续热播,"吸血鬼"已经成为时髦、流行的代名词。

  18. 看《吸血鬼日记》学英语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂一星

    2012-01-01

    随着《墓光之城》(The Twilight Saga),《真爱如血》(True Blood),《吸血鬼日记》(The Vampire Diaries)等吸血鬼题材的影视作品在美国持续热播,“吸血鬼”已经成为时髦、流行的代名词。

  19. „А вы в конец света верите?”. Апокалипсис в современной русской литературе: пророчества индейцев в романе Дмитрия Глуховского „Сумерки"

    OpenAIRE

    Szarycz, Ireneusz

    2012-01-01

    Dmitry Glukhovsky’s Sumerki (Twilight, 2007) is the story of a young Muscovite who takes up the task of decoding the prophecies of the Maya Indians and connects them with the catastrophes that plague today’s world: earthquakes in Iran, hurricanes in the USA, tsunamis in Indonesia, and drought and conflagrations in Russia. The newspaper headlines and TV news announcements look like Maya Indian prophecies. While translating the old diary of a Spanish conquistador, he becomes involved in a...

  20. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  1. Ülemkivi linn ja ehte mõte / Julia Maria Künnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnap, Julia Maria

    2007-01-01

    2007. a. mais Saksamaal Idar-Obersteinis toimunud ehtekunsti sündmusest "Schmuck-Denken". Trieri ülikooli ehteeriala professori Theo Smeetsi eestvedamisel korraldatud teaduskonverentsist ehteteooria alal. Eestist esines Kadri Mälk. Avati Bernhard Schobingeri näitus villa Bengelis, Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Firenze ehtekooli Alchimia ühisnäitus "Twilight" Bengeli tootmisruumides ja Jakob Bengeli fondi stipendiaatide ühisnäitus koolimajas

  2. Femininity, neoliberalism and popular culture: the depolitization of feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Esquirol, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    This thesis intends to analyze the logics of representation of contemporary femininity in the popular imagery that has instrumentalized feminism. Such is the case of the transmedia narrative The Twilight Saga, the cultural franchise of 50 Shades of Grey, and TV fiction Girls. All of these cultural products have earned an important position in contemporary cultural consumption, invite a form of cultural participation closely linked to the consumer industry, and propose female ideals characteri...

  3. The Gothic in Contemporary Literature and Popular Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, JD; Monnet, AS

    2012-01-01

    This interdisciplinary collection brings together world leaders in Gothic Studies, offering dynamic new readings on popular Gothic cultural productions from the last decade. Topics covered include, but are not limited to: contemporary High Street Goth/ic fashion, Gothic performance and art festivals, Gothic popular fiction from Twilight to Shadow of the Wind, Goth/ic popular music, Goth/ic on TV and film, new trends like Steampunk, well-known icons Batman and Lady Gaga, and theorizations of p...

  4. Plaadid / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Gnaris Barkley "St. Elsewhwere", Winny Puhh "Täämba õdangu praadimi kunna", Feeder "The Singles", Diesler "Keepie Uppies", Kapusta Ja "Sisekosmosemasin", Suburban Tribe "Revolt Now", Christina Milian "So Amazin", Wind Project "Twilight Patterns", "Kui lähed, mine iseendasse", Hedvig Hanson "Ema laulud", Untsakad "Metsa läksid sa 2", Marie Serneholt "Enjoy The Ride", Cibelle "The Shine Of Dried Electric Leaves", The Da Vinci Project "Music Inspired By Da Vinci"

  5. Plaadid / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Gnaris Barkley "St. Elsewhwere", Winny Puhh "Täämba õdangu praadimi kunna", Feeder "The Singles", Diesler "Keepie Uppies", Kapusta Ja "Sisekosmosemasin", Suburban Tribe "Revolt Now", Christina Milian "So Amazin", Wind Project "Twilight Patterns", "Kui lähed, mine iseendasse", Hedvig Hanson "Ema laulud", Untsakad "Metsa läksid sa 2", Marie Serneholt "Enjoy The Ride", Cibelle "The Shine Of Dried Electric Leaves", The Da Vinci Project "Music Inspired By Da Vinci"

  6. Extending radiative transfer models by use of Bayes rule. [in atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure that extends some existing radiative transfer modeling techniques to problems in atmospheric science where curvature and layering of the medium and dynamic range and angular resolution of the signal are important. Example problems include twilight and limb scan simulations. Techniques that are extended include successive orders of scattering, matrix operator, doubling, Gauss-Seidel iteration, discrete ordinates and spherical harmonics. The procedure for extending them is based on Bayes' rule from probability theory.

  7. Ocean Depths: The Mesopelagic and Implications for Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Breyer, Sean

    2017-01-09

    The mesopelagic or 'twilight zone' of the oceans occurs too deep for photosynthesis, but is a major part of the world's carbon cycle. Depth boundaries for the mesopelagic have now been shown on a global scale using the distribution of pelagic animals detected by compiling echo-soundings from ships around the world, and been used to predict the effect of global warming on regional fish production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Headwaters District: A History of the Pittsburgh District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    the vigorous and colorful officers who were to command the Corps of Engineers, United States Army. The saga of the Army Engineers at work in the...reviewed the record of the open channel project in his 1942 saga of the Allegheny River, and he concluded: A person cannot go over the history of...carrying capacity. The encroachments had occurred because control of rivers was in a twilight zone between federal, state, and local governments and

  9. John Ford’s Cavalry Trilogy: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-02

    denied credit or culpability. You say someone’s called me the greatest poet of the Western Saga . I am not a poet, and I don’t know what a Western saga is...Yellow Ribbon was the only one of the three pictures filmed in color. Ford’s second aim was to portray the twilight of an officer’s career on the frontier

  10. Russian National Security: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    trust compared to other office holders in Ukraine—then a different commentary is needed.7 The Yushchenko saga confirms four truths that are far...benefits for Ukraine. Whether the European Union can draw the necessary consequences during the twilight of the Kuchma era—and thereby help to shape...area to foreign fishing vessels (Gohberg 2000, 61–62). The saga of cooperation and tension with the United States in the North Pacific and

  11. Press On! Selected Works of General Donn A. Starry. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    antitank guided missile had at last done the tank in. The day that dawned at Cambrai had finally come round to a twilight . While the world around us basked...phenomenon characteristic of every change in administration, it does seem to have persisted somewhat longer than my recollection of the same saga in times...considerable common resolve, a common resolve that was dissolved as the program dragged on and costs rose. Most recently, the tank gun standardization saga is

  12. Naval War College Review. Volume 59, Number 2, Spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    also Rahul Roy-Chaudhury, “Maritime and Naval Dimensions of India’s Security,” in India and the IO in the Twilight of the Millennium, ed. P. V. Rao (New...Autumn 2005), pp. 42–43, 46. 34. For the saga of China and aircraft carrier ac- quisition, see Ian Storey and You Ji, “China’s Aircraft Carrier

  13. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. Volume 87, Number 2, March-April 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    available was twilight or night light, because seeing the world through night vision equipment is like living in an alien world until you get used to...bard of the Husayn passion saga , and a radub, who incites the faithful to beat their chests.12 The cathartic chest beating is part of the...language of the familiar Husayn saga to appeal to the average Iranian Shi’ite, he delineated between the perceived good (Khomeini) and evil (the

  14. THE FORMATION OF READERS IN THE ERA OF ITS “SACREDNESS”: IT WOULD BE THE SACRED THE CAUSE OF FASCINATION WITH CONTEMPORARY BESTSELLERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime dos Reis Sant'Anna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What explain the great appreciation by mass literature, as the bestseller Harry Potter or The Twilight Saga? We can use the mass literature to form readers in the school, or we must use only canonical literature? Finally, the more important discussion in this article: the sacred would be an enhancer element to explain the appreciation by these works and how would must the teachers debate this theme with their students?

  15. The Impact on Strategic Stability of Ballistic Missile Defense in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    the final chapter of the Eastern European missile defense saga has yet to be written, this study can contribute to the field of knowledge even at...Canada at the USSR Academy of Sciences. This publication is invaluable in examining how strategic stability was viewed at the twilight of the Cold...the Czech Republic are carrying out deliberations and how Russia is reacting to each particular new wrinkle in the missile defense saga ; and

  16. Electronic Warfare in Army Models - A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Improvement Program (AMIP), Joint (Army, AF, Marines) EW Center, and SAGA (Studies, Analysis, and Gaming Agency) of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to identify an...Virginia, January, 1973. 5. Catalog of Wargaming and Military Simulation Models, 7th Edition, SAGA 180-77, Studies, Analysis, and Gaming Agency, Organization...snow/sleet. It can simulate nighttime with full moon and twilight , smoke and dust as they affect the target acquisition capability of an RPV-type device

  17. International Symposium On the Ecological Effects of Arctic Airborne Contaminants, held in Reykjavik, Iceland on October 4 - 8, 1993. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-08

    AD-A269 955 0nal On The Ecological Effects of Arctic Airborne Contaminants Hotel Saga ’ Reykjavik, Iceland October 4-8, 1993 DT I C_ F. ELECTE...EDITIONS ARE OBSOLETE DEC 91 International Symposium On The Ecological Effects ofArctic Airborne Contaminants Accesion For Hotel Saga * Reykjavik, Iceland...foregoing effect might be most significant in the Arctic and Antarctic. Mt. McKinley in the twilight sky, taken from Fairbanks, Alaska, just below the

  18. Navigational efficiency of nocturnal Myrmecia ants suffers at low light levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendra

    Full Text Available Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available.

  19. A transient event in AD 775 reported by al-Tabari: A bolide - not a nova, supernova, or kilonova

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Given that the cause for the strong increase in 14C in AD 774/5 in Japanese and German trees is still a matter of debate (e.g. short Gamma-Ray Burst or solar super-flare), we have searched in Arabic chronicles for reports about unusual transient celestial events. In the {\\em History of al-Tabari we found two (almost identical) reports about such an event. The group around caliph al-Mansur observed a transient event while on the way from Baghdad to Mecca on AD 775 Aug 29 - Sep 1 (Julian calendar), most probably during the morning twilight of AD 775 Aug 29. A celestial object kawkab was seen to fall or set inqadda, and its trace atharuhu was seen for at least tens of minutes (up to 70-90 min) during morning twilight. The reports use the Arabic words kawkab and athar(uhu), which were also used in the known Arabic reports about supernovae SN 1006 and 1054, so that one might consider an interpretation as a nova-like event. The kawkab (celestial object) was observed only during the morning twilight at a brightness ...

