WorldWideScience

Sample records for twilight skies inspired

  1. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sun-stones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180 degrees field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  2. Polarization patterns of the twilight sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Warrant, Eric J.; Greiner, Birgit

    2005-08-01

    Although natural light sources produce depolarized light, patterns of partially linearly polarized light appear in the sky due to scattering from air molecules, dust, and aerosols. Many animals, including bees and ants, orient themselves to patterns of polarization that are present in daytime skies, when the intensity is high and skylight polarization is strong and predictable. The halicitid bee Megalopta genalis inhabits rainforests in Central America. Unlike typical bees, it forages before sunrise and after sunset, when light intensities under the forest canopy are very low, and must find its way to food sources and return to its nest in visually challenging circumstances. An important cue for the orientation could be patterns of polarization in the twilight sky. Therefore, we used a calibrated digital camera to image skylight polarization in an overhead patch of sky, 87.6° across, before dawn on Barro Colorado Island in Panama, where the bees are found. We simultaneously measured the spectral properties of polarized light in a cloudless patch of sky 15° across centered on the zenith. We also performed full-sky imaging of polarization before dawn and after dusk on Lizard Island in Australia, another tropical island. During twilight, celestial polarized light occurs in a wide band stretching perpendicular to the location of the hidden sun and reaching typical degrees of polarization near 80% at wavelengths >600 nm. This pattern appears about 45 minutes before local sunrise or disappears 45 minutes after local sunset (about 20 minutes after the onset of astronomical twilight at dawn, or before its end at dusk) and extends with little change through the entire twilight period. Such a strong and reliable orientation cue could be used for flight orientation by any animal with polarization sensitivity that navigates during twilight.

  3. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear twilight sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L; Mollner, Duncan C

    2017-07-01

    At the earth's surface, clear-sky colors during civil twilights depend on the combined spectral effects of molecular scattering, extinction by tropospheric aerosols, and absorption by ozone. Molecular scattering alone cannot produce the most vivid twilight colors near the solar horizon, for which aerosol scattering and absorption are also required. However, less well known are haze aerosols' effects on twilight sky colors at larger scattering angles, including near the antisolar horizon. To analyze this range of colors, we compare 3D Monte Carlo simulations of skylight spectra with hyperspectral measurements of clear twilight skies over a wide range of aerosol optical depths. Our combined measurements and simulations indicate that (a) the purest antisolar twilight colors would occur in a purely molecular, multiple-scattering atmosphere, whereas (b) the most vivid solar-sky colors require at least some turbidity. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple scattering plays an important role in determining the redness of the antitwilight arch.

  4. Sky brightness and twilight measurements at Jogyakarta city, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2016-01-01

    The sky brightness measurements were performed using a portable photometer. A pocket-sized and low-cost photometer has 20 degree area measurement, and spectral ranges between 320-720 nm with output directly in magnitudes per arc second square (mass) unit. The sky brightness with 3 seconds temporal resolutions was recorded at Jogyakarta city (110° 25’ E; 70° 52’ S; elevation 100 m) within 136 days in years from 2014 to 2016. The darkest night could reach 22.61 mpass only in several seconds, with mean value 18.8±0.7 mpass and temperature variation 23.1±1.2 C. The difference of mean sky brightness between before and after midnight was about -0.76 mpass or 2.0 times brighter. Moreover, the sky brightness and temperature fluctuations were more stable in after midnight than in before midnight. It is suggested that city light pollution affects those variations, and subsequently duration of twilight. By comparing twilight brightness for several places, we also suggest a 17° solar dip or about 66 minutes before sunrise for new time of Fajr prayer. (paper)

  5. Effects of multiple scattering and atmospheric aerosol on the polarization of the twilight sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Postylyakov, Oleg V.; Maslov, Igor A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a review of a number of wide-angle polarization CCD-measurements of the twilight sky in V and R color bands with effective wavelengths 550 and 700nm. The basic factors affecting (usually decreasing) the polarization of the twilight sky are the atmospheric aerosol scattering and multiple scattering. These effects were distinguished from each other, and a method of multiple-scattering separation is discussed. The results are compared with the data of numerical simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere for different aerosol models. The whole twilight period is divided into different stages with different mechanisms forming the twilight-sky polarization properties

  6. Polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies with possible implications for animal orientation and Viking navigation: anomalous celestial twilight polarization at partial moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Barta, Pál; Kovács, József; Csák, Balázs; Jankovics, István; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-08-10

    Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the celestial distribution of polarization during sunset and sunrise at partial (78% and 72%) and full (100%) moon in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We investigated the temporal change of the patterns of degree p and angle α of linear polarization of sunlit and moonlit skies at dusk and dawn. We describe here the position change of the neutral points of sky polarization, and present video clips about the celestial polarization transition at moonlit twilight. We found that at partial moon and at a medium latitude (47° 15.481' N) during this transition there is a relatively short (10-20 min) period when (i) the maximum of p of skylight decreases, and (ii) from the celestial α pattern neither the solar-antisolar nor the lunar-antilunar meridian can be unambiguously determined. These meridians can serve as reference directions of animal orientation and Viking navigation based on sky polarization. The possible influence of these atmospheric optical phenomena during the polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies on the orientation of polarization-sensitive crepuscular/nocturnal animals and the hypothesized navigation of sunstone-aided Viking seafarers is discussed.

  7. Sky light polarization detection with linear polarizer triplet in light field camera inspired by insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Liu, Zejin

    2015-10-20

    Stable information of a sky light polarization pattern can be used for navigation with various advantages such as better performance of anti-interference, no "error cumulative effect," and so on. But the existing method of sky light polarization measurement is weak in real-time performance or with a complex system. Inspired by the navigational capability of a Cataglyphis with its compound eyes, we introduce a new approach to acquire the all-sky image under different polarization directions with one camera and without a rotating polarizer, so as to detect the polarization pattern across the full sky in a single snapshot. Our system is based on a handheld light field camera with a wide-angle lens and a triplet linear polarizer placed over its aperture stop. Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. Not only real-time detection but simple and costless architecture demonstrates the superiority of the approach proposed in this paper.

  8. Sky Localization of Complete Inspiral-Merger-Ringdown Signals for Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Lang, Ryan N.; Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, including for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. For an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2 x l0(exp 6) Stellar Mass at a redshift of z = 1 with random orientations and sky positions, we find median sky localization errors of approximately approx. 3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rather than through diminishing correlations with any subset of well-determined parameters.

  9. The Effect of atmospheric humidity level to the determination of Islamic Fajr/morning prayer time and twilight appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, Nihayatur

    2016-11-01

    Islamic prayer times are based on the astronomical position of the Sun in the sky. One of them is the Fajr prayer. It is marked by some indicators in the morning twilight which is white light spread in the Eastern horizon. However, determining the true time of twilight can be difficult. One of the reasons is the effect of atmospheric humidity to the appearance of morning twilight. The higher the humidity, the redder twilight sky appearance. This paper discusses this effect. It is shown that despite of the same Sun's position, sky color can vary considerably. Observations of various solar dip angle have been made to study this effect. Visibility for different angle can change accordingly. We obtained that the average solar dip for Fajr prayer by morning twilight images was -18°39'29.4".

  10. A night sky model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  11. A novel angle computation and calibration algorithm of bio-inspired sky-light polarization navigation sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Zhiwen; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Cao, Juliang; Wang, Yujie; Ma, Tao

    2014-09-15

    Navigation plays a vital role in our daily life. As traditional and commonly used navigation technologies, Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can provide accurate location information, but suffer from the accumulative error of inertial sensors and cannot be used in a satellite denied environment. The remarkable navigation ability of animals shows that the pattern of the polarization sky can be used for navigation. A bio-inspired POLarization Navigation Sensor (POLNS) is constructed to detect the polarization of skylight. Contrary to the previous approach, we utilize all the outputs of POLNS to compute input polarization angle, based on Least Squares, which provides optimal angle estimation. In addition, a new sensor calibration algorithm is presented, in which the installation angle errors and sensor biases are taken into consideration. Derivation and implementation of our calibration algorithm are discussed in detail. To evaluate the performance of our algorithms, simulation and real data test are done to compare our algorithms with several exiting algorithms. Comparison results indicate that our algorithms are superior to the others and are more feasible and effective in practice.

  12. Twilight of Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, David

    2014-03-01

    Baby boomers enjoyed the most benign period in human history: fifty years of relative peace, cheap energy, plentiful grain supply, and a warming climate due to the highest solar activity for 8,000 years. The party is over - prepare for the twilight of abundance. David Archibald reveals the grim future the world faces on its current trajectory: massive fuel shortages, the bloodiest warfare in human history, a global starvation crisis, and a rapidly cooling planet. Archibald combines pioneering science with keen economic knowledge to predict the global disasters that could destroy civilization as we know it - disasters that are waiting just around the corner. But there's good news, too: We can have a good future if we prepare for it. Advanced, civilized countries can have a permanently high standard of living if they choose to invest in the technologies that will get them there. Archibald, a climate scientist as well as an inventor and a financial specialist, explains which scientific breakthroughs can save civilization in the coming crisis - if we can cut through the special interest opposition to these innovations and allow free markets to flourish.

  13. Observations of Twilight Fireballs over Kiev in 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, Klim; Steklov, Aleksey; Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Dashkiev, Grigoriy

    2016-07-01

    The phenomenon of "Chelyabinsk bolide" 15.02.2013, resulted in damage to more than 1000 buildings and injure more than 500 people, after the explosion of fireball's body in the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk. The question about the dangers of such astronomical phenomena for life and health of citizens and for the existence of entire countries, arose with renewed vigor. Normally, bolides leave bright trace from ionized gas and dust. Traces of ionization can be seen particularly well at night. If a meteorite invades at the daytime at the cloudless sky and bright sunshine, the phenomenon of the fireball may not be visible. But if the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Typically, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified

  14. Structures of twilight patrol in the "Churyumov's Unified network" to ensure continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.

    2016-10-01

    1. Three types of astronomical observations, and three classes of astronomical observatories. Over 70% of the observer's time in astronomical observatories accounted for the night of observation after the end of astronomical twilight. Prior to 15.02.2013, from the famous invasion of the Chelyabinsk large meteoroid in morning twilight, astronomers practically no carried out the twilight observations. But it is such morning and evening twilight observation, became the main "highlight" of the authors in the past four years [3, 5, 7]. Results were unexpected, and they allowed us to state that in our time the astronomical observatory (AO) should be divided into AO for nighttime astronomical observations (NAO), daily astronomical observations (DAO) and AO for twilight astronomical observations (SAO). 2. The real problem of AO DAO and SAO. We affirm, that in the interest of health and safety the inhabitants of our cities, astronomers are obliged significantly expand a circle and list of observations; need to include in it astrophysical observations and registration of facts and traces of all kinds of hazardous aerospace invasions into the sky over our cities. Society and the state allocate their money on the development of astronomical observatories, and therefore are entitled to demand recoil in the form of constant monitoring to ensure nocturnal, daytime and twilight control, for their safety the realities of modern complex time. And it is, in the conditions of aggravation of ecological problems, at climate evolution and of the increasing amount of harmful technogenic pollutants emissions in conditions of constant asteroid and comet hazard [10, 11], and especially within the present conditions of hybrid wars [8, 9]. That is why it is necessary give off sufficient observational time for the monitoring control on the facts and trail of all sorts of dangerous invasions. All astronomical observatories could create their own sectors, which would provide ground and space

  15. Traces on sky. Unexpected results of regular observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, N. G.; Steklov, E. A.

    2016-08-01

    If the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Usually, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified into the following types: AMT - aero-meteorological tracks, AST - aero-space, ATT - aero-technical, and NST - not yet classified tracks of unknown nature. During the short period of our observations (from March 2013 to 2016), was fixed falling at least a dozen fragments of cometary nuclei, at least five of sufficiently large and dozens of smaller fragments of meteoroids. The results of our observations also showed that during the morning and evening twilight over Kiev clearly visible the plume of aerosols of technical nature from the plants, factories and other production facilities.

  16. Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, Nathan J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    Clouds reduce the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of skylight relative to that of a clear sky. Even thin subvisual clouds in the "twilight zone" between clouds and aerosols produce a drop in skylight DOLP long before clouds become visible in the sky. In contrast, the angle of polarization (AOP) of light scattered by a cloud in a partly cloudy sky remains the same as in the clear sky for most cases. In unique instances, though, select clouds display AOP signatures that are oriented 90 degrees from the clear-sky AOP. For these clouds, scattered light oriented parallel to the scattering plane dominates the perpendicularly polarized Rayleigh-scattered light between the instrument and the cloud. For liquid clouds, this effect may assist cloud particle size identification because it occurs only over a relatively limited range of particle radii that will scatter parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illustrate these effects. Images are also shown that provide validation of previously published theories for weak (approximately 2%) polarization parallel to the scattering plane for a 22 degrees halo.

  17. Off the Shelves: Analyzing Style and Intertextuality in "Twilight"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.; Bull, Kelly Byrne

    2009-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" offers readers romance, mystery, suspense, and action. This young adult novel tells the story of the forbidden relationship between Bella and Edward, exploring complexities that cause readers to consider how love involves sacrifice and choice. "Twilight," a Best Book for Young Adults and Quick-Pick for Reluctant Young…

  18. Investigations of the Background Stratospheric Aerosol Using Multicolor Wide-Angle Measurements of the Twilight Glow Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolnikov, O. S.; Maslov, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The first results of multiwave measurements of twilight background and the all-sky camera with a color (RGB) CCD matrix conducted in the spring and summer of 2016 in Central Russia (55.2° N, 37.5° E) have been discussed. The observations reveal the effect of aerosol scattering at heights of up to 35 km, which is substantially enhanced in the long-wave part of the spectrum (R band with an effective wavelength of 624 nm). An analysis of the behavior of the sky color during light period of twilight with allowance for the absorption by ozone in the Chappuis bands make it possible to restore the angular dependences of the intensity of the aerosol scattering of the light. This is used to determine the parameters of the lognormal distribution of aerosol particles over their sizes with a mean radius of 0.08 μm and a width of 1.5-1.6 for the stratospheric height interval.

  19. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  20. Fading Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, Betsy Menson

    2009-01-01

    A sky fading from blue to white to red at the horizon, and water darkening from light to midnight blue. Strong diagonals slashing through the image, drawing a viewer's eyes deeper into the picture, and delicate trees poised to convey a sense of beauty. These are the fascinating strengths of the ukiyo-e woodblock prints of Japanese artist Ando…

  1. Inspired Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Carol Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In terms of teacher quality, Steele believes the best teachers have reached a stage she terms inspired, and that teachers move progressively through the stages of unaware, aware, and capable until the most reflective teachers finally reach the inspired level. Inspired teachers have a wide repertoire of teaching and class management techniques and…

  2. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent 100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  3. Photobiology of the deep twilight zone and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Talbot H.

    1997-02-01

    Photobiology in the twilight zone of the deep sea depends on faint light of two, or possibly three, origins: sunlight, bioluminescence and some visible radiation near the bottom associated with hydrothermal vents. The deep twilight zone also contains two quite distinct ecosystems: the vast open ocean pelagic regime far from the shore and the bottom as well as the far less expansive benthic regime with quite different characteristic animals that live on, in or near the sea bo10 Most of the whole ocean's benthic regime with a mean depth over 3000m is well below the twilight zone, which eliminates sunlight as a light source there. Many of the most familiar deepsea animals with their spectacular arrays of dennal light organs and remarkable eyes are from the pelagic 19, 25 The less familiar benthic fishes and crustaceans sometimes have curious internal light organs powered by bacteria13 and occasional incredibly modified eyes.30 With the exception of those on the fishing rods of most female deepsea anglerfish, where the light is produced by symbiotic bacteria, all the numerous light organs of pelagic deepsea fishes are generally believed to manage their own chemiluminescence independent of luminous bacteria.17

  4. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  5. Film in the College Classroom: Using "Twilight" to Examine Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagsold, Jennifer T.; Decuir-Gunby, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The hit movie saga "Twilight" has made an impact on viewers of all ages. This article seeks to explore the uses of film in psychology classes with a focus on ways in which instructors may find scenes from the "Twilight" series helpful and engaging for students. The authors describe scenes and themes from the first three movies…

  6. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  7. Sky Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David P.

    2017-01-01

    I saw something extraordinary on Wednesday, 25 September 2013, at about 10:10AM local time, while in a parking lot at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland USA (located in the suburbs of Washington, D.C., about 20 km northeast of the White House). I looked northeast at about a 45 degree angle at a cirrus cloud. The cloud was elongated horizontally from my perspective. T o my surprise I saw a band of ripples rapidly pass from right to left along the axis of the cloud. The ripples appeared dark, like a bar code, with the bars being almost vertical (see Figure 1). There appeared to be approximately 10 bars in the band. Each bar was a few degrees in length. I estimate that each bar was about 1/10 to 1/4 degree in width and the white spaces between them about the same width. I guessed that the angular speed of the band passing along the cloud was about 1/2 to 1 degree per second. A half-moon was in another part of the sky; looking at the Moon later helped me make the estimates. After a few seconds at most the band disappeared. Then a second band repeated the performance. I kept watching to see if this was going to be a periodic phenomenon, but no further bands appeared; just the two. Of course there may have been other bands passing across the cloud before I started looking. About 30 seconds to a minute after the bands disappeared, a low-flying jetliner on the usual northeast to southwest route passed almost exactly through the spot where I had seen the bands. I estimate the jetliner was a bit bigger than the full moon. My first thought was that maybe there was something wrong inside my eyes. But looking at other clouds revealed no bands. So what caused the bands? They do not seem to have been due to the exhausts on top of the nearby building, with the cloud acting as a backdrop: one would expect a continuous, disorganized shimmering instead of two separate organized bands. Moreover, there would be no reason for bands to stop unless the exhausts

  8. Dark Sky Education | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendar Activities NOAO-S EPO Programs CADIAS Astro Chile Hugo E. Schwarz Telescope Dark Sky Education ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education Dark Sky Education Dark Sky Education (in progress) Is an EPO Program. It runs Globe at Night, an annual program to

  9. Fine-tuning structural RNA alignments in the twilight zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Stefanie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widely used method to find conserved secondary structure in RNA is to first construct a multiple sequence alignment, and then fold the alignment, optimizing a score based on thermodynamics and covariance. This method works best around 75% sequence similarity. However, in a "twilight zone" below 55% similarity, the sequence alignment tends to obscure the covariance signal used in the second phase. Therefore, while the overall shape of the consensus structure may still be found, the degree of conservation cannot be estimated reliably. Results Based on a combination of available methods, we present a method named planACstar for improving structure conservation in structural alignments in the twilight zone. After constructing a consensus structure by alignment folding, planACstar abandons the original sequence alignment, refolds the sequences individually, but consistent with the consensus, aligns the structures, irrespective of sequence, by a pure structure alignment method, and derives an improved sequence alignment from the alignment of structures, to be re-submitted to alignment folding, etc.. This circle may be iterated as long as structural conservation improves, but normally, one step suffices. Conclusions Employing the tools ClustalW, RNAalifold, and RNAforester, we find that for sequences with 30-55% sequence identity, structural conservation can be improved by 10% on average, with a large variation, measured in terms of RNAalifold's own criterion, the structure conservation index.

  10. The romanticization of abstinence: Fan response to sexual restraint in the Twilight series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Stevens Aubrey, Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz, and Melissa A. Click

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Meyer's Twilight series has been criticized for its regressive gender representations. To understand its continuing appeal, we problematize the messages of abstinence and romance in the series, and contextualize fans' response with a discussion of postfeminist culture.

  11. Twilight An Illustration Of A Potentially Negative Social Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Griggs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the classic example of the series Twilight we can see how society plays a critical role in our thought process and examine the dangers it can create by leaving some vulnerable to negative lifestyles. Taking a closer look at the science behind how our brain processes information we can see how problems may arise. Addictions caused by social programming leaves much concern for those who experience the cognitive dissonance created by their surroundings. It is our social responsibility to ensure people are not establishing unhealthy lifestyles or destructive behaviors. By understanding the mechanics of the mind we can help find healthy solutions for fantasy to be enjoyed without interrupting the livelihood of others.

  12. Making beautiful deep-sky images astrophotography with affordable equipment and software

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This book is based around the author's beautiful and sometimes awe-inspiring color images and mosaics of deep-sky objects. The book describes how similar "Hubble class" images can be created by amateur astronomers in their back garden.

  13. Educating for the Preservation of Dark Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Cianciolo, Frank; Wetzel, Marc; Finkelstein, Keely; Wren, William; Nance, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The stars at night really are big and bright deep in the heart of Texas at the McDonald Observatory near Fort Davis, Texas. Each year 80,000 visitors from all over the world make the pilgrimage to the Observatory to attend one of the three-times-a-week star parties. Many experience, for the first time, the humbling, splendor of a truly dark night sky. Over the last several years, the Observatory has experienced dramatic increases in visitation demonstrating the public’s appetite for science education, in general, and interest in the night sky, in particular. This increasing interest in astronomy is, ironically, occurring at a time when most of humanity’s skies are becoming increasingly light-polluted frustrating this natural interest. Dark skies and knowledgeable education and outreach staff are an important resource in maintaining the public’s interest in astronomy, support for astronomical research, and local tourism.This year Observatory educators were inspired by the observance of the International Year of Light to promote healthy outdoor lighting through its popular Astronomy Day distance learning program. This program reaches tens of thousands of K-12 students in Texas and other states with a message of how they can take action to preserve dark skies. As well, more than a thousand Boy Scouts visiting during the summer months receive a special program, which includes activities focusing on good lighting practices, thereby earning them credits toward an astronomy badge.The Observatory also offers a half-a-dozen K-12 teacher professional development workshops onsite each year, which provide about 90 teachers with dark skies information, best-practice lighting demonstrations, and red flashlights. Multi-year workshops for National Park and State of Texas Parks personnel are offered on dark sky preservation and sky interpretation at McDonald and a Dark Skies fund for retrofitting lights in the surrounding area has been established. The Observatory also uses

  14. Adnyamathanha Night Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnow, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Aboriginal Australians have been viewing the night skies of Australia for some 45,000 years and possibly much longer. During this time they have been able to develop a complex knowledge of the night sky, the terrestrial environment in addition to seasonal changes. However, few of us in contemporary society have an in-depth knowledge of the nightly waltz of stars above.

  15. 2014 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2014 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the latest findings from space probes. Published annually since 1991, the Sky Guide continues to be a favourite with photographers,

  16. A Chinese sky trust?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Mark [Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: brenner@econs.umass.edu; Riddle, Matthew [Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: mriddle@econs.umass.edu; Boyce, James K. [Political Economy Research Institute and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: boyce@econs.umass.edu

    2007-03-15

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality.

  17. A Chinese sky trust?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Mark; Riddle, Matthew; Boyce, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality

  18. Dark-Skies Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  19. Fireballs in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Bland, P.

    2016-12-01

    Fireballs in the Sky is an innovative Australian citizen science program that connects the public with the research of the Desert Fireball Network (DFN). This research aims to understand the early workings of the solar system, and Fireballs in the Sky invites people around the world to learn about this science, contributing fireball sightings via a user-friendly app. To date, more than 23,000 people have downloaded the app world-wide and participated in planetary science. The Fireballs in the Sky app allows users to get involved with the Desert Fireball Network research, supplementing DFN observations and providing enhanced coverage by reporting their own meteor sightings to DFN scientists. Fireballs in the Sky reports are used to track the trajectories of meteors - from their orbit in space to where they might have landed on Earth. Led by Phil Bland at Curtin University in Australia, the Desert Fireball Network (DFN) uses automated observatories across Australia to triangulate trajectories of meteorites entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits, and pinpoint their fall positions. Each observatory is an autonomous intelligent imaging system, taking 1000×36Megapixel all-sky images throughout the night, using neural network algorithms to recognize events. They are capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and store all imagery collected. We developed a completely automated software pipeline for data reduction, and built a supercomputer database for storage, allowing us to process our entire archive. The DFN currently stands at 50 stations distributed across the Australian continent, covering an area of 2.5 million km^2. Working with DFN's partners at NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, the team is expanding the network beyond Australia to locations around the world. Fireballs in the Sky allows a growing public base to learn about and participate in this exciting research.

  20. Emotion & Motivation System (EMS) for characters in the computer game "Twilight"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nikolaj

    "According to cognitive emotion theory, human action is directed by the human emotional and motivational system. Research into this field guides the design of characters in the game "Twilight", functioning as a showcase for the research- and development project "OpenGame". Using this project...

  1. 2013 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world. The Sky guide has been published annually by the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, since 1991. It is recommended for photogr

  2. 2015 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide has been providing star gazers with everything they need to know about the southern night sky for the past 25 years. The 2015 guide will celebrate this landmark with highlights from the past as well as monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of the year's exciting celestial events.Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2015 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the l

  3. The observer's sky atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Karkoschka, E

    2007-01-01

    This title includes a short introduction to observing, a thorough description of the star charts and tables, a glossary and much more. It is perfect for both the beginner and seasoned observer. It is fully revised edition of a best-selling and highly-praised sky atlas.

  4. The Big Sky inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  5. Stratospheric NO2 vertical profile retrieved from ground-based Zenith-Sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Hendrick, François; Pukite, Janis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Stratospheric NO2 destroys ozone and acts as a buffer against halogen-catalyzed ozone loss through the formation of reservoir species (ClONO2, BrONO2). Since the importance of both mechanisms depends on the altitude, the investigation of stratospheric NO2 vertical distribution can provide more insight into the role of nitrogen compounds in the destruction of ozone. Here we present stratospheric NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from twilight ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden (68.84°N, 20.41°E) covering 1997 - 2013 periods. This instrument observes zenith scattered sunlight. The sensitivity for stratospheric trace gases is highest during twilight due to the maximum altitude of the scattering profile and the light path through the stratosphere, which vary with the solar zenith angle. The profiling algorithm, based on the Optimal Estimation Method, has been developed by IASB-BIRA and successfully applied at other stations (Hendrick et al., 2004). The basic principle behind this profiling approach is that during twilight, the mean Rayleigh scattering altitude scans the stratosphere rapidly, providing height-resolved information on the absorption by stratospheric NO2. In this study, the long-term evolution of the stratospheric NO2 profile at polar latitude will be investigated. Hendrick, F., B. Barret, M. Van Roozendael, H. Boesch, A. Butz, M. De Mazière, F. Goutail, C. Hermans, J.-C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and J.-P. Pommereau, Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: Validation of the technique through correlative comparisons, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 2091-2106, 2004

  6. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  7. The VLA Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; VLASS Survey Team, VLASS Survey Science Group

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), which began in September 2017, is a seven year project to image the entire sky north of Declination -40 degrees in three epochs. The survey is being carried out in I,Q and U polarization at a frequency of 2-4GHz, and a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, with each epoch being separated by 32 months. Raw data from the survey, along with basic "quicklook" images are made freely available shortly after observation. Within a few months, NRAO will begin making available further basic data products, including refined images and source lists. In this talk I shall describe the science goals and methodology of the survey, the current survey status, and some early results, along with plans for collaborations with external groups to produce enhanced, high level data products.

  8. Sacred Sky and Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynes, F.

    2011-06-01

    The concept of the sacred world beyond the stars found expression in the works of Plato, into Gnosticism and was incorporated into Christianity where medieval images of the cosmos pictured the heavenly domain as beyond the stars. Today cyberspace literature abounds with descriptions of a transmundane space, a great Beyond. This talk looks at current views of cyberspace and asks if they are a re-packaging of the age-old concept of a sacred sky in a secular and technological format?

  9. 2012 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world.

  10. Night sky a field guide to the constellations

    CERN Document Server

    Poppele, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Stargazing is among the most peaceful and inspiring outdoor activities. Night Sky, the award-winning book by Jonathan Poppele, makes it more fun than ever! Take a simple approach to finding 62 constellations by focusing on one constellation at a time, instead of attempting to study dizzying charts. Start with the easy-to-find constellations during each season and work toward the more difficult ones. Better yet, you'll learn how to locate any constellation in relation to the Big Dipper, the North Star and the top of the sky. With two ways to locate each constellation, you'll know where in the sky to look and what to look for! Along the way, you'll be introduced to mythology, facts and tidbits, as well as details about the planets, solar system and more! As an added bonus, the book comes with a red-light flashlight for night reading.

  11. The Sky at Night

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    For more than 50 years now Sir Patrick Moore has presented the BBC Television series Sky at Night; not a month has been missed – a record for any television series, and a record which may never be broken. Every three years or so a book is published covering the main events in both astronomy and space research. This is the 13th volume, not only a record of the programmes but also of the great advances and discoveries during the period covered - eclipses, comets, and the strange chemical lakes of Titan, for instance, but also anniversaries such as the fifteenth “birthday” of the Hubble Space Telescope, and not forgetting the programme celebrating the Sky at Night’s 50th year, attended by astronaut Piers Sellars and many others who appeared on the programme over the years. All the chapters are self-contained, and fully illustrated. In this new Sky at Night book you will find much to entertain you. It will appeal to amateurs and professionals alike.

  12. Virtue as Adventure and Excess: Intertextuality, Masculinity, and Desire in the Twilight Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lindén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vampire is still primarily a literary figure. The vampires we have seen on TV and cinema in recent years are all based on literary models. The vampire is at the same time a popular cultural icon and a figure that, especially women writers, use to problematize gender, sexuality and power. As a vampire story the Twilight se-ries both produces and problematizes norms in regard to gender, class and ethnici-ty. As the main romantic character in Twilight, Edward Cullen becomes interesting both as a vampire of our time and as a man. In a similar way as in the 19th century novel the terms of relationship are negotiated and like his namesake Edward Rochester, Edward Cullen has to change in important ways for the “happy end-ing” to take place. In spite of a strong interest in sexuality and gender norms in relation to vampires very few studies have focused exclusively on masculinity. This article examines the construction of masculinity in relation to vampirism in the Twilight series. It offers an interpretation of Stephenie Meyer’s novels and the character of Edward as part of a broader field of feminist (re-uses of the vampire in modern literature with its roots in the literary tradition from Austen and the Brontë-sisters as well as from classic Gothic fiction.

  13. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  14. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...... of form, material and function, motivated by social values. To this essentially regional response, Utzon combines a fascination for the architectural legacies of foreign cultures. These influences include the architecture of the ancient Mayan civilisation, as well as the Islamic world, China and Japan...

  15. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  16. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  17. Inspiration from britain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November......Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  18. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  19. The Rainbow Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Buick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    The world is full of color, from the blue ocean and the yellow daffodils and sunflowers in green carpeted meadows to the majestic purple mountains in the distance and brightly hued coral reefs off the edges of tropical coasts. But what is color, exactly? Why do we see things in different colors? Do we all see the same colors? Like the surface of our planet, the sky above us offers us an endless palette of color, a visual feast for the eyes. Besides atmospheric phenomena such as sunsets and rainbows, there are the many varied worlds of the Solar System, which we can spy through our telescopes, with their subtle colorings of beige and blue and green. Faraway star systems have suns that come in shades ranging from red and yellow to blue and white. Scientists even often use "false colors" to enhance the features of images they take of structures, such as the rings of Saturn and Jupiter’s clouds. This book, with its clear explanations of what makes the sky such a colorful place and in its great wealth of picture...

  20. The Other Dark Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, John

    In previous demonstrations of New York's elimination of luminous graffiti from its skies, I focused attention on large-scale projects in the showcase districts of Manhattan. Although these works earned passionate respect in the dark sky movement, they by the same token were disheartening. New York was in some quarters of the movement regarded more as an unachievable Shangri-La than as a role model to emulate. This presentation focuses on scenes of light abatement efforts in parts of New York which resemble other towns in scale and density. I photographed these scenes along a certain bus route in Brooklyn on my way home from work during October 2001. This route circulates through various "bedroom communities," each similar to a mid-size to large town elsewhere in the United States. The sujbects included individual structures - stores, banks, schools - and streetscapes mimicking downtowns. The latter protrayed a mix of atrocious and excellent lighting practice, being that these streets are in transition by the routine process of replacement and renovation. The fixtures used - box lamps, fluted or Fresnel globes, subdued headsigns, indirect lighting - are casually obtainable by property managers at local outlets for lighting apparatus. They are routinely offered to the property managers by storefront designers, security services, contractors, and the community improvement or betterment councils.

  1. Diamonds in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, M.

    2004-12-01

    My first science fiction novel, Star Dragon, just recently available in paperback from Tor, features a voyage to the cataclysmic variable star system SS Cygni. My second novel, Spider Star, to appear early in 2006, takes place in and around a dark matter ``planet'' orbiting a neutron star. Both novels are ``hard'' science fiction, relying on accurate physics to inform the tales. It's possible to bring to life abstract concepts like special relativity, and alien environments like accretion disks, by using science fiction. Novels are difficult to use in a science class, but short stories offer intriguing possibilities. I'm planning to edit an anthology of hard science fiction stories that contain accurate science and emphasize fundamental ideas in modern astronomy. The working title is Diamonds in the Sky. The collection will be a mix of original stories and reprints, highlighting challenging concepts covered in a typical introductory astronomy course. Larry Niven's classic story, ``Neutron Star," is an excellent demonstration of extreme tidal forces in an astronomical context. Diamonds in the Sky will include forewards and afterwards to the stories, including discussion questions and mathematical formulas/examples as appropriate. I envision this project will be published electronically or through a print-on-demand publisher, providing long-term availabilty and keeping low cost. I encourage interested parties to suggest previously published stories, or to suggest which topics must be included.

  2. Sky Detection in Hazy Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingchao; Luo, Haibo; Ma, Junkai; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Sky detection plays an essential role in various computer vision applications. Most existing sky detection approaches, being trained on ideal dataset, may lose efficacy when facing unfavorable conditions like the effects of weather and lighting conditions. In this paper, a novel algorithm for sky detection in hazy images is proposed from the perspective of probing the density of haze. We address the problem by an image segmentation and a region-level classification. To characterize the sky of hazy scenes, we unprecedentedly introduce several haze-relevant features that reflect the perceptual hazy density and the scene depth. Based on these features, the sky is separated by two imbalance SVM classifiers and a similarity measurement. Moreover, a sky dataset (named HazySky) with 500 annotated hazy images is built for model training and performance evaluation. To evaluate the performance of our method, we conducted extensive experiments both on our HazySky dataset and the SkyFinder dataset. The results demonstrate that our method performs better on the detection accuracy than previous methods, not only under hazy scenes, but also under other weather conditions.

  3. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Andrew Michael; Matthews, Allison M.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Avilez, Ian; Beale, Luca; Bittle, Lauren E.; Bordenave, David; Finn, Molly; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Hughes, Paul; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Lewis, Hannah; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Liu, Mengyao; McNair, Shunlante; Murphy, Edward; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Richardson, Whitney; Song, Yiqing; Troup, Nicholas; Villadsen, Jackie; Wenger, Trey V.; Wilson, Robert Forrest

    2018-01-01

    We present updates from the ninth year of operation of Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) including new club content, continued assessments, and our seventh annual Star Party. DSBK is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. DSBK’s most fundamental program is an 8-10 week long after-school Astronomy camp at surrounding local elementary schools, where each week introduces new concepts through interactive hands-on activities. Over the past two summers, we have traveled to four rural Virginia locations to bring week-long Astronomy camps to otherwise overlooked elementary school districts. These programs aim to inspire a curiosity for science and include inquiry based activities in topics ranging from the electromagnetic spectrum to the classification and evolution of galaxies. We strive to be self-reflective in our mission to inspire scientific curiosity in the minds of underserved demographics. In this effort, we continually assess the effectiveness of each activity through feedback in student-kept journal pages and observed excitement levels. This self-reflection has initiated the development of new curriculum. In addition, differing from our normal collaboration with local elementary schools, we have found great success partnering with local youth organizations, who may better represent DSBK's target demographics and have infrastructure to support incoming outreach groups.

  4. Physicists get INSPIREd

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

  5. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  6. Close to the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  7. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths. - Highlights: • Urban sky glow is interpreted in terms of city emission function. • Luminance function in a suburban zone is linked to the City Pattern. • Single scattering approximation is applicable in modeling urban sky glow. • Information on aerosols represents valuable inputs to the retrieval procedure. • Sky glow patterns vary with light source distribution and spectral emission

  8. Blue Sky Funders Forum - Advancing Environmental Literacy through Funder Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Blue Sky Funders Forum inspires, deepens, and expands private funding and philanthropic leadership to promote learning opportunities that connect people and nature and promote environmental literacy. Being prepared for the future requires all of us to understand the consequences of how we live on where we live - the connection between people and nature. Learning about the true meaning of that connection is a process that starts in early childhood and lasts a lifetime. Blue Sky brings supporters of this work together to learn from one another and to strategize how to scale up the impact of the effective programs that transform how people interact with their surroundings. By making these essential learning opportunities more accessible in all communities, we broaden and strengthen the constituency that makes well-informed choices, balancing the needs of today with the needs of future generations.