  20. Self Validation of Radiance Measurements from the CERES (TRMM)Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Priestley, Kory J.

    1999-01-01

    Eight continuous months of earth-nadir-viewing radiance measurements from the 3-channel Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM,) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometric measurement instrument, have been analyzed. While previous remote sensing satellites, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) covered all subsets of the broadband radiance spectrum (total, longwave and shortwave.) CERES has two subset channels (window and shortwave) which do not give continuous frequency coverage over the total band. Previous experience with ERBE indicated the need for us to model the equivalent daytime longwave radiance using a window channel regression, which will allow us to validate the performance of the instrument using a three-channel inter-comparison. Limiting our consideration to the fixed azimuth plane, cross-track, scanning mode (FAPS), each nadir-viewing measurement was averaged into three subjective categories called daytime, nighttime, and twilight. Daytime was defined as any measurement taken when the solar zenith angle (SZA) was less than 90 ; nighttime was taken to be any measurement where the SZA was greater than 117 ; and twilight was everything else. Our analysis indicates that there are only two distinct categories of nadir-view data; daytime, and non-daytime (i.e., the union of the nighttime and twilight sets); and that the CERES longwave radiance is predictable to an accuracy of 1%, based on the SZA, and window channel measurements.

  1. Effects of the El Chichon volcanic cloud in the stratosphere on the intensity of light from the sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, K L

    1983-08-01

    This is the second of two papers dealing with the effects of volcanic debris from the eruption of El Chichon on light from the sunlit sky. The polarization of skylight was considered in the first of the two, whereas this one is devoted to skylight intensity. It is shown here that the magnitude of the skylight intensity is modified very significantly from its clear sky value by the volcanic cloud, as is its change with solar depression angle during twilight and its distribution over the sky during the day. Emphasis is on measurements at a wavelength of 0.07 microm. Generally the volcanic cloud produces a diminution of zenith intensity during twilight with a considerable enhancement of intensity over the sky throughout the main part of the day. The solar aureole is not as sharp as it is in normally clear conditions, but the volcanic cloud causes a very diffuse type of aureole which covers a large portion of the sky. The preferential scattering of the longer wavelengths of sunlight, which is made evident by brilliant red and yellow colors in the sunrise period, causes a pronounced change of longwave/shortwave color ratios during twilight from their values in clear atmospheric conditions. The combination of intensity data shown here with polarization data in the previous paper should give a relatively complete picture of the effects of volcanic debris on solar radiation in the atmosphere and be useful in the verification of radiative transfer models of atmospheric turbidity.

  2. Why aye-ayes see blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Moritz, Gillian L; Fosbury, Robert A E; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-01

    The capacity for cone-mediated color vision varies among nocturnal primates. Some species are colorblind, having lost the functionality of their short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) opsin pigment gene. In other species, such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), the SWS1 gene remains intact. Recent studies focused on aye-ayes indicate that this gene has been maintained by natural selection and that the pigment has a peak sensitivity (lambda(max)) of 406 nm, which is -20 nm closer to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum than in most primates. The functional significance behind the retention and unusual lambda(max) of this opsin pigment is unknown, and it is perplexing given that all mammals are presumed to be colorblind in the dark. Here we comment on this puzzle and discuss recent findings on the color vision intensity thresholds of terrestrial vertebrates with comparable optics to aye-ayes. We draw attention to the twilight activities of aye-ayes and report that twilight is enriched in short-wavelength (bluish) light. We also show that the intensity of twilight and full moonlight is probably sufficient to support cone-mediated color vision. We speculate that the intact SWS1 opsin pigment gene of aye-ayes is a crepuscular adaptation and we report on the blueness of potential visual targets, such as scent marks and the brilliant blue arils of Ravenala madagascariensis.

  3. 美学区域种植体颊侧骨板开窗穿通的发生率:锥形束计算机断层扫描研究%Incidence of Implant Buccal Plate Fenestration in the Esthetic Zone: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsun-Liang Chan; Carlos Garaicoa-Pazmino; Fernando Suarez; Alberto Monje; Erika Benavides; Tae-Ju Oh; Hom-Lay Wang; 董凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:本次锥形束计算机断层扫描(CBCT)实验的目的是通过在上颌切牙位置虚拟植入种植体来研究颊侧骨壁开窗穿通的发生率及相关的危险因素.材料和方法:上颌中切牙或侧切牙缺失,需要植入单颗种植体的患者被纳入.按照同名牙的轴向在缺牙区虚拟植入根形种植体(中切牙及侧切牙分别为4mm×12mm和3.5mm×12mm).颊舌向上,种植体放置在理想的义齿舌侧隆突位置.记录牙槽嵴(RA)及种植体(IA)与硬腭的角度和颊侧开窗穿通的发生率.结果:一共分析了48个CBCT扫描图像,平均RA和IA角度分别为124.32°及110.91°.9个病例出现颊侧开窗穿通,相当于占总病例数的18.75%.在穿通区域,RA与IA的差异(19.93°)显著大于未穿通区域(13.05°).牙槽嵴的颊侧倒凹深度在穿通区域(4.79mm)要显著大于未穿通区域(3.40mm).结论:本研究的结果显示,如果将种植体在舌隆突位点按照修复体长轴方向植入,那么颊侧穿通较为普遍(将近20%).

  4. 农牧交错带土地荒漠化动态景观格局分析-以靖边县杨桥畔镇为例%Dynamic Changes of Landscape Pattern during Desertification in Agriculture and Pasturage Interlaced Zone-A Case Study in Yangqiaopan Township

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈佳; 常庆瑞; 王耀宗

    2011-01-01

    By using the interpretation results of remote sensing images of 1980s(aerial photo), 1990s(spot), and 2007(alos), the dynamic changes of landscape pattern during the desertification in Yangqiaopan Township during 1980s-2007. The results showed that the desertification area appeared a tendency of increasing first and then decreasing, during the study period. The number of desertification patches congregated and expanded, while the landscape of sandy desertifieation was becoming more fragmented. Fortunately, the degree of the sandy desertification had manifested declining, because the severe desertification area had decreased by 1 246. 5 hm2 and the moderate desertification was taken in the leading position rather than severe desertification. But slight and moderate desertification had to be faced potential danger that may convert to severe desertification due to human activities and drought climate. Landscape diversity and evenness increased, and the shapes of heavy desertification patches tended to be simple,while the light, moderate ones tended to be complex, thus, the light and moderate desertifieation area could be more easily affected by human being.%以20世纪80年代航片、90年代SPOT和2007年ALOS遥感图像为主要数据源,利用景观生态学方法定量分析小尺度区域20世纪80年代初期至2007年间土地荒漠化及其变化状况.结果表明;(1)研究时段内,研究区土地荒漠化面积呈先增后减趋势,总荒漠化面积减少1 246.5hm2,中度和轻度荒漠化土地面积分别增加2 247.1 hm2 和1 236.1 hm2,严重荒漠化土地面积减少4 729.7 hm2,荒漠化主导类型由严重荒漠化转变为中度荒漠化,荒漠化程度有所减轻;(2)区域景观多样性和均匀性指数上升,轻度、中度荒漠化景观的边缘密度越来越高,边缘效应逐渐增大;(3)各荒漠化景观斑块数量呈增加趋势,斑块平均面积指数减小,景观破碎化程度明显增高,景观类型呈离散型分布;(4)研究区严重荒漠化景现形状趋于简单,轻度、中度荒漠化土地景观形状指数变得越来越低,斑块形状趋于复杂,易受周边景观和人类活动的影响.

  5. Functional regionalization with the restriction of ecological shelter zones: A case of Zhaotong in Yunnan%生态屏障约束下的综合功能区划研究——以云南省昭通市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜瑜; 王传胜; 赵海英; 杨晓光

    2007-01-01

    Ecological shelter zones reconstruction is an ecosystem restoration and conservation project aimed to the ecological safety of nations, regions and basins. Reconstruction of ecological shelter zones of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River became one of the most important tasks of Western Development strategy. This article, taking Zhaotong as an example, studies the functional regionalization of ecological shelter zones. The study supplies a case for functional regionalization of small and medium regions whose main tasks are environment reservation. With the guidance of theories of functional regionalization, and based on the analysis of Zhaotong's natural, ecological and socioeconomic factors, the paper suggests five principles for factors selection. These principles include: (1) reversing order evaluation; (2) selecting main factors; (3) keeping the integrality of administrative regions of towns; and (4) making the products acceptable by local government. To analyze spatial status of selected factors, LUCC data in 2002,1:50,000 relief maps and town-unit socioeconomic statistical data in 2004 are used. RS and GIS tools are also applied to melt traditional and modern geographical methods. This would be useful to functional regionalization research in mountainous areas. As a conclusion, the leading functional regions of ecological conservation or economic development are suggested, respectively. Zhaotong city is divided into two-level functional regions. The first-level includes three leading functional regions and they will lead developing direction of sub-regions. The second-level includes eight sub-regions, which are policy implemented regions, and will supply guidance to Zhaotong's ecological shelter zones reconstruction.

  6. Spacial Functional Zoning in City Area Based on Major Function Oriented Zoning: A Case in Huaihua City%基于主体功能区划背景的市域空间功能区划研究——以湖南省怀化市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟高峥

    2011-01-01

    基于主体功能区划的背景,以湖南省怀化市为例,从生态环境敏感性和社会经济发展潜力两方面构建评价指标体系,利用GIS空间分析技术,对怀化市生态环境敏感性和社会经济发展潜力进行综合评价,在此基础上利用判别矩阵分类方法,将怀化市空间功能区划分为重点开发区、适度开发区、适度保护区、限制开发区和禁止开发区等五大类型区.可为其它同类型市域功能区划提供典型参考.

  7. 浅析水库保护区内的小城镇规划建设思路--以北京市密云县太师屯镇为例%Analysis of the Planning and Construction of the Small Town in Reservoir Protection Zone---A Case Study of Taishitun,Miyun County,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,a small town,Taishitun,Miyun County,Beijing is as the case study.This paper mainly present the planning and construction of the small town in reservoir protection zone,including urban development strategies,rural spatial development patterns and spatial layout,village migration,functions and industry layout,the coordinated development of construction land,regional spatial control.%以北京市密云县太师屯镇为例,主要阐述在水库保护区内小城镇的规划建设思路,包括城镇发展策略、村镇空间发展模式与空间布局、迁村并点、村镇职能与产业布局、城乡建设用地协调发展、区域空间规划与管制等内容。

  8. Different multidisciplinary approaches of two traumatic teeth fractures in the esthetic zone:a case report%运用改良牙冠延长术及种植术处理美学区外伤所致残根残冠1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾雪婷; 甄敏; 胡文杰; 刘云松

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this article , different methods to deal with teeth fractures were discussed by presenting a case of traumatic crown-root fracture in the anterior esthetic zone .The traumatic crown-root fracture is a common problem in clinic .When a fracture line locates in close proximity to or below the alveolar bone crest , the fracture most likely involve the junctional epithelium and the connective tissue attachment .This type of fracture becomes a challenge for restorative dentists because it involves biologic , functional , and es-thetic considerations , especially when the fracture occurs in an esthetic area .In this case , a young patient presented with two fractured upper anterior teeth to the Department of Periodontics , Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology .After the comprehensive clinical evaluation , the right central incisor was decided to extract for implant therapy and the right lateral incisor was decided to retain by one modified crown lengthening surgery .The most common technique applied to save a retained root is a clinical crown lengthening procedure .However , the aggressive alveolar bone resection of both target and adjacent teeth to reestablish the bone width and periodontal health may compromise functional and esthetic outcomes .To re-duce loss of excessive osseous tissue during osteotomy procedure , the modified crown lengthening of the right lateral incisor was performed , including minor bone resection and root reshaping .Regarding the right central incisor , the retained root was all located below the alveolar bone crest .The extraction and implant procedure , combined with guided bone graft were performed to avoid the damage to neighbor teeth during traditional restorative therapy and to reshape a preferable buccal contour .At the last visit , the patient was recalled with healthy periodontium , normal tooth function and favorable esthetic results .

  9. Study on the Traffic Characteristic and Development Strategic of Development zone-A Case Study of Urumqi Economic & Technological Development Zone (Toutunhe District)%开发区交通特征与交通发展战略研究-以乌鲁木齐经开区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯洁琼

    2014-01-01

    The Healthy and orderly development of development zone depends on scientific and rational planning, making strategic planning timely and effective will laid a foundation for the development of development zone. In the paper, a case study of the Urumqi Economic & Technological Development Zone, analyzing traffic characteristic comprehensive of development zone, then give the content of traffic strategic planning, providing the reference for traffic strategic planning and management of development zone.%开发区的健康有序发展取决于科学合理的规划,能及时有效的制定交通发展战略规划将为开发区发展奠定良好基础。本文以乌鲁木齐经济技术开发区为例,对开发区交通特征进行全面分析,在此基础上提出交通战略规划的内容,为开发区交通战略规划和管理提供借鉴依据。

  10. The Development of Vocational Colleges in Central Plains Economic Zone:A Case Study of Xinxiang Vocational and Technical College%中原经济区的职业院校发展研究--以新乡职业技术学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史静寰; 胡茂波; 张林

    2015-01-01

    Central Plains Economic Zone ,which is composed of the whole Henan ,part of Shandong ,An‐hui ,Hebei and Shanxi ,has an important position in the national strategic plan .Newly established Xinxiang Vocational and Technical College (XVTC) ,located in Xinxiang City ,Henan ,consists of secondary and higher vocational education .Currently ,XVTC is faced with four challenges :the lack of system closely linked with industry sector ;the debt risk resulted by the rapid development ;the biogenic crisis caused by school‐age population decline;bi‐expertise teacher shortage caused by structural supply‐demand imbalance . Thus ,it concludes that XVTC should take the following measures to tackle the challenges :establishing ex‐plicitly functional orientation as service for the economic development of Central Plains Economic Zone ;forming the school system for promoting sustainable human development ;putting forward the depth of government‐school‐enterprise cooperation platform ;resolving the debt risk by diversified financing ;build‐ing featured culture of vocational college to generate brand effect .%中原经济区由豫鲁皖冀晋等五省部分地区组成,在国家战略规划中具有重要的地位。新乡职业技术学院位于中原经济区的河南省新乡市,是一所含中职和高职办学层次的新办职业学校。新乡职业技术学院的发展面临着与行业部门紧密关联的体制缺失,跨越式发展带来的债务风险,入学适龄人口下降带来的生源危机,供求结构失衡带来的“双师型”师资匮乏的挑战。明确服务中原经济区建设的功能定位,形成促进人的可持续发展的办学体系,推动政校企合作平台的深化,多元化融资化解债务风险,打造职业院校特色文化树立品牌效应,是学院应对挑战的积极措施。

  11. Farmers'Perception of Water Resource Shortage and Adaption in Continental River Basin of Arid Zone:A Case of the Middle-lower Reaches of the Shiyang River%干旱区内陆河流域农户对水资源紧缺的感知及适应——以石羊河中下游为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪雁; 薛冰

    2015-01-01

    内陆河流域水资源极为紧缺,理解农户对水资源紧缺的感知及适应策略选择倾向对于制定科学的水资源管理政策至关重要.以石羊河中下游为研究区,基于农户调查数据,分析了农户对水资源紧缺的感知及适应策略,并利用经济计量模型分析了农户的水资源紧缺性感知对其适应策略选择的影响.结果发现:① 农户感知到的水资源紧缺可能性、严重性、适应功效及适应成本均较高,但感知到的自我效能处于中等水平;② 水资源紧缺风险感知与适应功效感知、适应成本感知呈显著正相关,其与自我效能感知虽呈负相关,但并不显著;③ 农户的适应策略多样化指数达2.80,水资源紧缺严重性感知、适应功效感知、适应成本感知及自我效能感知与适应策略多样化指数呈显著正相关;④ 随着风险感知与适应功效感知的增强,农户首选收缩型策略的概率增大,但随着自我效能感知的增强,农户首选收缩型策略的概率降低.最后,提出了增强农户适应能力的对策建议及未来需进一步关注的问题.%In recent years, the farmer's perception of environment change and their adaption strategies has been the research focus of the adaptation domain. Water resource shortage is the most serious environmental prob-lem in the continental river basin of arid zone, it is badly in need of looking for the effective adaptation strate-gies in order to reduce the adverse impact of water resource shortage. Understanding the farmers'perception of water resource shortage and adaption strategy selection is very important to determine the proper adaptation strategy and make scientific water resource management policy. Selecting the middle-lower reaches of the Shi-yang River as the study case and through stratified random sampling survey, participatory rural appraisal and investigation of plots, 367 household are investigated and sampled. Based on the investigation data and the MPPACC (a socio- cognitive model of private proactive adaptation to climate change ) analysis framework which Grothmann and Patt provided, we analyze the farmers'perception of water resource shortage and their adaption strategies, and analyze the impact of the farmers'water resource shortage perception on theirs adap-tion strategies by multiple linear regression model and binary logistic model. The results show:1)These percep-tion index are relatively high which include the farmer's water resource shortage possibility perception, severi-ty perception ,adaption effect and adaption cost perception, the index of these perception is 4.65, 4.69, 4.19 and 4.38,respectively. However, the perception of self-efficacy is middle level and its index is 3.02;2) The rela-tionship between the farmers'water resource shortage risk perception and the adaption effect perception , the adaption cost perception are significant positive correlation, but the relationship between the risk perception and the adaption cost perception is insignificant negative correlation;3)The diversification index of the farm-ers'adaption strategy is 2.80, and the relationship between the diversification index of adaption strategy and the farmers'severity perception ,adaption effect perception, adaption cost perception and self-efficacy percep-tion are significant positive correlation;4) These perceptions which include risk perception, adaption effect perception and self-self-efficacy perception significantly influence the type of first adaption strategy. With the index of risk perception and adaption effect perception strengthening, the probability of prefer choice of con-tract adaption strategy will increase. However, with the index of self-efficacy perception strengthening, the probability of prefer choice of contract adaption strategy will decrease. Finally, we present the measures and proposals about promoting the farmers'adaption ability and some potential improvements in some further re-searches.

  12. Autonomic nervous system activity during acclimatization after rapid air travel across time zones: A case study [Aktivita autonomního nervového systému během aklimatizace po rychlém přeletu časových pásem: Kazuistika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Botek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid transition across time zones also known as jet lag syndrome leads to desynchronization of our endogenous "biological" clock and causes a transient decrease in the adaptation capacity of an athlete. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV method as a tool for classification of the answer of the body to both the rapid transition across time zones and the training intensity level during the following acclimatization. METHODS: Changes in autonomic activity were assessed by SA HRV during acclimatization after eastward (+6 hours and westward (–7 hours flights in two elite athletes. RESULTS: The results revealed that the athlete, who undertook a flight from Prague to Beijing (China, was able to start with intensive training during the fourth day of his acclimatization. No acute decrease in training ability (adaptability was found in the athlete after the flight from Prague to Bogota (Columbia. Significant modifications in her training load level were made only on the third day in Columbia. The study confirmed that the reaction of the body to the rapid transition across time zones is highly individual. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, in the future, the SA HRV method could become a promising tool for solving questions of both the acclimatization strategy and the optimizing of sport performance in elite athletes. [VÝCHODISKA: Vlivem rychlého přesunu přes časová pásma dochází k poruše vnitřních regulací organismu, které mohou být u sportovců příčinou přechodného poklesu jejich tréninkové adaptační kapacity. CÍLE: Cílem práce bylo ověřit možnost využití metody spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV jako nástroje pro hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému (ANS, který se podílí na regulaci těchto změn souvisejících s aklimatizací. METODY: U dvou vrcholových sportovců, kteří absolvovali přelet přes poledníky (jeden východním směrem +6 hodin, druhý západním směrem –7 hodin byly metodou SA HRV monitorovány změny v aktivitě ANS a byl posuzován průběh aklimatizace. VÝSLEDKY: První sportovec, který absolvoval let z Prahy do Pekingu (Čína, mohl začít s intenzivním tréninkem již čtvrtý den po příletu. V druhé případové studii (sportovkyně nebyl bezprostředně po přeletu z Prahy do Bogoty (Kolumbie pozorován žádný aktuální pokles aktivity ANS. K úpravě tréninkového zatížení bylo u této sportovkyně nutné přistoupit až třetí den pobytu. ZÁVĚRY: Práce potvrdila, že reakce organismu na rychlý přesun přes poledníky je založená na změnách aktivity ANS a je individuálně variabilní. Proto se u vrcholových sportovců může v budoucnu stát metoda SA HRV vodítkem při řešení otázky aklimatizační strategie a optimalizace sportovní výkonnosti.