  9. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  10. Reach the sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Peicuti, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    I am working as primary teacher at Scoala Gimnaziala Dumbrava,Timis County, Romania & my pupils has 6 to 10 years old. I was&I am a main pillar in my community, always disseminating knowledge and experience to students, other teachers in the school area &Timis County.Astronomy is the must favorite subject of my students from my classes. They are very courious & always come to me with questions about Earth and Sky because Curriculum scientific disciplines provides too little information about Earth and Sky.I need to know more about how to teach space contents into my classes&what competencies can form in elementary school and also to share my experience to the others.As a result of participation at this meeting I want to attract as many students to astronomy,science/STEM disciplines&space technologies, to astronomy topics and exploration of outer space.Schools needs to be prepared for social life needs,new generations needs,on science/space technologies,which are one of the key points for developing the knowledge society.I intend to introduce new scientific activities as part of the existing curriculum.I am passionate about astronomy,I need to know new approaches and new ideas for primary because I think Science is very important in daily life. Here are some developed activities with pupils from K-2 grade levels wich I wish share with colleagues in Viena. Subject: MATHEMATICS. Primary Topic: MEASUREMENT : -+= ☼ Rockets by Size. Students cut out,color and sequence paper rockets/Read the information on the International Space Station and rockets/Gather pictures of different types of rockets/Print/cut out/color&laminate rocket drawings/Find objects in the room to put in order by height. ☼ Oil Spot Photometer - Measure the brightness of the sun using cooking oil and a white card. A smear of oil on a white card becomes a powerful tool for comparing the brightness of two light sources, including the sun. ☼ The Sundial & Making Shadows-device to measure time by the

  11. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  12. Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is a Solmirus Corp. All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer. The IRSI is an automatic, continuously operating, digital imaging and software system designed to capture hemispheric sky images and provide time series retrievals of fractional sky cover during both the day and night. The instrument provides diurnal, radiometrically calibrated sky imagery in the mid-infrared atmospheric window and imagery in the visible wavelengths for cloud retrievals during daylight hours. The software automatically identifies cloudy and clear regions at user-defined intervals and calculates fractional sky cover, providing a real-time display of sky conditions.

  13. Dark Sky Protection and Education - Izera Dark Sky Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Mrozek, Tomasz; Zakowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Darkness of the night sky is a natural component of our environment and should be protected against negative effects of human activities. The night darkness is necessary for balanced life of plants, animals and people. Unfortunately, development of human civilization and technology has led to the substantial increase of the night-sky brightness and to situation where nights are no more dark in many areas of the World. This phenomenon is called "light pollution" and it can be rank among such problems as chemical pollution of air, water and soil. Besides the environment, the light pollution can also affect e.g. the scientific activities of astronomers - many observatories built in the past began to be located within the glow of city lights making the night observations difficult, or even impossible.In order to protect the natural darkness of nights many so-called "dark sky parks" were established, where the darkness is preserved, similar to typical nature reserves. The role of these parks is not only conservation but also education, supporting to make society aware of how serious the problem of the light pollution is.History of the dark sky areas in Europe began on November 4, 2009 in Jizerka - a small village situated in the Izera Mountains, when Izera Dark Sky Park (IDSP) was established - it was the first transboundary dark sky park in the World. The idea of establishing that dark sky park in the Izera Mountains originated from a need to give to the society in Poland and Czech Republic the knowledge about the light pollution. Izera Dark Sky Park is a part of the astro-tourism project "Astro Izery" that combines tourist attraction of Izera Valley and astronomical education under the wonderful starry Izera sky. Besides the IDSP, the project Astro Izery consists of the set of simple astronomical instruments (gnomon, sundial), natural educational trail "Solar System Model", and astronomical events for the public. In addition, twice a year we organize a 3-4 days

  14. Inspirations in medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    There are abundant instances in the history of genetics and medical genetics to illustrate how curiosity, charisma of mentors, nature, art, the saving of lives and many other matters have inspired great discoveries. These achievements from deciphering genetic concepts to characterizing genetic disorders have been crucial for management of the patients. There remains, however, a long pathway ahead. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Nature as Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  16. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  17. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource. So are Quiet Skies!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Heatherly, S.

    2008-05-01

    You've just purchased your first telescope. But where to set it up? Certainly not a WalMart parking lot. Too much light pollution! In the same way that man-made light obscures our night sky and blinds ground-based optical telescopes, man-made radio signals blind radio telescopes as well. NRAO developed the Quiet Skies project to increase awareness of radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy in general by engaging students in local studies of RFI. To do that we created a sensitive detector which measures RFI. We produced 20 of these, and assembled kits containing detectors and supplementary materials for loan to schools. Students conduct experiments to measure the properties of RFI in their area, and input their measurements into a web-based data base. The Quiet Skies project is a perfect complement to the IYA Dark Skies Awareness initiative. We hope to place 500 Quiet Skies detectors into the field through outreach to museums and schools around the world. Should we be successful, we will sustain this global initiative via a continuing loan program. One day we hope to have a publicly generated image of the Earth which shows RFI much as the Earth at Night image illustrates light pollution. The poster will present the components of the project in detail, including our plans for IYA, and various low-cost alternative strategies for introducing RFI and radio astronomy to the public. We will share the results of some of the experiments already being performed by high school students. Development of the Quiet Skies project was funded by a NASA IDEAS grant. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  19. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  20. Perceptually-Inspired Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In particular, I will present data-driven personality modeling based on the results of user studies, example-guided physics-based sound synthesis using auditory perception, as well as perceptually-inspired simplification for multimodal interaction. These perceptually guided principles can be used to accelerating multi-modal interaction and visual computing, thereby creating more natural human-computer interaction and providing more immersive experiences. I will also present their use in interactive applications for entertainment, such as video games, computer animation, and shared social experience. I will conclude by discussing possible future research directions.

  1. The "All Sky Camera Network"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Andy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the "All Sky Camera Network" came to life as an outreach program to connect the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) exhibit "Space Odyssey" with Colorado schools. The network is comprised of cameras placed strategically at schools throughout Colorado to capture fireballs--rare events that produce meteorites.…

  2. Deep-Sky Video Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A guide to using modern integrating video cameras for deep-sky viewing and imaging with the kinds of modest telescopes available commercially to amateur astronomers. It includes an introduction and a brief history of the technology and camera types. It examines the pros and cons of this unrefrigerated yet highly efficient technology

  3. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...... economies. Meier recounts how Arendt’s book On Revolution (1963) forged connective threads between the ‘smallest parts’ and the ‘largest wholes’ and showed how academic work is never fully relegated to the past, but can return in new iterations across time....

  4. Education for Life in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Charles E.

    1981-01-01

    The need to educate people about the sky as both a psychological and physical environment is discussed, including a formal curriculum schema (sky as habitat, sky as transport, influence on culture) and informal curriculum, with such topics as recreation, pollution, mythology, and clouds. (DC)

  5. Writing Oneself into Someone Else s Story Experiments With Identity And Speculative Life Writing in Twilight Fan Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Fan fiction offers rich data to explore readers’ understanding of gendered discourses informing the narrative construction of fictional and real-life identities. This paper focuses on gender identity construction in self-insertion fan fiction texts – stories that involve avatars of fan writers – based on Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight novels. Self-insertion fan fiction stories can be considered a form of life writing where authors play with their identity in a virtual context in te...

  6. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  7. When science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

  8. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  9. Sky shine of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki; Hirayama, Hideo

    1978-01-01

    This report represents present status of the study on sky shine and the results made at KEK. At present, data at various facilities can be analyzed by the formula presented by R.H. Thomas. Measurement of sky shine at KEK has been carried out since August, 1977. The neutron level around the accelerator, spatial distribution, energy spectra and the intensities at far distant places were measured. The radiation level at the surface of shield of the accelerator is less than 0.8 mrem/h. Therefore, high sensitive detectors are required to measure the neutron at the far distant places. A 2 inch diameter BF 3 detector with polyethylene moderator and a 5.8 inch diameter BF 3 detector with same moderator were used for the measurement. Conversion from the obtained counting rate to the dose rate was made by using the conversion coefficient for fission neutrons of Cf-252. The dose rate distributions at the shielding surface of the main ring of the accelerator and the counter experiment hall were measured. At the main ring, the dose rate was less than 0.16 mrem/h, and at the counter hall the maximum dose rate was 5 mrem/h. The distance dependence of the sky shine level was measured, and the effective attenuation distance was 1300 m. The result can be expressed by the formula by Thomas. (Kato, T.)

  10. Towards the intrahour forecasting of direct normal irradiance using sky-imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nou, Julien; Chauvin, Rémi; Eynard, Julien; Thil, Stéphane; Grieu, Stéphane

    2018-04-01

    Increasing power plant efficiency through improved operation is key in the development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies. To this end, one of the most challenging topics remains accurately forecasting the solar resource at a short-term horizon. Indeed, in CSP plants, production is directly impacted by both the availability and variability of the solar resource and, more specifically, by Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI). The present paper deals with a new approach to the intrahour forecasting (the forecast horizon [Formula: see text] is up to [Formula: see text] ahead) of DNI, taking advantage of the fact that this quantity can be split into two terms, i.e. clear-sky DNI and the clear sky index. Clear-sky DNI is forecasted from DNI measurements, using an empirical model (Ineichen and Perez, 2002) combined with a persistence of atmospheric turbidity. Moreover, in the framework of the CSPIMP (Concentrating Solar Power plant efficiency IMProvement) research project, PROMES-CNRS has developed a sky imager able to provide High Dynamic Range (HDR) images. So, regarding the clear-sky index, it is forecasted from sky-imaging data, using an Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). A hybrid algorithm that takes inspiration from the classification algorithm proposed by Ghonima et al. (2012) when clear-sky anisotropy is known and from the hybrid thresholding algorithm proposed by Li et al. (2011) in the opposite case has been developed to the detection of clouds. Performance is evaluated via a comparative study in which persistence models - either a persistence of DNI or a persistence of the clear-sky index - are included. Preliminary results highlight that the proposed approach has the potential to outperform these models (both persistence models achieve similar performance) in terms of forecasting accuracy: over the test data used, RMSE (the Root Mean Square Error) is reduced of about [Formula: see text], with [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see

  11. High-Society Framing: The Brooklyn Eagle and the Popularity of Twilight Sleep in Brooklyn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bethany; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2017-01-01

    Twilight Sleep (TS) is an obstetric intervention during which a laboring woman enters a semiconscious state via injection. TS received enthusiastic support in Brooklyn, NY, in The Brooklyn Eagle (TBE) newspaper between 1914 and 1918. The purpose of this article is to analyze the framing of TS in TBE as the most popular obstetric intervention among wealthy, White socialites in Brooklyn during the period. The coverage in TBE prompted a nearly universally positive perception of TS among the newspaper's wider readership. After extensive historiographical research and rhetorical analysis of newspaper coverage of TS in TBE, we discovered a form of framing we call "high-society framing," rooted in both wealth and notoriety. We discuss four possible effects of high-society framing: The first is the ability of high-society framing to attract or repel the public regarding a health care issue, and the second is the impact of high-society framing on public perception of medical interventions, procedures, or pharmaceuticals. A third possible effect of high-society framing is that it can alter notions of necessity, and a fourth is that high-society framing can elicit a tacit acceptance of medical interventions, procedures, and pharmaceuticals, thus obfuscating risk. Finally, we argue that high-society framing has implications for the discussion of health care in present-day mediated discourses.

  12. Microflyers: inspiration from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

  13. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about‐to‐be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information

  14. Inspired by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

  15. Night sky a falcon field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nigro, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Night Sky: A Falcon Field Guide covers both summer and winter constellations, planets, and stars found in the northern hemisphere. Conveniently sized to fit in a pocket and featuring detailed photographs, this informative guide makes it easy to identify objects in the night sky even from one's own backyard. From information on optimal weather conditions, preferred viewing locations, and how to use key tools of the trade, this handbook will help you adeptly navigate to and fro the vast and dynamic nighttime skies, and you'll fast recognize that the night sky's the limit.

  16. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  17. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  18. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  19. Kids Inspire Kids for STEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Fenyvesi, Kristof; Houghton, Tony; Diego-Mantecón, José Manuel; Crilly, Elizabeth; Oldknow, Adrian; Lavicza, Zsolt; Blanco, Teresa F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the Kids Inspiring Kids in STEAM (KIKS) project was to raise students' awareness towards the multi- and transdisciplinary connections between the STEAM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts & Mathematics), and make the learning about topics and phenomena from these fields more enjoyable. In order to achieve these goals, KIKS project has popularized the STEAM-concept by projects based on the students inspiring other students-approach and by utilizing new tec...

  20. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  1. Smart Nacre-inspired Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jingsong; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2018-03-15

    Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable attention in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites is a good basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated good mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this Concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites, including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites, in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, and so on. We show that diverse smart nanocomposites could be designed by combining various conventional fabrication methods of nacre-inspired nanocomposites with responsive building blocks and interface interactions. The nacre-inspired strategy is versatile for different kinds of smart nanocomposites in extensive applications, such as strain sensors, displays, artificial muscles, robotics, and so on, and may act as an effective roadmap for designing smart nanocomposites in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les

    2013-01-01

    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  3. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  4. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  5. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  6. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  7. NASA Science Engagement Through "Sky Art"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, K. L.; Damadeo, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sky Art is a NASA-funded online community where the public can share in the beauty of nature and the science behind it. At the center of Sky Art is a gallery of amateur sky photos submitted by users that are related to NASA Earth science mission research areas. Through their submissions, amateur photographers from around the world are engaged in the process of making observations, or taking pictures, of the sky just like many NASA science instruments. By submitting their pictures and engaging in the online community discussions and interactions with NASA scientists, users make the connection between the beauty of nature and atmospheric science. Sky Art is a gateway for interaction and information aimed at drawing excitement and interest in atmospheric phenomena including sunrises, sunsets, moonrises, moonsets, and aerosols, each of which correlates to a NASA science mission. Educating the public on atmospheric science topics in an informal way is a central goal of Sky Art. NASA science is included in the community through interaction from scientists, NASA images, and blog posts on science concepts derived from the images. Additionally, the website connects educators through the formal education pathway where science concepts are taught through activities and lessons that align with national learning standards. Sky Art was conceived as part of the Education and Public Outreach program of the SAGE III on ISS mission. There are currently three other NASA mission involved with Sky Art: CALIPSO, GPM, and CLARREO. This paper will discuss the process of developing the Sky Art online website, the challenges of growing a community of users, as well as the use of social media and mobile applications in science outreach and education.

  8. Paradigms for biologically inspired design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, T. A.; Metzea, A.-L.; Hesselberg, T.

    2018-01-01

    engineering, medical engineering, nanotechnology, photonics,environmental protection and agriculture. However, a major obstacle for the wider use of biologically inspired design isthe knowledge barrier that exist between the application engineers that have insight into how to design suitable productsand......Biologically inspired design is attracting increasing interest since it offers access to a huge biological repository of wellproven design principles that can be used for developing new and innovative products. Biological phenomena can inspireproduct innovation in as diverse areas as mechanical...... the biologists with detailed knowledge and experience in understanding how biological organisms function in theirenvironment. The biologically inspired design process can therefore be approached using different design paradigmsdepending on the dominant opportunities, challenges and knowledge characteristics...

  9. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  10. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  11. Inspiration fra NY-times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2015-01-01

    NY-times har en ugentlig klumme med gode råd. For nogle uger siden var ugens inspiration henvendt til lærere/undervisere og drejede sig om, hvordan man skaber taletid til alle uden at have favoritter og overse de mere stille elever.......NY-times har en ugentlig klumme med gode råd. For nogle uger siden var ugens inspiration henvendt til lærere/undervisere og drejede sig om, hvordan man skaber taletid til alle uden at have favoritter og overse de mere stille elever....

  12. Students in Advanced Research for Sky Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    .... to 2000 sqare degrees of sky are searched each year to a V magnitude level of 21.3. Spacewatch discoveries support studies of the evolution of the Centaur, Trojan, Main-Belt, and Earth-approaching asteroid populations...

  13. STARS4ALL Night Sky Brightness Photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Zamorano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main features of TESS-W, the first version of a series of inexpensive but reliable photometers that will be used to measure night sky brightness. The bandpass is extended to the red with respect of that of the Sky Quality Meter (SQM. TESS-W connects to a router via WIFI and it sends automatically the brightness values to a data repository using Internet of Things protocols. The device includes an infrared sensor to estimate the cloud coverage. It is designed for fixed stations to monitor the evolution of the sky brightness. The photometer could also be used in local mode connected to a computer or tablet to gather data from a moving vehicle. The photometer is being developed within STARS4ALL project, a collective awareness platform for promoting dark skies in Europe, funded by the EU. We intend to extend the existing professional networks to a citizen-based network of photometers. 

  14. In Search of Scientific Inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    In the ever-expanding sea of scientific advances, how do you find inspiration for your own study? Cell editor Jiaying Tan talked with Mark Lemmon and Joseph (Yossi) Schlessinger about the importance of fueling your research creativity with the conceptual excitement and technical advance from the broad scientific field. An excerpt of the conversation appears below. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. INSPIRED High School Computing Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith

    2011-01-01

    If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…

  16. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  17. LEGO-inspired drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanh Tung, Truong; Dao, Trong Tuan; Grifell Junyent, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The fungal plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Pma1p) is a potential target for the discovery of new antifungal agents. Surprisingly, no structure-activity relationship studies for small molecules targeting Pma1p have been reported. Herein, we disclose a LEGO-inspired fragment assembly strategy for design...

  18. Inspiration til fremtidens naturfaglige uddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik; Troelsen, Rie; Horst, Sebastian

    uddannelsesniveauer • at den naturfaglige uddannelseskultur styrkes • at lærerkompetencerne styrkes. Rapportens 2. bind - den selvstændige publikation Inspiration til fremtidens naturfaglige uddannelser • En antologi indeholder en række essays om væsentlige problemstillinger for naturfagene. Der er tidligere udsendt...

  19. Clear sky solar insolation data for Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1990-09-01

    Monthly average values of both integrated and instantaneous clear sky solar radiation components for Islamabad territory have been presented and discussed. The components include total, direct normal, direct horizontal, global and diffuse radiations, sun hours, number of clear days and temperature for solar energy applications. Beam irradiance values are used to get clear sky (maximum) sun hours by ab-initio. The need for replacing the conventional sunshine recorder is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  20. Characterizing Sky Spectra Using SDSS BOSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Lina Maria; Strauss, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In the optical/near-infrared spectra gathered by a ground-based telescope observing very faint sources, the strengths of the emission lines due to the Earth’s atmosphere can be many times larger than the fluxes of the sources we are interested in. Thus the limiting factor in faint-object spectroscopy is the degree to which systematics in the sky subtraction can be minimized. Longwards of 6000 Angstroms, the night-sky spectrum is dominated by multiple vibrational/rotational transitions of the OH radical from our upper atmosphere. While the wavelengths of these lines are the same in each sky spectrum, their relative strengths vary considerably as a function of time and position on the sky. The better we can model their strengths, the better we can hope to subtract them off. We expect that the strength of lines from common upper energy levels will be correlated with one another. We used flux-calibrated sky spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS BOSS) to explore these correlations. Our aim is to use these correlations for creating improved sky subtraction algorithms for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope. When PFS starts gathering data in 2019, it will be the most powerful multi-object spectrograph in the world. Since PFS will be gathering data on sources as faint as 24th magnitude and fainter, it's of upmost importance to be able to accurately measure and subtract sky spectra from the data that we receive.

  1. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  2. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.

    2008-04-10

    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  3. Predictors of natively unfolded proteins: unanimous consensus score to detect a twilight zone between order and disorder in generic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiana Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natively unfolded proteins lack a well defined three dimensional structure but have important biological functions, suggesting a re-assignment of the structure-function paradigm. To assess that a given protein is natively unfolded requires laborious experimental investigations, then reliable sequence-only methods for predicting whether a sequence corresponds to a folded or to an unfolded protein are of interest in fundamental and applicative studies. Many proteins have amino acidic compositions compatible both with the folded and unfolded status, and belong to a twilight zone between order and disorder. This makes difficult a dichotomic classification of protein sequences into folded and natively unfolded ones. In this work we propose an operational method to identify proteins belonging to the twilight zone by combining into a consensus score good performing single predictors of folding. Results In this methodological paper dichotomic folding indexes are considered: hydrophobicity-charge, mean packing, mean pairwise energy, Poodle-W and a new global index, that is called here gVSL2, based on the local disorder predictor VSL2. The performance of these indexes is evaluated on different datasets, in particular on a new dataset composed by 2369 folded and 81 natively unfolded proteins. Poodle-W, gVSL2 and mean pairwise energy have good performance and stability in all the datasets considered and are combined into a strictly unanimous combination score SSU, that leaves proteins unclassified when the consensus of all combined indexes is not reached. The unclassified proteins: i belong to an overlap region in the vector space of amino acidic compositions occupied by both folded and unfolded proteins; ii are composed by approximately the same number of order-promoting and disorder-promoting amino acids; iii have a mean flexibility intermediate between that of folded and that of unfolded proteins. Conclusions Our results show that

  4. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  5. Solar Resource Assessment with Sky Imagery and a Virtual Testbed for Sky Imager Solar Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Benjamin Bernard

    In recent years, ground-based sky imagers have emerged as a promising tool for forecasting solar energy on short time scales (0 to 30 minutes ahead). Following the development of sky imager hardware and algorithms at UC San Diego, we present three new or improved algorithms for sky imager forecasting and forecast evaluation. First, we present an algorithm for measuring irradiance with a sky imager. Sky imager forecasts are often used in conjunction with other instruments for measuring irradiance, so this has the potential to decrease instrumentation costs and logistical complexity. In particular, the forecast algorithm itself often relies on knowledge of the current irradiance which can now be provided directly from the sky images. Irradiance measurements are accurate to within about 10%. Second, we demonstrate a virtual sky imager testbed that can be used for validating and enhancing the forecast algorithm. The testbed uses high-quality (but slow) simulations to produce virtual clouds and sky images. Because virtual cloud locations are known, much more advanced validation procedures are possible with the virtual testbed than with measured data. In this way, we are able to determine that camera geometry and non-uniform evolution of the cloud field are the two largest sources of forecast error. Finally, with the assistance of the virtual sky imager testbed, we develop improvements to the cloud advection model used for forecasting. The new advection schemes are 10-20% better at short time horizons.

  6. Experience in Solar System and Sky Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    To help students predict where they will see objects in the sky, they must comprehend sky motion and the relative motions of individual objects. Activities to promote this comprehension among college and secondary students include: Tracking star motion in the planetarium: Students predict star motion by marking the expected path on plastic hemisphere models of the celestial dome. They check their prediction by observing and marking the actual motion. For comprehension, comparing motion in different parts of the sky surpasses two-dimensional views of the sky in books or on computers. Mastery is assessed by the same exercise with the sky set at other latitudes, including those on the other side of the equator. Making sundials: Students first make a horizontal sundial for the latitude of their choice following written directions (e.g., Waugh, 1973). One problem to solve is how to convert sundial time to standard time. A prompt is a picture of the analemma (the position of the Sun in the sky at a fixed clock time over the course of a year). Tests of mastery include the questions, "What accounts for the shape of the analemma?" and "What information is needed to predict the shape of the analemma one would see on other planets?" Reference: Waugh, A. E., 1973, Sundials: their theory and construction: Dover, 228 p.

  7. A new software suite for NO2 vertical profile retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Roscoe, H.K.; Chipperfield, M.P.; Roozendael, M. van; Goutail, F.

    2005-01-01

    Here we present an operational method to improve accuracy and information content of ground-based measurements of stratospheric NO 2 . The motive is to improve the investigation of trends in NO 2 , and is important because the current trend in NO 2 appears to contradict the trend in its source, suggesting that the stratospheric circulation has changed. To do so, a new software package for retrieving NO 2 vertical profiles from slant columns measured by zenith-sky spectrometers has been created. It uses a Rodgers optimal linear inverse method coupled with a radiative transfer model for calculations of transfer functions between profiles and columns, and a chemical box model for taking into account the NO 2 variations during twilight and during the day. Each model has parameters that vary according to season and location. Forerunners of each model have been previously validated. The scheme maps random errors in the measurements and systematic errors in the models and their parameters on to the retrieved profiles. Initialisation for models is derived from well-established climatologies. The software has been tested by comparing retrieved profiles to simultaneous balloon-borne profiles at mid-latitudes in spring

  8. A new software suite for NO{sub 2} vertical profile retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, L. [British Antarctic Survey/NERC, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom); Roscoe, H.K. [British Antarctic Survey/NERC, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.roscoe@bas.ac.uk; Chipperfield, M.P. [Environment Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Roozendael, M. van [Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA/IASB), 1180 Brussels (Belgium); Goutail, F. [Service d' Aeronomie du CNRS, BP3, 91271 Verrieres le Buisson (France)

    2005-05-15

    Here we present an operational method to improve accuracy and information content of ground-based measurements of stratospheric NO{sub 2}. The motive is to improve the investigation of trends in NO{sub 2}, and is important because the current trend in NO{sub 2} appears to contradict the trend in its source, suggesting that the stratospheric circulation has changed. To do so, a new software package for retrieving NO{sub 2} vertical profiles from slant columns measured by zenith-sky spectrometers has been created. It uses a Rodgers optimal linear inverse method coupled with a radiative transfer model for calculations of transfer functions between profiles and columns, and a chemical box model for taking into account the NO{sub 2} variations during twilight and during the day. Each model has parameters that vary according to season and location. Forerunners of each model have been previously validated. The scheme maps random errors in the measurements and systematic errors in the models and their parameters on to the retrieved profiles. Initialisation for models is derived from well-established climatologies. The software has been tested by comparing retrieved profiles to simultaneous balloon-borne profiles at mid-latitudes in spring.

  9. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  10. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, Heath B.

    2010-01-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  11. The "hour of pink twilight": lesbian poetics and queer encounters on the fin-de-siècle street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the cultural representation of women's encounters on the fin-de-siècle street and, in particular, the uncertainties that clustered around the possibilities of mutual, or one-sided, same-sex desire accompanying such meetings. It argues, through an examination of lyric poetry, paintings, and short fiction, for the usefulness of twilight--a time of shadowy ambiguity--as a trope to suggest these uncertainities. More than this, it maintains that the lyric and the developing genre of the short story were modes ideally suited to an invocation of the fluid, the uncertain, and the unnamable. This argument is advanced through a close reading of Charlotte Mew's strange short story "Passed," which is read as representative of a transitional moment in lesbian literary history.

  12. PENGARUH PRODUCT PLACEMENT VOLVO DI DALAM FILM TWILIGHT SAGA: BREAKING DAWN PART 1 & PART 2 TERHADAP BRAND RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghygha Yunus Widya Prasetya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Movie scenes have become attractive means for many industries to present their products without enforced impression. Through careful designed product placement strategy, Twilight movie became the perfect promotional media for Volvo in promoting their products. Volvo is one of the premium automotive brands under the auspices of Indomobil. This well-known brand always put and positions their product merely for the target premium. Product placement is an example of a hybrid message or an attempt to influence audience at an affordable cost. Some benefits in advertising through product placement are a lot of audiences see the products so that the brand awareness and the products’ credibility would significantly increase. In conclusion, consumer’s behavior in recognizing and remembering a product might be affected by their vision, hearing, and admiration.

  13. Norsk inspiration til uddannelse og job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie; Buhl, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Anmeldelse af bog om det norske fag Utdanningsvalg - inspiration til arbejde med uddannelse og job......Anmeldelse af bog om det norske fag Utdanningsvalg - inspiration til arbejde med uddannelse og job...

  14. Sky camera imagery processing based on a sky classification using radiometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Batlles, F.J.; López, G.; Ternero, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the development and expansion of CSP (concentrated solar power) technology, one of the most important operational requirements is to have complete control of all factors which may affect the quantity and quality of the solar power produced. New developments and tools in this field are focused on weather forecasting improving both operational security and electricity production. Such is the case with sky cameras, devices which are currently in use in some CSP plants and whose use is expanding in the new technology sector. Their application is mainly focused on cloud detection, estimating their movement as well as their influence on solar radiation attenuation indeed, the presence of clouds is the greatest factor involved in solar radiation attenuation. The aim of this work is the detection and analysis of clouds from images taken by a TSI-880 model sky. In order to obtain accurate image processing, three different models were created, based on a previous sky classification using radiometric data and representative sky conditions parameters. As a consequence, the sky can be classified as cloudless, partially-cloudy or overcast, delivering an average success rate of 92% in sky classification and cloud detection. - Highlights: • We developed a methodology for detection of clouds in total sky imagery (TSI-880). • A classification of sky is presented according to radiometric data and sky parameters. • The sky can be classified as cloudless, partially cloudy and overcast. • The images processing is based on the sky classification for the detection of clouds. • The average success of the developed model is around 92%

  15. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  16. The Accuracy of RADIANCE Software in Modelling Overcast Sky Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of the sky models of RADIANCE simulation software against the overcast sky condition has been carried out in order to test the accuracy of sky model of RADIANCE for modeling the overcast sky condition in Hong Kong. Two sets of data have been analysed. Firstly, data collected from a set of experiments using a physical scale model. In this experiment, the illuminance of four points inside the model was measured under real sky conditions. Secondly, the RADIANCE simulation has ...

  17. Dark Skies: Local Success, Global Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Flagstaff, Arizona 1987 lighting code reduced the growth rate of man-made sky glow by a third. Components of the code include requirements for full cutoff lighting, lumens per acre limits in radial zones around observatories, and use of low-pressure sodium monochromatic lighting for roadways and parking lots. Broad public acceptance of Flagstaff's lighting code demonstrates that dark sky preservation has significant appeal and few visibility or public safety negatives. An inventory by C. Luginbuhl et al. of the light output and shielding of a sampling of various zoning categories (municipal, commercial, apartments, single-family residences, roadways, sports facilities, industrial, etc.), extrapolated over the entire city, yields a total output of 139 million lumens. Commercial and industrial sources account for 62% of the total. Outdoor sports lighting increases the total by 24% on summer evenings. Flagstaff's per capita lumen output is 2.5 times greater than the nominal 1,000 lumens per capita assumed by R. Garstang in his early sky glow modeling work. We resolved the discrepancy with respect to Flagstaff's measured sky glow using an improved model that includes substantial near ground attenuation by foliage and structures. A 2008 university study shows that astronomy contributes $250M annually to Arizona's economy. Another study showed that the application of lighting codes throughout Arizona could reduce energy consumption significantly. An ongoing effort led by observatory directors statewide will encourage lighting controls in currently unregulated metropolitan areas whose growing sky glow threatens observatory facilities more than 100 miles away. The national press (New York Times, the New Yorker, the Economist, USA Today, etc.) have publicized dark sky issues but frequent repetition of the essential message and vigorous action will be required to steer society toward darker skies and less egregious waste.

  18. An Innovative Collaboration on Dark Skies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Mayer, M.; EPO Students, NOAO

    2011-01-01

    Dark night skies are being lost all over the globe, and hundreds of millions of dollars of energy are being wasted in the process.. Improper lighting is the main cause of light pollution. Light pollution is a concern on many fronts, affecting safety, energy conservation, cost, human health, and wildlife. It also robs us of the beauty of viewing the night sky. In the U.S. alone, over half of the population cannot see the Milky Way from where they live. To help address this, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory Education and Public Outreach (NOAO EPO) staff created two programs: Dark Skies Rangers and GLOBE at Night. Through the two programs, students learn about the importance of dark skies and experience activities that illustrate proper lighting, light pollution's effects on wildlife and how to measure the darkness of their skies. To disseminate the programs locally in an appropriate yet innovative venue, NOAO partnered with the Cooper Center for Environmental Learning in Tucson, Arizona. Operated by the largest school district in Tucson and the University of Arizona College of Education, the Cooper Center educates thousands of students and educators each year about ecology, science, and the beauty and wonders of the Sonoran Desert. During the first academic year (2009-2010), we achieved our goal of reaching nearly 20 teachers in 40 classrooms of 1000 students. We gave two 3-hour teacher-training sessions and provided nineteen 2.5-hour on-site evening sessions on dark skies activities for the students of the teachers trained. One outcome of the program was the contribution of 1000 "GLOBE at Night 2010” night-sky brightness measurements by Tucson students. Training sessions at similar levels are continuing this year. The partnership, planning, lesson learned, and outcomes of NOAO's collaboration with the environmental center will be presented.

  19. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James K. B.; Wood, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by ˜100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting 3 weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75°N 158°W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47 °N 161°E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C org, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in 51 μm size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C org and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient ( C P) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 μM m -1 conversion factor. At K2, C P profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed ˜40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 μm C org of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 μm C org, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 μm Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO 4 precipitating Acantharia. Notable at K2 were major changes in water column inventories of many particulate components to 700 m over 10 days

  20. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the Twilight Zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.B.; Wood, T.J.

    2008-03-25

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERTIGO (VERtical Transformations In the Global Ocean) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by {approx}100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting three weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75{sup o}N 158{sup o}W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47{sup o}N 161{sup o}E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C{sub org}, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in <1, 1-51, and >51 {micro}m size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C{sub org} and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient (C{sub P}) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 {micro}M m{sup -1} conversion factor. 26 At K2, C{sub P} profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed {approx}40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 {micro}m C{sub org} of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 {micro}m C{sub org}, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 {micro}m Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO{sub 4

  1. Mira Soars Through the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 New ultraviolet images from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a speeding star that is leaving an enormous trail of 'seeds' for new solar systems. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' is shedding material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life as it hurls through our galaxy. In figure 1, the upper panel shows Mira's full, comet-like tail as seen only in shorter, or 'far' ultraviolet wavelengths, while the lower panel is a combined view showing both far and longer, or 'near' ultraviolet wavelengths. The close-up picture at bottom gives a better look at Mira itself, which appears as a pinkish dot, and is moving from left to right in this view. Shed material appears in light blue. The dots in the picture are stars and distant galaxies. The large blue dot on the left side of the upper panel, and the large yellow dot in the lower panel, are both stars that are closer to us than Mira. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the strange tail during part of its routine survey of the entire sky at ultraviolet wavelengths. When astronomers first saw the picture, they were shocked because Mira has been studied for over 400 years yet nothing like this has ever been documented before. Mira's comet-like tail stretches a startling 13 light-years across the sky. For comparison, the nearest star to our sun, Proxima Centauri, is only about 4 light-years away. Mira's tail also tells a tale of its history -- the material making it up has been slowly blown off over time, with the oldest material at the end of the tail being released about 30,000 years ago (figure 2). Mira is a highly evolved, 'red giant' star near the end of its life. Technically, it is called an asymptotic giant branch star. It is red in color and bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  3. Accuracy of sun localization in the second step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for north determination: a planetarium experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, András; Nehéz, Dóra; Bernáth, Balázs; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-07-01

    It is a widely discussed hypothesis that Viking seafarers might have been able to locate the position of the occluded sun by means of dichroic or birefringent crystals, the mysterious sunstones, with which they could analyze skylight polarization. Although the atmospheric optical prerequisites and certain aspects of the efficiency of this sky-polarimetric Viking navigation have been investigated, the accuracy of the main steps of this method has not been quantitatively examined. To fill in this gap, we present here the results of a planetarium experiment in which we measured the azimuth and elevation errors of localization of the invisible sun. In the planetarium sun localization was performed in two selected celestial points on the basis of the alignments of two small sections of two celestial great circles passing through the sun. In the second step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation the navigator needed to determine the intersection of two such celestial circles. We found that the position of the sun (solar elevation θ(S), solar azimuth φ(S)) was estimated with an average error of +0.6°≤Δθ≤+8.8° and -3.9°≤Δφ≤+2.0°. We also calculated the compass direction error when the estimated sun position is used for orienting with a Viking sun-compass. The northern direction (ω(North)) was determined with an error of -3.34°≤Δω(North)≤+6.29°. The inaccuracy of the second step of this navigation method was high (Δω(North)=-16.3°) when the solar elevation was 5°≤θ(S)≤25°, and the two selected celestial points were far from the sun (at angular distances 95°≤γ(1), γ(2)≤115°) and each other (125°≤δ≤145°). Considering only this second step, the sky-polarimetric navigation could be more accurate in the mid-summer period (June and July), when in the daytime the sun is high above the horizon for long periods. In the spring (and autumn) equinoctial period, alternative methods (using a twilight board, for example) might be more

  4. The night sky companion a yearly guide to sky-watching 2008-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Plotner, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    The Night Sky Companion is a comprehensive guide to what can be explored in the heavens on a nightly basis. Designed to appeal to readers at all skill levels, it provides a digest for sky watchers interested in all types of astronomical information.

  5. PePSS - A portable sky scanner for measuring extremely low night-sky brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kómar, Ladislav; Kundracik, František

    2018-05-01

    A new portable sky scanner designed for low-light-level detection at night is developed and employed in night sky brightness measurements in a rural region. The fast readout, adjustable sensitivity and linear response guaranteed in 5-6 orders of magnitude makes the device well suited for narrow-band photometry in both dark areas and bright urban and suburban environments. Quasi-monochromatic night-sky brightness data are advantageous in the accurate characterization of spectral power distribution of scattered and emitted light and, also allows for the possibility to retrieve light output patterns from whole-city light sources. The sky scanner can operate in both night and day regimes, taking advantage of the complementarity of both radiance data types. Due to its inherent very high sensitivity the photomultiplier tube could be used in night sky radiometry, while the spectrometer-equipped system component capable of detecting elevated intensities is used in daylight monitoring. Daylight is a source of information on atmospheric optical properties that in turn are necessary in processing night sky radiances. We believe that the sky scanner has the potential to revolutionize night-sky monitoring systems.

  6. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  7. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    insect brain, allow these animals to fly with damaged wings, order of body mass payloads (e.g., foraging bees with a load of pollen , blood satiated...The research focus addressed two broad, complementary research areas : autonomous systems concepts inspired by the behavior and neurobiology...UL 46 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 850 883-1887 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Table of

  8. Sky coverage modeling for the whole sky for laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianqi; Andersen, David; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2012-06-01

    The scientific productivity of laser guide star adaptive optics systems strongly depends on the sky coverage, which describes the probability of finding natural guide stars for the tip/tilt wavefront sensor(s) to achieve a certain performance. Knowledge of the sky coverage is also important for astronomers planning their observations. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute the sky coverage for the laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics system, the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), being designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We show that NFIRAOS can achieve more than 70% sky coverage over most of the accessible sky with the requirement of 191 nm total rms wavefront.