  13. GPS based daily activity patterns in European red deer and North American elk (Cervus elaphus): indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, Erik P; Ciuti, Simone; de Wijs, Freek A L M; Lentferink, Dennis H; Ten Hoedt, André; Boyce, Mark S; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-01-01

    Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS) is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus), one in the Netherlands (red deer), the other in Canada (elk). GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands) or after sunrise (Canada) and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale) and local weather (on an annual scale). In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in) light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent.

  14. GPS based daily activity patterns in European red deer and North American elk (Cervus elaphus: indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P Ensing

    Full Text Available Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus, one in the Netherlands (red deer, the other in Canada (elk. GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands or after sunrise (Canada and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale and local weather (on an annual scale. In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent.

  15. Atmospheric transmission and thermal background emission in the mid-infrared at Mauna Kea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otárola, A.; Richter, M.; Packham, C.; Chun, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present results of a preliminary study intended to quantitatively estimate the atmospheric transmission and thermal background emission in the mid-infrared (MIR), 7 μm - 26 μm, at the 13N TMT site in Mauna Kea. This is in the interest of supporting the planning of MIR instrumentation for the posible second-generation of astronomical instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project. Mauna Kea, located at high altitude (4,050 m above sea level), enjoys natural conditions that make it an outstanding location for astronomical observations in the mid-infrared. The goal of this work is to produce a dataset and model that shows the atmospheric transmission and thermal emission for two cases of precipitable water vapor (PWV), a low value of 0.3 mm, and at 1.5 mm which represent near median conditions at the site. Besides, and driven by the interest of the MIR community to exploit the daily twilight times, we look at the specific atmospheric conditions around twilight as a function of season. The best conditions are found for cold and dry winter days, and in particular the morning twilight offers the best conditions. The analysis of PWV data, shows the median value for the site (all year conditions between 6:00 PM and 7:30AM) is 1.8 mm and that periods of water vapor lower than 1.0 mm are common, these supports the opportunity and discovery potential of the TMT project in the mid-infrared bands.

  16. Hämaruse poolt, pimeduse vastu! / Asko Künnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnap, Asko

    2005-01-01

    Kuni 17. VII A-galeriis avatud näitusest "Hämarus", Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Firenze Kaasaegse Ehtekooli Alchimia koostööprojektist, mida 15.-18. IX eksponeeritakse Firenzes. Näituse on koostanud Manfred Bischoff ja Kadri Mälk. Eestit esindavad Merle Kasonen, Kati Kotselainen, Bruno Lillemets, Marita Lind, Birgit Marjundi, Maarja Niinemägi, Julia-Maria Pihlak, Anne Reinberg, Kertu Tuberg, külalisena Marko Nautras ja Jaanus Samma. Näitusega paralleelselt koostati album "Twilight" (tekst: K. Mälk, Ly Lestberg, Harry Liivrand)

  17. Lunar atmospheric H2 detections by the LAMP UV spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Cook, Jason C.; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the detection of H2 as seen in our analysis of twilight observations of the lunar atmosphere observed by the LAMP instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Using a large amount of data collected on the lunar atmosphere between September 2009 and March 2013, we have detected and identified, the presence of H2 in the native lunar atmosphere, for the first time. We derive a surface density for H2 of 1.2 ± 0.4 × 103 cm-3 at 120 K. This is about 10 times smaller than originally predicted, and several times smaller than previous upper limits from the Apollo era data.

  18. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  19. All Sky Camera instrument for night sky monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mandat, Dusan; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Travnicek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Ebr, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as an universal device for a monitoring of the night sky quality and night sky background measurement. ASC system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical twilight. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds), night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec2) and light background in the field of view of the camera. The analysis of the cloud fraction is based on the astrometry (comparison to catalogue positions) of the observed stars.

  20. Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Sjöbergh, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012-31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.-04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.-10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark-daylight, dark-twilight, and twilight-daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their

  1. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1963-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 2 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of six chapters and begins with a summary of observational record on twilight extensions of the Venus cusps. The next chapter deals with the common and related properties of binary stars, with emphasis on the evaluation of their cataclysmic variables. Cataclysmic variables refer to an object in one of three classes: dwarf nova, nova, or supernova. These topics are followed by discussions on the eclipse phenomena and the eclipses i

  2. Oil and the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1948-63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialer, Uri [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    1999-07-01

    The book traces Israel's efforts to ensure a regular supply of oil. Part I of the book entitled The Eclipse of Haifa, addresses fuel supply and demand in Mandatory Palestine, the twilight of British rule, the 1948 war, international oil diplomacy and war, cutting the losses, and legal readjustment between Israel and the oil companies. Part II entitled Between Moscow and Tehran examines the establishment of the Delek Oil Company, alternative sources such as Venezuela and Kuwait, the implications of oil supply agreements with the Soviet Union, the possibility of purchasing Iranian oil, the departure of the oil companies, and the Eilat connection. (UK)

  3. Flouting the law: Vigilante justice and regional autonomy on the Indonesian border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    After the Asian Economic Crisis in 1997 and the fall of president Suharto’s authoritarian regime in 1998, rural and urban Indonesia experienced a surge in vigilante killings and the rise of non-state forms of authorities working within the twilight of legality and illegality, catering the role...... been waxing and waning and contested. This paper argues that by observing these processes of ‘lawlessness’ and vigilantism from the borderlands provides us with an exceptional window in understanding the ambiguous relationship between law and order in post-New Order Indonesia....

  4. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-28

    leadership capability and rhetoric talent." On Mengistu’s path to rule, he related that during the twilight period of Emperor Haile Selassie , there was a...p5B [Interview with Kasa Kavadä, adviser and friend of Ethiopian ruler Lieutenant Colonel Haile -Mariam Mengistu, by Rahamim El’azar, as told to Aryeh... Hailing Mr V.P. Singh as the messiah of the poor and the downtrodden, next only to the Buddha and Mahavir Jain, the Chief Minister on behalf of

  5. A Moment Frozen in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    On May 19th, 2005, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this stunning view as the Sun sank below the rim of Gusev crater on Mars. This Panoramic Camera (Pancam) mosaic was taken around 6:07 in the evening of the rover's 489th martian day, or sol. Spirit was commanded to stay awake briefly after sending that sol's data to the Mars Odyssey orbiter just before sunset. This small panorama of the western sky was obtained using Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer color filters. This filter combination allows false color images to be generated that are similar to what a human would see, but with the colors slightly exaggerated. In this image, the bluish glow in the sky above the Sun would be visible to us if we were there, but an artifact of the Pancam's infrared imaging capabilities is that with this filter combination the redness of the sky farther from the sunset is exaggerated compared to the daytime colors of the martian sky. Because Mars is farther from the Sun than the Earth is, the Sun appears only about two-thirds the size that it appears in a sunset seen from the Earth. The terrain in the foreground is the rock outcrop 'Jibsheet,' a feature that Spirit has been investigating for several weeks (rover tracks are dimly visible leading up to 'Jibsheet'). The floor of Gusev crater is visible in the distance, and the Sun is setting behind the wall of Gusev some 80 km (50 miles) in the distance. This mosaic is yet another example from MER of a beautiful, sublime martian scene that also captures some important scientific information. Specifically, sunset and twilight images are occasionally acquired by the science team to determine how high into the atmosphere the martian dust extends, and to look for dust or ice clouds. Other images have shown that the twilight glow remains visible, but increasingly fainter, for up to two hours before sunrise or after sunset. The long martian twilight (compared to Earth's) is caused by sunlight scattered

  6. "Churyumov Unified Network": New, Important Tasks for Astronomical Observatories to Protect Society in the Era of Modern Hybrid Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Dashkiev, N. G.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Stepakhno, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Authors created and provided the operation of the first version of the "Bolide Network of Churyumov" for continuous recording of twilight and daytime traces of aerial and aerospace intrusions over Kiev and Kiev district during 2013-2016. A total of more than 36000 copyright photos was obtained, their classification was carried out and the first database was created. The authors recorded typical space invading meteoroids, comets nucleus fragments and traces of aerial intrusions, signs of which, as a rule, are observed at lower altitudes comparing with typical space invasions.