  9. Secrets to Successful Earth and Sky Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    In the absolute silence of a desert night, surrounded by an arena of celestial beauties, a gentle breeze shifts the tiny grains of sand around me. There is a patchy glow of light visible all across the eastern horizon. It is gradually ascending over the sand dunes. The glow represents billions of stars in our home galaxy rising above the horizon of our planet. I have seen such dream-like starry scenes from many locations; from the boundless dark skies of the African Sahara when the summer Milky Way was arching over giant sandstones, to the shimmering beauty of the Grand Canyon under moonlight, and the transparent skies of the Himalayas when the bright stars of winter were rising above where the highest peak on Earth (Mt. Everest) meets the sky. These are forever-engraved moments in my memory. Astrophotography is not only about recording the celestial world. It can lead you to a life of adventure and discovery (Fig. 1).

  10. Modelling and Display of the Ultraviolet Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J.; Henry, R.; Murthy, J.; Allen, M.; McGlynn, T. A.; Scollick, K.

    1994-12-01

    A computer program is currently under development to model in 3D - one dimension of which is wavelength - all the known and major speculated sources of ultraviolet (900 A - 3100 A ) radiation over the celestial sphere. The software is being written in Fortran 77 and IDL and currently operates under IRIX (the operating system of the Silicon Graphics Iris Machine); all output models are in FITS format. Models along with display software will become available to the astronomical community. The Ultraviolet Sky Model currently includes the Zodiacal Light, Point Sources of Emission, and the Diffuse Galactic Light. The Ultraviolet Sky Model is currently displayed using SkyView: a package under development at NASA/ GSFC, which allows users to retrieve and display publically available all-sky astronomical survey data (covering many wavebands) over the Internet. We present a demonstration of the SkyView display of the Ultraviolet Model. The modelling is a five year development project: the work illustrated here represents product output at the end of year one. Future work includes enhancements to the current models and incorporation of the following models: Galactic Molecular Hydrogen Fluorescence; Galactic Highly Ionized Atomic Line Emission; Integrated Extragalactic Light; and speculated sources in the intergalactic medium such as Ionized Plasma and radiation from Non-Baryonic Particle Decay. We also present a poster which summarizes the components of the Ultraviolet Sky Model and outlines a further package that will be used to display the Ultraviolet Model. This work is supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004. Dr J. Daniels is supported with a post-doctoral Fellowship from the Leverhulme Foundation, London, United Kingdom. We are also grateful for the encouragement of Dr Stephen Price (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, MA)

  11. Automated exploitation of sky polarization imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A; Chun, Cornell S L

    2018-03-10

    We propose an automated method for detecting neutral points in the sunlit sky. Until now, detecting these singularities has been done manually. Results are presented that document the application of this method on a limited number of polarimetric images of the sky captured with a camera and rotating polarizer. The results are significant because a method for automatically detecting the neutral points may aid in the determination of the solar position when the sun is obscured and may have applications in meteorology and pollution detection and characterization.

  12. Space as an inspiring context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Using space as context to inspire science education tapps into the excitement of generations of discovering the unknown resulting in unprecedented public participation. Educators are finding exciting and age appropiate materials for their class that explore science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Possible misconceptions are highlighted so that teachers may plan lessons to facilitate correct conceptual understanding. With a range of hands-on learning experiences, Web materials and online ,opportunities for students, educators are invited to take a closer look to actual science missions. This session leverages resources, materials and expertise to address a wide range of traditional and nontraditional audiences while providing consistent messages and information on various space agencies programs.

  13. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  14. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Sirius brightest diamond in the night sky

    CERN Document Server

    Holberg, Jay B

    2007-01-01

    This book describes why Sirius has been regarded as an important fixture of the night sky since the beginnings of history. It also examines the part that Sirius has played in how we came to achieve our current scientific understanding of stars.

  16. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  17. ESASky: All the sky you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; ESASky Team

    2018-06-01

    ESASky is a discovery portal giving to all astronomers, professional and amateur alike, an easy way to access high-quality scientific data from their computer, tablet, or mobile device. It includes over half a million images, 300,000 spectra, and more than a billion catalogue sources. From gamma rays to radio wavelengths, it allows users to explore the cosmos with data from a dozen space missions from the astronomical archives of ESA, NASA, and JAXA and does not require prior knowledge of any particular mission. ESASky features an all-sky exploration interface, letting users easily zoom in for stars as single targets or as part of a whole galaxy, visualise them and retrieve the relevant data taken in an area of the sky with just a few clicks. Users can easily compare observations of the same source obtained by different space missions at different times and wavelengths. They can also use ESASky to plan future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope, comparing the relevant portion of the sky as observed by Hubble and other missions. We will illustrate the many options to visualise and access astronomical data: interactive footprints for each instrument, tree-maps, filters, and solar-system object trajectories can all be combined and displayed. The most recent version of ESASky, released in February, also includes access to scientific publications, allowing users to visualise on the sky all astronomical objects with associated scientific publications and to link directly back to the papers in the NASA Astrophysics Data System.

  18. DESCQA: Synthetic Sky Catalog Validation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Uram, Thomas D.; Zhou, Rongpu; Kovacs, Eve; Ricker, Paul M.; Kalmbach, J. Bryce; Padilla, Nelson; Lanusse, François; Zu, Ying; Tenneti, Ananth; Vikraman, Vinu; DeRose, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The DESCQA framework provides rigorous validation protocols for assessing the quality of high-quality simulated sky catalogs in a straightforward and comprehensive way. DESCQA enables the inspection, validation, and comparison of an inhomogeneous set of synthetic catalogs via the provision of a common interface within an automated framework. An interactive web interface is also available at portal.nersc.gov/project/lsst/descqa.

  19. Microscopic dust in the infrared sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leene, A.; Wesselius, P.

    1985-01-01

    After ten months of observation IRAS (InfraRed Astronomical Satellite) revealed for the first time an infrared sky map. One of its major discovery has been the display of new constituents in Universe: the infrared cirrus which are interstellar clouds constituted of microparticles abounding in carbon. Results and first hypothesis are presented in this article [fr

  20. Go-To Telescopes Under Suburban Skies

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, Neale

    2010-01-01

    For the last four centuries stargazers have turned their telescopes to the night skies to look at its wonders, but only in this age of computers has it become possible to let the telescope find for you the object you are looking for! So-called “go-to” telescopes are programmed with the locations of thousands of objects, including dazzling distant Suns, stunning neighboring galaxies, globular and open star clusters, the remnants of past supernovae, and many other breathtaking sights. This book does not tell you how to use your Go-to telescope. Your manual will help you do that. It tells you what to look for in the deep sky and why, and what equipment to best see it with. Organized broadly by what is best for viewing in the northern hemisphere in different seasons, Monks further divides the sights of each season into groupings such as “Showpiece Objects,” “Interesting Deep Sky Objects,” and “Obscure and Challenging Deep Sky Objects.” He also tells what objects are visible even in light-polluted ...

  1. NRAO Makes Available VLA Sky Survey Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    An original and comprehensive data set potentially full of scientific surprises now is available to astronomers, students and the public through the information superhighway. Radio images of the sky produced by the Very Large Array radio telescope -- one of the premier astronomical instruments in the world -- as part of a massive survey now are stored in an electronic repository avail- able over the Internet computer communications network. "Each of these sensitive new sky maps shows about a thou- sand radio-emitting objects, most of which have never been seen before," said Dr. J. J. Condon, leader of the National Radio As- tronomy Observatory (NRAO) survey team. "We are releasing them as soon as they are completed because they contain more data than we could possibly analyze by ourselves." "By using electronic distribution, we can open this tre- mendous resource of information for computer analysis by all as- tronomers immediately, without waiting for traditional publication," Condon added. The radio images are copyright NRAO/ AUI. Permission is granted for use of the material without charge for scholarly, educational and private non-commercial purposes. "It is entirely conceivable -- even probable -- that valuable discoveries will be made by students or amateur astrono- mers who devote the time to study these maps carefully," said team member Dr. W. D. Cotton. "Making this new information available electronically means that more people can participate in adding to its scientific value." The maps are a product of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), which began its observational phase in September of 1993 and will cover 82 percent of the sky when completed by the end of 1996. The NVSS is expected to produce a catalog of more than two million ra- dio-emitting objects in the sky, and it is the first sky survey sensitive to linearly polarized emission from radio sources beyond our own Milky Way galaxy. "The NVSS is being made as a service to the entire astronomical

  2. Detailed comparison of LIGO and Virgo inspiral pipelines in preparation for a joint search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauville, F; Buskulic, D; Grosjean, D; Bizouard, M-A; Cavalier, F; Clapson, A-C; Hello, P; Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E; Bosi, L; Brocco, L; Brown, D A; Chatterji, S; Christensen, N; Knight, M; Fairhurst, S; Guidi, G; Heng, S; Hewitson, M; Klimenko, S

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a detailed and direct comparison of the detection pipelines used by LIGO and Virgo in their attempt to observe gravitational waves from binary neutron star systems. In order to test the search programs, numerous inspiral signals were added to 24 h of simulated detector data. The efficiencies of the different pipelines were tested, and found to be very similar. Parameter estimation routines were also tested. We demonstrate that there are definite benefits if LIGO and Virgo conduct a joint coincident analysis; these advantages include increased detection efficiency and information on source sky location

  3. Detailed comparison of LIGO and Virgo inspiral pipelines in preparation for a joint search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauville, F; Buskulic, D; Grosjean, D [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, Chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Bizouard, M-A; Cavalier, F; Clapson, A-C; Hello, P [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3/CNRS-Universite de Paris XI, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E [LIGO-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bosi, L [INFN Sezione di Perugia and/or Universita di Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brocco, L [INFN Sezione di Roma and/or Universita ' La Sapienza' , P.le A Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Brown, D A; Chatterji, S [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Christensen, N; Knight, M [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Fairhurst, S [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Guidi, G [INFN Sezione Firenze/Urbino Via G Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy) and/or Universita di Firenze, Largo E.Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze and/or Universita di Urbino, Via S Chiara 27, I-61029 Urbino (Italy); Heng, S; Hewitson, M [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Klimenko, S [University of Florida-Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-02-21

    Presented in this paper is a detailed and direct comparison of the detection pipelines used by LIGO and Virgo in their attempt to observe gravitational waves from binary neutron star systems. In order to test the search programs, numerous inspiral signals were added to 24 h of simulated detector data. The efficiencies of the different pipelines were tested, and found to be very similar. Parameter estimation routines were also tested. We demonstrate that there are definite benefits if LIGO and Virgo conduct a joint coincident analysis; these advantages include increased detection efficiency and information on source sky location.

  4. SkyNet: Modular nuclear reaction network library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-10-01

    The general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. Any list of isotopes can be evolved and SkyNet supports various different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular, permitting new or existing physics, such as nuclear reactions or equations of state, to be easily added or modified.

  5. Light pollution: Assessment of sky glow on two dark sky regions of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Raul Cerveira; Pinto da Cunha, José; Peixinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), producing light pollution (LP), is not a matter restricted to astronomy anymore. Light is part of modern societies and, as a consequence, the natural cycle day-night (bright-dark) has been interrupted in a large segment of the global population. There is increasing evidence that exposure to certain types of light at night and beyond threshold levels may produce hazardous effects to humans and the environment. The concept of "dark skies reserves" is a step forward in order to preserve the night sky and a means of enhancing public awareness of the problem of spread of light pollution worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the skyglow at two sites in Portugal, the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG) and the region now known as Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve. The latter site was classified as a "Starlight Tourism Destination" by the Starlight Foundation (the first in the world to achieve this classification) following a series of night sky measurements in situ described herein. The measurements at PNPG also contributed to the new set of regulations concerning light pollution at this national park. This study presents the first in situ systematic measurements of night sky brightness, showing that at the two sites the skies are mostly in levels 3 to 4 of the Bortle 9-level scale (with level 1 being the best achievable). The results indicate that the sources of light pollution and skyglow can be attributed predominantly to contamination from nearby urban regions.

  6. Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

  7. INSPIRE 2012 da Istanbul a Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DURING THE CONFERENCE HELD IN  ISTANBUL IN  2012 INSPIRE  THE  NEWS  THAT  MOST  IMPRESSED ITALIANS PRESENT,  EVEN THOSE IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION , WAS THAT THE NEXT  INSPIRE CONFERENCE WILL TAKE PLACE IN  FLORENCEDurante la conferenza INSPIRE 2012 svoltasi ad Istanbul la notizia che ha maggiormente colpito gli italiani presenti, anche quelli della pubblica amministrazione , è stata che la prossima Conferenza INSPIRE si svolgerà a Firenze dal 23 al 27 giugno 2013.

  8. INSPIRE 2012 da Istanbul a Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DURING THE CONFERENCE HELD IN  ISTANBUL IN  2012 INSPIRE  THE  NEWS  THAT  MOST  IMPRESSED ITALIANS PRESENT,  EVEN THOSE IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION , WAS THAT THE NEXT  INSPIRE CONFERENCE WILL TAKE PLACE IN  FLORENCE Durante la conferenza INSPIRE 2012 svoltasi ad Istanbul la notizia che ha maggiormente colpito gli italiani presenti, anche quelli della pubblica amministrazione , è stata che la prossima Conferenza INSPIRE si svolgerà a Firenze dal 23 al 27 giugno 2013.

  9. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  10. Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

  11. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-infrared Properties of Post-starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Lanz, Lauranne; Lacy, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; French, K. Decker; Ciesla, Laure; Appleton, Philip N.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Crossett, Jacob; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Kelson, Daniel D.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kriek, Mariska; Medling, Anne M.; Mulchaey, John S.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of “E+A” identified post-starburst galaxies, including a deep analysis of 190 post-starbursts detected in the 2 μm All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog. The post-starburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone. Furthermore, we find that post-starbursts occupy a distinct region of [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broadband photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of post-starbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that the mid-infrared (4-12 μm) properties of post-starbursts are consistent with either 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended post-starburst galaxies with 22 μm emission detected with signal-to-noise ratio ≥slant 3 requires a hot dust component to produce their observed rising mid-infrared SED between 12 and 22 μm. The composite SED of WISE 22 μm non-detections (S/N systems. This could mean that including selections capable of identifying AGNs as part of a search for transitioning and post-starburst galaxies would create a more complete census of the transition pathways taken as a galaxy quenches its star formation.

  12. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  13. The Infrared Sky - Science from 2MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrutskie, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey has imaged 100% of the celestial sphere in the near-infrared J (1.2 μm), H (1.6 μm) and Ks (2.2 μm) photometric bands. Pipeline processing of these data has produced catalogs containing 500 million stars and 1.5 million extended sources which will be released later this year. The catalogs are characterized by great photometric uniformity (1%) and precision (2-3%) around the sky as well as good astrometric accuracy (100 mas). This talk will focus on some of the initial scientific results enabled by this database ranging from brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood to large scale structure in the early universe.

  14. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio Mario Mario; Ramírez, Edgar; Ribeiro, Nadili; Seriacopi, Daiane; Rubinho, Marcelo; Ferrari, Tiberio; Rodrigues, Claudia; Schoenell, William; Herpich, Fabio; Pereyra, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly built polarimeter for T80-S, an 84 cm robotic telescope installed at Cerro Tololo (CTIO), Chile. It will initially cover the sky South of declination -15 deg with a polarimetric accuracy Solar System.The polarimeter has just been commissioned in mid-November, 2017. The data reduction pipeline has already been built. We will describe the instrument and the data reduction, as well as a few of the science cases. The survey is expected to begin midway through the 1st semester of 2018. Both catalog data and raw images will be made available.

  15. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear daytime sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    To casual observers, haze's visible effects on clear daytime skies may seem mundane: significant scattering by tropospheric aerosols visibly (1) reduces the luminance contrast of distant objects and (2) desaturates sky blueness. However, few published measurements of hazy-sky spectra and chromaticities exist to compare with these naked-eye observations. Hyperspectral imaging along sky meridians of clear and hazy skies at one inland and two coastal sites shows that they have characteristic colorimetric signatures of scattering and absorption by haze aerosols. In addition, a simple spectral transfer function and a second-order scattering model of skylight reveal the net spectral and colorimetric effects of haze.

  16. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  17. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  18. Inspiration til undervisning på museer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Trine Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    collection and arrangement of knowledge meant to give a general view of, to inspire and to develop teaching at museums in Denmark......collection and arrangement of knowledge meant to give a general view of, to inspire and to develop teaching at museums in Denmark...

  19. Thermography hogging the limelight at Big Sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastow, C. [Fluke Electronics Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The high levels of humidity and ammonia found at hog farms can lead to premature corrosion of electrical systems and create potential hazards, such as electrical fires. Big Sky Farms in Saskatchewan has performed on-site inspections at its 44 farms and 16 feed mills using handheld thermography technology from Fluke Electronics. Ti thermal imaging units save time and simplify inspections. The units could be used for everything, from checking out the bearings at the feed mills to electrical circuits and relays. The Ti25 is affordable and has the right features for a preventative maintenance program. Operators of Big Sky Farms use the Ti25 to inspect all circuit breakers of 600 volts or lower as well as transformers where corrosion often causes connections to break off. The units are used to look at bearings, do scanning and thermal imaging on motors. To date, the Ti25 has detected and highlighted 5 or 6 problems on transformers alone that could have been major issues. At one site, the Ti25 indicated that all 30 circuit breakers had loose connections and were overeating. Big Sky Farms fixed the problem right away before a disaster happened. In addition to reducing inspection times, the Ti25 can record all measurements and keep a record of all the readings for downloading. 2 figs.

  20. Model for the angular distribution of sky radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Brunger, A P

    1979-08-01

    A flexible mathematical model is introduced which describes the radiance of the dome of the sky under various conditions. This three-component continuous distribution (TCCD) model is compounded by the superposition of three separate terms, the isotropic, circumsolar and horizon brightening terms, each representing the contribution of a particular sky characteristic. In use a particular sky condition is characterized by the values of the coefficients of each of these three terms, defining the distribution of the total diffuse component. The TCCD model has been demonstrated to fit both the normalized clear sky data and the normalized overcast sky data with an RMS error of about ten percent of the man overall sky radiance. By extension the model could describe variable or partly clouded sky conditions. The model can aid in improving the prediction of solar collector performance.

  1. Solar irradiance forecasting at one-minute intervals for different sky conditions using sky camera images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Montesinos, J.; Batlles, F.J.; Portillo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solar resource has been predicted for three hours at 1-min intervals. • Digital image levels and cloud motion vectors are joint for irradiance forecasting. • The three radiation components have been predicted under different sky conditions. • Diffuse and global radiation has an nRMSE value around 10% in all sky conditions. • Beam irradiance is predicted with an nRMSE value of about 15% in overcast skies. - Abstract: In the search for new techniques to predict atmospheric features that might be useful to solar power plant operators, we have carried out solar irradiance forecasting using emerging sky camera technology. Digital image levels are converted into irradiances and then the maximum cross-correlation method is applied to obtain future predictions. This methodology is a step forward in the study of the solar resource, essential to solar plant operators in adapting a plant’s operating procedures to atmospheric conditions and to improve electricity generation. The results are set out using different statistical parameters, in which beam, diffuse and global irradiances give a constant normalized root-mean-square error value over the time interval for all sky conditions. The average measure is 25.44% for beam irradiance; 11.60% for diffuse irradiance and 11.17% for global irradiance.

  2. The interactive sky: a browsable allsky image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; Da Rosa, Fernando; Roland, Santiago; Almenares, Luciano; Gomez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    We are conducting a project to make available panoramas of the night sky of the southern hemisphere, based on a mosaic of hundred of photographs. Each allsky panorama is a giant image composed by hundreds of high-resolution photos taken in the course of one night. The panoramas are accessible with a web-browser and the public is able to zoom on them and to see the sky with better quality than the naked eye. We are preparing 4 sets of panoramas corresponding to the four seasons.The individual images are taken with a 16 Mpixels DLSR camera with a 50 mm lens mounted on a Gigapan EPIC robotic camera mounts. These devices and a autoguiding telescope are mounted in a equatorial telescope mount, which allows us to have exposure of several tens seconds. The images are then processed and stitched to create the gigantic panorama, with typical weight of several GBytes.The limiting magnitude is V~8. The panoramas include more than 50 times more stars those detected with the naked eye.In addition to the allsky panoramas, we embedded higher resolution images of specific regions of interest such as: emission nebulae and dark, open and globular clusters and galaxies; which can be zoomed.The photographs have been acquiring since December 2014 in a dark place with low light pollution in the countryside of Uruguay; which allows us to achieve deep sky objects.These panoramas will be available on a website and can be accessed with any browser.This tool will be available for teaching purposes, astronomy popularization or introductory research. Teacher guides will be developed for educational activities at different educational levels.While there are similar projects like Google Sky, the methodology used to generate the giant panoramas allows a much more realistic view, with a background of continuous sky without sharp edges. Furthermore, while the planetarium software is based on drawings of the stars, our panoramas are based on real images.This is the first project with these

  3. Teach and Touch the Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florina Tendea, Camelia

    2017-04-01

    My name is Camelia Florina Tendea. I am primary school teacher at "Horea, Closca and Crisan" Secondary School, in Brad, a town in the west side of Transylvania. I am permanently interested to develop my knowledge and teaching skills about space sciences (Earth and Sky) because the new generations of students are very well informed and couriouse about these topics. In this context the teachers must be prepared to deal with such requests in school. Introducing of activity: For a primary school teacher is a real challenge teaching about Earth and Sky, so I consider that a collaboration with science teachers, engineers and other specialists in the sciences is absolutely essential and beneficial in the educational design. In my opinion, the contents about Earth ans Sky-Space in a single word- are very attractive for students and they are a permanent source of discoveries and provide a multidisciplinary vision, so required in the education. Possible contents to teach in primary school: about Earth: -Terra -the third Planet from the Sun; How Earth spins; Land and water; The Earth seen from space, Trip between Earth and Moon,Weather Phenomena; the Poles; about Sky: Solar System, Asteroids, Comets, Meteorites; Rosetta Mission or rendez-vous with a comet; Sun.Moon. Earth. Eclipse;Light Pollution and protection of the night sky; Life in Space. Astronauts and experiences; Mission X:- Train Like an Astronaut;About ISS. For teachers it is important to know from the beginning how they teach, a viable support is the teaching of STEM subjects, which provides access to careers in astronomy, science/technology space. We could teach about earth and sky using different kinds of experiments, simulations, hands-on activities, competitions, exhibitions, video presentations. Competences developed in primary school through these contents: Comunication, individual studying, understanding and valorisation of scientific information, relating to the natural environment. In addition, they are

  4. The Night Sky, The Forgotten Nature: Uncovering the Impact of One Television Programme on Astronomy Communication in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, P.

    2017-09-01

    In 2001, two brothers known as the Saffarianpour brothers started a television programme on Iranian state television called Aseman-e-shab (The Night Sky). The programme, which explores astronomy and space science, became one of the longest-running television shows in the history of Iranian television and played a major role in the public communication of science and astronomy. It inspired many of the next generation of Iranian scientists and astronomers and played a key role in the advancement of science journalism and science communication in Iranian media. This article outlines a brief history of the show and its producer and describes the role they played in Iranian society.

  5. How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-06-08

    Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a 'twilight board', which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and -8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago.

  6. Optimal statistic for detecting gravitational wave signals from binary inspirals with LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Rogan, A

    2004-01-01

    A binary compact object early in its inspiral phase will be picked up by its nearly monochromatic gravitational radiation by LISA. But even this innocuous appearing candidate poses interesting detection challenges. The data that will be scanned for such sources will be a set of three functions of LISA's twelve data streams obtained through time-delay interferometry, which is necessary to cancel the noise contributions from laser-frequency fluctuations and optical-bench motions to these data streams. We call these three functions pseudo-detectors. The sensitivity of any pseudo-detector to a given sky position is a function of LISA's orbital position. Moreover, at a given point in LISA's orbit, each pseudo-detector has a different sensitivity to the same sky position. In this work, we obtain the optimal statistic for detecting gravitational wave signals, such as from compact binaries early in their inspiral stage, in LISA data. We also present how the sensitivity of LISA, defined by this optimal statistic, vari...

  7. Biologically-inspired soft exosuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbeck, Alan T; Dyer, Robert J; Larusson, Arnar F; Walsh, Conor J

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a novel soft cable-driven exosuit that can apply forces to the body to assist walking. Unlike traditional exoskeletons which contain rigid framing elements, the soft exosuit is worn like clothing, yet can generate moments at the ankle and hip with magnitudes of 18% and 30% of those naturally generated by the body during walking, respectively. Our design uses geared motors to pull on Bowden cables connected to the suit near the ankle. The suit has the advantages over a traditional exoskeleton in that the wearer's joints are unconstrained by external rigid structures, and the worn part of the suit is extremely light, which minimizes the suit's unintentional interference with the body's natural biomechanics. However, a soft suit presents challenges related to actuation force transfer and control, since the body is compliant and cannot support large pressures comfortably. We discuss the design of the suit and actuation system, including principles by which soft suits can transfer force to the body effectively and the biological inspiration for the design. For a soft exosuit, an important design parameter is the combined effective stiffness of the suit and its interface to the wearer. We characterize the exosuit's effective stiffness, and present preliminary results from it generating assistive torques to a subject during walking. We envision such an exosuit having broad applicability for assisting healthy individuals as well as those with muscle weakness.

  8. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  9. Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

  10. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  11. VLITE Surveys the Sky: A 340 MHz Companion to the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wendy; Clarke, Tracy; Brisken, Walter; Cotton, William; Richards, Emily E.; Giacintucci, Simona; Kassim, Namir

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Low Band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE; ) is a commensal observing system on the Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA) which was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory and NRAO. A 64 MHz sub-band from the prime focus 240-470 MHz dipoles is correlated during nearly all regular VLA observations. VLITE uses dedicated samplers and fibers, as well as a custom designed, real-time DiFX software correlator, and requires no additional resources from the VLA system running the primary science program. The experiment has been operating since November 2014 with 10 antennas; a recent expansion in summer 2017 increased that number to 16 and more than doubled the number of baselines.The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS; ), is an ongoing survey of the entire sky visible to the VLA at a frequency of 2-4 GHz. The observations are made using an "on-the-fly" (OTF) continuous RA scanning technique which fills in the sky by observing along rows of constant declination. VLITE breaks the data into 2-second integrations and correlates these at a central position every 1.5 degrees. All data for each correlator position is imaged separately, corrected and weighted by an appropriately elongated primary beam model, and then combined in the image plane to create a mosaic of the sky. A catalog of the sources is extracted to provide a 340 MHz sky model.We present preliminary images and catalogs from the 2017 VLASS observations which began in early September, 2017, and continued on a nearly daily basis throughout the fall. In addition to providing a unique sky model at 340 MHz, these data complement VLASS by providing spectral indices for all cataloged sources.

  12. Causality and skies: is non-refocussing necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, A; Ibort, A; Lafuente, J

    2015-01-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal, null pseudo-convex, space-time M is completely characterized in terms of a partial order on its space of skies defined by means of a class of non-negative Legendrian isotopies called sky isotopies. It is also shown that such partial order is determined by the class of future causal celestial curves, that is, curves in the space of light rays which are tangent to skies and such that they determine non-negative sky isotopies. It will also be proved that the space of skies Σ equipped with Low’s (or reconstructive) topology is homeomorphic and diffeomorphic to M under the only additional assumption that M separates skies, that is, that different events determine different skies. The sky-separating property of M is sharp and the previous result provides an answer to the question about the class of space-times whose causal structure, topological and differentiable structure can be reconstructed from their spaces of light rays and skies. These results can be understood as a Malament–Hawking-like theorem stated in terms of the partial order defined on the space of skies. (paper)

  13. Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    The loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource is a growing concern. It impacts not only astronomical research, but also our environment in terms of ecology, health, safety, economics and energy conservation. For this reason, "Dark Skies are a Universal Resource" is a cornerstone project for the U.S. International Year of Astronomy (IYA) program in 2009. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people involved in a variety of dark skies-related programs. These programs focus on citizen-scientist sky-brightness monitoring programs, a planetarium show, podcasting, social networking, a digital photography contest, the Good Neighbor Lighting Program, Earth Hour, National Dark Skies Week, a traveling exhibit, a video tutorial, Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Astronomy Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy, and a Quiet Skies program. Many similar programs are available internationally through the "Dark Skies Awareness" Global Cornerstone Project. Working groups for both the national and international dark skies cornerstone projects are being chaired by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). The presenters from NOAO will provide the "know-how" and the means for session participants to become community advocates in promoting Dark Skies programs as public events at their home institutions. Participants will be able to get information on jump-starting their education programs through the use of well-developed instructional materials and kits. For more information, visit http://astronomy2009.us/darkskies/ and http://www.darkskiesawareness.org/.

  14. D-region electron density and effective recombination coefficients during twilight – experimental data and modelling during solar proton events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Osepian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of electron density in the lower D-region (below 70 km altitude are rarely made. This applies both with regard to measurements by ground-based facilities and by sounding rockets, and during both quiet conditions and conditions of energetic electron precipitation. Deep penetration into the atmosphere of high-energy solar proton fluxes (during solar proton events, SPE produces extra ionisation in the whole D-region, including the lower altitudes, which gives favourable conditions for accurate measurements using ground-based facilities. In this study we show that electron densities measured with two ground-based facilities at almost the same latitude but slightly different longitudes, provide a valuable tool for validation of model computations. The two techniques used are incoherent scatter of radio waves (by the EISCAT 224 MHz radar in Tromsø, Norway, 69.6° N, 19.3° E, and partial reflection of radio-waves (by the 2.8 MHz radar near Murmansk, Russia, 69.0° N, 35.7° E. Both radars give accurate electron density values during SPE, from heights 57–60 km and upward with the EISCAT radar and between 55–70 km with the partial reflection technique. Near noon, there is little difference in the solar zenith angle between the two locations and both methods give approximately the same values of electron density at the overlapping heights. During twilight, when the difference in solar zenith angles increases, electron density values diverge. When both radars are in night conditions (solar zenith angle >99° electron densities at the overlapping altitudes again become equal. We use the joint measurements to validate model computations of the ionospheric parameters f+, λ, αeff and their variations during solar proton events. These parameters are important characteristics of the lower ionosphere structure which cannot be determined by other methods.

  15. Pushing the limits of photoreception in twilight conditions: The rod-like cone retina of the deep-sea pearlsides

    KAUST Repository

    Busserolles, Fanny de

    2017-11-09

    Most vertebrates have a duplex retina comprising two photoreceptor types, rods for dim-light (scotopic) vision and cones for bright-light (photopic) and color vision. However, deep-sea fishes are only active in dim-light conditions; hence, most species have lost their cones in favor of a simplex retina composed exclusively of rods. Although the pearlsides, Maurolicus spp., have such a pure rod retina, their behavior is at odds with this simplex visual system. Contrary to other deep-sea fishes, pearlsides are mostly active during dusk and dawn close to the surface, where light levels are intermediate (twilight or mesopic) and require the use of both rod and cone photoreceptors. This study elucidates this paradox by demonstrating that the pearlside retina does not have rod photoreceptors only; instead, it is composed almost exclusively of transmuted cone photoreceptors. These transmuted cells combine the morphological characteristics of a rod photoreceptor with a cone opsin and a cone phototransduction cascade to form a unique photoreceptor type, a rod-like cone, specifically tuned to the light conditions of the pearlsides\\' habitat (blue-shifted light at mesopic intensities). Combining properties of both rods and cones into a single cell type, instead of using two photoreceptor types that do not function at their full potential under mesopic conditions, is likely to be the most efficient and economical solution to optimize visual performance. These results challenge the standing paradigm of the function and evolution of the vertebrate duplex retina and emphasize the need for a more comprehensive evaluation of visual systems in general.

  16. Technical Versus Public Spheres: A Feminist Analysis of Women's Rhetoric in the Twilight Sleep Debates of 1914-1916.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bethany; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Twilight Sleep (TS) describes the delivery, via an injection, of an amnestic drug cocktail to a parturient woman throughout labor. In order to understand the development of modern-day rhetoric surrounding childbirth methods and procedures, this article explores the debate over TS between the public and technical sphere in New York City between 1914 and 1916 and examines the ways in which this debate altered obstetric health care for middle- and upper-class White women. The public response to this campaign posed a direct challenge to male obstetricians in New York City, many of whom were ill-equipped, both literally and figuratively, to use this procedure. Using a feminist rhetorical criticism, we examined the pro-TS rhetoric of women writers in New York City, the methods they borrowed from the women's movement, and the ensuing dialogue between the public and technical spheres. For this study, we analyzed journal and newspaper articles, a pamphlet, a collection of pro-TS organizational documents, letters to the editor, and books published about TS and the history of birth. Lastly, we analyzed theoretical notions of childbirth in women's health and communication studies. After examining the TS debate, we found that birth practices for middle- and upper-class women in New York City shifted and the obstetric community gained ascendancy over female midwifery. We also found that in certain instances, the rhetoric of pro-TS activists was more technically accurate than the rhetoric of some physicians. Hence the TS debate emerged from an argument over the right to use technical language in the technical and/or the public sphere. Conclusions and implications offered by this historical, feminist analysis question our current understanding of women's health and birthing practices, doctor-patient communication, and patient empowerment and access to technical knowledge.

  17. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  18. La maturità di INSPIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INPIRE's maturityThe INSPIRE Conference 2010 took place from 23 to 25 June 2010 in Kraków, Poland. On 22 June pre-conference workshops have been organized. The theme of this year’s edition has been "INSPIRE as a Framework for Cooperation".The INSPIRE Conference has been organised through a series of plenary sessions addressing common policy issues, and parallel sessions focusing in particular on applications and implementations of SDIs, research issues and new and evolvingtechnologies and applications and poster presentations.

  19. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. The fast transient sky with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, Thomas; Jonker, Peter G.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Harrison, Diana L.; Rixon, Guy; Nelemans, Gijs; Roelens, Maroussia; Eyer, Laurent; van Leeuwen, Floor; Yoldas, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite scans the whole sky with a temporal sampling ranging from seconds and hours to months. Each time a source passes within the Gaia field of view, it moves over 10 charge coupled devices (CCDs) in 45 s and a light curve with 4.5 s sampling (the crossing time per CCD) is registered. Given that the 4.5 s sampling represents a virtually unexplored parameter space in optical time domain astronomy, this data set potentially provides a unique opportunity to open up the fast transient sky. We present a method to start mining the wealth of information in the per CCD Gaia data. We perform extensive data filtering to eliminate known onboard and data processing artefacts, and present a statistical method to identify sources that show transient brightness variations on ≲2 h time-scales. We illustrate that by using the Gaia photometric CCD measurements, we can detect transient brightness variations down to an amplitude of 0.3 mag on time-scales ranging from 15 s to several hours. We search an area of ∼23.5 deg2 on the sky and find four strong candidate fast transients. Two candidates are tentatively classified as flares on M-dwarf stars, while one is probably a flare on a giant star and one potentially a flare on a solar-type star. These classifications are based on archival data and the time-scales involved. We argue that the method presented here can be added to the existing Gaia Science Alerts infrastructure for the near real-time public dissemination of fast transient events.

  1. ACTPol: On-Sky Performance and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, E.; Beall, J.; Bond, J. R.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunner, R.; Fox, A. E.; Gallardo, P.; Hasselfield, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    ACTPol is the polarization-sensitive receiver on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. ACTPol enables sensitive millimeter wavelength measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at arcminute angular scales. These measurements are designed to explore the process of cosmic structure formation, constrain or determine the sum of the neutrino masses, probe dark energy, and provide a foundation for a host of other cosmological tests. We present an overview of the first season of ACTPol observations focusing on the optimization and calibration of the first detector array as well as detailing the on-sky performance.

  2. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, with a single instrument, a wide-field spectral imager. SPHEREx will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power in two deep fields located near the ecliptic poles. Following in the tradition of all-sky missions such as IRAS, COBE and WISE, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey. SPHEREx will create spectra (0.75 – 4.2 um at R = 41; and 4.2 – 5 um at R = 135) with high sensitivity making background-limited observations using a passively-cooled telescope with a wide field-of-view for large mapping speed. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps that will serve as a rich archive for the astronomy community. With over a billion detected galaxies, hundreds of millions of high-quality stellar and galactic spectra, and over a million ice absorption spectra, the archive will enable diverse scientific investigations including studies of young stellar systems, brown dwarfs, high-redshift quasars, galaxy clusters, the interstellar medium, asteroids and comets. All aspects of the instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the

  3. A 6-cm deep sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomalont, E.B.; Kellermann, K.I.; Wall, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In order to extend radio source counts to lower flux density, the authors have used the VLA to survey a small region of sky at 4.885 GHz (6 cm) to a limiting flux density of 50 μJy. Details of this deep survey are given in the paper by kellermann et al. (these proceedings). In addition, they have observed 10 other nearby fields to a limiting flux density of 350 μJy in order to provide better statistics on sources of intermediate flux density. (Auth.)