  7. Hämaruse poolt, pimeduse vastu! / Asko Künnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnap, Asko

    2005-01-01

    Kuni 17. VII A-galeriis avatud näitusest "Hämarus", Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Firenze Kaasaegse Ehtekooli Alchimia koostööprojektist, mida 15.-18. IX eksponeeritakse Firenzes. Näituse on koostanud Manfred Bischoff ja Kadri Mälk. Eestit esindavad Merle Kasonen, Kati Kotselainen, Bruno Lillemets, Marita Lind, Birgit Marjundi, Maarja Niinemägi, Julia-Maria Pihlak, Anne Reinberg, Kertu Tuberg, külalisena Marko Nautras ja Jaanus Samma. Näitusega paralleelselt koostati album "Twilight" (tekst: K. Mälk, Ly Lestberg, Harry Liivrand)

  8. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  9. A comparison of traffic estimates of nocturnal flying animals using radar, thermal imaging, and acoustic recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Kyle G; Shriver, W Gregory; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-01

    There are several remote-sensing tools readily available for the study of nocturnally flying animals (e.g., migrating birds), each possessing unique measurement biases. We used three tools (weather surveillance radar, thermal infrared camera, and acoustic recorder) to measure temporal and spatial patterns of nocturnal traffic estimates of flying animals during the spring and fall of 2011 and 2012 in Lewes, Delaware, USA. Our objective was to compare measures among different technologies to better understand their animal detection biases. For radar and thermal imaging, the greatest observed traffic rate tended to occur at, or shortly after, evening twilight, whereas for the acoustic recorder, peak bird flight-calling activity was observed just prior to morning twilight. Comparing traffic rates during the night for all seasons, we found that mean nightly correlations between acoustics and the other two tools were weakly correlated (thermal infrared camera and acoustics, r = 0.004 ± 0.04 SE, n = 100 nights; radar and acoustics, r = 0.14 ± 0.04 SE, n = 101 nights), but highly variable on an individual nightly basis (range = -0.84 to 0.92, range = -0.73 to 0.94). The mean nightly correlations between traffic rates estimated by radar and by thermal infrared camera during the night were more strongly positively correlated (r = 0.39 ± 0.04 SE, n = 125 nights), but also were highly variable for individual nights (range = -0.76 to 0.98). Through comparison with radar data among numerous height intervals, we determined that flying animal height above the ground influenced thermal imaging positively and flight call detections negatively. Moreover, thermal imaging detections decreased with the presence of cloud cover and increased with mean ground flight speed of animals, whereas acoustic detections showed no relationship with cloud cover presence but did decrease with increased flight speed. We found sampling methods to be positively correlated when comparing mean nightly

  10. Breaking and catching feminism: female roles in literature for young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gyløien, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I investigate female roles in literature for young adults, taking a comparative approach to a number of the most popular and bestselling works in recent times, The Twilight Series (2005-2008) by Stephenie Meyer and The Hunger Games (2008-2010) by Suzanne Collins. The thesis will open with a brief historical overview of the history of feminism followed by a descriptive summary of the origins and developments of children’s literature/ young adult literature in the United States....

  11. Human Factors Engineering. A Self-Paced Text, Lessons 6-10,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    saga of his super chopper. Eager presented to the manager some of the very problems you’ve had to deal with in the last several lessons. Their talk...in the continuing saga (soap opera?) of I. M. Eager. As you recall from the last few lessons, Eager was dreaming that he had de- signed a perfect...importance of some of the things Captain B. Smart had been saying about Human Factors Engineering. As twilight set in, Eager realized that in lis rush to

  12. Cold-Weather Engineering, Chapters 1 to 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    catastrophe .struck. The -colony was „Äpejl_S!jt,._,. Nearly; .’{two_c.§Äuries..passed,, while •Greenland drifted infcö/.ä land’ of myth and saga « . ’Ccnm...ing up’ "ot the -Northeast, pas saga would provide m. .outlet for furs-,, -täiber,, etc.» already bet- ing produced in Siberia-, Before, he died in...rays, striking at ä low angle,, folio.,-. % curved path through, the dense, air^nea-r the •surface of the. earth.. Twilight , therefore.,, is

  13. War on Film: Military History Education. Video tapes, Motion Pictures, and Related Audiovisual Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    ultimately leading them into war anl their own r truction as a people. This film traces their tragic saga . 1).4. Navy Decline, the New Navy and the War With...stolen from us. We never touched a pen. We never sold our land. It was stolen." This is the tragic but heroic saga of Indian-United States relations as it...war as it was experienced by the foot soliiers, in Vietnam. The story vitews a twilight amibush by the Vietcong, a dawn raid by Marines, the death of’ a

  14. Robust Flight Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    30C 153 GO TC 293.3 ___34:463 CALL llS(CT.KStCCICO3y~zooO 1c 33. IwMAv1hN3,osCqUM0,WINE WFqFT,8T qGToHT 0OTR9,.1 I Prt𔄃.9~ff. ,OPI’XgUX , SAGA ,OA...Aeronautical Engineering Department. Permanent Address: 3221 Twilight Court, #103 Topeka, Kansas 66109 4.5 II ," ., , . .., . . ,. ,.- ., . , , ’% . ~ -w

  15. Campaigns and Operations: Selected Bibliographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    D769.295 Cronin, Francis D. Under the Southern Cross: the Saga of the .A5C7 Americal Division. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1951. 432 pp. (See...341-389; see also index: Leyte) v.5 D)769.295 Cronin, lFrancis D. Under the Southern Cross; The Saga of the Americal .A5C7 Division. Washington: Combat...1964. 392 pp. (See pages 269-305, General Erich Ludendorff) I)K260 Charques, Richard I). ’he Twilight of Imperial Russia. London: Oxford .C37

  16. Effects of Land Use Change on the Ecosystem Service Value in Ecologically Fragile Zones:A Case Study of Beipan River Grand Canyon National Wetland Park%生态脆弱区土地利用变化对生态系统服务价值的影响——以贵州北盘江大峡谷国家湿地公园为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 刘祥宏; 但新球; 刘世好; 吴照柏

    2015-01-01

    以贵州北盘江大峡谷国家湿地公园为研究对象,基于实地调查和ArcGIS探讨了湿地公园规划建设前后土地利用变化对生态系统服务价值的影响,并对影响生态系统服务价值的关键因素进行敏感性分析.结果表明:湿地公园规划建设前后,研究区林地面积大量增加,耕地和其他土地面积减少,导致生态系统总服务价值由15520.71万元增加到16857.40万元,增幅达8.61%;敏感性分析结果均小于1,表明生态系统服务价值具有稳健性.

  17. Distribution of H2 in the Lunar Exosphere from LAMP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Dana; Retherford, Kurt; Cook, Jason; Grava, Cesare; Greathouse, Thomas; Gladstone, Randy; Stern, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) has been detected in the Moon’s exosphere. It was identified spectrally during the LCROSS impact plume (Gladstone et al., 2010). Then it was found in LAMP data from the nominal exosphere (Stern et al., 2013). We examine the distribution of H2 in the lunar exosphere using a Monte Carlo model and data from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) FUV imaging spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LAMP observations made in twilight, i.e., through illuminated exosphere, but with a footprint on the nightside of the Moon, are routinely made with LRO. However, during times when the beta angle of the orbit is close to beta=90°, a great portion of the nightside orbit is in the twilight viewing geometry. Using data from just behind the terminator on the post-dusk and pre-dawn sides, we compile a cumulative spectrum throughout LAMP’s bandpass. A dawn/dusk asymmetry is detected in the H2 abundance. Modeling is used to decipher the release mechanism and source distribution of diatomic hydrogen that best fits the observations. We examine the source rate and the total mass of the H2 exosphere consistent with the observations.

  18. PSC and volcanic aerosol routine observations in Antarctica by UV-visible ground-based spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1994-01-01

    Polar statospheric clouds (PSC) and stratospheric aerosol can be observed by ground-based UV-visible spectrometry by looking at the variation of the color of the sky during twilight. A radiative transfer model shows that reddenings are caused by high altitude (22-28 km) thin layers of scatterers, while low altitude (12-20 km) thick ones result in blueings. The color index method applied on 4 years of observations at Dumont d'Urville (67 deg S), from 1988 to 1991, shows that probably because the station is located at the edge of the vortex, dense PSC are uncommon. More unexpected is the existence of a systematic seasonal variation of the color of the twilight sky - bluer at spring - which reveals the formation of a dense scattering layer at or just above the tropopause at the end of the winter. Large scattering layers are reported above the station in 1991, first in August around 12-14 km, later in September at 22-24 km. They are attributed to volcanic aerosol from Mt Hudson and Mt Pinatubo respectively, which erupted in 1991. Inspection of the data shows that the lowest entered rapidly into the polar vortex but not the highest which remained outside, demonstrating that the vortex was isolated at 22-26 km.

  19. Seasonal and Diel Activity Patterns of Eight Sympatric Mammals in Northern Japan Revealed by an Intensive Camera-Trap Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Uchida, Kenta; Matsuura, Yukiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kaji, Koichi; Koizumi, Itsuro

    2016-01-01

    The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight), and cathemeral (active throughout the day). These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i.e., two years. Diel activity patterns were clearly divided into four categories: diurnal (Eurasian red squirrels), nocturnal (raccoon dogs and raccoons), crepuscular (sika deer and mountain hares), and cathemeral (Japanese martens, red foxes, and brown bears). Some crepuscular and cathemeral mammals shifted activity peaks across seasons. Particularly, sika deer changed peaks from twilight during spring–autumn to day-time in winter, possibly because of thermal constraints. Japanese martens were cathemeral during winter–summer, but nocturnal in autumn. We found no clear indication of predator-prey and competitive interactions, suggesting that animal densities are not very high or temporal niche partitioning is absent among the target species. This long-term camera-trap survey was highly cost-effective and provided one of the most detailed seasonal and diel activity patterns in multiple sympatric mammals under natural conditions. PMID:27732611

  20. To understand and manage the digestive radiation injuries: importance of the mucous reaction and new therapy orientations; Apprehender et gerer les lesions radiques digestives: importance de la reaction muqueuse et nouvelles orientations therapeutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A

    2007-09-15

    Actually the radiotherapy that concerns 50% of anti tumoral treatments is accompanied by side effects. The evolution of this therapy turns towards the limitation of the early effects but also the delayed effects in order to improve the quality of life of patients. The first answer was to reduce the radiation doses and the irradiated volume. Three directions are to be kept in mind concerning the digestive tissues: Fight against the break of the epithelial homeostasis by increasing the pool of cells before irradiation and by facilitating the processes of restoration and epithelial regeneration by the stimulation of the proliferation of the cells of progenitor compartments; Fight against the phenotype changes of the cells, and more globally against the cellular activation and its consequences: activation of the vascular endothelium and the initiation of the inflammatory and thrombosis processes; activation of the vascular smooth muscular cells and stenosis; oxidative stress and tissue hypoxia; recruitment and activation of the mesenchyme cells and matrix unbalance; to consider the global nature of the secondary effects, and become aware that there is, besides the physical twilight connected to the irradiation configuration, a biological twilight, that is to say a potential repercussion of the irradiation effects out of the field, on the global nature of an organ even an organism, and this in the therapy and accident configurations. (N.C.)