  4. Einstein pictures the x-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartline, B.K.

    1979-01-01

    The second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2, Einstein) is revolutionizing x-ray astronomy just as its namesake revolutionized physics. Earlier x-ray observatories, including HEAO-1, were designed to scan the sky for x-ray emitters. With Einstein, the challenge has shifted from discovering x-ray sources to understanding the processes producing the x-rays. But having 500 times the sensitivity of previous detectors, Einstein makes more than its share of discoveries, too. For example, it sees distant quasars and clusters of galaxies that can barely be detected by the largest optical telescopes

  5. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, John

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  6. Polygons and practice in Skies of Arcadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Street

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper features research carried out at the Victoria and Albert Museum into the design history of Sega’s 2000 Dreamcast title, Skies of Arcadia (released in Japan as Eternal Arcadia. It was released by Overworks, a subsidiary of Sega, at an interesting point in Japanese computer game history. A new generation of video game consoles was in its infancy, and much speculation in the industry surrounded how networked gaming and large, open, tridimensional game worlds would change game design in the years ahead.

  7. The stargazer's guide to the night sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lisle, Jason, Dr

    2012-01-01

    Explore the night sky, identify stars, constellations, and even planets. Stargaze with a telescope, binoculars, or even your naked eye. Allow Dr. Jason Lisle, a research scientist with a masters and PhD in astrophysics, to guide you in examining the beauty of God's Creation with 150 full color star-charts. Learn the best ways and optimal times to observe planets and stars with easy to use illustrations. Create or expand the hobby of stargazing; an outdoor, educational hobby to enjoy with friends or family.

  8. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  9. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  10. Innovative Didactics in an International Internship - inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lembcke, Steen; Skibsted, Else Bengaard; Mølgaard, Niels

    An inspiration handbook for the international team from the teacher education programme in VIA. Aimed to assist internship supervisors and students during international internships in regards to innovation, social entrepreneurship and development of the international teacher. Introduces why and how...

  11. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  12. Dark Skies as a Universal Resource: Citizen Scientists Measuring Sky Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    The international star-hunting event known as GLOBE at Night returned March 8-21, 2007 in two flavors: the classic GLOBE at Night activity incorporating unaided-eye observations which debuted last year, and a new effort to obtain precise measurements of urban dark skies using digital sky-brightness meters. Both flavors of the program were designed to aid in heightening the awareness about the impact of artificial lighting on local environments, and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world's population. To make possible the digital GLOBE at Night program, NSF funded 135 low-cost, digital sky-quality meter (manufactured by Unihedron). With these, citizen-scientists took direct measurements of the integrated sky brightness across a wide swath of night sky. Along with related materials developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the meters were distributed to citizen-scientists in 21 U.S. states plus Washington DC, and in 5 other countries, including Chile, where NOAO has a major observatory. The citizen- scientists were selected from teachers, their students, astronomers at mountain-top observatories, International Dark-Sky Association members and staff from 19 small science centers. Most sites had a coordinator, who instructed local educators in the proper use of the meters and develop a plan to share them as widely as possible during the 2-week window. The local teams pooled their data for regional analysis and in some cases shared the results with their schools and local policymakers. Building upon the worldwide participation sparked by the first GLOBE at Night campaign in March 2006, the observations this year approached 8500 (from 60 countries), 85% higher than the number from last year. The success of GLOBE at Night 2007 is a major step toward the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, when one goal is to make the digital data collection into a worldwide activity. In this presentation, we will outline

  13. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR) and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR). In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM) in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night. We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD) and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD) of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between -2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations to local conditions

  14. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  15. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  16. Nature as inspiration for leisure education

    OpenAIRE

    ŠPIRHANZLOVÁ, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with the organization of leisure activities where the main tool and inspiration is nature. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of pedagogy of free time and points to the possibility of using nature as an inspiration not only for creating content components of leisure activities, but also as the environment in which the pedagogical - educational process of activities takes place. The practical part contains specific pedagogical - educational activity whose essence is b...

  17. Deep sky observing an astronomical tour

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition has all of the information needed for your successful forays into deep sky observing. Coe uses his years of experience to give detailed practical advice about how to find the best observing site, how to make the most of the time spent there, and what equipment and instruments to take along. There are comprehensive lists of deep sky objects of all kinds, along with Steve's own observations describing how they look through telescopes with apertures ranging from 4 inches to 36 inches (0.1 - 0.9 meters). Binocular observing also gets its due, while the lists of objects have been amended to highlight only the best targets. A new index makes finding targets easier than ever before, while the selection of viewing targets has been revised from the first edition. Most of all, this book is all about how to enjoy astronomy. The author's enthusiasm and sense of wonder shine through every page as he invites you along on a tour of some of the most beautiful and fascinating sites in the deep ...

  18. Intercomparisons of nine sky brightness detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across The Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from -16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and -7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m(2) on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m(2) on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  19. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  20. Flying Drosophila orient to sky polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2012-01-10

    Insects maintain a constant bearing across a wide range of spatial scales. Monarch butterflies and locusts traverse continents [1, 2], and foraging bees and ants travel hundreds of meters to return to their nests [1, 3, 4], whereas many other insects fly straight for only a few centimeters before changing direction. Despite this variation in spatial scale, the brain region thought to underlie long-distance navigation is remarkably conserved [5, 6], suggesting that the use of a celestial compass is a general and perhaps ancient capability of insects. Laboratory studies of Drosophila have identified a local search mode in which short, straight segments are interspersed with rapid turns [7, 8]. However, this flight mode is inconsistent with measured gene flow between geographically separated populations [9-11], and individual Drosophila can travel 10 km across desert terrain in a single night [9, 12, 13]-a feat that would be impossible without prolonged periods of straight flight. To directly examine orientation behavior under outdoor conditions, we built a portable flight arena in which a fly viewed the natural sky through a liquid crystal device that could experimentally rotate the polarization angle. Our findings indicate that Drosophila actively orient using the sky's natural polarization pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. COSMO-SkyMed and GIS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Pietro; Sole, Aurelia; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing have become key technology tools for the collection, storage and analysis of spatially referenced data. Industries that utilise these spatial technologies include agriculture, forestry, mining, market research as well as the environmental analysis . Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent active sensor operating in the microwave band which exploits relative motion between antenna and target in order to obtain a finer spatial resolution in the flight direction exploiting the Doppler effect. SAR have wide applications in Remote Sensing such as cartography, surface deformation detection, forest cover mapping, urban planning, disasters monitoring , surveillance etc… The utilization of satellite remote sensing and GIS technology for this applications has proven to be a powerful and effective tool for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing techniques are often less costly and time-consuming for large geographic areas compared to conventional methods, moreover GIS technology provides a flexible environment for, analyzing and displaying digital data from various sources necessary for classification, change detection and database development. The aim of this work si to illustrate the potential of COSMO-SkyMed data and SAR applications in a GIS environment, in particular a demostration of the operational use of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and GIS in real cases will be provided for what concern DEM validation, river basin estimation, flood mapping and landslide monitoring.

  2. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  3. Petyarre and Moffat: 'Looking from the Sky'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnell Secomb

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Moffatt’s Up in the Sky series draws attention to the relation between sky and earth, through the content and camera angles of the images. Similarly, Kathleen Petyarre’s Central Desert acrylic dot painting evokes this relation representing country and Dreaming from a celestial perspective—as she says ‘looking from the sky’. Yet here any association between these artists seems to end with the urban artist refusing to engage Aboriginal tradition and the desert artist focused on Dreaming, country and heritage. However, a further connection between these disparate works may also be discerned as each, in differing ways, transforms our conventional perceptions of space and time. Reading these images in relation to Walter Benjamin’s concepts of the auratic and of messianic time, I suggest that each restructures dimension and duration putting in question the (postmodern calibrations of our space/time experience. This paper stages an engagement between these artists’ works and Benjamin’s concepts exploring the variations and modifications of the spatial and the temporal that hybrid cross-cultural exchanges require and facilitate.

  4. Intercomparisons of Nine Sky Brightness Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Spoelstra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across the Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from −16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and −7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m2 on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m2 on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  5. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.

    Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  6. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  7. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Cetl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  8. The starlight night the sky in the writings of Shakespeare, Tennyson, and Hopkins

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, David H

    2016-01-01

    In this updated second edition renowned amateur comet-searcher David H. Levy expands on his work about the intricate relationship between the night sky and the works of English Literature. This revised and expanded text includes new sections on Alfred Lord Tennyson and Gerald Manley Hopkins (both amateur astronomers), extending the time period analyzed in the first edition from early modern literature to encompass the Victorian age. Although the sky enters into much of literature through the ages, British authors offer an especially fertile connection to the heavens, and Levy links the works of seminal authors from Shakespeare on to specific celestial events and scientific advances.  From the impact of comets and supernovae to eclipses, Levy’s ultimate goal in this book is to inspire his readers to do the same thing as their ancestors did so long ago—look up and appreciate the stars. His insights in this revised book spread farther and wider than ever before in this learned and enchanting tour of the ski...

  9. The Universe of Digital Sky Surveys : Meeting to Honour the 70th Birthday of Massimo Capaccioli

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, Giuseppe; Marconi, Marcella; Paolillo, Maurizio; Iodice, Enrichetta

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of a meeting in honour of Massimo Capaccioli at the occasion of his 70th birthday. The conference aimed at summarizing the results from the main current and past digital sky survey projects and at discussing how these can be used to inspire ongoing projects and better plan the future ones. Over the last decades, digital sky surveys performed with dedicated telescopes and finely-tuned wide-field cameras, have revolutionized astronomy. They have become the main tool to investigate the nearby and far away universe, thus providing new insights in the understanding of the galaxy structure and assembly across time, the dark components of the universe, as well as the history of our own galaxy. They have also opened the time domain leading to a new understanding of the transient phenomena in the universe. By providing public access to top quality data, digital surveys have also changed the everyday practice of astronomers who have become less dependent on direct access to large observing ...

  10. Mary McAuliffe. Twilight of the Belle Epoque: The Paris of Picasso, Stravinsky, Proust, Renault, Marie Curie, Gertrude Stein, and Their Friends through the Great War. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. 2014. vii + 418 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Martone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Mary McAuliffe. Twilight of the Belle Epoque: The Paris of Picasso, Stravinsky, Proust, Renault, Marie Curie, Gertrude Stein, and Their Friends through the Great War . Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. 2014. vii + 418 pp.

  11. Dark Skies Africa: an NOAO and IAU OAD Program on Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Tellez, D.; Pompea, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The IAU’s Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) awarded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) with a grant to deliver a “Dark Skies Outreach to Sub-Saharan Africa” program to institutions in 12 African countries during 2013. The program helped students identify wasteful and inefficient lighting and provided ways to reduce consumption and to keep energy costs in check. The goal was to inspire students to be responsible stewards in helping their community safeguard one of Africa’s natural resources - a dark night sky. Thirteen kits made by the NOAO Education and Public Outreach group were sent to coordinators at university, science center and planetarium-type institutions in 12 African countries and to the IAU OAD. The program’s kit included complete instructional guides and supplies for six activities and a project on energy conservation and responsible lighting. The six activities were taught to the coordinators in a series of six Google+ Hangout sessions scheduled from June to mid-November. The coordinators at the institutions in the twelve countries in turn trained local teachers in junior and senior high schools. The Google+ Hangout sessions also included instruction on carrying out evaluations. From the end of November until mid-December students from the different African countries shared final class projects (such as posters or powerpoints) on the program’s website. The entire program was designed to help coordinators and educators work with students, parents and the community to identify dark sky resource, lighting and energy issues and to assess their status, efficiency and effectiveness. Participants will take away from the presentation new techniques on using Google+ Hangout sessions to instruct and sustain a community of coordinators and educators through distance learning as well as immersing them (and their students) in Project Based Learning after a scaffolded sequence of activities.

  12. SkyProbeBV: dual-color absolute sky transparency monitor to optimize science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Magnier, Eugene; Sabin, Dan; Mahoney, Billy

    2008-07-01

    Mauna Kea (4200 m elevation, Hawaii) is known for its pristine seeing conditions, but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations: 25% of the nights are not photometric, a cloud coverage mostly due to high-altitude thin cirrus. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) is upgrading its real-time sky transparency monitor in the optical domain (V-band) into a dual-color system by adding a B-band channel and redesigning the entire optical and mechanical assembly. Since 2000, the original single-channel SkyProbe has gathered one exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera with a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (30 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tychos catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). A key advantage of SkyProbe over direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds, is that it allows an accurate absolute measurement, within 5%, of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument. This system has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO), representing today 95% of the telescope time: science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for being re-observed later on (at 1/10th of the original exposure time per pointing in the observed filters) to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. If the absorption is too high, exposures can be repeated, or the observing can be done for a lower ranked science program. The new dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will allow a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinner cirrus (absorption down to 0.02 mag., i.e. 2%). SkyProbe is operated within the Elixir pipeline, a collection of tools

  13. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  14. The all-sky 408 MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, C.G.T.; Salter, C.J.; Stoffel, H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief outline of the results of this survey is presented. The 408 MHz All-sky Survey has been made from four radio continuum surveys observed between 1965 and 1978, using the Jodrell Bank MKI telescope (Haslam et al., 1970), the Effelsberg 100 metre telescope (Haslam et al., 1974) and the Parkes 64 metre telescope (Haslam et al., 1975). A detailed description of the survey data reduction and calibration methods, with preliminary astronomical results will soon be published (Haslam et al., 1980a) and a second paper will give an atlas of maps at the full survey resolution of 51' arc between half power points (Haslam et al., 1980b). A map, smoothed to a gaussian beam with resolution between half power poitns of 3 0 , is presented. (Auth.)

  15. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Wenger, Trey; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Angell, Dylan; Burkhardt, Andrew; Davis, Blair; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Richardson, Whitney; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; McNair, Shunlante; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Troup, Nicholas William

    2017-01-01

    We present activities from the eighth year of Dark Skies Bright Kids (DSBK), an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Over the past seven years, our primary focus has been hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools, and over the past several years, we have partnered with local businesses to host our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows. This past summer we expanded our reach through a new initiative to bring week-long summer day camps to south and southwest Virginia, home to some of the most underserved communities in the commonwealth.

  16. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  17. The Holy Grail of outer space: pluralism, Druidry, and the religion of cinema in The Sky Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnvig, Thore

    2012-10-01

    The Danish silent movie Himmelskibet (in English, A Trip to Mars or The Sky Ship) premiered in 1918, and a novelization of the movie appeared in 1921. The film is about a trip to Mars and portrays a Martian civilization that embraces a life of peace, vegetarianism, and non-alcoholism. Both movie and novel, though especially the novel, provide insight into the plurality-of-worlds debate in Denmark in the early 20(th) century, forming as it did a part of a general debate about the relationship between science and religion. Yet The Sky Ship did not only form part of this debate but also displayed strong religious currents itself. Most notably, a romantic, Neo-Platonically inspired Christian version of Druidry informed the portrayal of the Martians and their society. Finally, the medium itself played a role in the story. By transcending language barriers, silent movies were imagined by some to be a kind of "Esperanto of the eye" that would usher in a new golden age for mankind, even contributing to ending the horrors of World War I. Thus, The Sky Ship offers insight into an intriguing conglomeration of pluralism, religion, and technology that should be of interest to historians of astrobiology.

  18. 76 FR 42704 - Sky River LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. ER11-3277-000; ER11-3277-001] Sky River LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that, on July 8, 2011, Sky River LLC filed to amend its Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT) filing, submitted on April 1, 2011 and amended on April 7...

  19. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  20. Daylight and energy implications for CIE standard skies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has adopted a range of 15 standard skies, which include the existing CIE overcast, very clear and cloudless polluted skies, covering the whole probable spectrum of usual skies found in the world. The traditional daylight factor (DF) approach with the calculations being based on an isotropic overcast sky, however, cannot cater to the dynamic variations in daylight luminance and illuminance as the sun's position changes under non-overcast skies. Currently, we propose a numerical procedure that considers the changes in the luminance of sky elements to predict the interior daylight illuminance under the 15 CIE standard skies. This paper evaluates the method by using a typical room with a large vertical glazing window facing north. The available daylight for the room at mean hourly sun positions in each month in terms of DF and illuminance levels were determined and compared with those based on a computer program, namely, RADIANCE. A modification to the ground reflected component was made when a well defined shadow was cast in front of the window facade. It is shown that the results estimated by the proposed approach are in reasonably good agreement with those produced from RADIANCE. The interior daylight and lighting energy consumption were also determined using the proposed and the traditional DF approaches. The findings reveal that daylighting designs using existing CIE overcast sky only would considerably underestimate the indoor daylight availability and electric lighting energy savings, especially under high design indoor illuminance settings

  1. Region of Nova Cygni 1975 on the Palomar Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, W.R.; King, M.W.; Russell, J.L.; Stein, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Careful superposition of a blue Palomar Sky Survey print onto a sectored photograph of Nova Cygni 1975 obtained with the Thaw 30-inch (76-cm) refractor at the Allegheny Observatory decisively confirms the fact that no star brighter than magnitude 21 appears on the Sky Survey print at that position

  2. The New Progress of the Starry Sky Project of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua

    2015-08-01

    Since the 28th General Assembly of IAU, the SSPC team made new progress:1. Enhanced the function of the SSPC team-- Established the contact with IAU C50, IUCN Dark Skies Advisory Group, AWB and IDA,and undertakes the work of the IDA Beijing Chapter.-- Got supports from China’s National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing Planetarium, and Shanghai Science and Technology Museum.-- Signed cooperation agreements with Lighting Research Center, English Education Group and law Firm; formed the team force.2. Put forward a proposal to national top institutionThe SSPC submitted the first proposal about dark sky protection to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.3. Introduced the Criteria and Guideline of dark sky protectionThe SSPC team translated 8 documents of IDA, and provided a reference basis for Chinese dark sky protection.4. Actively establish dark sky places-- Plan a Dark Sky Reserve around Ali astronomical observatory (5,100m elevation) in Tibet. China’s Xinhua News Agency released the news.-- Combining with Hangcuo Lake, a National Natural Reserve and Scenic in Tibet, to plan and establish the Dark Sky Park.-- Cooperated with Shandong Longgang Tourism Group to construct the Dream Sky Theme Park in the suburbs of Jinan city.In the IYL 2015, the SSPC is getting further development:First, make dark sky protection enter National Ecological Strategy of “Beautiful China”. We call on: “Beautiful China” needs “Beautiful Night Sky” China should care the shared starry sky, and left this resource and heritage for children.Second, hold “Cosmic Light” exhibition in Shanghai Science and Technology Museum on August.Third, continue to establish Dark Sky Reserve, Park and Theme Park. We want to make these places become the bases of dark sky protection, astronomical education and ecological tourism, and develop into new cultural industry.Fourth, actively join international cooperation.Now, “Blue Sky, White Cloud and Starry Sky “have become

  3. Gaia , an all sky astrometric and photometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gaia space mission includes a low resolution spectroscopic instrument to classify and parametrize the observed sources. Gaia is a full-sky unbiased survey down to about 20th magnitude. The scanning law yields a rather uniform coverage of the sky over the full mission. The data reduction is a global one over the full mission. Both sky coverage and data reduction strategy ensure an unprecedented all-sky homogeneous spectrophotometric survey. Certainly, that survey is of interest for future on-ground and space projects (LSST, PLATO, EUCLID, ...). This work addresses the exploitation of the Gaia spectrophotometry as standard photometry reference through the discussion of the sky coverage, the spectrophotometric precision and the expected uncertainties of the synthetic photometry derived from the low resolution Gaia spectra and photometry.

  4. Reconstruction of Sky Illumination Domes from Ground-Based Panoramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, F.; Lelégard, L.; Brédif, M.; Paparoditis, N.; Briottet, X.

    2012-07-01

    The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  5. RECONSTRUCTION OF SKY ILLUMINATION DOMES FROM GROUND-BASED PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coubard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  6. Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Janet E; Karr, Monette E; Johnson, Richard W; Burden, Art R

    2013-03-10

    A family of fully automated digital whole sky imagers (WSIs) has been developed at the Marine Physical Laboratory over many years, for a variety of research and military applications. The most advanced of these, the day/night whole sky imagers (D/N WSIs), acquire digital imagery of the full sky down to the horizon under all conditions from full sunlight to starlight. Cloud algorithms process the imagery to automatically detect the locations of cloud for both day and night. The instruments can provide absolute radiance distribution over the full radiance range from starlight through daylight. The WSIs were fielded in 1984, followed by the D/N WSIs in 1992. These many years of experience and development have resulted in very capable instruments and algorithms that remain unique. This article discusses the history of the development of the D/N WSIs, system design, algorithms, and data products. The paper cites many reports with more detailed technical documentation. Further details of calibration, day and night algorithms, and cloud free line-of-sight results will be discussed in future articles.

  7. Stability of the nine sky quality meters in the Dutch night sky brightness monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2015-04-22

    In the context of monitoring abundance of artificial light at night, the year-to-year stability of Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) is investigated by analysing intercalibrations derived from two measurement campaigns that were held in 2011 and 2012. An intercalibration comprises a light sensitivity factor and an offset for each SQM. The campaigns were concerned with monitoring measurements, each lasting one month. Nine SQMs, together forming the Night Sky Brightness Monitoring network (MHN) in The Netherlands, were involved in both campaigns. The stability of the intercalibration of these instruments leads to a year-to-year uncertainty (standard deviation) of 5% in the measured median luminance occurring at the MHN monitoring locations. For the 10-percentiles and 90-percentiles, we find 8% and 4%, respectively. This means that, for urban and industrial areas, changes in the sky brightness larger than 5% become detectable. Rural and nature areas require an 8%-9% change of the median luminance to be detectable. The light sensitivety agrees within 8% for the whole group of SQMs.

  8. The Python Sky Model: software for simulating the Galactic microwave sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, B.; Dunkley, J.; Alonso, D.; Næss, S.

    2017-08-01

    We present a numerical code to simulate maps of Galactic emission in intensity and polarization at microwave frequencies, aiding in the design of cosmic microwave background experiments. This python code builds on existing efforts to simulate the sky by providing an easy-to-use interface and is based on publicly available data from the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) and Planck satellite missions. We simulate synchrotron, thermal dust, free-free and anomalous microwave emission over the whole sky, in addition to the cosmic microwave background, and include a set of alternative prescriptions for the frequency dependence of each component, for example, polarized dust with multiple temperatures and a decorrelation of the signals with frequency, which introduce complexity that is consistent with current data. We also present a new prescription for adding small-scale realizations of these components at resolutions greater than current all-sky measurements. The usefulness of the code is demonstrated by forecasting the impact of varying foreground complexity on the recovered tensor-to-scalar ratio for the LiteBIRD satellite. The code is available at: https://github.com/bthorne93/PySM_public.

  9. Late summer particulate organic carbon export and twilight zone remineralisation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchon, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Cardinal, D.; André, L.; Dehairs, F.

    2013-02-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Bonus-GoodHope (BGH) expedition (January-March 2008) in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, particulate organic carbon (POC) export was examined from the surface to the mesopelagic twilight zone using water column distributions of total 234Th and biogenic particulate Ba (Baxs). Surface POC export production was estimated from steady state and non steady state modelling of 234Th fluxes, which were converted into POC fluxes, using the POC/234Th ratio of large, potentially sinking particles (> 53 μm) collected via in situ pumps. Deficits in 234Th activities were observed at all stations from the surface to the bottom of the mixed layer, yielding 234Th export fluxes from the upper 100 m of 496 ± 214 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1195 ± 158 dpm m-2 d-1 for the steady state model and of 149 ±517 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1217 ± 231 dpm m-2 d-1 for the non steady state model. Using the POC/234Thp ratio of sinking particles (ratios varied from 1.7 ± 0.2 μmol dpm-1 to 4.8 ± 1.9 μmol dpm-1) POC export production at 100 m was calculated to range between 0.9 ± 0.4 and 5.1 ± 2.1 mmol C m-2 d-1,assuming steady state and between 0.3 ± 0.9 m-2 d-1 and 4.9 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2 d-1, assuming non steady state. From the comparison of both approaches, it appears that during late summer export decreased by 56 to 16% for the area between the sub-Antarctic zone and the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF), whereas it remained rather constant over time in the HNLC area south of the SACCF. POC export represented only 6 to 54% of new production, indicating that export efficiency was, in general, low, except in the vicinity of the SACCF, where export represented 56% of new production. Attenuation of the POC sinking flux in the upper mesopelagic waters (100-600 m depth interval) was evidenced both, from excess 234Th activities and from particulate biogenic Ba (Baxs) accumulation. Excess 234Th activities, reflected by 234Th/238U ratios as large as 1.21 ± 0

  10. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  11. Nature-inspired computation in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This timely review book summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in engineering. Algorithms and topics include the overview and history of nature-inspired algorithms, discrete firefly algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, plant propagation algorithm, parameter-free bat algorithm, gravitational search, biogeography-based algorithm, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and others. Applications include vehicle routing, swarming robots, discrete and combinatorial optimization, clustering of wireless sensor networks, cell formation, economic load dispatch, metamodeling, surrogated-assisted cooperative co-evolution, data fitting and reverse engineering as well as other case studies in engineering. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers, lecturers, graduates and engineers who are interested in nature-inspired computation, artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. It can also serve as a reference for relevant...

  12. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  13. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    .), genetic and evolutionary strategies, artificial immune systems etc. Well-known examples of applications include: aircraft wing design, wind turbine design, bionic car, bullet train, optimal decisions related to traffic, appropriate strategies to survive under a well-adapted immune system etc. Based......During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...... on collective social behaviour of organisms, researchers have developed optimization strategies taking into account not only the individuals, but also groups and environment. However, learning from nature, new classes of approaches can be identified, tested and compared against already available algorithms...

  14. Biologically inspired technologies in NASA's morphing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Cox, David E.; Lazos, Barry S.; Waszak, Martin R.; Raney, David L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Pao, S. Paul

    2003-07-01

    For centuries, biology has provided fertile ground for hypothesis, discovery, and inspiration. Time-tested methods used in nature are being used as a basis for several research studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as a part of Morphing Project, which develops and assesses breakthrough vehicle technologies. These studies range from low drag airfoil design guided by marine and avian morphologies to soaring techniques inspired by birds and the study of small flexible wing vehicles. Biology often suggests unconventional yet effective approaches such as non-planar wings, dynamic soaring, exploiting aeroelastic effects, collaborative control, flapping, and fibrous active materials. These approaches and other novel technologies for future flight vehicles are being studied in NASA's Morphing Project. This paper will discuss recent findings in the aeronautics-based, biologically-inspired research in the project.

  15. Sky Mining - Application to Photomorphic Redshift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pragyansmita

    The field of astronomy has evolved from the ancient craft of observing the sky. In it's present form, astronomers explore the cosmos not just by observing through the tiny visible window used by our eyes, but also by exploiting the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays. The domain is undoubtedly at the forefront of data-driven science. The data growth rate is expected to be around 50%--100% per year. This data explosion is attributed largely to the large-scale wide and deep surveys of the different regions of the sky at multiple wavelengths (both ground and space-based surveys). This dissertation describes the application of machine learning methods to the estimation of galaxy redshifts leveraging such a survey data. Galaxy is a large system of stars held together by mutual gravitation and isolated from similar systems by vast regions of space. Our view of the universe is closely tied to our understanding of galaxy formation. Thus, a better understanding of the relative location of the multitudes of galaxies is crucial. The position of each galaxy can be characterized using three coordinates. Right Ascension (ra) and Declination (dec) are the two coordinates that locate the galaxy in two dimensions on the plane of the sky. It is relatively straightforward to measure them. In contrast, fixing the third coordinate that is the galaxy's distance from the observer along the line of sight (redshift 'z') is considerably more challenging. "Spectroscopic redshift" method gives us accurate and precise measurements of z. However, it is extremely time-intensive and unusable for faint objects. Additionally, the rate at which objects are being identified via photometric surveys far exceeds the rate at which the spectroscopic redshift measurements can keep pace in determining their distance. As the surveys go deeper into the sky, the proportion of faint objects being identified also continues to increase. In order to tackle both these drawbacks increasing in

  16. Promoting Dark Sky Protection in Chile: the Gabriel Mistral IDA Dark Sky Sanctuary and Other AURA Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Malcolm; Pompea, Stephen; Sanhueza, Pedro; AURA-Chile EPO Team

    2018-01-01

    For over 20 years, AURA has been leading efforts promoting the protection of dark skies in northern Chile. Efforts began in the early 1990s at AURA's Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), working in collaboration with other international observatories in Chile including Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). CTIO also partnered with local communities, for example supporting Vicuña's effort to establish the first municipal observatory in Chile. Today we have developed a multifaceted effort of dark sky protection, including proactive government relations at national and local levels, a strong educational and public outreach program, and a program of highlighting international recognition of the dark skies through the IDA Dark Sky Places program. Work on international recognition has included the declaration of the Gabriel Mistral IDA Dark Sky Sanctuary, the first such IDA sanctuary in the world.

  17. Inspiration in the Act of Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeller, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    In German-language theology, Professor Ulrich H. J. Körtner’s theory of inspiration, as it relates to the Bible reader’s perspective, is well known. His attempt to gain fruitful insights from contemporary literary hermeneutics while linking them to theological concerns makes his approach a valued...... yet not uncontroversial example of a reception-aesthetics twist on the Lutheran sola Scriptura. This article presents Körtner’s hermeneutical considerations with special regard to inspiration related to the Bible reader’s perspective and shows how this approach may be related to some aspects...

  18. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    French writer and astrophotographer Serge Brunier and his fellow Frenchman Frédéric Tapissier. Brunier spent several weeks during the period between August 2008 and February 2009 capturing the sky, mostly from ESO observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile. In order to cover the full Milky Way, Brunier also made a week-long trip to La Palma, one of the Canary Islands, to photograph the northern skies [1]. Once the raw photographs were in hand, image processing by Tapissier and ESO experts helped to convey accurately the night sky as our eyes behold it [2]. The resulting image, now available on GigaGalaxy Zoom, is composed of almost 300 fields each individually captured by Brunier four times, adding up to nearly 1200 photos that encompass the entire night sky. "I wanted to show a sky that everyone can relate to - with its constellations, its thousands of stars, with names familiar since childhood, its myths shared by all civilisations since Homo became Sapiens," says Brunier. "The image was therefore made as man sees it, with a regular digital camera under the dark skies in the Atacama Desert and on La Palma." As photographing extended over several months, objects from the Solar System came and went through the star fields, with bright planets such as Venus and Jupiter. A brilliant, emerald-green comet also flew by, although spotting it among a background of tens of millions of stars will be difficult (but rewarding). Overall, the creators of the GigaGalaxy Zoom project hope that these tremendous efforts in bringing the night sky as observed under the best conditions on the planet to stargazers everywhere will inspire awe for the beautiful, immense Universe that we live in. "The vision of the IYA2009 is to help people rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and this is exactly what the GigaGalaxy Zoom project is all about," says project coordinator Henri Boffin. The second dramatic GigaGalaxy Zoom image will be revealed next week

  19. Kinds of inspiration in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of sources of inspiration in interaction design. We identify four strategies for relating sources of inspiration to emerging ideas: selection; adaptation; translation; and combination. As our starting point, we argue that sources of inspiration are a form...... of knowledge crucial to creativity. Our research is based on empirical findings arising from the use of Inspiration Card Workshops, which are collaborative design events in which domain and technology insight are combined to create design concepts. In addition to the systematically introduced sources...... of inspiration that form part of the workshop format, a number of spontaneous sources of inspiration emerged during these workshops....

  20. Buckling Pneumatic Linear Actuators Inspired by Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dian; Verma, Mohit Singh; So, Ju-Hee; Mosadegh, Bobak; Keplinger, Christoph; Lee, Benjamin; Khashai, Fatemeh; Lossner, Elton Garret; Suo, Zhigang; Whitesides, George McClelland

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical features of biological muscles are difficult to reproduce completely in synthetic systems. A new class of soft pneumatic structures (vacuum-actuated muscle-inspired pneumatic structures) is described that combines actuation by negative pressure (vacuum), with cooperative buckling of beams fabricated in a slab of elastomer, to achieve motion and demonstrate many features that are similar to that of mammalian muscle.

  1. Inspiration and the Texts of the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Buchner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore what the inspired text of the Old Testament was as it existed for the New Testament authors, particularly for the author of the book of Hebrews. A quick look at the facts makes. it clear that there was, at the time, more than one 'inspired' text, among these were the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text 'to name but two'. The latter eventually gained ascendancy which is why it forms the basis of our translated Old Testament today. Yet we have to ask: what do we make of that other text that was the inspired Bible to the early Church, especially to the writer of the book of Hebrews, who ignored the Masoretic text? This article will take a brief look at some suggestions for a doctrine of inspiration that keeps up with the facts of Scripture. Allied to this, the article is something of a bibliographical study of recent developments in textual research following the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls.

  2. Using Space to Inspire and Engage Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Education Resources Office (ESERO-UK) is a project of the European Space Agency (ESA) and national partners including the Department for Education (DfE), The UK Space Agency (UKSA) and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The key objective of the project is to promote space as an exciting inspirational context…

  3. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  4. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which...

  5. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  6. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlam, John

    2012-01-01

    The Secrets and Words films had everything one would expect from a BBC drama--great writing, acting and directing allied with high production values. But the dramas were also powerful learning tools, co-commissioned by BBC Learning and aimed at inspiring people who have difficulty with reading and writing to seek help. The BBC's learning vision is…

  7. Trauma-Inspired Prosocial Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenifer Wolf; Allen, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Though trauma survivors sometimes emerge as leaders in prosocial causes related to their previous negative or traumatic experiences, little is known about this transition, and limited guidance is available for survivors who hope to make prosocial contributions. To understand what enables trauma-inspired prosocial leadership development, the…

  8. Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

  9. Surfacing Authentic Leadership: Inspiration from "After Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billsberry, Jon; North-Samardzic, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This paper advocates an innovative approach to help leadership students analyze, capture, and remember the nature of their authentic leadership. This developmental activity was inspired by the Japanese film, "Wandâfuru raifu" ("After Life") (Kore-Eda, Sato, & Shigenobu, 1998), in which the recently deceased are asked to…

  10. Coaching som inspiration til dialogbaseret lederskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    , hvor mening og værdiskabende processer er i centrum. De centrale grunddimensioner for denne form for coachende dialog ligger i et fokus på værdier, i muligheder for meningsskabelse og i det narrativ-samskabende perspektiv. På dette grundlag kan tredje generations coaching være inspiration i forhold til...

  11. Pi of the Sky Telescopes in Spain and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siudek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pi of the Sky is a system of robotic telescopes designed for observations of short timescale astrophysical phenomena, e.g. prompt optical GRB emissions. The apparatus is designed to monitor a large fraction of the sky with 12–13 m range and time resolution of the order of 1–10 seconds. In October 2010 the first unit of the new Pi of the Sky detector system was successfully installed in the INTA El Arenosillo Test Centre in Spain. We also moved our prototype detector from Las Campanas Observatory to San Pedro de Atacama Observatory in March 2011. The status and performance of both detectors is presented.

  12. Sky luminosity for Rio de Janeiro City - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, O.D.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents sky luminosity data for Rio de Janeiro City, useful to be used in daylighting design in architecture. The data are presented as monthly graphics that correlate sunshine-hours with the frequency of occurrence during the day of a specific type of sky, that would present one of five defined characteristics (among clear and overcast sky). These results were derived from the knowledge of daily solar radiation and sunshine-hours data, for every day for a twelve year period. (author). 10 refs, 13 figs, 16 tabs

  13. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-01-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < λ < 1.7 (micro)m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers

  14. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  15. The Monthly Sky Guide: Sixth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Ian; Tirion, Wil

    2003-06-01

    The latest edition of Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion's popular guide to the night sky is updated for planet positions and forthcoming eclipses up to the end of the year 2007. With one chapter for each month of the year, this is an easy-to-use handbook for anyone wanting to identify constellations, star clusters, nebulae, to plot the movement of planets, or witness solar and lunar eclipses. Most of the features discussed are visible to the naked eye and all can be seen with a small telescope or binoculars. Ian Ridpath has been a full-time writer, broadcaster and lecturer on astronomy and space for more than twenty-five years. He has written and edited more than 40 books, including A Comet Called Haley (Cambridge, 1985). Wil Tirion made his first star map in 1977. It showed stars to the magnitude of 6.5 and was issued as a set of maps by the British Astronomical Association in 1981. He has illustrated numerous books and magazines, including The Cambridge Star Atlas (Cambridge, 2001). Previous Edition Pb (1999): 0-521-66771-2

  16. Hermite scatterers in an ultraviolet sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kevin J.

    2017-12-01

    The scattering from spherical inhomogeneities has been a major historical topic in acoustics, optics, and electromagnetics and the phenomenon shapes our perception of the world including the blue sky. The long wavelength limit of ;Rayleigh scattering; is characterized by intensity proportional to k4 (or λ-4) where k is the wavenumber and λ is the wavelength. With the advance of nanotechnology, it is possible to produce scatterers that are inhomogeneous with material properties that are functions of radius r, such as concentric shells. We demonstrate that with proper choice of material properties linked to the Hermite polynomials in r, scatterers can have long wavelength scattering behavior of higher powers: k8, k16, and higher. These ;Hermite scatterers; could be useful in providing unique signatures (or colors) to regions where they are present. If suspended in air under white light, the back-scattered spectrum would be shifted from blue towards violet and then ultraviolet as the higher order Hermite scatterers were illuminated.

  17. Blue Sky Birds Come to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bura Sabiha Kelek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Supply System comes to all fields for logistics.Drone is an unmanned vehicle for loading and unloading packages.Perhaps we can imagine it as a ‘’blue sky bird’’. This new trend has three important impacts that are determined by technoligical capabilities, ,regularity pressure, and public acceptance so that it will be dealed within current powers and circumstances. This kind of vehicles are used in different capacities, such as multicopter,drone or robot.Logistics’ issues are interested in short-term delivery systems for customer satisfaction but all developments go through GPS so it is based on 21st century technological developments, which have been tested on a short-term basis and will be expected to be of use in 2 years. The purpose of this research is to give lead to researchers information about risk and the advantages of using the technology in this manner.Some advantages and disadvantages ,schedules’ problems in the system will be identifed.