  1. Light-dependent genetic and phenotypic differences in the squat lobster Munida tenuimana (Crustacea: Decapoda) along deep continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, J.; Costa, C.; Ketmaier, V.; Angelini, C.; Antonucci, F.; Menesatti, P.; Company, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    The levels of environmental light experienced by organisms during the behavioral activity phase deeply influence the performance of important ecological tasks. As a result, their shape and coloring may experience a light-driven selection process via the day-night rhythmic behavior. In this study, we tested the phenotypic and genetic variability of the western Mediterranean squat lobster (Munida tenuimana). We sampled at depths with different photic conditions and potentially, different burrow emergence rhythms. We performed day-night hauling at different depths, above and below the twilight zone end (i.e., 700 m, 1200 m, 1350 m, and 1500 m), to portray the occurrence of any burrow emergence rhythmicity. Collected animals were screened for shape and size (by geometric morphometry), spectrum and color variation (by photometric analysis), as well as for sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA gene encoding for the NADH dehydrogenase subunit I. We found that a weak genetic structuring and shape homogeneity occurred together with significant variations in size, with the smaller individuals living at the twilight zone inferior limit and the larger individuals above and below. The infra-red wavelengths of spectral reflectance varied significantly with depth while the blue-green ones were size-dependent and expressed in smaller animals, which has a very small spectral reflectance. The effects of solar and bioluminescence lighting are discussed as depth-dependent evolutionary forces likely influencing the behavioral rhythms and coloring of M. tenuimana.

  2. Fifty shades of exploitation: Fan labor and Fifty Shades of Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploration of the debates that have taken place in fandom over the ethics of pulling fan fiction and publishing it as original work draws on the notion of the fannish gift economy, which postulates that gifts such as fan fiction and fan art have value in the fannish community because they are designed to create and cement its social structure. Tension exists between fans who subscribe to the notion of a fannish gift economy and those who exploit fandom by using it to sell their pulled-to-publish works. An examination of E. L. James's 2012 Fifty Shades trilogy (comprising the books Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker, and Fifty Shades Freed, which began as Twilight fan fiction, in addition to Twilight fan art sold through sites such as Redbubble and Etsy, demonstrates a tension between the two modes of fan expression: sale of artworks appears to be an acceptable practice in fandom, but the commercial sale of fan fic, even when marketed as original fiction, is widely contested.

  3. Itinerari d’esilio, nel nome del Padre. Desde los blancos manicomios di Margarita Mateo Palmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scarabelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available These are the signs that mark Margarita Mateo Palmer’s novel. This writing from the asylum challenges the preludes to immobility evoked by a place of order and restraint, thus enabling the emergence of a series of paths, which manage to shake the broken identity of the protagonist, Gelsomina, and of her time. Those intersections allow reflection on the contemporary Cuban condition, bent by the twilight of the revolutionary ideals, and at the same time to wonder about the human condition, savaged by the centripetal drive of consumerism and disposable worldviews, which are increasingly prone to wipe out any desiring tension in favour of magical objects of pleasure, hollow and ephemeral pret a porter [1] simulacra.This paper aims to analyse the narrative structure of the novel by means of the tools offered by Massimo Recalcati’s interpretation of Lacan’s psychoanalysis. Particular attention will be devoted to the interplay between the protagonists, who embody clinical figures and also symbolise different dimensions of contemporary Cuban experience. [1] This reading of the twilight of ideologies and of the vaporization of the Name of the Father is indebted to Massimo Recalcati’s thought (2010; 2011.

  4. Effect of light intensity on food detection in captive great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A

    2014-11-01

    Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  5. Perché piacciono maghi e vampiri: letteratura, cognitivismo, controfattualità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Calabrese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recenti test sul potenziale socio-cognitivo e il valore edonico di testi letterari che utilizzano elementi magici rivelano come la controfattualità costituisca una ‘palestra mentale’ per i lettori: essi apprendono a elaborare spiegazioni causali complesse e incrementano i fattori coinvolti nel costituirsi della coesione sociale, sia nel caso di lettori young adult sia nel caso di lettori adulti. Lo psicologo Eugene Subbotsky ha dimostrato che la magia ci rende più sensibili alle operazioni di Teoria della Mente e socialmente empatici, mentre un gruppo di narratologi ha di recente misurato i tempi di riassorbimento della dissonanza cognitiva prodotta dall'elemento magico: ciò riesce fra l'altro a spiegare il grande successo di Harry Potter e della saga di Twilight. Recent tests on the social and cognitive potential and the hedonistic value of literary texts that use magic elements show how counterfactuality is a kind of ‘mental training’ for readers: they learn to formulate complex causal explanations and involve more factors in the constitution of social cohesion, both in the case of young adults and adult readers. The psychologist Eugene Subbotsky showed that magic makes us more sensitive to Theory of Mind acts and more socially empathic, and a group of narratologists recently measured the resolution time of cognitive dissonance induced by magical elements: this also explain the great success of the Harry Potter and Twilight sagas.

  6. Four Years of Simultaneous Observations of Noctilucent Clouds and Mesospheric Summer Echoes at a Mid-Latitude Site (Kühlungsborn/Germany, 54°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerding, M.; Zoellner, J.; Zecha, M.; Luebken, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region is an intriguing phenomenon that can be observed either optically as Noctilucent Clouds (NLC) / Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) or by radar as (Polar) Mesosphere Summer Echoes ((P)MSE). The relation of both phenomena is well understood and allows insights into atmospheric properties like temperature, humidity, winds, turbulence and electron density. Simultaneous observations of NLC and PMSE require sufficient electron density (for the radar observation) and therefore daylight conditions that may hinder optical observations by lidar. Up to now, simultaneous observations of NLC and PMSE are mainly limited to polar latitudes, while data from mid-latitudes are lacking. Since 2010 we operate a new RMR lidar at our site at Kühlungsborn/Germany (54°N, 12°E). From the best of our knowledge this lidar allows for the first time observations of mid-latitude NLC independent of solar elevation, i.e. during night and day. With our new RMR lidar and the co-located OSWIN radar we are for the first time able to compare the occurrence and altitude structure of NLC and MSE at mid-latitudes. It turns out that the lower edges of simultaneously observed NLC/MSE typically agree, as expected from higher latitudes. Though, the top edge of MSE is observed about 500 m above the NLC edge, indicating the presence of particles being too small to be observed by lidar. Nevertheless, height difference is small compared to the typical layer widths and smaller than observed at higher latitudes. This hints at different size distributions and, by this, different growing conditions at mid-latitudes. We will present a statistical overview on the comparison of simultaneously observed NLC and MSE layers and their main characteristics. Simultaneous NLC and MSE are of additional importance if observed during twilight conditions. The onset or disappearance of MSE during morning and evening twilight is directly related with changing electron

  7. Nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Chichaoua, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2006-02-01

    The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  8. Reality in Virtual Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Frank; Pettersson, Michael

    /1996; "Being and Time"), and the successors Hans-Georg Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur. The work is also inspired of the father of culturalism - Jerome Bruner (1996) and Wenger's (1998) community of practice. Thompson (1997) is an inspiration through his initiator of hermeneutical endeavor within consumer research...... challenges our pedagogical reasoning in many ways. However, old pedagogical models often prevail. We see practices where lectures, notes and course information are published on the Internet, where ICT helps professor-student communication, and online based student tests. These attempts are based on old...... and develop understandings of what it might mean to be a student when learning occurs within a virtual problem based learning landscape. When students are used to the traditional classroom, challenges appear in the twilight zone between two pedagogical practices. How do the students cope with challenges...

  9. Real-time control of the robotic lunar observatory telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.M.; Becker, K.J.; Kieffer, H.H.; Dodd, D.N.

    1999-01-01

    The US Geological Survey operates an automated observatory dedicated to the radiometry of the Moon with the objective of developing a multispectral, spatially resolved photometric model of the Moon to be used in the calibration of Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Interference filters are used with two imaging instruments to observe the Moon in 32 passbands from 350-2500 nm. Three computers control the telescope mount and instruments with a fourth computer acting as a master system to control all observation activities. Real-time control software has been written to operate the instrumentation and to automate the observing process. The observing software algorithms use information including the positions of objects in the sky, the phase of the Moon, and the times of evening and morning twilight to decide how to observe program objects. The observatory has been operating in a routine mode since late 1995 and is expected to continue through at least 2002 without significant modifications.

  10. Light and colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Often a dichotomy between daylight and artificial light is observed, often artificial lighting replaces daylight. In Denmark daylight is characterized partly by being "borrowed" half of the year, partly by having long transitions periods between the light and the dark (nautical and civil twilight......). For these reasons artificial lighting does not complement daylight but provides, coupled with the daylight, the total lighting in the indoor environment. Electric lighting is therefore ‐ in a complex interaction with the daylight ‐ of great importance for both our lighting and our wellbeing. Studying artificial...... lighting without studying daylight seem to be a common procedure of the practice of today in Denmark and other parts of the industrialized world. As a consequence of this artificial lighting suffers from a quantifying tyranny, a tyranny where the quality of light is measured in quantities. This procedure...

  11. Zenith skylight intensity and color during the total solar eclipse of 20 July 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W E; Lloyd, J W; Silverman, S M

    1966-05-01

    The zenith skylight intensity was measured, with a resolution of 10 A, over the wavelength range from 5200 A to 6400 A during a total solar eclipse at Hermon, Maine. The intensity was found to change by about two orders of magnitude in the 2-min period before totality and reached a minimum during totality of 19.5 kR/A at 5200 A. The spectral distribution remained that of the day sky until the sun was more than 99.8% obscured. During totality, the shorter wavelengths were enhanced, indicating a shift to the blue in sky color. Comparisons with an independent measurement from an aircraft show that the intensity scale height of the secondary scattered component, predominating at totality, is significantly less than that of the day sky. The measurements are compared with the day and twilight sky.

  12. Polarimetric method of estimation of vertical aerosol distribution in application to observations of ozone and NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansky, Nikolay F.; Kadyshevich, Elena A.; Savastyuk, Vladimir V.

    1994-01-01

    The degree of polarization of skylight at the zenith during twilight depends on the aerosol content in the atmosphere. The long-term observations at the high-mountain research station 'Kislovodsk' (North Caucasus) have shown that the variation of the degree of polarization after the eruption of the El Chichon volcano can serve as the effective parameter characterizing the vertical aerosol stratification in the atmosphere. The results of the measurements are confirmed by the numerical calculations. The algorithm of the retrieval of the vertical aerosol distribution on the base of the measurements of the degree of polarization is proposed. This method can be applied for the increasing of the precision of O3, NO2, and other gas content measurements.

  13. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible.

  14. Arvustused / Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Mart, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest:Type O Negative "Dead Again", Luv Machine "Turns You On", Loits "Leegion laval", Chrome Hoof "Beyond Zade", Neoandertals "Neoanderthals Were Master Butchers", Deathbound "To Cure The Sane With Insanity", Guardians Of Mankind/Merging Flare "Beyond the Blackhole/Under the Fire", Funeral "From These Wounds", Black Bile "Cloacal Meditation", Furze (Woe J. Reaper) "UTD", Embrace "The Last Embrace", Blut Aus Nord "MoRT", Diskreet "Infernal Rise", Sepia Dreamer "The Sublime", SaraLee "Darkness Between", Urt "Saatanhark", Onslaught "Killing Peace", Paganize "Evolution Hour", Kroda "Fimbulwinter", Scent Of Flesh "Deform In Torture", Zatokrev "Bury the Ashes", Misery Signals "Mirrors", Sarpanitum "Despoilment Of Origin", Umbra Nihil "Gnoia", Saattue "Ikiuneen", Sanctimony "Hell in Stereo", Twilight Ophera "Descension", Year Of Desolation "Year Of Desolation", "Resistance"

  15. Scattered sky observations of stratospheric OCIO at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry L., Jr.; Smith, Joseph; Perliski, Lori M.; Sanders, Ryan W.; Mount, George H.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-02-01

    Ground-based measurements of scattered light were collected in the Antarctic fall, winter, and spring at McMurdo Station during the winter and spring of 1991. These measurements yielded values of the slant column amounts of the dioxides of chlorine and nitrogen found in the stratosphere. Two different viewing schemes were used to collect this data; a zenith viewing mode to collect light scattered from directly overhead, and a new off-axis viewing mode to collect light scattered along a path at 80 degree(s) zenith angle toward the sun. This new viewing geometry allowed measurements to be made much further into twilight and polar winter than was previously possible with only the zenith viewing mode. Results of this analysis showed that OClO levels were very high in late July and early August, declining through September, and dropping below detection levels in early October.

  16. Monster as a Superhero: an Essay on Vampire Vogue in Contemporary Film Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Panjeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.

  17. [The post-modern society as a crisis of the commensality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaletti, María L

    2013-01-01

    From the feeding of overabundance to the clinic of the nourishing disorders' field, there's a change of sign in the present capitalist society here. Now, it tries to show how happen the passage to necessity/hunger-necessity of nutrition to the con-vivial (live with others) metaphor, constituent of human being. The route of human con-vivium, like to be and to live with others, goes from the maternal feeding to the dining habit of the father and the others. However, when the food is within reach of all, the control capacity is usually a distinction sign. It is the twilight of the obesity as sign of power. But when this control gets a dietetic and gymnastic virtuosity, the body pays tribute to itself within the corporal values system and in accordance with the social "Other", that is, with a "culture of the image".

  18. Arvustused / Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Mart, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest:Type O Negative "Dead Again", Luv Machine "Turns You On", Loits "Leegion laval", Chrome Hoof "Beyond Zade", Neoandertals "Neoanderthals Were Master Butchers", Deathbound "To Cure The Sane With Insanity", Guardians Of Mankind/Merging Flare "Beyond the Blackhole/Under the Fire", Funeral "From These Wounds", Black Bile "Cloacal Meditation", Furze (Woe J. Reaper) "UTD", Embrace "The Last Embrace", Blut Aus Nord "MoRT", Diskreet "Infernal Rise", Sepia Dreamer "The Sublime", SaraLee "Darkness Between", Urt "Saatanhark", Onslaught "Killing Peace", Paganize "Evolution Hour", Kroda "Fimbulwinter", Scent Of Flesh "Deform In Torture", Zatokrev "Bury the Ashes", Misery Signals "Mirrors", Sarpanitum "Despoilment Of Origin", Umbra Nihil "Gnoia", Saattue "Ikiuneen", Sanctimony "Hell in Stereo", Twilight Ophera "Descension", Year Of Desolation "Year Of Desolation", "Resistance"

  19. Near Earth Object 2012XJ112 as a source of bright bolides of achondritic nature

    CERN Document Server

    Madiedo, Jose M; Williams, Iwan P; Konovalova, Natalia; Ortiz, Jose L; Castro-Tirado, Alberto; Pastor, Sensi; Reyes, Jose A de los; Cabrera-Caño, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the likely link between the recently discovered Near Earth Object 2012XJ112 and a bright fireball observed over the south of Spain on December 27, 2012. The bolide, with an absolute magnitude of -9 +- 1, was simultaneously imaged during the morning twilight from two meteor stations operated by the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). It was also observed by several casual witnesses. The emission spectrum produced during the ablation of the meteoroid in the atmosphere was also recorded. From its analysis the chemical nature of this particle was inferred. Although our orbital association software identified several potential parent bodies for this meteoroid, the analysis of the evolution of the orbital elements performed with the Mercury 6 symplectic integrator supports the idea that NEO 2012XJ112 is the source of this meteoroid. The implications of this potential association are discussed here. In particular, the meteoroid bulk chemistry is consistent with a basaltic achondrite, and this emphasizes the im...

  20. On the evaluation of air mass factors for atmospheric near-ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliski, Lori M.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of UV-visible twilight absorption measurements of atmospheric chemical constituents is dependent on how well the optical path, or air mass factor, of light collected by the spectrometer is understood. A simple single scattering model and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme have been developed to study the effects of multiple scattering, aerosol scattering, surface albedo and refraction on air mass factors for scattered light observations. At fairly short visible wavelengths (less than about 450 nm), stratospheric air mass factors are found to be relatively insensitive to multiple scattering, surface albedo and refraction, as well as aerosol scattering by background aerosols. Longer wavelengths display greater sensitivity to refraction and aerosol scattering. Tropospheric air mass factors are found to be highly dependent on aerosol scattering, surface albedo and, at long visible wavelengths (about 650 nm), refraction. Absorption measurements of NO2 and O4 are shown to support these conclusions.

  1. Anoxia and export productivity - Resolving the chicken and egg paradox (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Elevated sedimentary organic carbon, pyrite and trace metals (Mo, Re, U, V, I); isotopes of Mo, Fe, S and C; organic biomarkers such as Isorenieratane, are all robust indicators of anoxia, however these proxies do not reveal the causes for low oxygen concentrations in seawater and/or the sediments. Two (not mutually exclusive) mechanisms can lower the oxygen levels in the oceanic water column - stratification and sluggish circulation which result in long residence time of water masses that are not in contact with the atmosphere, and/or increased oxygen consumption by microorganisms in the process of organic matter regeneration (increased export production and regeneration). Marine barite formation in the water column and accumulation in sediments is not sensitive to oxygen content yet they directly respond to organic matter delivery and regeneration within the ocean twilight zone and may shed light on causes of anoxic events in the geological record. Examples from two prominent wide spread anoxic events will be presented.

  2. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  3. Learning and Teaching Entrepreneurship: How Do We Reformulate the Question?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Dreisler, Poul; Kjeldsen, John Ibsen

    and that it should be taught. One problem is that traditional forms of teaching at university and business schools have shown themselves quite inappropriate with respect to enhancing the motivation and compe-tencies of students towards innovation and entrepreneurship. This phenomenon is increasingly dealt......-trepreneurship or about entrepreneurship; another concerns the foundation of teaching - whether it should be based on management theories or based on some not-as-yet-defined the-ory of entrepreneurship and intra-preneurship; a third dilemma is the situating of this educa-tion - should it be placed within the secure...... context of the university auditorium or out in small firms - or should it perhaps situate itself in the twilight between academia and practice; a fourth is whether students should work individually (the heroic Schumpeterian entrepreneur) or collectively (the entrepreneurial network entrepreneur...

  4. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  5. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.; Sweeney, Alison M.

    2016-06-01

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky.

  6. Two methods to forecast auroral displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigernes, Fred; Dyrland, Margit; Brekke, Pål; Chernouss, Sergey; Lorentzen, Dag Arne; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Sterling Deehr, Charles

    2011-10-01

    This work compares the methods by Starkov (1994a) and Zhang & Paxton (2008), that calculate the size and location of the auroral ovals as a function of planetary Kp index. The ovals are mapped in position and time onto a solar illuminated surface model of the Earth. It displays both the night- and dayside together with the location of the twilight zone as Earth rotates under the ovals. The graphical display serves as a tool to forecast auroral activity based on the predicted value of the Kp index. The forecast is installed as a service at http://kho.unis.no/. The Zhang & Paxton (2008) ovals are wider in latitude than the Starkov (1994a) ovals. The nightside model ovals coincide fairly well in shape for low to normal auroral conditions. The equatorward border of the diffuse aurora is well defined by both methods on the nightside for Kp ≤ 7. The dayside needs further studies in order to conclude.

  7. Two methods to forecast auroral displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksavik Kjellmar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the methods by Starkov (1994a and Zhang & Paxton (2008, that calculate the size and location of the auroral ovals as a function of planetary Kp index. The ovals are mapped in position and time onto a solar illuminated surface model of the Earth. It displays both the night- and dayside together with the location of the twilight zone as Earth rotates under the ovals. The graphical display serves as a tool to forecast auroral activity based on the predicted value of the Kp index. The forecast is installed as a service at http://kho.unis.no/. The Zhang & Paxton (2008 ovals are wider in latitude than the Starkov (1994a ovals. The nightside model ovals coincide fairly well in shape for low to normal auroral conditions. The equatorward border of the diffuse aurora is well defined by both methods on the nightside for Kp ≤ 7. The dayside needs further studies in order to conclude.