  18. Vanilla Sky – El cuento del narcisista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham St. John STOTT

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla Sky (2001, de Cameron Crowe, normalmente se aprecia como un juego intelectual; no obstante, su temática es mucho más oscura que lo que dicha etiqueta podría sugerir. Mientras recorre las diferentes fases del sueño de David Aames (un sueño en el que se mueve de una pretensión de amor a una de homicidio, nos damos cuenta de que David padece un trastorno de la autoestima. Utilizando como referencia Atracción Fatal (1987, de Adrian Lyne, para demostrar la incapacidad de tener en cuenta las necesidades de otros, la película de Crowe nos muestra un caso práctico de trastorno narcisista de la personalidad. David mata porque no es capaz de aceptar las exigencias de otros, ya que supondría para él ponerse en una condición inferior a la autosuficiencia. No resulta sorprendente, por lo tanto, su horror cuando al final de la película se despierta y descubre que su amante sigue viva.

  19. Surprise Ultraviolet Party in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Galaxies aren't the only objects filling up the view of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Since its launch in 2003, the space telescope -- originally designed to observe galaxies across the universe in ultraviolet light -- has discovered a festive sky blinking with flaring and erupting stars, as well as streaking asteroids, satellites and space debris. A group of six streaking objects -- the identities of which remain unknown -- can be seen here flying across the telescope's sight in this sped-up movie. The two brightest objects appear to perform a sharp turn then travel in the reverse direction. This illusion is most likely the result of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer overtaking the objects as it orbits around Earth. Careful inspection reveals four additional faint objects with the same timing and behavior. These faint objects are easiest to see during the retrograde portion of their paths. Three appear between the two bright sources, and one is above them, near the edge of the field of view. These bonus objects are being collected in to public catalogues for other astronomers to study.

  20. Lighting up the sky for CERN's anniversary

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    For CERN's Golden Jubilee, the Canton of Geneva, supported by the Pays de Gex local authorities, lit up eight points around the LHC ring. On the date of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, 29 September 2004, the Organization's Host State authorities gave the Laboratory a gift of light. As night fell, twenty-four powerful floodlights blazed into the night sky from the eight access points to the future LHC. For the many spectators gathered at a special vantage point above the village of Crozet, these beams emanating from the valley floor marked out the locations of the access shafts around the 27-km of the LHC tunnel.The event was organised by the Department of Justice, Police and Security of the Canton of Geneva, with the participation of the Crozet local council and support of local councils in the Canton of Geneva, the Communauté des communes of the Pays de Gex, and the Ain Préfecture. This joint gift from the local authorities on both sides of the French-Swiss border has great symbolic value for an organisatio...

  1. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  2. The Cultural Twilight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…

  3. (an)isotropy of the X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.A.; Fabian, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the extent to which the study of the isotropy of the X-ray sky has contributed to the present understanding of the structure of the universe at moderate redshifts. It is, of course, the anisotropic character of the sky flux that is valuable in this context. Although it is not currently possible to undertake measurements with the precision and small solid angles that are typically achieved in the microwave range, the comparatively crude limits from the X-ray fluctuations place limits on the largest scale structure of the universe. After indicating the nature of measurements made, with the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment, of the X-ray sky and its anisotropies, it is shown how these place limits on the origin of the X-ray sky and on any large scale structure of the universe. 40 references

  4. Tropical rainforest response to marine sky brightening climate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests represent a major atmospheric carbon dioxide sink. Here the gross primary productivity (GPP) response of tropical rainforests to climate engineering via marine sky brightening under a future scenario is investigated in three Earth system models. The model response is diverse, and in two of the three models, the tropical GPP shows a decrease from the marine sky brightening climate engineering. Partial correlation analysis indicates precipitation to be important in one of those models, while precipitation and temperature are limiting factors in the other. One model experiences a reversal of its Amazon dieback under marine sky brightening. There, the strongest partial correlation of GPP is to temperature and incoming solar radiation at the surface. Carbon fertilization provides a higher future tropical rainforest GPP overall, both with and without climate engineering. Salt damage to plants and soils could be an important aspect of marine sky brightening.

  5. LOFAR and APERTIF Surveys of the Radio Sky: Probing Shocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LOFAR and APERTIF Surveys of the Radio Sky: Probing Shocks and Magnetic .... technology. This replaces the traditional and expensive mechanical dishes by a com- ... approach has been adopted (for details, see Röttgering et al. 2010).

  6. Using All-Sky Imaging to Improve Telescope Scheduling (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Automated scheduling makes it possible for a small telescope to observe a large number of targets in a single night. But when used in areas which have less-than-perfect sky conditions such automation can lead to large numbers of observations of clouds and haze. This paper describes the development of a "sky-aware" telescope automation system that integrates the data flow from an SBIG AllSky340c camera with an enhanced dispatch scheduler to make optimum use of the available observing conditions for two highly instrumented backyard telescopes. Using the minute-by-minute time series image stream and a self-maintained reference database, the software maintains a file of sky brightness, transparency, stability, and forecasted visibility at several hundred grid positions. The scheduling software uses this information in real time to exclude targets obscured by clouds and select the best observing task, taking into account the requirements and limits of each instrument.

  7. Post-Processing Resolution Enhancement of Open Skies Photographic Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sperl, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    ...), which manages implementation of the Open Skies Treaty for the US Air Force, wants to determine if post-processing of the photographic images can improve spatial resolution beyond 30 cm, and if so...

  8. SKYMONITOR: A Global Network for Sky Brightness Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R.; Mckenna, D.; Pulvermacher, R.; Everett, M.

    2010-01-01

    We are implementing a global network to measure sky brightness at dark-sky critical sites with the goal of creating a multi-decade database. The heart of this project is the Night Sky Brightness Monitor (NSBM), an autonomous 2 channel photometer which measures night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths (Mckenna et al, AAS 2009). Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The NSBM consists of two parts, a remote unit and a base station with an internet connection. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with daytime recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the base unit is transmitted via email protocol to IDA offices in Tucson where it will be collected, archived and made available to the user community via a web interface. Two other versions of the NSBM are under development: one for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber link and the second that reads data directly to a laptop for sites without internet access. NSBM units are currently undergoing field testing at two observatories. With support from the National Science Foundation, we will construct and install a total of 10 units at astronomical observatories. With additional funding, we will locate additional units at other sites such as National Parks, dark-sky preserves and other sites where dark sky preservation is crucial. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We anticipate that the SKYMONITOR network will be functioning by the end of 2010.

  9. Sky Glow from Cities: The Army Illumination Model v2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    corresponding to one 10th magnitude star per square degree and will not be pursued further here). Benn and Ellison find that the sky brightness at La Palma ...not have electricity, liquid and pressurized lamps are 23 included. For these latter two, liquid Citronella, lamp oil , liquid paraffin and...Properties; AFGL-TR-79-0214; Air Force Geophysics Laboratory: Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, 1979. 19. Benn, C. R. and Ellison, S. L. La Palma Night-Sky

  10. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  11. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  12. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM and afternoon twilight (CV. The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving during the CV. Auchenipterus nuchalis, Pellona castelnaeana, Triportheus angulatus and T. albus were the most common and concentrated species collected in the CM and Pimelodus blochii was the most common species collected in the CV.

  13. Design of a device for sky light polarization measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Xian, Zhiwen; Ma, Tao

    2014-08-14

    Sky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky.

  14. Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction

    2005-07-01

    Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)

  15. Clear-Sky Narrowband Albedo Datasets Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Arduini, R. F.; Hong, G.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of clouds requires an accurate estimate of the clear-sky radiances for a given scene to detect clouds and aerosols and to retrieve their microphysical properties. Knowing the spatial and angular variability of clear-sky albedo is essential for predicting the clear-sky radiance at solar wavelengths. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the near-infrared (NIR; 1.24, 1.6 or 2.13 μm) and visible (VIS; 0.63 μm) channels available on the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) to help identify clouds and retrieve their properties. Generally, clear-sky albedo for a given surface type is determined for conditions when the vegetation is either thriving or dormant and free of snow. The clear-sky albedos are derived using a radiative transfer parameterization of the impact of the atmosphere, including aerosols, on the observed reflectances. This paper presents the method of generating monthly clear-sky overhead albedo maps for both snow-free and snow-covered surfaces of these channels using one year of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) CERES products. Maps of 1.24 and 1.6 μm are being used as the background to help retrieve cloud properties (e.g., effective particle size, optical depth) in CERES cloud retrievals in both snow-free and snow-covered conditions.

  16. The Sky in your Hands - From the planetarium to the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, L.; Borges, I.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2013-09-01

    "The sky in your hands" is a project created in 2009, during the International Year of Astronomy in Spain, with the goal to create an image of the Universe for the visually impaired audiences. Includes a planetarium show with an audio component and tactile semi - spheres where the public can touch constellations and other objects of the Universe. Following the spirit of the IYA2009, the authors of this project made all products available to everyone that wishes to use them in outreach activities and science education. From observation and analyses of several groups of students and teachers that visited "The sky in your hands" Portuguese adaptation in Lisbon Planetarium, our team concluded that much could be done in classroom with students to make their process of learning easier and more motivating. Additionally it was noticed that for some schools it was difficult to travel with students to visit the planetarium. With this experience in mind different resources and materials were adapted to be used in classroom. Through this adaptation all students including those visually impaired can build a simple tactile image of a constellation and, working in small groups, can use low cost, recycled materials to build these tactile models. Students can record a new audio file explaining the astronomical concepts of the model they have built and include the m in a story. The groups include visually impaired and non-visually impaired students, as different skills from different students complete each other in order to accomplish the task in a more successful way. Afterwards each group presents the work to their peers. With this poster we plan to share our experience with the community where the collaboration between informal science learning in science centers, museums or planetariums and formal learning in school improves science learning, inspires students and facilitates their understanding of the nature of science in general.

  17. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per

    Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier.......Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier....

  18. Taxonomic etymology – in search of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jozwiak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common – given after morphological features – through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons, science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names.

  19. Biologically inspired water purification through selective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, E C; Soncini, R M; Weiland, L M

    2013-01-01

    Biologically inspired systems based on cellular mechanics demonstrate the ability to selectively transport ions across a bilayer membrane. These systems may be observed in nature in plant roots, which remove select nutrients from the surrounding soil against significant concentration gradients. Using biomimetic principles in the design of tailored active materials allows for the development of selective membranes for capturing and filtering targeted ions. Combining this biomimetic transport system with a method for reclaiming the captured ions will allow for increased removal potential. To illustrate this concept, a device for removing nutrients from waterways to aid in reducing eutrophication is outlined and discussed. Presented is a feasibility study of various cellular configurations designed for this purpose, focusing on maximizing nutrient uptake. The results enable a better understanding of the benefits and obstacles when developing these cellularly inspired systems. (paper)

  20. Neurobiologically inspired mobile robot navigation and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Quoy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”.

  1. Biological Inspiration for Agile Autonomous Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    half of one wing, bees with legs packed with pollen , butterflies or moths with torn and frayed wings likewise are capable of apparently normal flight...technologies. To appreciate this, consider a not unreasonable extension of a wide area autonomous search (WAAS) munition operational scenario. Here...detect and destroy missile launchers that are operating in the back alleys of an urban areas or search Evers, J.H. (2007) Biological Inspiration for Agile

  2. Humidification of inspired gases during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J L; Park, G R

    2012-04-01

    Humidification of inspired gas is mandatory for all mechanically ventilated patients to prevent secretion retention, tracheal tube blockage and adverse changes occurring to the respiratory tract epithelium. However, the debate over "ideal" humidification continues. Several devices are available that include active and passive heat and moisture exchangers and hot water humidifiers Each have their advantages and disadvantages in mechanically ventilated patients. This review explores each device in turn and defines their role in clinical practice.

  3. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  4. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Drawing inspiration from biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2009-08-01

    Bio-Mimicking/Bio-Inspiration: How can we not be inspired by Nature? Life has evolved on earth over the last 3.5 to 4 billion years. Materials formed during this time were not toxic; they were created at low temperatures and low pressures unlike many of the materials developed today. The natural materials formed are self-assembled, multifunctional, nonlinear, complex, adaptive, self-repairing and biodegradable. The designs that failed are fossils. Those that survived are the success stories. Natural materials are mostly formed from organics, inorganic crystals and amorphous phases. The materials make economic sense by optimizing the design of the structures or systems to meet multiple needs. We constantly "see" many similar strategies in approaches, between man and nature, but we seldom look at the details of natures approaches. The power of image processing, in many of natures creatures, is a detail that is often overlooked. Seldon does the engineer interact with the biologist and learn what nature has to teach us. The variety and complexity of biological materials and the optical systems formed should inspire us.

  6. Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye, E-mail: makcak2@ese.wustl.ed, E-mail: nehorai@ese.wustl.ed [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

  7. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  8. Dark Skies Africa: a Prototype Project with the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance Elaine; Tellez, Daniel; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2015-08-01

    The IAU’s Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) awarded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) with a grant to deliver a “Dark Skies Outreach to Sub-Saharan Africa” program to institutions in 12 African countries during 2013: Algeria, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Ghana, Zambia, South Africa, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia and Senegal. The program helped students identify wasteful and inefficient lighting and provided ways to reduce consumption and to keep energy costs in check. The goal was to inspire students to be responsible stewards in helping their community safeguard one of Africa’s natural resources - a dark night sky.Thirteen kits made by the NOAO Education and Public Outreach group were sent to coordinators at university, science center and planetarium-type institutions in the 12 countries and to the IAU OAD. The program’s kit included complete instructional guides and supplies for six hands-on activities (e.g., on the importance of shielding lights and using energy efficient bulbs) and a project on energy conservation and responsible lighting (through energy audits). The activities were taught to the coordinators in a series of six Google+ Hangout sessions scheduled from June to mid-November. The coordinators at the institutions in turn trained local teachers in junior and senior high schools. The Google+ Hangout sessions also included instruction on carrying out evaluations. From the end of November until mid-December students from the different African countries shared final class projects (such as posters or powerpoints) on the program’s website.The entire program was designed to help coordinators and educators work with students, parents and the community to identify dark sky resource, lighting and energy issues and to assess their status, efficiency and effectiveness. The audience will take away from the presentation lessons learned on how well the techniques succeeded in using Google+ Hangout sessions to instruct and

  9. SkyNet: A Modular Nuclear Reaction Network Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-12-01

    Almost all of the elements heavier than hydrogen that are present in our solar system were produced by nuclear burning processes either in the early universe or at some point in the life cycle of stars. In all of these environments, there are dozens to thousands of nuclear species that interact with each other to produce successively heavier elements. In this paper, we present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. SkyNet is free and open source, and aims to be easy to use and flexible. Any list of isotopes can be evolved, and SkyNet supports different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular so that new or existing physics, like nuclear reactions or equations of state, can easily be added or modified. Here, we present in detail the physics implemented in SkyNet with a focus on a self-consistent transition to and from nuclear statistical equilibrium to non-equilibrium nuclear burning, our implementation of electron screening, and coupling of the network to an equation of state. We also present comprehensive code tests and comparisons with existing nuclear reaction networks. We find that SkyNet agrees with published results and other codes to an accuracy of a few percent. Discrepancies, where they exist, can be traced to differences in the physics implementations.

  10. Geo-inspired model: Agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental management (AVNG of water tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán Rojas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Management to care for the environment and the Earth (geo can be source of inspiration for developing models that allow addressing complexity issues; the objective of this research was to develop an additional aspect of the inspired models. The geoinspired model has two features, the first covering aspects related to environmental management and the behavior of natural resources, and the second has a component of spatial location associated with existing objects on the Earth's surface. Method: The approach developed in the research is descriptive and its main objective is the representation or characterization of a case study within a particular context. Results: The result was the design of a model to emulate the natural behavior of the water tributaries of the Amazon foothills, in order to extend the application of the inspired models and allow the use of elements such as geo-referencing and environmental management. The proposed geoinspired model is called “natural vectors agents inspired in environmental management”. Conclusions: The agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental are polyform elements that can assume the behavior of environmental entities, which makes it possible to achieve progress in other fields of environmental management (use of soil, climate, flora, fauna, and link environmental issues with the structure of the proposed model.

  11. TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG: A COMPREHENSIVE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CENSUS OF THE WHOLE SKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Steward, Louise; Peacock, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Key cosmological applications require the three-dimensional (3D) galaxy distribution on the entire celestial sphere. These include measuring the gravitational pull on the Local Group, estimating the large-scale bulk flow, and testing the Copernican principle. However, the largest all-sky redshift surveys—the 2MASS Redshift Survey and IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey—have median redshifts of only z = 0.03 and sample the very local universe. All-sky galaxy catalogs exist that reach much deeper—SuperCOSMOS in the optical, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-IR, and WISE in the mid-IR—but these lack complete redshift information. At present, the only rapid way toward larger 3D catalogs covering the whole sky is through photometric redshift techniques. In this paper we present the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) containing one million galaxies, constructed by cross-matching Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC), WISE, and SuperCOSMOS all-sky samples and employing the artificial neural network approach (the ANNz algorithm), trained on such redshift surveys as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 6dFGS, and 2dFGRS. The derived photometric redshifts have errors nearly independent of distance, with an all-sky accuracy of σ z = 0.015 and a very small percentage of outliers. In this way, we obtain redshift estimates with a typical precision of 12% for all the 2MASS XSC galaxies that lack spectroscopy. In addition, we have made an early effort toward probing the entire 3D sky beyond 2MASS, by pairing up WISE with SuperCOSMOS and training the ANNz on GAMA redshift data currently reaching to z med ∼ 0.2. This has yielded photo-z accuracies comparable to those in the 2MPZ. These all-sky photo-z catalogs, with a median z ∼ 0.1 for the 2MPZ, and significantly deeper for future WISE-based samples, will be the largest and most complete of their kind for the foreseeable future

  12. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean

    2018-05-01

    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  13. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

  14. Mining the SDSS SkyServer SQL queries log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Vitor M.; Santos, Rafael; Raddick, Jordan; Thakar, Ani

    2016-05-01

    SkyServer, the Internet portal for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomic catalog, provides a set of tools that allows data access for astronomers and scientific education. One of SkyServer data access interfaces allows users to enter ad-hoc SQL statements to query the catalog. SkyServer also presents some template queries that can be used as basis for more complex queries. This interface has logged over 330 million queries submitted since 2001. It is expected that analysis of this data can be used to investigate usage patterns, identify potential new classes of queries, find similar queries, etc. and to shed some light on how users interact with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and how scientists have adopted the new paradigm of e-Science, which could in turn lead to enhancements on the user interfaces and experience in general. In this paper we review some approaches to SQL query mining, apply the traditional techniques used in the literature and present lessons learned, namely, that the general text mining approach for feature extraction and clustering does not seem to be adequate for this type of data, and, most importantly, we find that this type of analysis can result in very different queries being clustered together.

  15. Measuring the influence of aerosols and albedo on sky polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, A; Emde, C; Blumthaler, M

    2010-11-01

    All-sky distributions of the polarized radiance are measured using an automated fish-eye camera system with a rotating polarizer. For a large range of aerosol and surface albedo situations, the influence on the degree of polarization and sky radiance is investigated. The range of aerosol optical depth and albedo is 0.05-0.5 and 0.1-0.75, respectively. For this range of parameters, a reduction of the degree of polarization from about 0.7 to 0.4 was observed. The analysis is done for 90° scattering angle in the principal plane under clear sky conditions for a broadband channel of 450 ± 25 nm and solar zenith angles between 55° and 60°. Radiative transfer calculations considering three different aerosol mixtures are performed and and agree with the measurements within the statistical error.

  16. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  17. An All-Sky Portable (ASP) Optical Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Eric Wim

    2017-06-01

    This optical catalogue combines the all-sky USNO-B1.0/A1.0 and most-sky APM catalogues, plus overlays of SDSS optical data, into a single all-sky map presented in a sparse binary format that is easily downloaded at 9 Gb zipped. Total count is 1 163 237 190 sources and each has J2000 astrometry, red and blue magnitudes with PSFs and variability indicator, and flags for proper motion, epoch, and source survey and catalogue for each of the photometry and astrometry. The catalogue is available on http://quasars.org/asp.html, and additional data for this paper is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.4225/50/5807fbc12595f.

  18. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingshu; Sun, Yubo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bermel, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  19. Gods, Demons and Deceivers: Jesuits Facing Chaco Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2015-05-01

    The Jesuit missions located in the Chaco are less known than the ones in Paraguay. They are the last step of the Jesuits' missionary device in the Rio de la Plata region. They were dedicated to 'evangelize' and 'civilize' the aboriginal groups considered more hostile: nomadic hunter-gatherers who adopted the use of horses and were not controlled by the colonial government. These groups were seen by Europeans as a radical otherness. That is why the Jesuits' descriptions of Chaco Indian skies are a very interesting example about European attitudes toward other worldviews. This paper explores the use of different paradigms for interpreting these alternative skies: demonic influence, the deception of sorcerers and an Evemeristic reading of the indigenous worldview. This article also addresses some of the interactions between the aboriginal and Christian skies in the mission context.

  20. Dark Sky Collaborators: Arizona (AZ) Observatories, Communities, and Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Elizabeth Alvarez; Corbally, Christopher; Falco, Emilio E.; Green, Richard F.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Williams, G. Grant

    2015-03-01

    With outdoor lighting ordinances in Arizona first in place around observatories in 1958 and 1972, then throughout the state since 1986, Arizonans have extensive experience working with communities and businesses to preserve our dark skies. Though communities are committed to the astronomy sector in our state, astronomers must collaborate with other stakeholders to implement solutions. Ongoing education and public outreach is necessary to enable ordinance updates as technology changes. Despite significant population increases, sky brightness measurements over the last 20 years show that ordinance updates are worth our efforts as we seek to maintain high quality skies around our observatories. Collaborations are being forged and actions taken to promote astronomy for the longer term in Arizona.

  1. Cooling load reduction by means of night sky radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Abdullah; Armansyah, H.T.; Dyah, W.; Gunadnya, I.B.P.

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal cooling can work under clear sky condition of the humid tropical climate. Such effect had been observed in a cool storage facilities for potatoes and for temporary storage of fresh vegetables installed in highland area of Candi kuning village of Bali. Test results have shown that the rate of heat dissipation to the sky could reduce storage temperature to 15 o C had been achieved when the nocturnal cooling unit was combined with modified cooling tower and 1 kW cooling effect of an auxiliary cooling unit. Under such condition the facility could maintain better quality of stored vegetables, such as broccoli, shallot, and celery as compared to those stored in room without cooling facility. The estimated average cooling rate due to night sky radiation was 47.6 W/m 2 , on September 28, 1999 and 47.2 W/m 2 with the lowest water temperature of 14 o C under ambient temperature of 16 o C

  2. Providing Diurnal Sky Cover Data at ARM Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebe, Dimitri I. [Solmirus Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2015-03-06

    The Solmirus Corporation was awarded two-year funding to perform a comprehensive data analysis of observations made during Solmirus’ 2009 field campaign (conducted from May 21 to July 27, 2009 at the ARM SGP site) using their All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer (ASIVA) instrument. The objective was to develop a suite of cloud property data products for the ASIVA instrument that could be implemented in real time and tailored for cloud modelers. This final report describes Solmirus’ research and findings enabled by this grant. The primary objective of this award was to develop a diurnal sky cover (SC) data product utilizing the ASIVA’s infrared (IR) radiometrically-calibrated data and is described in detail. Other data products discussed in this report include the sky cover derived from ASIVA’s visible channel and precipitable water vapor, cloud temperature (both brightness and color), and cloud height inferred from ASIVA’s IR channels.

  3. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xingshu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  4. Biomimetic microsensors inspired by marine life

    CERN Document Server

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    This book narrates the development of various biomimetic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, such as pressure, flow, acceleration, chemical, and tactile sensors, that are inspired by sensing phenomenon that exist in marine life. The research described in this book is multi-faceted and combines the expertise and understanding from diverse fields, including biomimetics, microfabrication, sensor engineering, MEMS design, nanotechnology, and material science. A series of chapters examine the design and fabrication of MEMS sensors that function on piezoresistive, piezoelectric, strain gauge, and chemical sensing principles. By translating nature-based engineering solutions to artificial manmade technology, we could find innovative solutions to critical problems.

  5. Skin-Inspired Electronics: An Emerging Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Oh, Jin Young; Xu, Jie; Tran, Helen; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-05-15

    Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants. These demands have fueled the development of a new generation of electronic materials, primarily composed of polymers and polymer composites with both high electrical performance and skinlike properties, and consequently led to a new paradigm of electronics, termed "skin-inspired electronics". This Account covers recent important advances in skin-inspired electronics, from basic material developments to device components and proof-of-concept demonstrations for integrated bioelectronics applications. To date, stretchability has been the most prominent focus in this field. In contrast to strain-engineering approaches that extrinsically impart stretchability into inorganic electronics, intrinsically stretchable materials provide a direct route to achieve higher mechanical robustness, higher device density, and scalable fabrication. The key is the introduction of strain-dissipation mechanisms into the material design, which has been realized through molecular engineering (e.g., soft molecular segments, dynamic bonds) and physical engineering (e.g., nanoconfinement effect, geometric design). The material design concepts have led to the successful demonstrations of

  6. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per

    InSpiRe er et projekt, der har haft omdrejningspunkt i etableringen af et nyt netværk indenfor intelligent genoptræning med særligt fokus på rygsmerter. Projektet er gennemført i perioden 1/3 2011 2011-1/3 2012, med støtte fra Syddansk Vækstforum, og er blevet drevet af projektparterne Knowledge ...... Lab, Syddansk Universitet (SDU), Institut for Idræt og Biomekanik (IoB), SDU, samt University College Lillebælt....

  7. A bio-inspired spatial patterning circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J; Shealy, James B; Land, Bruce R; Shen, Xiling

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical.

  8. Neuro-Inspired Computing with Stochastic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2016-01-06

    The extensive scaling and integration within electronic systems have set the standards for what is addressed to as stochastic electronics. The individual components are increasingly diverting away from their reliable behavior and producing un-deterministic outputs. This stochastic operation highly mimics the biological medium within the brain. Hence, building on the inherent variability, particularly within novel non-volatile memory technologies, paves the way for unconventional neuromorphic designs. Neuro-inspired networks with brain-like structures of neurons and synapses allow for computations and levels of learning for diverse recognition tasks and applications.

  9. Biological inspiration used for robots motion synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a biologically inspired method of gait generation. Bipedal gait pattern (for hip and knee joints) was taken into account giving the reference trajectories in a learning task. The four coupled oscillators were taught to generate the outputs similar to those in a human gait. After applying the correction functions the obtained generation method was validated using ZMP criterion. The formula suitable for real-time motion generation taking into account the positioning errors was also formulated. The small real robot prototype was tested to be able walk successfully following the elaborated motion pattern.

  10. Optical Sky Brightness and Transparency during the Winter Season at Dome A Antarctica from the Gattini-All-Sky Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Moore, Anna M.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Fu, Jianning; Brown, Peter J.; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Hu, Zhongwen; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Riddle, Reed L.; Shang, Zhaohui; Sims, Geoff; Storey, John W. V.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Tothill, Nick; Travouillon, Tony; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2017-07-01

    The summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A, is proving to be an excellent site for optical, near-infrared, and terahertz astronomical observations. Gattini is a wide-field camera installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in 2009 January. We present here the measurements of sky brightness with the Gattini ultra-large field of view (90^\\circ × 90^\\circ ) in the photometric B-, V-, and R-bands; cloud cover statistics measured during the 2009 winter season; and an estimate of the sky transparency. A cumulative probability distribution indicates that the darkest 10% of the nights at Dome A have sky brightness of S B = 22.98, S V = 21.86, and S R = 21.68 mag arcsec-2. These values were obtained during the year 2009 with minimum aurora, and they are comparable to the faintest sky brightness at Maunakea and the best sites of northern Chile. Since every filter includes strong auroral lines that effectively contaminate the sky brightness measurements, for instruments working around the auroral lines, either with custom filters or with high spectral resolution instruments, these values could be easily obtained on a more routine basis. In addition, we present example light curves for bright targets to emphasize the unprecedented observational window function available from this ground-based site. These light curves will be published in a future paper.

  11. Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; US IYA Dark Skies Working Group

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's cultural and natural heritage. More than 1/5 of the world population, 2/3 of the United States population and 1/2 of the European Union population have already lost naked-eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3) Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The poster will provide an update, describe how people can continue to participate, and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  12. Super-sample covariance approximations and partial sky coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Lima, Marcos; Aguena, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Super-sample covariance (SSC) is the dominant source of statistical error on large scale structure (LSS) observables for both current and future galaxy surveys. In this work, we concentrate on the SSC of cluster counts, also known as sample variance, which is particularly useful for the self-calibration of the cluster observable-mass relation; our approach can similarly be applied to other observables, such as galaxy clustering and lensing shear. We first examined the accuracy of two analytical approximations proposed in the literature for the flat sky limit, finding that they are accurate at the 15% and 30-35% level, respectively, for covariances of counts in the same redshift bin. We then developed a harmonic expansion formalism that allows for the prediction of SSC in an arbitrary survey mask geometry, such as large sky areas of current and future surveys. We show analytically and numerically that this formalism recovers the full sky and flat sky limits present in the literature. We then present an efficient numerical implementation of the formalism, which allows fast and easy runs of covariance predictions when the survey mask is modified. We applied our method to a mask that is broadly similar to the Dark Energy Survey footprint, finding a non-negligible negative cross-z covariance, i.e. redshift bins are anti-correlated. We also examined the case of data removal from holes due to, for example bright stars, quality cuts, or systematic removals, and find that this does not have noticeable effects on the structure of the SSC matrix, only rescaling its amplitude by the effective survey area. These advances enable analytical covariances of LSS observables to be computed for current and future galaxy surveys, which cover large areas of the sky where the flat sky approximation fails.

  13. Fireballs in the Sky: An Augmented Reality Citizen Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Fireballs in the Sky is an innovative Australian citizen science program that connects the public with the research of the Desert Fireball Network (DFN). This research aims to understand the early workings of the solar system, and Fireballs in the Sky invites people around the world to learn about this science, contributing fireball sightings via a user-friendly augmented reality mobile app. Tens of thousands of people have downloaded the app world-wide and participated in the science of meteoritics. The Fireballs in the Sky app allows users to get involved with the Desert Fireball Network research, supplementing DFN observations and providing enhanced coverage by reporting their own meteor sightings to DFN scientists. Fireballs in the Sky reports are used to track the trajectories of meteors - from their orbit in space to where they might have landed on Earth. Led by Phil Bland at Curtin University in Australia, the Desert Fireball Network (DFN) uses automated observatories across Australia to triangulate trajectories of meteorites entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits, and pinpoint their fall positions. Each observatory is an autonomous intelligent imaging system, taking 1000 by 36 megapixel all-sky images throughout the night, using neural network algorithms to recognize events. They are capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and store all imagery collected. We developed a completely automated software pipeline for data reduction, and built a supercomputer database for storage, allowing us to process our entire archive. The DFN currently stands at 50 stations distributed across the Australian continent, covering an area of 2.5 million square kilometers. Working with DFN's partners at NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, the team is expanding the network beyond Australia to locations around the world. Fireballs in the Sky allows a growing public base to learn about and participate in this exciting research.

  14. Fireballs in the Sky: an Augmented Reality Citizen Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Bland, P.; Sayers, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fireballs in the Sky is an innovative Australian citizen science program that connects the public with the research of the Desert Fireball Network (DFN). This research aims to understand the early workings of the solar system, and Fireballs in the Sky invites people around the world to learn about this science, contributing fireball sightings via a user-friendly augmented reality mobile app. Tens of thousands of people have downloaded the app world-wide and participated in the science of meteoritics. The Fireballs in the Sky app allows users to get involved with the Desert Fireball Network research, supplementing DFN observations and providing enhanced coverage by reporting their own meteor sightings to DFN scientists. Fireballs in the Sky reports are used to track the trajectories of meteors - from their orbit in space to where they might have landed on Earth. Led by Phil Bland at Curtin University in Australia, the Desert Fireball Network (DFN) uses automated observatories across Australia to triangulate trajectories of meteorites entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits, and pinpoint their fall positions. Each observatory is an autonomous intelligent imaging system, taking 1000×36Megapixel all-sky images throughout the night, using neural network algorithms to recognize events. They are capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and store all imagery collected. We developed a completely automated software pipeline for data reduction, and built a supercomputer database for storage, allowing us to process our entire archive. The DFN currently stands at 50 stations distributed across the Australian continent, covering an area of 2.5 million km^2. Working with DFN's partners at NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, the team is expanding the network beyond Australia to locations around the world. Fireballs in the Sky allows a growing public base to learn about and participate in this exciting research.

  15. Protecting Dark Skies as a State-Wide Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lori E.; Walker, Constance E.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Larson, Steve; Williams, Grant; Falco, Emilio; Hinz, Joannah; Fortin, Pascal; Brocious, Dan; Corbally, Christopher; Gabor, Paul; Veillet, Christian; Shankland, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell; Cotera, Angela; Luginbuhl, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The state of Arizona contains the highest concentration of research telescopes in the continental United States, contributing more than a quarter of a billion dollars annually to the state's economy. Protecting the dark skies above these observatories is both good for astronomy and good for the state's economy. In this contribution we describe how a coalition of Arizona observatories is working together to protect our dark skies. Efforts date back to the creation of one of the first Outdoor Lighting Codes in the United States and continue today, including educational outreach, public policy engagement, and consensus building. We review some proven strategies, highlight recent successes and look at current threats.

  16. Variable X-ray sky with Lobster Eye Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Sveda, L.

    2004-01-01

    The variable X-ray sky requires wide-field monitoring with high sensitivity. We refer on novel X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The results are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, GRBs, X-ray flashes, galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc

  17. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveday, J.; SDSS Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a project to definitively map {pi} steradians of the local Universe. An array of CCD detectors used in drift-scan mode will digitally image the sky in five passbands to a limiting magnitude of r{prime} {approximately} 23. Selected from the imaging survey, 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars will be observed spectroscopically. I describe the current status of the survey, which is due to begin observations early in 1997, and its prospects for constraining models for dark matter in the Universe. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  18. 2MASS - The 2 Micron All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new sky survey to be carried out in three wavebands, J(1.25 m), H(1.65 m), and K(2.2 m). The limiting sensitivity of the survey, 10 sigma detection of point sources with K not greater than 14 mag, coupled with its all-sky coverage, were selected primarily to support studies of the large-scale structure of the Milky Way and the Local Universe. The survey requires construction of a pair of observing facilities, one each for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Operations are scheduled to begin in 1995. The data will begin becoming publicly available soon thereafter.

  19. Adhesive Bioactive Coatings Inspired by Sea Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Sónia J; Vale, Ana C; Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-19

    Inspired by nature, in particular by the marine mussels adhesive proteins (MAPs) and by the tough brick-and-mortar nacre-like structure, novel multilayered films are prepared in the present work. Organic-inorganic multilayered films, with an architecture similar to nacre based on bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG), chitosan, and hyaluronic acid modified with catechol groups, which are the main components responsible for the outstanding adhesion in MAPs, are developed for the first time. The biomimetic conjugate is prepared by carbodiimide chemistry and analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The buildup of the multilayered films is monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and their topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties reveal that the films containing catechol groups and BG present an enhanced adhesion. Moreover, the bioactivity of the films upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution is evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the constructed films promote the formation of bonelike apatite in vitro. Such multifunctional mussel inspired LbL films, which combine enhanced adhesion and bioactivity, could be potentially used as coatings of a variety of implants for orthopedic applications.

  20. Brain-inspired Stochastic Models and Implementations

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-05-12

    One of the approaches to building artificial intelligence (AI) is to decipher the princi- ples of the brain function and to employ similar mechanisms for solving cognitive tasks, such as visual perception or natural language understanding, using machines. The recent breakthrough, named deep learning, demonstrated that large multi-layer networks of arti- ficial neural-like computing units attain remarkable performance on some of these tasks. Nevertheless, such artificial networks remain to be very loosely inspired by the brain, which rich structures and mechanisms may further suggest new algorithms or even new paradigms of computation. In this thesis, we explore brain-inspired probabilistic mechanisms, such as neural and synaptic stochasticity, in the context of generative models. The two questions we ask here are: (i) what kind of models can describe a neural learning system built of stochastic components? and (ii) how can we implement such systems e ̆ciently? To give specific answers, we consider two well known models and the corresponding neural architectures: the Naive Bayes model implemented with a winner-take-all spiking neural network and the Boltzmann machine implemented in a spiking or non-spiking fashion. We propose and analyze an e ̆cient neuromorphic implementation of the stochastic neu- ral firing mechanism and study the e ̄ects of synaptic unreliability on learning generative energy-based models implemented with neural networks.

  1. The pre-launch Planck Sky Model: a model of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Delabrouille, J.; Melin, J.-B.; Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Jeune, M.Le; Castex, G.; de Zotti, G.; Basak, S.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bouchet, F.R.; Clements, D.L.; da Silva, A.; Dickinson, C.; Dodu, F.; Dolag, K.; Elsner, F.; Fauvet, L.; Fay, G.; Giardino, G.; Leach, S.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Montier, L.; Mottet, S.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Piffaretti, R.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Ricciardi, S.; Roman, M.; Schaefer, B.; Toffolatti, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the Planck Sky Model (PSM), a parametric model for the generation of all-sky, few arcminute resolution maps of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths, in both intensity and polarisation. Several options are implemented to model the cosmic microwave background, Galactic diffuse emission (synchrotron, free-free, thermal and spinning dust, CO lines), Galactic H-II regions, extragalactic radio sources, dusty galaxies, and thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals from clusters of galaxies. Each component is simulated by means of educated interpolations/extrapolations of data sets available at the time of the launch of the Planck mission, complemented by state-of-the-art models of the emission. Distinctive features of the simulations are: spatially varying spectral properties of synchrotron and dust; different spectral parameters for each point source; modeling of the clustering properties of extragalactic sources and of the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic infrared back...

  2. Nostalgia-Evoked Inspiration: Mediating Mechanisms and Motivational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Elena; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Six studies examined the nostalgia-inspiration link and its motivational implications. In Study 1, nostalgia proneness was positively associated with inspiration frequency and intensity. In Studies 2 and 3, the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences increased both general inspiration and specific inspiration to engage in exploratory activities. In Study 4, serial mediational analyses supported a model in which nostalgia increases social connectedness, which subsequently fosters self-esteem, which then boosts inspiration. In Study 5, a rigorous evaluation of this serial mediational model (with a novel nostalgia induction controlling for positive affect) reinforced the idea that nostalgia-elicited social connectedness increases self-esteem, which then heightens inspiration. Study 6 extended the serial mediational model by demonstrating that nostalgia-evoked inspiration predicts goal pursuit (intentions to pursue an important goal). Nostalgia spawns inspiration via social connectedness and attendant self-esteem. In turn, nostalgia-evoked inspiration bolsters motivation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Creative design inspired by biological knowledge: Technologies and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Runhua; Liu, Wei; Cao, Guozhong; Shi, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    Biological knowledge is becoming an important source of inspiration for developing creative solutions to engineering design problems and even has a huge potential in formulating ideas that can help firms compete successfully in a dynamic market. To identify the technologies and methods that can facilitate the development of biologically inspired creative designs, this research briefly reviews the existing biological-knowledge-based theories and methods and examines the application of biological-knowledge-inspired designs in various fields. Afterward, this research thoroughly examines the four dimensions of key technologies that underlie the biologically inspired design (BID) process. This research then discusses the future development trends of the BID process before presenting the conclusions.

  4. Photometric Analysis of the Pi of the Sky Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siudek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A database containing star measurements from the period 2006–2009 taken by the Pi of the Sky detector located in Las Campanas Observatory in Chile contains more than 2 billion measurements of almost 17 million objects. All measurements are available on the Pi of the Sky web site through a dedicated interface, which also allows users to download selected data. Accurate analysis of Pi of the Sky data is a real challenge, because of a number of factors that can influence the measurements. Possible sources of errors in our measurements include: reading the chip with the shutter open, strong and varying sky background, passing planets or planetoids, and clouds and hot pixels. In order tofacilitate the analysis of variable stars we have developed a system of dedicated filters to remove bad measurements or frames. The spectral sensitivity of the detector is taken into account by appropriate corrections based on the spectral type of reference stars. This process is illustrated by an analysis of the BG Ind system, where we have been able to reduce the systematic uncertainty to about 0.05 magnitudo.

  5. Reflective all-sky thermal infrared cloud imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Brian J; Shaw, Joseph A; Nugent, Paul W; Clark, R Trevor; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2018-04-30

    A reflective all-sky imaging system has been built using a long-wave infrared microbolometer camera and a reflective metal sphere. This compact system was developed for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of clouds and their optical depth in support of applications including Earth-space optical communications. The camera is mounted to the side of the reflective sphere to leave the zenith sky unobstructed. The resulting geometric distortion is removed through an angular map derived from a combination of checkerboard-target imaging, geometric ray tracing, and sun-location-based alignment. A tape of high-emissivity material on the side of the reflector acts as a reference that is used to estimate and remove thermal emission from the metal sphere. Once a bias that is under continuing study was removed, sky radiance measurements from the all-sky imager in the 8-14 μm wavelength range agreed to within 0.91 W/(m 2 sr) of measurements from a previously calibrated, lens-based infrared cloud imager over its 110° field of view.

  6. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.

  7. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  8. A Study of Sasin-Animal Sky Map on Chonmunryucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jin Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chon-Mun-Ryu-Cho, written (edited by Lee Sun-Ji during the period of King Se-Jong, is a representative astronomy book of Cho-Sun (A.D. 1392 -1910 Dynasty. We find and study in the first page of the book; the description of 28 oriental constellations as a Sasin (four mythical oriental animals-animal sky map which is not widely known yet. The map consists of four groups of constellations, each of which represents the Sasin: Chang-Ryong (dragon, Baek-Ho (tigers with Ki-Rin [Oriental giraffe], Ju-Jak (Chinese phoenix, Hyun-Mu (a tortoise interwined with a snake. Each group (animals spans 2˜7 of 28 oriental constellations As we know from the illustration of the Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do a representative sky map of Cho-Sun Dynasty, astronomy in Cho-Sun Dynasty is closely related to that in Go-Gu-Ryer (B.C. 37 -A.D. 668 Dynasty. Since these Sasin-animals appear in most mural paintings of Go-Gu-Ryer tombs, visualization of sky with these animal constellations could have been established as early as in Go-Gu-Ryer Dynasty. We also reconstruct this ''A Sasin-animal Korean sky map'' based on the shapes of the Sasin and Ki-Rin from Go-Gu-Ryer paintings and 28 oriental constellations in Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do.

  9. Sun, Sky and Cloud: Where Light and Matter Meet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. Sun, Sky and Cloud: Where Light and Matter Meet. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1111-1127. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfathi, Bela; Aguado, D. S.; Aguilar, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall (making this Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes the data taken by SDSS-IV in its firs...

  11. Photometric Variability in the Faint Sky Variability Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    The Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS) is aimed at finding photometric and/or astrometric variable objects between 16th and 24th mag on time-scales between tens of minutes and years with photometric precisions ranging from 3 millimag to 0.2 mag. An area of ~23 deg2, located at mid and

  12. Decade of wildlife tracking in the Sky Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica A. Lamberton-Moreno; Sergio Avila-Villegas

    2013-01-01

    In 2001 Sky Island Alliance developed a citizen science program that uses track and sign identification and count surveys to monitor potential wildlife corridors throughout southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. The goal of the Wildlife Linkages Program is to protect and advocate for an interconnected landscape where wildlife, based on their ecological needs...

  13. Inferences from the dark sky: Olbers' paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpino, Mauro; Scardigli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    The classical formulation of 'Olbers' paradox' consists in looking for an explanation of the fact that the sky at night is dark. We use the experimental datum of the nocturnal darkness in order to put constraints on a Newtonian cosmological model. We infer then that the stellar system in such a model should have had an origin at a finite time in the past

  14. Citizen Sky, IYA 2009 and What's To Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright and mysterious variable star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky is going beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. During IYA 2009 the Citizen Sky team was fully assembled, the website was developed and put online, and the first of two participant workshops was held. However, Citizen Sky does not stop or even slow down with the conclusion of IYA 2009. The project will continue to grow in the coming years. New participants are being recruited and trained as the observing phase of the project continues, a second participant workshop is planned for 2010, and the data analysis phase of the project will begin in earnest.

  15. SkyMapper Southern Survey: First Data Release (DR1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher A.; Luvaul, Lance C.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Bessell, Michael S.; Chang, Seo-Won; Da Costa, Gary S.; Mackey, Dougal; Martin-Jones, Tony; Murphy, Simon J.; Preston, Tim; Scalzo, Richard A.; Shao, Li; Smillie, Jon; Tisserand, Patrick; White, Marc C.; Yuan, Fang

    2018-02-01

    We present the first data release of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Here, we present the survey strategy, data processing, catalogue construction, and database schema. The first data release dataset includes over 66 000 images from the Shallow Survey component, covering an area of 17 200 deg2 in all six SkyMapper passbands uvgriz, while the full area covered by any passband exceeds 20 000 deg2. The catalogues contain over 285 million unique astrophysical objects, complete to roughly 18 mag in all bands. We compare our griz point-source photometry with Pan-STARRS1 first data release and note an RMS scatter of 2%. The internal reproducibility of SkyMapper photometry is on the order of 1%. Astrometric precision is better than 0.2 arcsec based on comparison with Gaia first data release. We describe the end-user database, through which data are presented to the world community, and provide some illustrative science queries.

  16. NIGHT SKY BRIGHTNESS ABOVE ZAGREB 2012.-2017.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Andreić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The night sky brightness at the RGN site (near the centre of Zagreb, Croatia was monitored form January 2012. to December 2017. The gathered data show that the average night sky brightness in this period did not change significantly, apart from differences caused by yearly variations in meteorological parameters. The nightly minima, maxima and mean values of the sky brightness do change considerably due to changes in meteorological conditions, often being between 2 and 3 magnitudes. The seasonal probability curves and histograms are constructed and are used to obtain additional information on the light pollution at the RGN site. They reveal that the night sky brightness clutters around two peaks, at about 15.0 mag/arcsec2 and at about 18.2 mag/arcsec2. The tendency to slightly lower brightness values in spring and summer can also be seen in the data. Two peaks correspond to cloudy and clear nights respectively, the difference in brightness between them being about 3 magnitudes. A crude clear/cloudy criterion can be defined too: the minimum between two peaks is around 16.7 mag/arcsec2. The brightness values smaller than thisare attributed to clear nights and vice-versa. Comparison with Vienna and Hong-Kong indicates that the light pollution of Zagreb is a few times larger.

  17. Adaptive modeling of sky for video processing and coding applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarifar, B.; With, de P.H.N.; Lagendijk, R.L.; Weber, Jos H.; Berg, van den A.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Video content analysis for still- and moving images can be used for various applications, such as high-level semantic-driven operations or pixel-level contentdependent image manipulation. Within video content analysis, sky regions of an image form visually important objects, for which interesting

  18. distribution of hourly variability index of sky clearness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Clouds affect the values of insolation for solar technology and other applications. To detect the presence of variability in the sky ... It appears that the site has great potential for application of solar technologies. INTRODUCTION. Knowledge about the .... for solar collectors-part 1. Thermal performance of glazed liquid heating.

  19. Short timescale variability in the faint sky variability survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    We present the V-band variability analysis of the Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS). The FSVS combines colour and time variability information, from timescales of 24 minutes to tens of days, down to V = 24. We find that �1% of all point sources are variable along the main sequence reaching �3.5%

  20. Proof of Concept for a Simple Smartphone Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantamneni, Abhilash; Nemiroff, R. J.; Brisbois, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel approach of obtaining a cloud and bright sky monitor by using a standard smartphone with a downloadable app. The addition of an inexpensive fisheye lens can extend the angular range to the entire sky visible above the device. A preliminary proof of concept image shows an optical limit of about visual magnitude 5 for a 70-second exposure. Support science objectives include cloud monitoring in a manner similar to the more expensive cloud monitors in use at most major astronomical observatories, making expensive observing time at these observatories more efficient. Primary science objectives include bright meteor tracking, bright comet tracking, and monitoring the variability of bright stars. Citizen science objectives include crowd sourcing of many networked sky monitoring smartphones typically in broader support of many of the primary science goals. The deployment of a citizen smartphone array in an active science mode could leverage the sky monitoring data infrastructure to track other non-visual science opportunities, including monitoring the Earth's magnetic field for the effects of solar flares and exhaustive surface coverage for strong seismic events.

  1. Gaia, an all-sky survey for standard photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, J. M.; Weiler, M.; Jordi, C.; Fabricius, C.

    2017-03-01

    Gaia ESA's space mission (launched in 2013) includes two low resolution spectroscopic instruments (one in the blue, BP, and another in the red, RP, wavelength domains) to classify and derive the astrophysical parameters of the observed sources. As it is well known, Gaia is a full-sky unbiased survey down to about 20th magnitude. The scanning law yields a rather uniform coverage of the sky over the full extent (a minimum of 5 years) of the mission. Gaia data reduction is a global one over the full mission. Both sky coverage and data reduction strategy ensure an unprecedented all-sky homogeneous spectrophotometric survey. Certainly, that survey is of interest for current and future on-ground and space projects, like LSST, PLATO, EUCLID and J-PAS/J-PLUS among others. These projects will benefit from the large amount (more than one billion) and wide variety of objects observed by Gaia with good quality spectrophotometry. Synthetic photometry derived from Gaia spectrophotometry for any passband can be used to expand the set of standard sources for these new instruments to come. In the current Gaia data release scenario, BP/RP spectrophotometric data will be available in the third release (in 2018, TBC). Current preliminary results allow us to estimate the precision of synthetic photometry derived from the Gaia data. This already allows the preparation of the on-going and future surveys and space missions. We discuss here the exploitation of the Gaia spectrophotometry as standard reference due to its full-sky coverage and its expected photometric uncertainties derived from the low resolution Gaia spectra.

  2. Mapping the 2017 Eclipse: Education, Navigation, Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    Eclipse maps are a unique vessel of knowledge. At a glance, they communicate the essential knowledge of where and when to successfully view a total eclipse of the sun. An eclipse map also provides detailed knowledge of eclipse circumstances superimposed on the highway system for optimal navigation, especially in the event that weather forces relocation. Eclipse maps are also a vital planning tool for solar physicists and astrophotographers capturing high-resolution imagery of the solar corona. Michael Zeiler will speak to the role of eclipse maps in educating the American public and inspiring people to make the effort to reach the path of totality for the sight of a lifetime. Michael will review the role of eclipse maps in astronomical research and discuss a project under development, the 2017 Eclipse Atlas for smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers.

  3. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscicchio Cosimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  4. Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Marcos, Vanesa; Leigh, David A

    2018-02-26

    The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines-which by and large function as switches-and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synchronized behavior of integrated components to perform more sophisticated tasks than is possible with any individual switch. Should we try to make molecular machines of greater complexity by trying to mimic machines from the macroscopic world or instead apply unfamiliar (and no doubt have to discover or invent currently unknown) mechanisms utilized by biological machines? Here we try to answer that question by exploring some of the advances made to date using bio-inspired machine mechanisms.

  5. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  6. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  7. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."

  9. Teaching Astronomy Through Art: Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S. R.; Boles, M. S.; Patterson, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.

  10. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section 1048.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Sky Series engines? This section defines voluntary standards for a recognized level of superior emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you certify an engine family under...

  11. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  12. The inspiration of astronomical phenomena (INSAP). Proceedings. Conference, Rocca di Papa (Italy), 27 Jun - 2 Jul 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papers concern the inspiration provided by astronomy to the fields of art, philosophy, religion and various human cultures. Individual papers cover the following topics: the Qur'anic conception of astronomical phenomena on Islamic civilization, the Milky Way and society, the mythology and ritual of India, the Varanasi Sun temples, celestial bodies meanings in pre-Hispanic Mexico, the celestial basis of civilization, Mexican eclipse imagery, Chinese dynastic ideology - astrological origins, NW Europe stone rows, stars and seasons in southern Africa, the Pleiades and Hesperides, stars and philosophy, the search for extraterrestrial life, the significance of the pre-Copernican revolution, Judaeo-Christian revelation, Maria Magdalena - the Morning Star, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, stellar poetry, John Bauer's star-spangled fairy-tale world, Polish romantic poetry, the expansion of astronomical horizons, recent comet research and ancient sky implications, civilization Spenglerian model and punctuational crises, Anaxagoras and the scientist/laity interaction.

  13. Nature-Inspired Design : Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability.

  14. Exploring Creativity in the Bio-Inspired Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggakara, K.; Aksdal, T.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the of field bio-inspired design has been driven by the acknowledgement that inspiration from nature can serve as a valuable source of innovation. As an emerging approach, there has been a focus on building a principled methodology to address the challenges that arise...

  15. Traceability investigation in Computed Tomography using industry-inspired workpieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Alexandra; Stolfi, Alessandro; Schneider, Timm

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns an investigation of the accuracy of Computed Tomography (CT) measurements using four industry-inspired workpieces. A total of 16 measurands were selected and calibrated using CMMs. CT measurements on industry-inspired workpieces were carried out using two CTs having different...

  16. Practices of Waldorf-Inspired Schools. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Diane; Beckham, Kyle; Zheng, Xinhua; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    "Growing a Waldorf-Inspired Approach in a Public School District" documents the practices and outcomes of Alice Birney, a Waldorf-Inspired School in Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD). This study highlights how such a school addresses students' academic, social, emotional, physical, and creative development. The study also…

  17. Supporting STEM Teachers to Inspire through Everyday Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Marie; Shechtman, Nicole; Remold, Julie; Knudsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers inspire in part by their constant adaptation to the learning needs of their students and to evolving content, curriculum, technology, and student populations. Innovation--bringing novel things to a situation to confer a benefit--is an integral part of teaching overall, and in especially inspired science teaching. While innovation…

  18. Reggio Emilia Inspired Learning Groups: Relationships, Communication, Cognition, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong Bock; Shaffer, LaShorage; Han, Jisu

    2017-01-01

    A key aspect of the Reggio Emilia inspired curriculum is a learning group approach that fosters social and cognitive development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Reggio Emilia inspired learning group approach works for children with and without disabilities. This study gives insight into how to form an appropriate learning group…

  19. Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists: Designing PBL To Inspire Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Kim, Younghoon

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has great potential for inspiring K-12 learning. KaAMS, a NASA funded project and an example of PBL, was designed to help teachers inspire middle school students to learn science. The students participate as scientists investigating environmental problems using NASA airborne remote sensing data. Two PBL modules were…

  20. Influence of conservative corrections on parameter estimation for extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    We present an improved numerical kludge waveform model for circular, equatorial extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). The model is based on true Kerr geodesics, augmented by radiative self-force corrections derived from perturbative calculations, and in this paper for the first time we include conservative self-force corrections that we derive by comparison to post-Newtonian results. We present results of a Monte Carlo simulation of parameter estimation errors computed using the Fisher matrix and also assess the theoretical errors that would arise from omitting the conservative correction terms we include here. We present results for three different types of system, namely, the inspirals of black holes, neutron stars, or white dwarfs into a supermassive black hole (SMBH). The analysis shows that for a typical source (a 10M · compact object captured by a 10 6 M · SMBH at a signal to noise ratio of 30) we expect to determine the two masses to within a fractional error of ∼10 -4 , measure the spin parameter q to ∼10 -4.5 , and determine the location of the source on the sky and the spin orientation to within 10 -3 steradians. We show that, for this kludge model, omitting the conservative corrections leads to a small error over much of the parameter space, i.e., the ratio R of the theoretical model error to the Fisher matrix error is R<1 for all ten parameters in the model. For the few systems with larger errors typically R<3 and hence the conservative corrections can be marginally ignored. In addition, we use our model and first-order self-force results for Schwarzschild black holes to estimate the error that arises from omitting the second-order radiative piece of the self-force. This indicates that it may not be necessary to go beyond first order to recover accurate parameter estimates.

  1. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration Through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition is designed to promote the development of interest in space activities and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. The competition uses excavation, a necessary first step towards extracting resources from the regolith and building bases on the moon. The unique physical properties of lunar regolith and the reduced 1/6th gravity, vacuum environment make excavation a difficult technical challenge. Advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations. The competition is conducted annually by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The teams that can use telerobotic or autonomous operation to excavate a lunar regolith geotechnical simulant, herein after referred to as Black Point-1 (or BP-1) and score the most points (calculated as an average of two separate 10-minute timed competition attempts) will eam points towards the Joe Kosmo Award for Excellence and the scores will reflect ranking in the on-site mining category of the competition. The minimum excavation requirement is 10.0 kg during each competition attempt and the robotic excavator, referred to as the "Lunabot", must meet all specifications. This paper will review the achievements of the Lunabotics Mining Competition in 2010 and 2011, and present the new rules for 2012. By providing a framework for robotic design and fabrication, which culminates in a live competition event, university students have been able to produce sophisticated lunabots which are tele-operated. Multi-disciplinary teams are encouraged and the extreme sense of accomplishment provides a unique source of inspiration to the participating students, which has been shown to translate into increased interest in STEM careers. Our industrial sponsors (Caterpillar, Newmont Mining, Harris, Honeybee Robotics) have all stated that there is a strong need for skills in the workforce related

  2. Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Using digital images and video I will be presenting thirty years of my science based artwork. Beginning in the late 1970's my gallery and museum installations used lodestones and suspended compasses to reveal the earths' magnetic field. Through the 1980's my work included these compass installations and geologically inspired tableaux that had one thing in common, they were designed to expose the invisible forces of nature. Tectonics, the Coriolis force, and magnetism were among the subjects of study. In 1988, on the basis of my work with invisible forces, I was selected for a commission from the General Services Administration for the new Central Intelligence Agency headquarters in Langley Virginia. This work titled Kryptos included a large cryptographic component that remains undeciphered twenty years after its installation. In the 1990's Kryptos inspired several of my museum and gallery installations using cryptography and secrecy as their main themes. From 1995-1998 I completed a series of large format projections on the landscape in the western US and Ireland. These projections and the resulting series of photographs emulated the 19th century cartographers hired by the United States Government to map the western landscape. In 1998 I began my project titled Atomic Time. This installation shown for the first time in 2004 at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington DC, then again in the Gwangju Biennale in South Korea was a recreation of the 1944 Manhattan Project laboratory that built the first Atomic Bomb. This installation used original equipment and prototypes from the Los Alamos Lab and was an extremely accurate representation of the laboratory and the first nuclear bomb called the ``Trinity Device.'' I began my current project Terrestrial Physics in 2005. This installation to be shown in June 2010 at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Denver is a recreation of the large particle accelerator and the experiment that fissioned Uranium in 1939 at the Carnegie

  3. The First Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Abazajian, Kevork; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Allam, Sahar S.; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bastian, Steven; AndreasBerlind; Bernardi, Mariangela; Blanton, Michael R.; Blythe, Norman; Bochanski, John J.; Boroski, William N.; Brewington, Howard; Briggs, John W.; Brinkmann, J.; Brunner, Robert J.; Budavari, Tamas; Carey, Larry N.; Carr, Michael A.; Castander, Francisco J.; Chiu, Kuenley; Collinge, Matthew J.; Connolly, A. J.; Covey, Kevin R.; Csabai, István; J.Dalcanton, Julianne; Dodelson, Scott; Doi, Mamoru; Dong, Feng; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; L.Evans, Michael; Fan, Xiaohui; Feldman, Paul D.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Friedman, Scott D.; Frieman, JoshuaA.; Fukugita, Masataka; Gal, Roy R.; Gillespie, Bruce; Glazebrook, Karl; F.Gonzalez, Carlos; Gray, Jim; Grebel, Eva K.; Grodnicki, Lauren; Gunn, James E.; K.Gurbani, Vijay; Hall, Patrick B.; Hao, Lei; Harbeck, Daniel; Harris, Frederick H.; C.Harris, Hugh; Harvanek, Michael; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Hendry, John S.; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Hogg, David W.; J.Holmgren, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Homer, Lee; Hui, Lam; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Ichikawa, Takashi; Inkmann, John P.; ˇ, Zeljko Ivezíc; Jester, Sebastian; Johnston, David E.; Jordan, Beatrice; Jordan, Wendell P.; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Juríc, Mario; Kauffmann, Guinevere; M.Kent, Stephen; Kleinman, S. J.; Knapp, G. R.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.; Kron, Richard G.; JurekKrzesinski; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Kuropatkin, Nickolai; Lamb, Donald Q.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Laubscher, Bryan E.; Lee, Brian C.; Leger, R. French; Li, Nolan; Lidz, Adam; Lin, Huan; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Long, Daniel C.; Loveday, Jon; Lupton, Robert H.; Malik, Tanu; BruceMargon; McGehee, Peregrine M.; McKay, Timothy A.; Meiksin, Avery; A.Miknaitis, Gajus; Moorthy, Bhasker K.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Tara; Nakajima, Reiko; Narayanan, VijayK.; Nash, Thomas; Neilsen, Eric H. Jr.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Newman, Peter R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nicinski, Tom; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Nitta, Atsuko; MichaelOdenkirchen; Okamura, Sadanori; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Owen, Russell; NikhilPadmanabhan; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Pindor, Bartosz; Pope, Adrian C.; R.Quinn, Thomas; Rafikov, R. R.; Raymond, Sean N.; Richards, Gordon T.; Richmond, Michael W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schaye, Joop; Schlegel, David J.; P.Schneider, Donald; Schroeder, Joshua; Scranton, Ryan; Sekiguchi, Maki; Seljak, Uros; Sergey, Gary; Sesar, Branimir; Sheldon, Erin; Shimasaku, Kazu; Siegmund, Walter A.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Sinisgalli, Allan J.; Sirko, Edwin; Smith, J. Allyn; Smolčíc, Vernesa; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Stebbins, Albert; Steinhardt, Charles; Stinson, Gregory; Stoughton, Chris; Strateva, Iskra V.; Strauss, Michael A.; SubbaRao, Mark; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, István; Szkody, Paula; Tasca, Lidia; Tegmark, Max; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Tremonti, Christy; Tucker, Douglas L.; Uomoto, Alan; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Vandenberg, Jan; Vogeley, Michael S.; WolfgangVoges; Vogt, Nicole P.; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Weinberg, David H.; West, Andrew A.; White, Simon D.M.; Wilhite, Brian C.; Willman, Beth; Xu, Yongzhong; Yanny, Brian; JeanYarger; Yasuda, Naoki; Yip, Ching-Wa; Yocum, D. R.; York, Donald G.; L.Zakamska, Nadia; Zehavi, Idit; Zheng, Wei; Zibetti, Stefano; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2003-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has validated and made publicly available its First Data Release. This consists of 2099 square degrees of five-band (u, g, r, i, z) imaging data, 186,240 spectra of galaxies, quasars, stars and calibrating blank sky patches selected over 1360 square degrees of this area, and tables of measured parameters from these data. The imaging data go to a depth of r ~ 22.6 and are photometrically and astrometrically calibrated to 2% rms and 100 milli-arcsec rms per coordinate, respectively. The spectra cover the range 3800--9200 A, with a resolution of 1800--2100. Further characteristics of the data are described, as are the data products themselves.

  4. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  5. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  6. SED16 autonomous star tracker night sky testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foisneau, Thierry; Piriou, Véronique; Perrimon, Nicolas; Jacob, Philippe; Blarre, Ludovic; Vilaire, Didier

    2017-11-01

    The SED16 is an autonomous multi-missions star tracker which delivers three axis satellite attitude in an inertial reference frame and the satellite angular velocity with no prior information. The qualification process of this star sensor includes five validation steps using optical star simulator, digitized image simulator and a night sky tests setup. The night sky testing was the final step of the qualification process during which all the functions of the star tracker were used in almost nominal conditions : Autonomous Acquisition of the attitude, Autonomous Tracking of ten stars. These tests were performed in Calern in the premises of the OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur). The test set-up and the test results are described after a brief review of the sensor main characteristics and qualification process.

  7. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Raket, Lars Lau

    2014-01-01

    . Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict......OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. METHODS: 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT...... • The effect of inspiration is greater in higher-generation (more peripheral) airways • Airways of generation 5 and beyond are as distensible as lung parenchyma • Airway dimensions measured from CT should be adjusted for inspiration level....

  8. Viewing Formal Mathematics from Yoruba Conception of the Sky

    OpenAIRE

    Segla, Aimé

    2016-01-01

    Yoruba Cosmology resembles a generative system at the foundation of concepts. The traditional thought, which derives from the reality of the identical pair incorporated from cosmology into real life, exemplifies all kind of existing knowledge, culture and practices.  Previous studies by the author show in some detail the scientific interests in Yoruba cosmology. The present paper aims to view formal mathematics through the interpretation of Yoruba sky knowledge. It attempts to demonstrate tha...

  9. The sloan digital sky survey-II supernova survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5° wide...

  10. The red-sky enigma over Svalbard in December 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sigernes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available On 6 December 2002, during winter darkness, an extraordinary event occurred in the sky, as viewed from Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E, Svalbard, Norway. At 07:30 UT the southeast sky was surprisingly lit up in a deep red colour. The light increased in intensity and spread out across the sky, and at 10:00 UT the illumination was observed to reach the zenith. The event died out at about 12:30 UT. Spectral measurements from the Auroral Station in Adventdalen confirm that the light was scattered sunlight. Even though the Sun was between 11.8 and 14.6deg below the horizon during the event, the measured intensities of scattered light on the southern horizon from the scanning photometers coincided with the rise and setting of the Sun. Calculations of actual heights, including refraction and atmospheric screening, indicate that the event most likely was scattered solar light from a target below the horizon. This is also confirmed by the OSIRIS instrument on board the Odin satellite. The deduced height profile indicates that the scattering target is located 18–23km up in the stratosphere at a latitude close to 73–75° N, southeast of Longyearbyen. The temperatures in this region were found to be low enough for Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC to be formed. The target was also identified as PSC by the LIDAR systems at the Koldewey Station in Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E. The event was most likely caused by solar illuminated type II Polar Stratospheric Clouds that scattered light towards Svalbard. Two types of scenarios are presented to explain how light is scattered. Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (Transmissions and scattering of radiation; Middle atmospherecomposition and chemistry; Instruments and techniques – History of geophysics (Atmospheric Sciences; The red-sky phenomena

  11. Piero della Francesca's Sky in The Dream of Constantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, V.

    2011-06-01

    The recent restoration of the frescoes by Piero della Francesca in the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo has made to appear on the background of the scene of Constantine's dream a number of stars. They are clearly painted with the intention to illustrate a sort of "natural" sky. In 2001 Anna Maria Maetzke recognized in a group of stars the constellation of the Ursa Minor, but so far no further study has been carried on to find any relation between the painted and the true sky. In this paper I show the existence of more constellations in the fresco, which are hardly detectable due to the mirror representation of the starry sky. Such a mirror image, as the Universe was seen from the outside, has a Greek origin and this kind of representation was introduced in Western Europe not only in celestial globes but also in star maps. This discovery leads to consider that Piero had at his disposal either a globe or a map which he reproduced on the fresco. My hypothesis is that a star map might be supplied to Piero by the astronomer Regiomontanus who was in Italy since 1461 following the Cardinal Bessarion in his journey from Wien to Rome. In 1463, Cardinal Bessarion was named papal legate to Venice and in July of the same year he leaved Rome together with Regiomontanus to reach Ferrara and Venice. The road to Venice crossed Umbria nearby Sansepolcro, Piero's birthplace not far from Arezzo. The trip took more than two weeks due to a stop before crossing the Apennines because the plague in Ferrara. Bessarion and Regiomontanus might have met Piero who was painting the cycle of frescoes in Arezzo and supplied him with a star map. Unfortunately, due to the lack of the horizon and any right line in the scene it is not possible to detect the latitude of the place corresponding to the painted sky.

  12. Advertising Citizen Science: A Trailer for the Citizen Sky Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Ryan; Price, A.

    2012-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright and mysterious variable star epsilon Aurigae. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component, introducing participants to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. As a means of generating interest in the project, the California Academy of Sciences produced a six-minute "trailer” formatted for both traditional and fulldome planetariums as well as HD and web applications. This talk will review the production process for the trailer as well as the methods of distribution via planetariums, social media, and other venues_along with an update on the Citizen Sky Project as a whole. We will show how to use a small, professionally-produced planetarium trailer to help spread word on a citizen science project. We will also show preliminary results on a study about how participation level/type in the project affects science learning.

  13. Photometric Analysis of Pi of the Sky Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Opiela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fully automatic Pi of the Sky detectors with a large field of view, located in Spain (INTA and in Chile (SPDA observe the sky in search of rare optical phenomena, and also collect observations which include many kinds of variable stars. To be able to draw proper conclusions from the data that is received, adequate quality of the detectors is very important. Pi of the Sky data are subject to systematic errors caused by various factors, e.g. cloud cover seen as significant fluctuations in the number of stars observed by the detector, problems with conducting mounting, a strong background of the moon or the passage of a bright object, e.g. a planet, near the observed star. Some of these adverse effects are already detected during cataloging of the individual measurements, but this is not sufficient to make the quality of the data satisfactory for us. In order to improve the quality of our data, we developed two new procedures based on two different approaches. In this paper we will say some words about these procedures, give some examples, and show how these procedures improve the quality of our data.

  14. Polarization of sky light from a canopy atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H

    2004-01-01

    Light from the clear sky is produced by the scattering of unpolarized sunlight by molecules of the atmosphere and is partially linearly polarized in the process. Singly scattered light, for instance, is fully polarized in viewing directions perpendicular to the sun direction and less and less so towards the parallel and antiparallel directions, where it is unpolarized. The true, multiple, scattering is much less tractable, but importantly different, changing the polarization pattern's topology by splitting the unpolarized directions into pairs. The underlying cause of this 'symmetry breaking' is that the atmosphere is 'wider' than it is deep. Simplifying as much as possible while retaining this feature leads to the caricature atmosphere analysed here: a flattened sheet atmosphere in the sky, a canopy. The multiple scattering is fully tractable and leads to a simple polarization pattern in the sky: the ellipses and hyperbolas of standard confocal ellipsoidal coordinates. The model realizes physically a mathematical pattern of polarization in terms of a complex function proposed by Berry, Dennis and Lee (2004 New J. Phys.6 162) as the simplest one which captures the topology

  15. Mitigation of Volcanic Risk: The COSMO-SkyMed Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Patrizia; Daraio, Maria Girolamo; Battagliere, Maria Libera; Coletta, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    The Italian Space Agency (ASI) promotes Earth Observation (EO) applications related to themes such as the prediction, monitoring, management and mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards. The approach generally followed is the development and demonstration of prototype services, using currently available data from space missions, in particular the COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean basin observation) mission, which represents the largest Italian investment in Space System for EO and thanks to which Italy plays a key role worldwide. Projects funded by ASI provide the convergence of various national industry expertise, research and institutional reference users. In this context a significant example is represented by the ASI Pilot Projects, recently concluded, dealing with various thematic, such as volcanoes. In this paper a special focus will be addressed to the volcanic risk management and the contribution provided in this field by COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation during the last years. A comprehensive overview of the various national and international projects using COSMO-SkyMed data for the volcanic risk mitigation will be given, highlighting the Italian contribution provided worldwide in this operational framework.

  16. ATLAS: A High-cadence All-sky Survey System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, J. L.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A. N.; Stalder, B.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Weiland, H. J.; Rest, A.

    2018-06-01

    Technology has advanced to the point that it is possible to image the entire sky every night and process the data in real time. The sky is hardly static: many interesting phenomena occur, including variable stationary objects such as stars or QSOs, transient stationary objects such as supernovae or M dwarf flares, and moving objects such as asteroids and the stars themselves. Funded by NASA, we have designed and built a sky survey system for the purpose of finding dangerous near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). This system, the “Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System” (ATLAS), has been optimized to produce the best survey capability per unit cost, and therefore is an efficient and competitive system for finding potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) but also for tracking variables and finding transients. While carrying out its NASA mission, ATLAS now discovers more bright (m day cadence. ATLAS discovered the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst independent of the high energy trigger and has released a variable star catalog of 5 × 106 sources. This is the first of a series of articles describing ATLAS, devoted to the design and performance of the ATLAS system. Subsequent articles will describe in more detail the software, the survey strategy, ATLAS-derived NEA population statistics, transient detections, and the first data release of variable stars and transient light curves.

  17. The cut-sky cosmic microwave background is not anomalous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2010-01-01

    The observed angular correlation function of the cosmic microwave background has previously been reported to be anomalous, particularly when measured in regions of the sky uncontaminated by Galactic emission. Recent work by Efstathiou et al. presents a Bayesian comparison of isotropic theories, casting doubt on the significance of the purported anomaly. We extend this analysis to all anisotropic Gaussian theories with vanishing mean ( =0), using the much wider class of models to confirm that the anomaly is not likely to point to new physics. On the other hand if there is any new physics to be gleaned, it results from low-l alignments which will be better quantified by a full-sky statistic. We also consider quadratic maximum likelihood power spectrum estimators that are constructed assuming isotropy. The underlying assumptions are therefore false if the ensemble is anisotropic. Nonetheless we demonstrate that, for theories compatible with the observed sky, these estimators (while no longer optimal) remain statistically superior to pseudo-C l power spectrum estimators.

  18. Stellar activity for every TESS star in the Southern sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ward S.; Law, Nicholas; Fors, Octavi; Corbett, Henry T.; Ratzloff, Jeff; del Ser, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Although TESS will search for Earths around more than 200,000 nearby stars, the life-impacting superflare occurrence of these stars remains poorly characterized. We monitor long-term stellar flare occurrence for every TESS star in the accessible sky at 2-minute cadence with the CTIO-based Evryscope, a combination of twenty-four telescopes, together giving instantaneous sky coverage of 8000 square degrees. In collaboration with Owens Valley Long Wavelength Array (LWA) all-sky monitoring, Evryscope also provides optical counterparts to radio flare, CME, and exoplanet-magnetosphere stellar activity searches. A Northern Evryscope will be installed at Mount Laguna Observatory, CA in collaboration with SDSU later this year, enabling stellar activity characterization for the full TESS target list and both continuous viewing zones, as well as providing 100% overlap with LWA radio activity. Targets of interest (e.g. Proxima Cen, TRAPPIST-1) are given special focus. We are currently sensitive to stellar activity down to 1% precision at g' ~ 10 and about 0.2 of a magnitude at g' ~ 15. With 2-minute cadence and a projected 5-year timeline, with 2+ years already recorded, we present preliminary results from an activity characterization of every Southern TESS target.

  19. Clear-sky narrowband albedos derived from VIRS and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Arduini, Robert F.