  8. Centralizing context and culture in the co-construction of health: localizing and vocalizing health meanings in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ambar; Dutta, Mohan J

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of communication scholars have articulated the need for understanding context as a key component of health meanings. In this project, the authors seek to explore the role of context in the domain of health meanings in tribal India. The tribal population in India comprises people who have been consistently isolated and exploited, and stripped of their rights and resources. Interest in their health is propelled by this marginalization and their existence in the twilight of tradition and modernization. This article, through the use of participant narratives and a grounded theory of analysis, aims to lay out how meanings of health are contextually constructed by tribals in India. The results demonstrate the constant pain and hardship that envelop their lives, their pining for structural capabilities, and a dialectical tension between tradition and modernization in the coexistence of multiple treatment options.

  9. Monster as a Superhero: an Essay on Vampire Vogue in Contemporary Film Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Panjeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.

  10. Genomic islands of speciation separate cichlid ecomorphs in an East African crater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milan; Challis, Richard J; Tyers, Alexandra M; Schiffels, Stephan; Terai, Yohey; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Miska, Eric A; Durbin, Richard; Genner, Martin J; Turner, George F

    2015-12-18

    The genomic causes and effects of divergent ecological selection during speciation are still poorly understood. Here we report the discovery and detailed characterization of early-stage adaptive divergence of two cichlid fish ecomorphs in a small (700 meters in diameter) isolated crater lake in Tanzania. The ecomorphs differ in depth preference, male breeding color, body shape, diet, and trophic morphology. With whole-genome sequences of 146 fish, we identified 98 clearly demarcated genomic "islands" of high differentiation and demonstrated the association of genotypes across these islands with divergent mate preferences. The islands contain candidate adaptive genes enriched for functions in sensory perception (including rhodopsin and other twilight-vision-associated genes), hormone signaling, and morphogenesis. Our study suggests mechanisms and genomic regions that may play a role in the closely related mega-radiation of Lake Malawi.

  11. Influência do ciclo lunar na atividade de vôo de Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia venezuelensis (Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae na Mata Atlântica, Serra do Marumbi, Morretes, Paraná, Brasil Influence of the lunar cycle on the flight activity of Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia venezuelensis (Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Marumbi Mountain, Morretes, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Luís Sant'Ana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From October 1995 to January 1996 a survey of the culicid species mentioned above was carried out in a restrict Atlantic Forest area, located in the Marumbi mountain (approximately 6,5 km from the town of Morretes. Shannon light trap was used during 48 nights, in the four lunar phases: full moon, first quarter, new moon and last quarter between evening and morning twilights. A total of 594 Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia venezuelensis (Theobald, 1912 specimens were collected and the different night flight activity in the four moon phases was observed. Regarding the hourly activity, the peak higher numbers of Coquillettidia venezuelensis were collected in the first three hours. Concerning the environmental factors, temperature was found to be the more relevant one for the flight activity of Coquillettidia venezuelensis.

  12. Singing in the moonlight: dawn song performance of a diurnal bird varies with lunar phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jennifer E.; Young, Andrew J.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the lunar cycle can affect the behaviour of nocturnal animals, but its potential to have a similar influence on diurnal species has received less research attention. Here, we demonstrate that the dawn song of a cooperative songbird, the white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali), varies with moon phase. When the moon was above the horizon at dawn, males began singing on average 10 min earlier, if there was a full moon compared with a new moon, resulting in a 67% mean increase in performance period and greater total song output. The lack of a difference between full and new moon dawns when the moon was below the horizon suggests that the observed effects were driven by light intensity, rather than driven by other factors associated with moon phase. Effects of the lunar cycle on twilight signalling behaviour have implications for both pure and applied animal communication research. PMID:24429683

  13. Measurements of airglow on Maunakea at Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Smith, Adam; Stephens, Andrew; Smirnova, Olesja

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory on Maunakea has been collecting optical and infrared science data for almost 15 years. We have begun a program to analyze imaging data from two of the original facility instruments, GMOS and NIRI, in order to measure sky brightness levels in multiple infrared and optical broad-band filters. The present work includes data from mid-2016 back through late-2008. We present measured background levels as a function of several operational quantities (e.g. moon phase, hours from twilight, season). We find that airglow is a significant contributor to background levels in several filters. Gemini is primarily a queue scheduled telescope, with observations being optimally executed in order to provide the most efficient use of telescope time. We find that while most parameters are well-understood, the atmospheric airglow remains challenging to predict. This makes it difficult to schedule observations which require dark skies in these filters, and we suggest improvements to ensure data quality.

  14. On the evaluation of air mass factors for atmospheric near-ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliski, Lori M.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of UV-visible twilight absorption measurements of atmospheric chemical constituents is dependent on how well the optical path, or air mass factor, of light collected by the spectrometer is understood. A simple single scattering model and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme have been developed to study the effects of multiple scattering, aerosol scattering, surface albedo and refraction on air mass factors for scattered light observations. At fairly short visible wavelengths (less than about 450 nm), stratospheric air mass factors are found to be relatively insensitive to multiple scattering, surface albedo and refraction, as well as aerosol scattering by background aerosols. Longer wavelengths display greater sensitivity to refraction and aerosol scattering. Tropospheric air mass factors are found to be highly dependent on aerosol scattering, surface albedo and, at long visible wavelengths (about 650 nm), refraction. Absorption measurements of NO2 and O4 are shown to support these conclusions.

  15. Light and colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Often a dichotomy between daylight and artificial light is observed, often artificial lighting replaces daylight. In Denmark daylight is characterized partly by being "borrowed" half of the year, partly by having long transitions periods between the light and the dark (nautical and civil twilight......). For these reasons artificial lighting does not complement daylight but provides, coupled with the daylight, the total lighting in the indoor environment. Electric lighting is therefore ‐ in a complex interaction with the daylight ‐ of great importance for both our lighting and our wellbeing. Studying artificial...... lighting without studying daylight seem to be a common procedure of the practice of today in Denmark and other parts of the industrialized world. As a consequence of this artificial lighting suffers from a quantifying tyranny, a tyranny where the quality of light is measured in quantities. This procedure...

  16. Nightwatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Winkler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I examine the features of night, in particular, urban night. I try to highlight the epistemological divide between day and night, light and darkness. Even as light-based experiencing, acting, and thinking, and their cultural tools colonize urban night, nocturnal elements relate dialectically to our daytime reasoning. I conclude with the question of whether a kind of half-tone thinking contained in a trialectic of light, twilight, and darkness would be capable of appreciating the peculiar qualities of night. The reveries of the weak light guide into the innermost recesses of the familiar. It looks as if there are dark corners where nothing but a fluttering light is suffered....A dreamer of the lamp knows by instinct that the images of the weak light are night lights. Their glow becomes invisible, when thinking is at work, when consciousness is bright. But as soon as thinking has a rest the images watch. Gaston Bachelard[1

  17. In the darkness of the polar night, scallops keep on a steady rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Damien; Sow, Mohamedou; Camus, Lionel; Ciret, Pierre; Berge, Jorgen; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2016-08-01

    Although the prevailing paradigm has held that the polar night is a period of biological quiescence, recent studies have detected noticeable activity levels in marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the circadian rhythm of the scallop Chlamys islandica by continuously recording the animal’s behaviour over 3 years in the Arctic (Svalbard). Our results showed that a circadian rhythm persists throughout the polar night and lasts for at least 4 months. Based on observations across three polar nights, we showed that the robustness and synchronicity of the rhythm depends on the angle of the sun below the horizon. The weakest rhythm occurred at the onset of the polar night during the nautical twilight. Surprisingly, the circadian behaviour began to recover during the darkest part of the polar night. Because active rhythms optimize the fitness of an organism, our study brings out that the scallops C. islandica remain active even during the polar night.

  18. The promised planet: alliances and struggles of the gerontocracy in American television science fiction of the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, F M

    2003-09-01

    American science fiction television series of the 1960s dramatized the complex conflicts raging throughout society in simple, allegorical terms. The power struggle between the older and younger generations that pervaded many of the conflicts and social reform movements of this era was explored in the four most imaginative and acclaimed science fiction television series of the 1960s: The Twilight Zone (1959-1965), The Outer Limits (1963-1965), Star Trek (1966-1969) and Lost in Space (1965-1968). Each show presented the mature male as the bearer of culture, the holder of power and the keeper of the scientific mysteries, but instead of a standardized response to the problem of the 'generation gap' and the ever-increasing polarization of American society along generational lines, these dramas offered both pessimistic and optimistic views of the outcome of contemporary intergenerational social strife.

  19. The invention of atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved.

  20. High Biomass Low Export Regimes in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.

    2006-01-27

    This paper investigates ballasting and remineralization controls of carbon sedimentation in the twilight zone (100-1000 m) of the Southern Ocean. Size-fractionated (<1 {micro}m, 1-51 {micro}m, >51 {micro}m) suspended particulate matter was collected by large volume in-situ filtration from the upper 1000 m in the Subantarctic (55 S, 172 W) and Antarctic (66 S, 172 W) zones of the Southern Ocean during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) in January-February 2002. Particles were analyzed for major chemical constituents (POC, P, biogenic Si, CaCO3), and digital and SEM image analyses of particles were used to aid in the interpretation of the chemical profiles. Twilight zone waters at 66 S in the Antarctic had a steeper decrease in POC with depth than at 55 S in the Subantarctic, with lower POC concentrations in all size fractions at 66 S than at 55 S, despite up to an order of magnitude higher POC in surface waters at 66 S. The decay length scale of >51 {micro}m POC was significantly shorter in the upper twilight zone at 66 S ({delta}{sub e}=26 m) compared to 55 S ({delta}{sub e}=81 m). Particles in the carbonate-producing 55 S did not have higher excess densities than particles from the diatom-dominated 66 S, indicating that there was no direct ballast effect that accounted for deeper POC penetration at 55 S. An indirect ballast effect due to differences in particle packaging and porosities cannot be ruled out, however, as aggregate porosities were high ({approx}97%) and variable. Image analyses point to the importance of particle loss rates from zooplankton grazing and remineralization as determining factors for the difference in twilight zone POC concentrations at 55 S and 66 S, with stronger and more focused shallow remineralization at 66 S. At 66 S, an abundance of large (several mm long) fecal pellets from the surface to 150 m, and almost total removal of large aggregates by 200 m, reflected the actions of a single or few zooplankton species capable of