    2004-02-01

    The Clouds and Earth"s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is using multispectral imagers, the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra, operating since spring 2000, and Aqua, operating since summer 2002, to provide cloud and clear-sky properties at various wavelengths. This paper presents the preliminary results of an analysis of the CERES clear-sky reflectances to derive a set top-of-atmosphere clear sky albedo for 0.65, 0.86, 1.6, 2.13 μm, for all major surface types using the combined MODIS and VIRS datasets. The variability of snow albedo with surface type is examined using MODIS data. Snow albedo was found to depend on the vertical structure of the vegetation. At visible wavelengths, it is least for forested areas and greatest for smooth desert and tundra surfaces. At 1.6 and 2.1-μm, the snow albedos are relatively insensitive to the underlying surface because snow decreases the reflectance. Additional analyses using all of the MODIS results will provide albedo models that should be valuable for many remote sensing, simulation and radiation budget studies.

  20. IMPROVED BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, Michael R.; Kazin, Eyal; Muna, Demitri; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Price-Whelan, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We describe a procedure for background subtracting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging that improves the resulting detection and photometry of large galaxies on the sky. Within each SDSS drift scan run, we mask out detected sources and then fit a smooth function to the variation of the sky background. This procedure has been applied to all SDSS-III Data Release 8 images, and the results are available as part of that data set. We have tested the effect of our background subtraction on the photometry of large galaxies by inserting fake galaxies into the raw pixels, reanalyzing the data, and measuring them after background subtraction. Our technique results in no size-dependent bias in galaxy fluxes up to half-light radii r 50 ∼ 100 arcsec; in contrast, for galaxies of that size the standard SDSS photometric catalog underestimates fluxes by about 1.5 mag. Our results represent a substantial improvement over the standard SDSS catalog results and should form the basis of any analysis of nearby galaxies using the SDSS imaging data.

  1. Variable gamma-ray sky at 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2013-01-01

    We search for the long-term variability of the gamma-ray sky in the energy range E > 1 GeV with 168 weeks of the gamma-ray telescope Fermi-LAT data. We perform a full sky blind search for regions with variable flux looking for deviations from uniformity. We bin the sky into 12288 pixels using the HEALPix package and use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare weekly photon counts in each pixel with the constant flux hypothesis. The weekly exposure of Fermi-LAT for each pixel is calculated with the Fermi-LAT tools. We consider flux variations in a pixel significant if the statistical probability of uniformity is less than 4 × 10 −6 , which corresponds to 0.05 false detections in the whole set. We identified 117 variable sources, 27 of which have not been reported variable before. The sources with previously unidentified variability contain 25 active galactic nuclei (AGN) belonging to the blazar class (11 BL Lacs and 14 FSRQs), one AGN of an uncertain type, and one pulsar PSR J0633+1746 (Geminga).

  2. ACS/WFC Sky Flats from Frontier Fields Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J.; Lucas, R. A.; Grogin, N. A.; Bohlin, R. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Parallel imaging data from the HST Frontier Fields campaign (Lotz et al. 2017) have been used to compute sky flats for the ACS/WFC detector in order to verify the accuracy of the current set of flat field reference files. By masking sources and then co-adding many deep frames, the F606W and F814W filters have enough combined background signal that from Poisson statistics are efficiency tracks the thickness of the two WFC chips. Observations of blue and red calibration standards measured at various positions on the detector (Bohlin et al. 2017) confirm the fidelity of the F814W flat, with aperture photometry consistent to 1% across the FOV, regardless of spectral type. At bluer wavelengths, the total sky background is substantially lower, and the F435W sky flat shows a combination of both flat errors and detector artifacts. Aperture photometry of the red standard star shows a maximum deviation of 1.4% across the array in this filter. Larger residuals up to 2.5% are found for the blue standard, suggesting that the spatial sensitivity in F435W depends on spectral type.

  3. The gamma-ray sky as seen with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntemeyer, Petra

    2015-12-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) TeV Gamma-Ray Observatory located at a site about two hours drive east of Puebla, Mexico on the Sierra Negra plateau (4100 m a.s.l.) was inaugurated in March 2015. The array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors can observe large portions of the sky simultaneously and, with an energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV, is currently one of the most sensitive instruments capable of probing particle acceleration near PeV energies. HAWC has already started science operation in the Summer of 2013 and preliminary sky maps have been produced from 260 days of data taken with a partial array. Multiple > 5 σ (pre-trials) hotspots are visible along the galactic plane and some appear to coincide with known TeV sources from the H.E.S.S. catalog, SNRs and molecular cloud associations, and pulsars wind nebulae (PWNe). The sky maps based on partial HAWC array data are discussed as well as the scientific potential of the completed instrument especially in the context of multi-wavelengths studies.

  4. The gamma-ray sky as seen with HAWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüntemeyer Petra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC TeV Gamma-Ray Observatory located at a site about two hours drive east of Puebla, Mexico on the Sierra Negra plateau (4100 m a.s.l. was inaugurated in March 2015. The array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors can observe large portions of the sky simultaneously and, with an energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV, is currently one of the most sensitive instruments capable of probing particle acceleration near PeV energies. HAWC has already started science operation in the Summer of 2013 and preliminary sky maps have been produced from 260 days of data taken with a partial array. Multiple > 5 σ (pre-trials hotspots are visible along the galactic plane and some appear to coincide with known TeV sources from the H.E.S.S. catalog, SNRs and molecular cloud associations, and pulsars wind nebulae (PWNe. The sky maps based on partial HAWC array data are discussed as well as the scientific potential of the completed instrument especially in the context of multi-wavelengths studies.

  5. All-Sky Interferometry with Spherical Harmonic Transit Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.Richard [Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Sigurdson, Kris [British Columbia U.; Pen, Ue-Li [Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Stebbins, Albert [Fermilab; Sitwell, Michael [British Columbia U.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we describe the spherical harmonic transit telescope, a novel formalism for the analysis of transit radio telescopes. This all-sky approach bypasses the curved sky complications of traditional interferometry and so is particularly well suited to the analysis of wide-field radio interferometers. It enables compact and computationally efficient representations of the data and its statistics that allow new ways of approaching important problems like map-making and foreground removal. In particular, we show how it enables the use of the Karhunen-Loeve transform as a highly effective foreground filter, suppressing realistic foreground residuals for our fiducial example by at least a factor twenty below the 21cm signal even in highly contaminated regions of the sky. This is despite the presence of the angle-frequency mode mixing inherent in real-world instruments with frequency-dependent beams. We show, using Fisher forecasting, that foreground cleaning has little effect on power spectrum constraints compared to hypothetical foreground-free measurements. Beyond providing a natural real-world data analysis framework for 21cm telescopes now under construction and future experiments, this formalism allows accurate power spectrum forecasts to be made that include the interplay of design constraints and realistic experimental systematics with twenty-first century 21cm science.

  6. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

  7. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  8. Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

    The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ≥ 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

  9. Supersymmetric SO(10) models inspired by deconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chaoshang; Jiang Jing; Li Tianjun

    2004-01-01

    We consider 4-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric SO(10) models inspired by deconstruction of 5-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric orbifold SO(10) models and high-dimensional non-supersymmetric SO(10) models with Wilson line gauge symmetry breaking. We discuss the SO(10)xSO(10) models with bi-fundamental link fields where the gauge symmetry can be broken down to the Pati-Salam, SU(5)xU(1), flipped SU(5)xU(1)' or the Standard Model like gauge symmetry. We also propose an SO(10)xSO(6)xSO(4) model with bi-fundamental link fields where the gauge symmetry is broken down to the Pati-Salam gauge symmetry, and an SO(10)xSO(10) model with bi-spinor link fields where the gauge symmetry is broken down to the flipped SU(5)xU(1)' gauge symmetry. In these two models, the Pati-Salam and flipped SU(5)xU(1)' gauge symmetry can be further broken down to the Standard Model gauge symmetry, the doublet-triplet splittings can be obtained by the missing partner mechanism, and the proton decay problem can be solved. We also study the gauge coupling unification. We briefly comment on the interesting variation models with gauge groups SO(10)xSO(6) and SO(10)xflippedSU(5)xU(1)' in which the proton decay problem can be solved

  10. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  11. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  12. A locust-inspired miniature jumping robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Valentin; Gvirsman, Omer; Ben Hanan, Uri; Weiss, Avi; Ayali, Amir; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-11-25

    Unmanned ground vehicles are mostly wheeled, tracked, or legged. These locomotion mechanisms have a limited ability to traverse rough terrain and obstacles that are higher than the robot's center of mass. In order to improve the mobility of small robots it is necessary to expand the variety of their motion gaits. Jumping is one of nature's solutions to the challenge of mobility in difficult terrain. The desert locust is the model for the presented bio-inspired design of a jumping mechanism for a small mobile robot. The basic mechanism is similar to that of the semilunar process in the hind legs of the locust, and is based on the cocking of a torsional spring by wrapping a tendon-like wire around the shaft of a miniature motor. In this study we present the jumping mechanism design, and the manufacturing and performance analysis of two demonstrator prototypes. The most advanced jumping robot demonstrator is power autonomous, weighs 23 gr, and is capable of jumping to a height of 3.35 m, covering a distance of 1.37 m.

  13. Six aspects to inspirational green roof design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiers, H. [SWA Group, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Green roofs have been categorized as a technology that is not initially faster, better or cheaper, and may even under perform established products. However, green roofs have features and values that early adopters are ready to experiment with in small markets, thereby creating awareness of the technology. Termed as disruptive technologies, green roofs can become competitive within the mainstream market against established products. The challenge in green roof construction is to find the correct balance between idealistic principles and leading edge design. This paper presented case studies to examine the following 6 aspects of design fundamentals to the creation of inspirational green roofs: the use of colour; experimentation with materials and technology; incorporation of texture, form, and pattern; definition of space; engagement of vistas; and, principles of bio-regionalism. It was concluded that good design is not enough to lead to widespread green roof implementation. It was emphasized that change will occur primarily because of the benefits acquired through implementation. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Bio-inspired Design Approached Antifouling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, L.; Chapman, J.; Lawlor, A.; Regan, F.

    2012-04-01

    Biofouling exists as the undesirable accumulation of flora and fauna on a given substrate when immersed into an aquatic media. Its presence causes a range of deleterious effects for anyone faced in tackling the problem, which is more than often financially testing. Generally, the initial biofouling stage is stochastic and the attachment of microorganisms held fast in biofilm matrices is irreversible. Stability of the biofilm occurs when exopolymeric substances (EPS) are produced forming a protective surrounding, allowing the cohered microorganisms to colonise and thrive upon the surface. Therefore, if this initial stage of biofilm development can be prevented then it could be possible to prevent subsequent macro events that ensue. Environmental monitoring is one area that faces this challenge and forms the impetus of the work presented herein. In order to improve a monitoring device's lifetime, surface coatings with biocidal agents are applied to counteract these steps. This work shows the development of a range of novel materials, which demonstrate the ability to counteract and inhibit the initial stages of biofouling for monitoring devices. Natural bio-inspired surfaces have been developed using nano-functionalised coatings. All materials are tested in the field and positive results in reducing the biofouling challenge are demonstrated. The results from the deployment of antifouling materials, together with real-time, long-term water quality data from the test site are also shown.

  15. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  17. Climate change in EIA - Inspiration from practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2013-01-01

    Climate change integration has been a topic of much interest in the field of impact assessment for a period, and thus far quite some emphasis has been put on discussions of purpose, relevance and overall approaches in both Environmental Impact Assessment of projects (EIA) and Strategic Environmen......Climate change integration has been a topic of much interest in the field of impact assessment for a period, and thus far quite some emphasis has been put on discussions of purpose, relevance and overall approaches in both Environmental Impact Assessment of projects (EIA) and Strategic...... Environmental Assessments of plans and programmes (SEA). However, EIAs and SEAs are already being made, which integrate climate change, and for some aspects this practice has evolved over a long period. This paper seeks to explore this practice and find inspiration from the work with climate change already...... taking place. For exploring the praxis of integrating climate change in practice a document study of 100 Danish EIA reports is carried out. From these reports, statistics and examples are drawn. The study shows an emphasis on integration of climate change mitigation, using various quantitative tools...

  18. Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil J

    2011-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

  19. Determination atmospheric conditions by evaluating clearness index, turbidity and brightness of the sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandilli, C.

    2005-01-01

    There are fifteen different sky types which range from totally overcast sky to low turbidity clear sky have been defined by CIE (International Commission on Illumination). For the applications of solar energy engineering and day lighting purposes, it has a great importance to determine the physical characteristics of atmosphere and the sky type. The most important parameters which define the sky type are clearness index, turbidity and brightness. In this study, the parameters of clearness index, turbidity and brightness of the sky belong to Izmir was calculated and their relations with solar radiation and its components were represented according to 10 years data (1994-2004) of meteorology station of Ege University Solar Energy Institute. In this study, clearness index, turbidity, sky clearness and brightness were evaluated to put forward the effects of the these parameters on the atmospheric condition for designing and engineering purposes

  20. ``Dark Skies are a Universal Resource'' Programs Planned for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Berglund, K.; Bueter, C.; Crelin, B.; Duriscoe, D.; Moore, C.; Gauthier, A.; Gay, P. L.; Foster, T.; Heatherly, S. A.; Maddalena, R.; Mann, T.; Patten, K.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R.; Schaaf, F.; Simmons, M.; Smith, C.; Smith, M.; Tafreshi, B.

    2008-11-01

    In an effort to help more people appreciate the ongoing loss of a dark night sky for much of the world's population and to raise public knowledge about diverse impacts of excess artificial lighting on local environments, the International Year of Astronomy's Dark Skies Working Group has established six ``Dark Skies'' programs and six ``Dark Skies'' resources. The Dark Skies programs include GLOBE at Night (with Earth Hour), Astronomy Nights in the [National] Parks, Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Quiet Skies, Good Neighbor Lighting, and a digital photography contest. Resources include the light education toolkit, the ``Let There Be Night'' DVD and planetarium program, the 6-minute video, online interactions like Second Life, podcasts, and traveling exhibits. The programs and resources are summarized here, as they were in a poster for the June 2008 ASP/AAS conference. For more information on these programs and resources, visit http://astronomy2009.us/darkskies/.

  1. INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, R; Raae, L

    2010-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

  2. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  3. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  4. Sky-Radiance Models for Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I.; Dalimonte, D.; Santos, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Photon-tracing can be initialized through sky-radiance (Lsky) distribution models when executing Monte Carlo simulations for ocean color studies. To be effective, the Lsky model should: 1) properly represent sky-radiance features of interest; 2) require low computing time; and 3) depend on a limited number of input parameters. The present study verifies the satisfiability of these prerequisite by comparing results from different Lsky formulations. Specifically, two Lsky models were considered as reference cases because of their different approach among solutions presented in the literature. The first model, developed by the Harrisson and Coombes (HC), is based on a parametric expression where the sun geometry is the unique input. The HC model is one of the sky-radiance analytical distribution applied in state-of-art simulations for ocean optics. The coefficients of the HC model were set upon broad-band field measurements and the result is a model that requires a few implementation steps. The second model, implemented by Zibordi and Voss (ZV), is based on physical expressions that accounts for the optical thickness of permanent gases, aerosol, ozone and water vapour at specific wavelengths. Inter-comparisons between normalized ^LskyZV and ^LskyHC (i.e., with unitary scalar irradiance) are discussed by means of individual polar maps and percent difference between sky-radiance distributions. Sky-radiance cross-sections are presented as well. Considered cases include different sun zenith values and wavelengths (i.e., λ=413, 490 and 665 nm, corresponding to selected center-bands of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS). Results have shown a significant convergence between ^LskyHC and ^LskyZV at 665 nm. Differences between models increase with the sun zenith and mostly with wavelength. For Instance, relative differences up to 50% between ^ L skyHC and ^ LskyZV can be observed in the antisolar region for λ=665 nm and θ*=45°. The effects of these

  5. Introduction to the Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP): Systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics of arthropods of the Madrean Sky Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy Moore; Wallace M. Meyer; Jeffrey A. Eble; Kimberly Franklin; John F. Wiens; Richard C. Brusca

    2013-01-01

    The Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP) is a new multi-disciplinary research program at the University of Arizona that combines systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics to study origins and patterns of arthropod diversity along elevation gradients and among mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Island Region. Arthropods represent taxonomically...

  6. Media Pembelajaran Interaktif Lectora Inspire sebagai Inovasi Pembelajaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Dewi Shalikhah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The utilization of information and communication technology in education sector is a tremendous output. Support of ICT is hoped to become an innovation in learning with many involving information technology components inside. Therefore, in globalization era, education sector can not pass from its extent, with involves the inherent technology can produce a system of education. This paper discusses the interactive learning media that involve education technology using lectora inspire application. Lectora inspire is designed specifically for the beginner with purpose user friendly to use to make learning media, and can make the material test or evaluation. The development of interactive learning media with lectora inspire is conducted with how to provide training to the teachers in the elementary school. The methods are done with phases, includes gathering information, planning tools, implementing, presenting and reflecting. The object of this training is MIM Jagalan and MIM Jumoyo Greeting sub Magelang regency. Keywords: Media Interactive Learning, Lectora Inspire, Learning Innovation

  7. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  8. VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Fernando; Masegosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. This book is a collection of research works presented in the VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO) held in Canterbury, UK. Previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006 & 2010), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2011). NICSO 2013 and this book provides a place where state-of-the-art research, latest ideas and emerging areas of nature inspired cooperative strategies for problem solving are vigorously discussed and exchanged among the scientific community. The breadth and variety of articles in this book report on nature inspired methods and applications such as Swarm In...

  9. Biomimetic Designs Inspired by Seashells-Seashells Helping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 6. Biomimetic Designs Inspired by Seashells - Seashells Helping Engineers Design Better Ceramics. Kiran Akella. General Article Volume 17 Issue 6 June 2012 pp 573-591 ...

  10. Simultaneous measurement of spectral sky radiance by a non-scanning multidirectional spectroradiometer (MUDIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riechelmann, Stefan; Schrempf, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel non-scanning multidirectional spectroradiometer (MUDIS) measuring the spectral sky radiance as a function of zenith and azimuth angle with a high spectral and temporal resolution. The instrument is based on a hyperspectral imager and measures spectral sky radiance in the wavelength range of 250–600 nm at 113 different directions simultaneously. MUDIS has been intercalibrated with a sky scanning CCD spectroradiometer (SCCD). Sky radiance measurements have been performed with both instruments under cloudless and overcast sky. The spectral actinic irradiance derived from those measurements agrees within 8% for wavelengths higher than 320 nm. The bias between synchronous MUDIS and SCCD sky radiance measurements during cloudless and overcast sky is below 5% for 320 and 500 nm with a 1σ standard deviation of less than 10%. MUDIS enables us to perform more than 220 000 spectral sky radiance measurements instead of approximately 6000 SCCD spectral sky radiance measurements per day and to measure spatial variations of spectral sky radiance simultaneously. (paper)

  11. Dry friction of microstructured polymer surfaces inspired by snake skin

    OpenAIRE

    Martina J. Baum; Lars Heepe; Elena Fadeeva; Stanislav N. Gorb

    2014-01-01

    Summary The microstructure investigated in this study was inspired by the anisotropic microornamentation of scales from the ventral body side of the California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae). Frictional properties of snake-inspired microstructured polymer surface (SIMPS) made of epoxy resin were characterised in contact with a smooth glass ball by a microtribometer in two perpendicular directions. The SIMPS exhibited a considerable frictional anisotropy: Frictional coefficients ...

  12. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  13. A lobster-eye on the x-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peele, A. G.; Zhang, W.; Gendreau, K. C.; Petre, R.; White, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    We propose an x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station (ISS) that will be ten times more sensitive than past monitors and that opens up a new band of the soft x-ray spectrum (0.1 -3.0 keV) for study. Taking advantage of the power telemetry and space available on the ISS we can use a telescope geometry and detectors that will provide better than 4 arc minute resolution of the entire sky in a 1.5 hr duty cycle. To achieve this sensitivity and resolution we use focusing optics based on the lobster-eye geometry. We propose two approaches to the construction of the optics. The first method, well within the reach of existing technology, is to approximate the lobster-eye geometry by building crossed arrays of planar reflectors, this gives great control over the reflecting surface but is limited in terms of resolution at the baseline 4 arc minute level. The second method is to use microchannel plates: this technology has the potential to greatly exceed the baseline resolution and sensitivity but is yet to be fully demonstrated. A simultaneous development of both approaches with selection of the superior candidate at the end of the development phase is suggested. The instrument is made of a number of modules based on a 2x2 cooled CCD detector array that covers an area of 6x6 cm 2 at the focal plane. Using optics with a radius of curvature of 0.75 m this gives each module a field of view of 9 deg. x 9 deg. The modular approach gives us enormous flexibility in terms of physical arrangement on the ISS so that we may take advantage of clear lines of sight and also in terms of built-in redundancy. We estimate that ∼50 such modules give us instantaneous coverage of 1/10 of the sky. The scientific case for this mission is almost too broad to state here. The instrument we describe will allow investigation of the long term light curves of thousands of AGN, it will detect thousands of transients, including GRBs and type II supernova, and the stellar coronae of

  14. Recent Advances and Achievements at The Catalina Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Christensen, Eric J.; Fuls, Carson; Gibbs, Alex; Grauer, Al; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard; Larson, Stephen M.; Matheny, Rose; Seaman, Rob; Shelly, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) is a NASA-funded project fully dedicated to discover and track near-Earth objects (NEOs). Since its founding nearly 20 years ago CSS remains at the forefront of NEO surveys, and recent improvements in both instrumentation and software have increased both survey productivity and data quality. In 2016 new large-format (10K x 10K) cameras were installed on both CSS survey telescopes, the 1.5-m reflector and the 0.7-m Schmidt, increasing the field of view, and hence nightly sky coverage by 4x and 2.4x respectively. The new cameras, coupled with improvements in the reduction and detection pipelines, and revised sky-coverage strategies have yielded a dramatic upward trend of NEO discovery rates. CSS has also developed a custom adaptive queue manager for scheduling NEO follow-up astrometry using a remotely operated and recently renovated 1-m Cassegrain reflector telescope, improvements that have increased the production of follow-up astrometry for newly discovered NEOs and arc extensions for previously discovered objects by CSS and other surveys. Additionally, reprocessing of archival CSS data (which includes some 46 million individual astrometric measurements) through the new reduction and detection pipeline will allow for improved orbit determinations and increased arc extensions for hundreds of thousands of asteroids. Reprocessed data will soon feed into a new public archive of CSS images and catalog data products made available through NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS). For the future, CSS is working towards improved NEO follow-up capabilities through a combination of access to larger telescopes, instrument upgrades and follow-up scheduling tools.

  15. NASA's Bio-Inspired Acoustic Absorber Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    are encouraged to contact the NASA Glenn Technology Transfer Office, https:technology.grc.nasa.gov. The NASA Glenn Office of Education https:www.nasa.govcentersglenneducationindex.html and the NASA Glenn Virtual Interchange for Nature-Inspired Exploration https:www.grc.nasa.govvine are also helping to make research like this accessible to the public and students of all ages.

  16. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an

  17. Light in Architecture as an Inspired Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dębowska, Danuta

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to highlight the important role of natural light in architecture. Natural light, or solar radiation absorbed by our sense of sight was a strong inspiration from ancient times. Originally constituted as a link between heaven and earth. It played a major role in shaping the places of worship, such as even Stonehenge. In the church architecture it was and still is the guiding element, the main matrix around builds an architecture narrative. Over the centuries, the study of the role of light in architecture, and in fact chiaroscuro, led to the culmination of solutions full of fantasy and “quirks” in the Baroque era (Baroque with Italian barocco: strange, exaggerated). Enamored of carved body and the use of multipurpose ornament topped was the discovery of a concave-convex façade parete ondulata created by Francesca Borrromini. Conscious manipulation of light developed, at the time, to a maximum of the art illusion and optical illusions in architectural buildings. Changing the perception of privilege in detail and introduce the principle of “beauty comes from functionality” in times of modernism meant that architects started to look for the most extreme simplicity. Sincerity of forms, and thus the lack of ornamentation, however, did not result in a lack of interest in light. On the contrary, the light became detail, eye-catching element against a smooth surface of the wall. The continuation of this concept of creating a strong password exposing Mies van der Rohe’s „less is more” took over the architecture created in the current minimalism. To minimize the detail with the introduction of large glazing resulted in strengthening the effect of opening the flow of light and penetrating the interior to the exterior. The principle of deep reflection on the light is certainly used in the design of monumental buildings, such as galleries, museums. It could be used more widely in the common architecture, noting the heritage and

  18. Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barstow, M.A.; Fraser, G.W.; Milward, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the development of microchannel plate detectors for the Wide Field Camera (WFC) XUV (50-300 A) sky survey experiment on Rosat. A novel feature of the detector design is that the microchannel plates and their resistive anode readout are curved to the same radius as the WFC telescope focal surface. It is shown that curving the channel plates is not detrimental to gain uniformity. The paper describes the design of a curved resistive anode readout element and contrasts the present measurements of spatial resolution, global and local uniformity and temperature coefficient of resistance with the poor performance recently ascribed to resistive anodes in the literature. 18 references

  19. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield greater than 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10(exp 6) -10(exp 7) contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  20. EoR Foregrounds: the Faint Extragalactic Radio Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Isabella

    2018-05-01

    A wealth of new data from upgraded and new radio interferometers are rapidly improving and transforming our understanding of the faint extra-galactic radio sky. Indeed the mounting statistics at sub-mJy and μJy flux levels is finally allowing us to get stringent observational constraints on the faint radio population and on the modeling of its various components. In this paper I will provide a brief overview of the latest results in areas that are potentially important for an accurate treatment of extra-galactic foregrounds in experiments designed to probe the Epoch of Reionization.

  1. Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.

    2006-05-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is

  2. The Sondrestrom Research Facility All-sky Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E. A.; Grill, M.; Gudmundsson, E.; Stromme, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility is located near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, just north of the Arctic Circle and 100 km inland from the west coast of Greenland. The facility is operated by SRI International in Menlo Park, California, under the auspices of the U.S. National Science Foundation. Operating in Greenland since 1983, the Sondrestrom facility is host to more than 20 instruments, the majority of which provide unique and complementary information about the arctic upper atmosphere. Together these instruments advance our knowledge of upper atmospheric physics and determine how the tenuous neutral gas interacts with the charged space plasma environment. The suite of instrumentation supports many disciplines of research - from plate tectonics to auroral physics and space weather. The Sondrestrom facility has recently acquired two new all-sky imagers. In this paper, we present images from both new imagers, placing them in context with other instruments at the site and detailing to the community how to gain access to this new data set. The first new camera replaces the intensified auroral system which has been on site for nearly three decades. This new all-sky imager (ASI), designed and assembled by Keo Scientific Ltd., employs a medium format 180° fisheye lens coupled to a set of five 3-inch narrowband interference filters. The current filter suite allows operation at the following wavelengths: 750 nm, 557.7 nm, 777.4 nm, 630.0 nm, and 732/3 nm. Monochromatic images from the ASI are acquired at a specific filter and integration time as determined by a unique configuration file. Integrations as short as 0.5 sec can be commanded for exceptionally bright features. Preview images are posted to the internet in near real-time, with final images posted weeks later. While images are continuously collected in a "patrol mode," users can request special collection sequences for targeted experiments. The second new imager installed at the Sondrestrom

  3. Eyes on the Skies 400 Years of Telescopic Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Adopted as the official book of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009, this stunningly illustrated history of telescopic discovery spans the range from the first telescopes via the Hubble Space Telescope to next generation platforms, and how they have changed and continue to change our view of the universe, our place in it and where it all came from. Eyes on the Skies features numerous full-page photographs and is printed in high-quality color throughout. Also includes the official IYA DVD with 59 minutes of narrated text, expert comments and interviews, animations, computer simulatio

  4. The WATCH All-Sky Monitor for the Granat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Rao, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Watch X-ray all-sky monitor, which is designed to localize strong X-ray sources and follow their development, is examined, focusing on the addition of four Watch units to the Granat satellite project. The components of the Watch instrument are described and the capabilities and potential...... scientific returns of the Granat project are discussed. The applications of the Watch monitor are given, including the study of time variations of known sources and the detection and localization of new, transient sources....

  5. Observation of GEO Satellite Above Thailand’s Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonsuwan, K.; Wannawichian, S.; Kirdkao, T.

    2017-09-01

    The direct observations of Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites above Thailand’s sky by 0.7-meters telescope were proceeded at Inthanon Mt., Chiang Mai, Thailand. The observation took place at night with Sidereal Stare Mode (SSM). With this observing mode, the moving object will appear as a streak. The star identification for image calibration is based on (1) a star catalogue, (2) the streak detection of the satellite using the software and (3) the extraction of the celestial coordinate of the satellite as a predicted position. Finally, the orbital elements for GEO satellites were calculated.

  6. The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS): Overview and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven T.; VLASS Survey Team, Survey Science Group (SSG)

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) is a 5520 hour spectropolarimetric synoptic survey covering the 33885 square degrees of the sky above Declination -40 degrees from 2-4 GHz at 2.5" angular resolution using the upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Over the survey duration of 7 years, each area of the sky will be covered in 3 epochs spaced 32 months apart, to a projected depth of 0.12mJy/beam rms noise per epoch and 0.07mJy/beam for 3 epochs combined. The VLASS employs on-the-fly mosaicking (OTFM) to rapidly scan the sky with a net speed of approximately 20 sq. degrees per hour. The high-level science goals for the survey include the identification and precise location of radio transients, the measurement of magnetic fields in our galaxy and beyond, and the study of radio emission from galaxies and active galactic nuclei throughout the Universe. The ability of the VLASS to see through dust allows us to unveil phenomena such as hidden cosmic explosions, emission from deep within our galaxy, and supermassive black holes buried within host galaxies.The VLASS was proposed in 2014 by our community-led Survey Science Group (SSG). VLASS Pilot observations were taken in mid-2016, and the first epoch covering half the area (VLASS1.1) commenced in September 2017. The raw data from the VLASS are available in the NRAO archive immediately with no proprietary period. The Basic Data Products (BDP) that will be produced by the survey team are public and will additionally include: calibrated visibility data, quick-look continuum images (with a goal of posting to the archive within 1 week of observation), single-epoch and cumulative combined-epoch images, spectral image cubes, and basic object catalogs. Single-epoch and cumulative images are in intensity and linear polarization (Stokes IQU). In addition to the BDP provided by NRAO and served through the NRAO archive, there are plans for Enhanced Data Products and Services to be provided by the community in partnership with the

  7. The Einstein All-Sky IPC slew survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Fabbiano, G.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of the Einstein All-Sky Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) slew survey is considered. It contains approximately 1000 sources between 10(exp -12) and 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm/s with a concentration toward the ecliptic poles and away from the galactic plane. Several sizable samples of bright soft X-ray selected objects for follow-up ROSAT and ASTRO-D observations and statistical study are presented. The survey source list is expected to be available by late 1989. Both paper and remote access online data base versions are to be available. An identification program is considered.

  8. Echoes of the ancient skies the astronomy of lost civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Krupp, E C

    2003-01-01

    ""It should be read by anyone even remotely interested in the long saga of the universe's profound and lasting influence on mankind's development."" - New Scientist""A grand book."" - Publishers Weekly""Dr. Krupp teaches us once more to look up at the stars and marvel."" - Ray BradburyThe intriguing world of archaeoastronomy - the study of ancient peoples' observations of the skies and the impact of what they saw on their cultural evolution - is the focus of this eminently readable and authoritative survey. Author E. C. Krupp, an astronomer, is the director of the Griffith Observatory in Los

  9. SKY BRIGHTNESS AND TRANSPARENCY IN THE i-BAND AT DOME A, ANTARCTICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Hu; Zhou Xu; Jiang Zhaoji; Hu Jingyao; Ma Jun; Ashley, M. C. B.; Luong-Van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Cui Xiangqun; Feng Longlong; Gong Xuefei; Kulesa, C. A.; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu Genrong; Moore, A. M.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Travouillon, T.; Qin Weijia; Sun Bo; Shang Zhaohui

    2010-01-01

    The i-band observing conditions at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau have been investigated using data acquired during 2008 with the Chinese Small Telescope Array. The sky brightness, variations in atmospheric transparency, cloud cover, and the presence of aurorae are obtained from these images. The median sky brightness of moonless clear nights is 20.5 mag arcsec -2 in the SDSS i band at the south celestial pole (which includes a contribution of about 0.06 mag from diffuse Galactic light). The median over all Moon phases in the Antarctic winter is about 19.8 mag arcsec -2 . There were no thick clouds in 2008. We model contributions of the Sun and the Moon to the sky background to obtain the relationship between the sky brightness and transparency. Aurorae are identified by comparing the observed sky brightness to the sky brightness expected from this model. About 2% of the images are affected by relatively strong aurorae.

  10. Measuring high-resolution sky luminance distributions with a CCD camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohsing, Korntip; Schrempf, Michael; Riechelmann, Stefan; Schilke, Holger; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2013-03-10

    We describe how sky luminance can be derived from a newly developed hemispherical sky imager (HSI) system. The system contains a commercial compact charge coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a fish-eye lens. The projection of the camera system has been found to be nearly equidistant. The luminance from the high dynamic range images has been calculated and then validated with luminance data measured by a CCD array spectroradiometer. The deviation between both datasets is less than 10% for cloudless and completely overcast skies, and differs by no more than 20% for all sky conditions. The global illuminance derived from the HSI pictures deviates by less than 5% and 20% under cloudless and cloudy skies for solar zenith angles less than 80°, respectively. This system is therefore capable of measuring sky luminance with the high spatial and temporal resolution of more than a million pixels and every 20 s respectively.

  11. Weather and atmosphere observation with the ATOM all-sky camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowsky Felix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM for H.E.S.S. is an 75 cm optical telescope which operates fully automated. As there is no observer present during observation, an auxiliary all-sky camera serves as weather monitoring system. This device takes an all-sky image of the whole sky every three minutes. The gathered data then undergoes live-analysis by performing astrometric comparison with a theoretical night sky model, interpreting the absence of stars as cloud coverage. The sky monitor also serves as tool for a meteorological analysis of the observation site of the the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. This overview covers design and benefits of the all-sky camera and additionally gives an introduction into current efforts to integrate the device into the atmosphere analysis programme of H.E.S.S.

  12. Daylighting on the working plane in oriented attic rooms under overcast and clear sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondáš Kristián

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of daylight conditions in building interiors is based on the Daylight Factor concept after current Slovak standards. Criteria and requirements determined in these standards consider the worst daylight exterior conditions which are described by CIE overcast sky model. The sky luminance distribution of overcast sky is centrical to the zenith, so independence of window orientation to cardinal points is characteristic in daylighting calculations. The sky luminance distribution modelling is one of the main task of the daylight source research more than 50 years. It is evident that also other types of sky conditions exist in nature. An introduction of a new criterion based on photometric variables, which also consider sunlight influence, is expected. This article represents a study of the influence of the interior orientation on distribution of daylighting in attic spaces under an overcast and clear sky

  13. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Jens; Raket, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger [University of Copenhagen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Feragen, Aasa [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems and Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tuebingen (Germany); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery RT, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased with generation (p < 0.001). Relative changes in AWT were inversely related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC in generation 3-7 (p < 0.001). Segmental bronchi were widely dispersed in terms of ALD (5.7 ± 0.7 mm), AWT (0.86 ± 0.07 mm), and distensibility (23.5 ± 7.7 %). Subjects who inspire more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. (orig.)

  14. LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and Student Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The Low-Frequency All- Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is an innovative new radio astronomy observatory. Designed and built by...Feb-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and Student...reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and

  15. Spatiotemporal change of sky polarization during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey: polarization patterns of the eclipsed sky observed by full-sky imaging polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipocz, Brigitta; Hegedüs, Ramón; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-12-01

    Using 180 degrees field-of-view (full-sky) imaging polarimetry, we measured the spatiotemporal change of the polarization of skylight during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. We present our observations here on the temporal variation of the celestial patterns of the degree p and angle alpha of linear polarization of the eclipsed sky measured in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We also report on the temporal and spectral change of the positions of neutral (unpolarized, p = 0) points, and points with local minima or maxima of p of the eclipsed sky. Our results are compared with the observations performed by the same polarimetric technique during the total solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 in Hungary. Practically the same characteristics of celestial polarization were encountered during both eclipses. This shows that the observed polarization phenomena of the eclipsed sky may be general.

  16. Role of Cultural Inspiration with Different Types in Cultural Product Design Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Jian; Dong, Ye-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Inspiration plays an important role in the design activities and design education. This paper describes "ancient cultural artefacts" as "cultural inspiration," consisting of two types called "cultural-pictorial inspiration" (CPI) and "cultural-textual inspiration" (CTI). This study aims to test the important…

  17. X-RAY-EMITTING STARS IDENTIFIED FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY AND THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Newsom, Emily R.; Anderson, Scott F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Szkody, Paula; Covey, Kevin R.; Posselt, Bettina; Margon, Bruce; Voges, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) was the first imaging X-ray survey of the entire sky. Combining the RASS Bright and Faint Source Catalogs yields an average of about three X-ray sources per square degree. However, while X-ray source counterparts are known to range from distant quasars to nearby M dwarfs, the RASS data alone are often insufficient to determine the nature of an X-ray source. As a result, large-scale follow-up programs are required to construct samples of known X-ray emitters. We use optical data produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify 709 stellar X-ray emitters cataloged in the RASS and falling within the SDSS Data Release 1 footprint. Most of these are bright stars with coronal X-ray emission unsuitable for SDSS spectroscopy, which is designed for fainter objects (g > 15 [mag]). Instead, we use SDSS photometry, correlations with the Two Micron All Sky Survey and other catalogs, and spectroscopy from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope to identify these stellar X-ray counterparts. Our sample of 707 X-ray-emitting F, G, K, and M stars is one of the largest X-ray-selected samples of such stars. We derive distances to these stars using photometric parallax relations appropriate for dwarfs on the main sequence, and use these distances to calculate L X . We also identify a previously unknown cataclysmic variable (CV) as a RASS counterpart. Separately, we use correlations of the RASS and the SDSS spectroscopic catalogs of CVs and white dwarfs (WDs) to study the properties of these rarer X-ray-emitting stars. We examine the relationship between (f X /f g ) and the equivalent width of the Hβ emission line for 46 X-ray-emitting CVs and discuss tentative classifications for a subset based on these quantities. We identify 17 new X-ray-emitting DA (hydrogen) WDs, of which three are newly identified WDs. We report on follow-up observations of three candidate cool X-ray-emitting WDs (one DA and two DB (helium) WDs); we have not

  18. Derivation of Sky-View Factors from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Christopher; Chapman, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The use of Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging), an active light-emitting instrument, is becoming increasingly common for a range of potential applications. Its ability to provide fine resolution spatial and vertical resolution elevation data makes it ideal for a wide range of studies. This paper demonstrates the capability of Lidar data to measure sky view factors (SVF). The Lidar data is used to generate a spatial map of SVFs which are then compared against photographically-derived SVF at selected point locations. At each location three near-surface elevations measurements were taken and compared with collocated Lidar-derived estimated. It was found that there was generally good agreement between the two methodologies, although with decreasing SVF the Lidar-derived technique tended to overestimate the SVF: this can be attributed in part to the spatial resolution of the Lidar sampling. Nevertheless, airborne Lidar systems can map sky view factors over a large area easily, improving the utility of such data in atmospheric and meteorological models.

  19. Passive unmanned sky spectroscopy for remote bird classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Patrik; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Cocola, Lorenzo; Runemark, Anna; Åkesson, Susanne; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-11-01

    We present a method based on passive spectroscopy with aim to remotely study flying birds. A compact spectrometer is continuously recording spectra of a small section of the sky, waiting for birds to obscure part of the field-of-view when they pass the field in flight. In such situations the total light intensity received through the telescope, looking straight up, will change very rapidly as compared to the otherwise slowly varying sky light. On passage of a bird, both the total intensity and the spectral shape of the captured light changes notably. A camera aimed in the same direction as the telescope, although with a wider field-of-view, is triggered by the sudden intensity changes in the spectrometer to record additional information, which may be used for studies of migration and orientation. Example results from a trial are presented and discussed. The study is meant to explore the information that could be gathered and extracted with the help of a spectrometer connected to a telescope. Information regarding the color, size and height of flying birds is discussed. Specifically, an application for passive distance determination utilizing the atmospheric oxygen A-band absorption at around 760 nm is discussed.

  20. Dusty WDs in the WISE all sky survey ∩ SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Sara D.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: barber@nhn.ou.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    A recent cross-correlation between the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 White Dwarf Catalog with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm performed by Debes et al. resulted in the discovery of 52 candidate dusty white dwarfs (WDs). However, the 6'' WISE beam allows for the possibility that many of the excesses exhibited by these WDs may be due to contamination from a nearby source. We present MMT+SAO Wide-Field InfraRed Camera J- and H-band imaging observations (0.''5-1.''5 point spread function) of 16 of these candidate dusty WDs and confirm that four have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) consistent with a dusty disk and are not accompanied by a nearby source contaminant. The remaining 12 WDs have contaminated WISE photometry and SEDs inconsistent with a dusty disk when the contaminating sources are not included in the photometry measurements. We find the frequency of disks around single WDs in the WISE ∩ SDSS sample to be 2.6%-4.1%. One of the four new dusty WDs has a mass of 1.04 M {sub ☉} (progenitor mass 5.4 M {sub ☉}) and its discovery offers the first confirmation that massive WDs (and their massive progenitor stars) host planetary systems.

  1. Surveying the skies how astronomers map the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wynn-Williams, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Since the time of Galileo, astronomy has been driven by technological innovation. With each major advance has come the opportunity and enthusiasm to survey the sky in a way that was not possible before. It is these surveys of discovery that are the subject of this book. In the first few chapters the author discusses what astronomers learned from visible-light surveys, first with the naked eye, then using telescopes in the seventeenth century, and photography in the nineteenth century. He then moves to the second half of the twentieth century when the skies started to be swept by radio, infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray and gamma ray telescopes, many of which had to be flown in satellites above the Earth’s atmosphere. These surveys led to the discovery of pulsars, quasars, molecular clouds, protostars, bursters, and black holes. He then returns to Earth to describe several currently active large-scale projects that methodically collect images, photometry and spectra that are then stored in vast publicly-accessibl...

  2. Enhanced solar global irradiance during cloudy sky conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, N.H.; Sandmann, H.; Stick, C. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Klimatologie; Macke, A. [Kiel Univ. (DE). Leibniz Inst. fuer Meereswissenschaften (IFM-GEOMAR)

    2007-06-15

    The impact of cloudiness on the shortwave downwelling radiation (SDR) at the surface is investigated by means of collocated pyranometer radiation measurements and all-sky imager observations. The measurements have been performed in Westerland, a seaside resort on the North Sea island of Sylt, Germany, during summer 2004 and 2005. A main improvement to previous studies on this subject resulted from the very high temporal resolution of cloud images and radiation measurements and, therefore, a more robust statistical analysis of the occurrence of this effect. It was possible to observe an excess of solar irradiation compared to clear sky irradiation by more than 500 W/m{sup 2}, the largest observed excess irradiation to our knowledge so far. Camera images reveal that largest excess radiation is reached close to overcast situations with altocumulus clouds partly obscuring the solar disk, and preferably with cumulus clouds in lower levels. The maximum duration of the enhancements depends on its strength and ranges from 20 seconds (enhancements > 400 W/m{sup 2}) up to 140 seconds (enhancements > 200 W/m{sup 2}). (orig.)

  3. The Second Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Abazajian, Kevork; ̈ueros, Marcel A. Ag; Allam, Sahar S.; Anderson, KurtS. J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Baldry, Ivan K.; StevenBastian; Berlind, Andreas; Bernardi, Mariangela; Blanton, Michael R.; BochanskiJr., John J.; Boroski, William N.; Briggs, John W.; Brinkmann, J.; Brunner, Robert J.; ́ari, Tam ́asBudav; Carey, Larry N.; Carliles, Samuel; Castander, Francisco J.; Connolly, A. J.; Csabai, Istvan; Doi, Mamoru; Dong, Feng; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Friedman, Scott D.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Fukugita, Masataka; Gal, RoyR.; Gillespie, Bruce; Glazebrook, Karl; Gray, Jim; Grebel, Eva K.; Gunn, James E.; Gurbani, Vijay K.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hamabe, Masaru; Harris, Frederick H.; C.Harris, Hugh; Harvanek, Michael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Hendry, John S.; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Hogan, Craig J.; Hogg, David W.; Holmgren, Donald J.; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jester, Sebastian; Johnston, David E.; Jorgensen, AndersM.; Kent, Stephen M.; Kleinman, S. J.; Knapp, G. R.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.; Kron, Richard G.; Krzesinski, Jurek; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Kuropatkin, Nickolai; Q.Lamb, Donald; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lee, Brian C.; Leger, R. French; Li, Nolan; Lin, Huan; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Long, Daniel C.; Loveday, Jon; Lupton, Robert H.; Malik, Tanu; BruceMargon; Matsubara, Takahiko; McGehee, Peregrine M.; McKay, Timothy A.; AveryMeiksin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nakajima, Reiko; Nash, Thomas; Neilsen, Eric H. Jr.; JoNewberg, Heidi; Newman, Peter R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nicinski, Tom; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Nitta, Atsuko; Okamura, Sadanori; O'Mullane, William; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Owen, Russell; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Pope, Adrian C.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Richards, Gordon T.; Richmond, Michael W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Scranton, Ryan; Sekiguchi, Maki; Seljak, Uros; Sergey, Gary; Sesar, Branimir; Sheldon, Erin; Shimasaku, Kazu; Siegmund, Walter A.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Smith, J. Allyn; ́c, Vernesa Smolči; Snedden, Stephanie A.; AlbertStebbins; Stoughton, Chris; Strauss, Michael A.; SubbaRao, Mark; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istv ́an; Szkody, Paula; Szokoly, Gyula P.; Tegmark, Max; Teodoro, Luis; Thakar, AniruddhaR.; Tremonti, Christy; Tucker, Douglas L.; Uomoto, Alan; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Vandenberg, Jan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Voges, Wolfgang; Vogt, Nicole P.; M.Walkowicz, Lucianne; Wang, Shu-i; Weinberg, David H.; West, Andrew A.; White, Simon D.M.; Wilhite, BrianC.; Xu, Yongzhong; Yanny, Brian; Yasuda, Naoki; Yip, Ching-Wa; Yocum, D. R.; York, Donald G.; Zehavi, Idit; Zibetti, Stefano; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2004-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has validated and made publicly available its Second Data Release. This data release consists of 3324 square degrees of five-band (u g r i z) imaging data with photometry for over 88 million unique objects, 367,360 spectra of galaxies, quasars, stars and calibrating blank sky patches selected over 2627 degrees of this area, and tables of measured parameters from these data. The imaging data reach a depth of r ~ 22.2 (95% completeness limit for point sources) and are photometrically and astrometrically calibrated to 2% rms and 100 milli-arcsec rms per coordinate, respectively. The imaging data have all been processed through a new version of the SDSS imaging pipeline, in which the most important improvement since the last data release is fixing an error in the model fits to each object. The result is that model magnitudes are now a good proxy for point spread function (PSF) magnitudes for point sources, and Petrosian magnitudes for extended sources. The spectroscopy extends from 38...

  4. Detecting TLEs using a massive all-sky camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnung, M. B.; Celestin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) are large-scale optical events occurring in the upper-atmosphere from the top of thunderclouds up to the ionosphere. TLEs may have important effects in local, regional, and global scales, and many features of TLEs are not fully understood yet [e.g, Pasko, JGR, 115, A00E35, 2010]. Moreover, meteor events have been suggested to play a role in sprite initiation by producing ionospheric irregularities [e.g, Qin et al., Nat. Commun., 5, 3740, 2014]. The French Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network (FRIPON, https://www.fripon.org/?lang=en), is a national all-sky 30 fps camera network designed to continuously detect meteor events. We seek to make use of this network to observe TLEs over unprecedented space and time scales ( 1000×1000 km with continuous acquisition). To do so, we had to significantly modify FRIPON's triggering software Freeture (https://github.com/fripon/freeture) while leaving the meteor detection capability uncompromised. FRIPON has a great potential in the study of TLEs. Not only could it produce new results about spatial and time distributions of TLEs over a very large area, it could also be used to validate and complement observations from future space missions such as ASIM (ESA) and TARANIS (CNES). In this work, we present an original image processing algorithm that can detect sprites using all-sky cameras while strongly limiting the frequency of false positives and our ongoing work on sprite triangulation using the FRIPON network.

  5. Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  6. An Ecocritical Reading of Paul Bowles's The Sheltering Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sheikhzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are not simply something objective and unchallenged out there but the work of the mind made by the strata of memory. This paper attempts to show that an ecocritical reading of Paul Bowles’s The Sheltering Sky (1949 helps one in better understanding of this novel of post-colonial alienation and existential despair. Bowles is an American writer and a composer who is undoubtedly the most arresting example of cross-cultural influence concerning a Western author and the Middle East and North Africa.  His fiction mostly focuses on American expatriates travelling in exotic locations. The Sheltering Sky is an encounter with the Sahara, not only the physical one but the desert of moral nihilism into which one may wander blindly. The boundless desert acts here as a metaphor and the journey symbolizes one’s own journey into the depth of his/her soul. The desert also projects an apocalyptic vision in the struggle between the West and the East and the Sahara becomes in fact a Conradian Heart of Darkness, an Eliotian Waste Land, and a Sartrean No Exit. In the novel the actual environment becomes in some ways pale and covert under the psyche of the writer. Consequently we come to know that Bowles's own knowledge and awareness of the same environments left traces in his work. Accordingly we may wrap up that the environment bears a direct impact on our understanding of it.

  7. Imaging the Southern Sky An Amateur Astronomer's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "If you're looking for a handy reference guide to help you image and explore the many splendors of the southern sky, Imaging the Southern Sky is the book for you. The work features not only stunning color images, all taken by Stephen Chadwick, of the best galaxies, nebulae, and clusters available to astrophotographers, but also lesser-known objects, some of which have gone largely unexplored! Beginners and experienced observers alike should appreciate the book's remarkable imagery and simple text, which provides concise and accurate information on each object and its epoch 2000.0 position, and also expert testimony on its visual nature. Each object essay also includes a section on technical information that should help astrophotographers in their planning, including telescope aperture, focal length and ratio, camera used, exposure times, and field size. As a charming bonus, the authors have taken the liberty to name many of the lesser-known objects to reflect their New Zealand heritage. Constellation by con...

  8. Yearly, seasonal and monthly daily average diffuse sky radiation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.S.; Mujahid, A.M.; Turner, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    A daily average diffuse sky radiation regression model based on daily global radiation was developed utilizing two year data taken near Blytheville, Arkansas (Lat. =35.9 0 N, Long. = 89.9 0 W), U.S.A. The model has a determination coefficient of 0.91 and 0.092 standard error of estimate. The data were also analyzed for a seasonal dependence and four seasonal average daily models were developed for the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. The coefficient of determination is 0.93, 0.81, 0.94 and 0.93, whereas the standard error of estimate is 0.08, 0.102, 0.042 and 0.075 for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. A monthly average daily diffuse sky radiation model was also developed. The coefficient of determination is 0.92 and the standard error of estimate is 0.083. A seasonal monthly average model was also developed which has 0.91 coefficient of determination and 0.085 standard error of estimate. The developed monthly daily average and daily models compare well with a selected number of previously developed models. (author). 11 ref., figs., tabs

  9. The cosmological principle is not in the sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Hyun, Hwasu; Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan

    2017-08-01

    The homogeneity of matter distribution at large scales, known as the cosmological principle, is a central assumption in the standard cosmological model. The case is testable though, thus no longer needs to be a principle. Here we perform a test for spatial homogeneity using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) sample by counting galaxies within a specified volume with the radius scale varying up to 300 h-1 Mpc. We directly confront the large-scale structure data with the definition of spatial homogeneity by comparing the averages and dispersions of galaxy number counts with allowed ranges of the random distribution with homogeneity. The LRG sample shows significantly larger dispersions of number counts than the random catalogues up to 300 h-1 Mpc scale, and even the average is located far outside the range allowed in the random distribution; the deviations are statistically impossible to be realized in the random distribution. This implies that the cosmological principle does not hold even at such large scales. The same analysis of mock galaxies derived from the N-body simulation, however, suggests that the LRG sample is consistent with the current paradigm of cosmology, thus the simulation is also not homogeneous in that scale. We conclude that the cosmological principle is neither in the observed sky nor demanded to be there by the standard cosmological world model. This reveals the nature of the cosmological principle adopted in the modern cosmology paradigm, and opens a new field of research in theoretical cosmology.

  10. A prototype for the PASS Permanent All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, H. J.; Alonso, R.; Belmonte, J. A.; Horne, K.; Alsubai, K.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, L. R.

    2004-10-01

    A prototype system for the Permanent All Sky Survey (PASS) project is presented. PASS is a continuous photometric survey of the entire celestial sphere with a high temporal resolution. Its major objectives are the detection of all giant-planet transits (with periods up to some weeks) across stars up to mag 10.5, and to deliver continuously photometry that is useful for the study of any variable stars. The prototype is based on CCD cameras with short focal length optics on a fixed mount. A small dome to house it at Teide Observatory, Tenerife, is currently being constructed. A placement at the antarctic Dome C is also being considered. The prototype will be used for a feasibility study of PASS, to define the best observing strategies, and to perform a detailed characterization of the capabilities and scope of the survey. Afterwards, a first partial sky surveying will be started with it. That first survey may be able to detect transiting planets during its first few hundred hours of operation. It will also deliver a data set around which software modules dealing with the various scientific objectives of PASS will be developed. The PASS project is still in its early phase and teams interested in specific scientific objectives, in providing technical expertise, or in participating with own observations are invited to collaborate.

  11. Analyzing the Gamma-Ray Sky with Wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, Bhaskaran [Johns Hopkins U.; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; McDermott, Samuel D. [Fermilab

    2018-03-05

    We analyze the gamma-ray sky at energies of 0.5 to 50 GeV using the undecimated wavelet transform on the sphere. Focusing on the inner $60^{\\circ} \\times 60^{\\circ}$ of the sky, we identify and characterize four separate residuals beyond the expected Milky Way diffuse emission. We detect the \\textit{Fermi} Bubbles, finding compelling evidence that they are diffuse in nature and contain very little small-scale structure. We detect the "cocoon" inside the Southern Bubble, and we also identify its northern counterpart above 2 GeV. The Northern Cocoon lies along the same axis but is $\\sim 30 \\%$ dimmer than the southern one. We characterize the Galactic center excess, which we find extends up to $20^{\\circ}$ in $|b|$. At latitudes $|b| \\leq 5^{\\circ}$ we find evidence for power in small angular scales that could be the result of point-source contributions, but for $|b| \\geq 5^{\\circ}$ the Galactic center excess is dominantly diffuse in its nature. Our findings show that either the Galactic center excess and {\\it Fermi} Bubbles connect smoothly or that the Bubbles brighten significantly below $15^\\circ$ in latitude. We find that the Galactic center excess appears off-center by a few degrees towards negative $\\ell$. Additionally, we find and characterize two emissions along the Galactic disk centered at $\\ell \\simeq +25^{\\circ}$ and $-20^{\\circ}$. These emissions are significantly more elongated along the Galactic disk than the Galactic center excess.

  12. High Turbidity Solis Clear Sky Model: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ineichen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solis clear sky model is a spectral scheme based on radiative transfer calculations and the Lambert–Beer relation. Its broadband version is a simplified fast analytical version; it is limited to broadband aerosol optical depths lower than 0.45, which is a weakness when applied in countries with very high turbidity such as China or India. In order to extend the use of the original simplified version of the model for high turbidity values, we developed a new version of the broadband Solis model based on radiative transfer calculations, valid for turbidity values up to 7, for the three components, global, beam, and diffuse, and for the four aerosol types defined by Shettle and Fenn. A validation of low turbidity data acquired in Geneva shows slightly better results than the previous version. On data acquired at sites presenting higher turbidity data, the bias stays within ±4% for the beam and the global irradiances, and the standard deviation around 5% for clean and stable condition data and around 12% for questionable data and variable sky conditions.

  13. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  14. Spectral and diurnal variations in clear sky planetary albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegleb, B.; Ramanathan, V.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and diurnal variations in the clear sky planetary albedo of the earth are calculated using a radiative transfer model to obtain January and July values for a 5 deg x 5 deg global grid. The model employs observed climatological values of temperatures, humidities, snow and sea-ice cover. The diurnal cycle of clear sky albedo is calculated in the following intervals: 0.2-0.5, 0.5-0.7, and 0.7-4 microns. Observed ozone distribution is specified as a function of latitude and season. The 0.2-0.5 micron spectral albedo is 10-20% higher than the total albedo for all latitudes because of Rayleigh scattering; the 0.5-0.7 micron albedo differs from the total albedo by 1-2% for most latitudes, while the 0.7-4 micron albedo is 5-10% lower than the total because of strong atmospheric absorption. Planetary albedo decreases from morning to local noon, with diurnal variations being particularly strong over water.

  15. Sky Of Stars: Visualizing Gaia Data in the Fiske Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra Perez, Luz; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Conant, Nickolas Alexander

    2018-06-01

    ESA’s satellite Gaia has collected and continues to collect data about the positions, kinematics, and luminosity of more than one billion stars. This census is the most accurate census of the Milky Way to this day. The Fiske Planetarium at the University of Colorado hosts a state-of-the-art 8K projector and the ability to render the 3D positions of stars in real time. Using Python, Astropy and ADQL, I wrote tools to explore the Gaia data, creating different ways to visualize this three-dimensional map of our Galaxy. I created catalogs that the Fiske planetarium can read and project, including millions of stars that our naked eyes can’t see. For the first time ever, we are able to show in the planetarium what the sky would look like if our eyes were 10X, 100X, or 1000X bigger than they really are. With accurate positions and proper motions, we can also jump in time and roughly observe what our sky will look like in a thousand or in a million years. This catalog is now used in classes and talks, so students and planetarium visitors are able to travel through these stars and observe what they have looked like or what they will look like as the years go by.

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey COADD: 275 deg2 of deep Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging on stripe 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, James; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Dodelson, Scott; Hao, Jiangang; Jester, Sebastian; Johnston, David E.; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lin, Huan; Miknaitis, Gajus; Yanny, Brian; Strauss, Michael A.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Becker, Andrew C.; Ivezić, Željko; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the construction and characterization of the coaddition of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 ugriz imaging data. This survey consists of 275 deg 2 of repeated scanning by the SDSS camera over –50° ≤ α ≤ 60° and –1.°25 ≤ δ ≤ +1.°25 centered on the Celestial Equator. Each piece of sky has ∼20 runs contributing and thus reaches ∼2 mag fainter than the SDSS single pass data, i.e., to r ∼ 23.5 for galaxies. We discuss the image processing of the coaddition, the modeling of the point-spread function (PSF), the calibration, and the production of standard SDSS catalogs. The data have an r-band median seeing of 1.''1 and are calibrated to ≤1%. Star color-color, number counts, and PSF size versus modeled size plots show that the modeling of the PSF is good enough for precision five-band photometry. Structure in the PSF model versus magnitude plot indicates minor PSF modeling errors, leading to misclassification of stars as galaxies, as verified using VVDS spectroscopy. There are a variety of uses for this wide-angle deep imaging data, including galactic structure, photometric redshift computation, cluster finding and cross wavelength measurements, weak lensing cluster mass calibrations, and cosmic shear measurements.

  17. Game design from blue sky to green light

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Just Cause, Avalanche Studios, Just Cause, March 2007 pulled off a remarkable feat: she's produced a book that's both inspirational and practical. Listen to her and the other video game industry experts she interviews, and save yourself years of forehead-slapping."""" -Corey Bridges, Multiverse, Multiverse, March 2007 Chapter 3: The Yin and Yang of Brainstorming """"Every good brainstorming session starts with a 15-minute discussion of Star Trek."""" - Noah Falstein , quoting Ron Gilbert -Game Career Guide, February 2007 """"Next-Gen.Biz Podcast Episode 22: Deborah Todd, author of the book Ga

  18. Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the U.S. International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; U. S. IYA Dark Skies Working Group

    2009-01-01

    The loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource is a growing concern. It impacts not only astronomical research, but also our ecology, health, safety, economics and energy conservation. For this reason, "Dark Skies are a Universal Resource” is one of seven primary themes of the U.S. International Year of Astronomy program in 2009. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people involved in a variety of dark skies-related programs. To reach this goal, activities have been developed that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking, Second Life) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Astronomy Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy Nights) 3) Organize an event in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in unaided-eye and digital-meter star counting programs, as well as RFI monitoring (e.g., GLOBE at Night and Quiet Skies) and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security (e.g., the Dark Skies Toolkit, Good Neighbor Lighting, Earth Hour, National Dark Skies Week, traveling exhibits and a 6-minute video tutorial). To deliver these programs, strategic networks have been established with astronomy clubs (ASP's Night Sky Network's astronomy clubs and the Astronomical League), science and nature centers (Astronomy from the Ground Up and the Association of Science and Technology), educational programs (Project ASTRO and GLOBE) and the International Dark-sky Association. The poster will describe the "know-how” and the means for people to become community advocates in promoting Dark Skies programs as public events at their home institutions. For more information, visit http://astronomy2009

  19. Biomimetics as a Model for Inspiring Human Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are human made actuators that are the closest to mimic biological muscles. Technology was advanced to the level that biologically inspired robots are taking increasing roles in the world around us and making science fiction ideas a closer engineering reality. Artificial technologies (AI, AM, and others) are increasingly becoming practical tools for making biologically inspired devices and instruments with enormous potential for space applications. Polymer materials are used to produce figures that resemble human and animals. These materials are widely employed by the movie industry for making acting figures and by the orthopedic industry to construct cyborg components. There are still many challenges ahead that are critical to making such possibilities practical. The annual armwrestling contest is providing an exciting measure of how well advances in EAP are implemented to address the field challenges. There is a need to document natures inventions in an engineering form to possibly inspire new capabilities.

  20. A survey of snake-inspired robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, James K; Spranklin, Brent W; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2009-01-01

    Body undulation used by snakes and the physical architecture of a snake body may offer significant benefits over typical legged or wheeled locomotion designs in certain types of scenarios. A large number of research groups have developed snake-inspired robots to exploit these benefits. The purpose of this review is to report different types of snake-inspired robot designs and categorize them based on their main characteristics. For each category, we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. This review will assist in familiarizing a newcomer to the field with the existing designs and their distinguishing features. We hope that by studying existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from successful robots. The review also summarizes the design challenges associated with the further advancement of the field and deploying snake-inspired robots in practice. (topical review)

  1. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  2. Towards Bio-Inspired Chromatic Behaviours in Surveillance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Karutaa Gnaniar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Robotics is ever growing at the same time as posing enormous challenges. Numerous works has been done in biologically inspired robotics emulating models, systems and elements of nature for the purpose of solving traditional robotics problems. Chromatic behaviours are abundant in nature across a variety of living species to achieve camouflage, signaling, and temperature regulation. The ability of these creatures to successfully blend in with their environment and communicate by changing their colour is the fundamental inspiration for our research work. In this paper, we present dwarf chameleon inspired chromatic behaviour in the context of an autonomous surveillance robot, “PACHONDHI”. In our experiments, we successfully validated the ability of the robot to autonomously change its colour in relation to the terrain that it is traversing for maximizing detectability to friendly security agents and minimizing exposure to hostile agents, as well as to communicate with fellow cooperating robots.

  3. Nature-inspired computing and optimization theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2017-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of the state of the art in the field of nature-inspired computing and its application in optimization. The approach is mainly practice-oriented: each bio-inspired technique or algorithm is introduced together with one of its possible applications. Applications cover a wide range of real-world optimization problems: from feature selection and image enhancement to scheduling and dynamic resource management, from wireless sensor networks and wiring network diagnosis to sports training planning and gene expression, from topology control and morphological filters to nutritional meal design and antenna array design. There are a few theoretical chapters comparing different existing techniques, exploring the advantages of nature-inspired computing over other methods, and investigating the mixing time of genetic algorithms. The book also introduces a wide range of algorithms, including the ant colony optimization, the bat algorithm, genetic algorithms, the collision-based opti...

  4. Nature-inspired design of hybrid intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights recent advances in the design of hybrid intelligent systems based on nature-inspired optimization and their application in areas such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction, and optimization of complex problems. The book is divided into seven main parts, the first of which addresses theoretical aspects of and new concepts and algorithms based on type-2 and intuitionistic fuzzy logic systems. The second part focuses on neural network theory, and explores the applications of neural networks in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. The book’s third part presents enhancements to meta-heuristics based on fuzzy logic techniques and describes new nature-inspired optimization algorithms that employ fuzzy dynamic adaptation of parameters, while the fourth part presents diverse applications of nature-inspired optimization algorithms. In turn, the fifth part investigates applications of fuzzy logic in diverse areas, such as...

  5. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  6. Improved approximate inspirals of test bodies into Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gair, Jonathan R; Glampedakis, Kostas

    2006-01-01

    We present an improved version of the approximate scheme for generating inspirals of test bodies into a Kerr black hole recently developed by Glampedakis, Hughes and Kennefick. Their original 'hybrid' scheme was based on combining exact relativistic expressions for the evolution of the orbital elements (the semilatus rectum p and eccentricity e) with an approximate, weak-field, formula for the energy and angular momentum fluxes, amended by the assumption of constant inclination angle ι during the inspiral. Despite the fact that the resulting inspirals were overall well behaved, certain pathologies remained for orbits in the strong-field regime and for orbits which are nearly circular and/or nearly polar. In this paper we eliminate these problems by incorporating an array of improvements in the approximate fluxes. First, we add certain corrections which ensure the correct behavior of the fluxes in the limit of vanishing eccentricity and/or 90 deg. inclination. Second, we use higher order post-Newtonian formulas, adapted for generic orbits. Third, we drop the assumption of constant inclination. Instead, we first evolve the Carter constant by means of an approximate post-Newtonian expression and subsequently extract the evolution of ι. Finally, we improve the evolution of circular orbits by using fits to the angular momentum and inclination evolution determined by Teukolsky-based calculations. As an application of our improved scheme, we provide a sample of generic Kerr inspirals which we expect to be the most accurate to date, and for the specific case of nearly circular orbits we locate the critical radius where orbits begin to decircularize under radiation reaction. These easy-to-generate inspirals should become a useful tool for exploring LISA data analysis issues and may ultimately play a role in the detection of inspiral signals in the LISA data

  7. Analysis of Ozone in Cloudy Versus Clear Sky Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Sarah; Douglass, Anne; Ziemke, Jerald

    2016-01-01

    Convection impacts ozone concentrations by transporting ozone vertically and by lofting ozone precursors from the surface, while the clouds and lighting associated with convection affect ozone chemistry. Observations of the above-cloud ozone column (Ziemke et al., 2009) derived from the OMI instrument show geographic variability, and comparison of the above-cloud ozone with all-sky tropospheric ozone columns from OMI indicates important regional differences. We use two global models of atmospheric chemistry, the GMI chemical transport model (CTM) and the GEOS-5 chemistry climate model, to diagnose the contributions of transport and chemistry to observed differences in ozone between areas with and without deep convection, as well as differences in clean versus polluted convective regions. We also investigate how the above-cloud tropospheric ozone from OMI can provide constraints on the relationship between ozone and convection in a free-running climate simulation as well as a CTM.

  8. Information integration for a sky survey by data warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    The virtualization service of data system for a sky survey LAMOST is very important for astronomers The service needs to integrate information from data collections catalogs and references and support simple federation of a set of distributed files and associated metadata Data warehousing has been in existence for several years and demonstrated superiority over traditional relational database management systems by providing novel indexing schemes that supported efficient on-line analytical processing OLAP of large databases Now relational database systems such as Oracle etc support the warehouse capability which including extensions to the SQL language to support OLAP operations and a number of metadata management tools have been created The information integration of LAMOST by applying data warehousing is to effectively provide data and knowledge on-line

  9. Second ROSAT all-sky survey (2RXS) source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Th.; Freyberg, M. J.; Trümper, J.; Haberl, F.; Voges, W.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We present the second ROSAT all-sky survey source catalogue, hereafter referred to as the 2RXS catalogue. This is the second publicly released ROSAT catalogue of point-like sources obtained from the ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) observations performed with the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) between June 1990 and August 1991, and is an extended and revised version of the bright and faint source catalogues. Methods: We used the latest version of the RASS processing to produce overlapping X-ray images of 6.4° × 6.4° sky regions. To create a source catalogue, a likelihood-based detection algorithm was applied to these, which accounts for the variable point-spread function (PSF) across the PSPC field of view. Improvements in the background determination compared to 1RXS were also implemented. X-ray control images showing the source and background extraction regions were generated, which were visually inspected. Simulations were performed to assess the spurious source content of the 2RXS catalogue. X-ray spectra and light curves were extracted for the 2RXS sources, with spectral and variability parameters derived from these products. Results: We obtained about 135 000 X-ray detections in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band down to a likelihood threshold of 6.5, as adopted in the 1RXS faint source catalogue. Our simulations show that the expected spurious content of the catalogue is a strong function of detection likelihood, and the full catalogue is expected to contain about 30% spurious detections. A more conservative likelihood threshold of 9, on the other hand, yields about 71 000 detections with a 5% spurious fraction. We recommend thresholds appropriate to the scientific application. X-ray images and overlaid X-ray contour lines provide an additional user product to evaluate the detections visually, and we performed our own visual inspections to flag uncertain detections. Intra-day variability in the X-ray light curves was quantified based on the

  10. Data transmission protocol for Pi-of-the-Sky cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzycki, J.; Kasprowicz, G.; Mankiewicz, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Sitek, P.; Sokolowski, M.; Sulej, R.; Tlaczala, W.

    2006-10-01

    The large amount of data collected by the automatic astronomical cameras has to be transferred to the fast computers in a reliable way. The method chosen should ensure data streaming in both directions but in nonsymmetrical way. The Ethernet interface is very good choice because of its popularity and proven performance. However it requires TCP/IP stack implementation in devices like cameras for full compliance with existing network and operating systems. This paper describes NUDP protocol, which was made as supplement to standard UDP protocol and can be used as a simple-network protocol. The NUDP does not need TCP protocol implementation and makes it possible to run the Ethernet network with simple devices based on microcontroller and/or FPGA chips. The data transmission idea was created especially for the "Pi of the Sky" project.

  11. RADIO-SELECTED QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot survey for z > 3.5 quasars by combining the FIRST radio survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). While SDSS already targets FIRST sources for spectroscopy as quasar candidates, our survey includes fainter quasars and greatly improves the discovery rate by using strict astrometric criteria for matching the radio and optical positions. Our method allows for selection of high-redshift quasars with less color bias than with optical selection, as using radio selection essentially eliminates stellar contamination. We report the results of spectroscopy for 45 candidates, including 29 quasars in the range 0.37 3.5. We compare quasars selected using radio and optical criteria, and find that radio-selected quasars have a much higher fraction of moderately reddened objects. We derive a radio-loud quasar luminosity function at 3.5 < z < 4.0, and find that it is in good agreement with expectations from prior SDSS results.

  12. The Innsbruck/ESO sky models and telluric correction tools*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimeswenger S.

    2015-01-01

    While the ground based astronomical observatories just have to correct for the line-of-sight integral of these effects, the Čerenkov telescopes use the atmosphere as the primary detector. The measured radiation originates at lower altitudes and does not pass through the entire atmosphere. Thus, a decent knowledge of the profile of the atmosphere at any time is required. The latter cannot be achieved by photometric measurements of stellar sources. We show here the capabilities of our sky background model and data reduction tools for ground-based optical/infrared telescopes. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of monitoring the atmosphere above any observing site, and thus, the possible application of the method for Čerenkov telescopes.

  13. Automated Meteor Detection by All-Sky Digital Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Tomáš; Šimberová, Stanislava

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a set of methods to detect meteor light traces captured by all-sky CCD cameras. Operating at small automatic observatories (stations), these cameras create a network spread over a large territory. Image data coming from these stations are merged in one central node. Since a vast amount of data is collected by the stations in a single night, robotic storage and analysis are essential to processing. The proposed methodology is adapted to data from a network of automatic stations equipped with digital fish-eye cameras and includes data capturing, preparation, pre-processing, analysis, and finally recognition of objects in time sequences. In our experiments we utilized real observed data from two stations.

  14. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  15. Classification of Variable Objects in Massive Sky Monitoring Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemek; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Belokurov, Vasily

    2012-03-01

    The era of great sky surveys is upon us. Over the past decade we have seen rapid progress toward a continuous photometric record of the optical sky. Numerous sky surveys are discovering and monitoring variable objects by hundreds of thousands. Advances in detector, computing, and networking technology are driving applications of all shapes and sizes ranging from small all sky monitors, through networks of robotic telescopes of modest size, to big glass facilities equipped with giga-pixel CCD mosaics. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first peta-scale astronomical survey [18]. It will expand the volume of the parameter space available to us by three orders of magnitude and explore the mutable heavens down to an unprecedented level of sensitivity. Proliferation of large, multidimensional astronomical data sets is stimulating the work on new methods and tools to handle the identification and classification challenge [3]. Given exponentially growing data rates, automated classification of variability types is quickly becoming a necessity. Taking humans out of the loop not only eliminates the subjective nature of visual classification, but is also an enabling factor for time-critical applications. Full automation is especially important for studies of explosive phenomena such as γ-ray bursts that require rapid follow-up observations before the event is over. While there is a general consensus that machine learning will provide a viable solution, the available algorithmic toolbox remains underutilized in astronomy by comparison with other fields such as genomics or market research. Part of the problem is the nature of astronomical data sets that tend to be dominated by a variety of irregularities. Not all algorithms can handle gracefully uneven time sampling, missing features, or sparsely populated high-dimensional spaces. More sophisticated algorithms and better tools available in standard software packages are required to facilitate the adoption of

  16. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  17. Inspiring Sustainable Behaviour 19 Ways to Ask for Change

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    What is the answer to inspiring sustainable behaviour? It starts with a question - or nineteen. With this simple and inspiring guide you'll learn how to ask for persistent, pervasive, and near-costless change by uncovering our hidden quirks, judgmental biases, and apparent irrationalities.  The only change you'll need to make is how you ask.Businesses, larger or small, will soon have to cut costs and cut carbon, irrespective of the products they sell, or the services they perform. National government has structural policy and legislative needs, and local government has implementation and docum

  18. Bio-inspired algorithms applied to molecular docking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlé, G; de Azevedo, W F

    2011-01-01

    Nature as a source of inspiration has been shown to have a great beneficial impact on the development of new computational methodologies. In this scenario, analyses of the interactions between a protein target and a ligand can be simulated by biologically inspired algorithms (BIAs). These algorithms mimic biological systems to create new paradigms for computation, such as neural networks, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence. This review provides a description of the main concepts behind BIAs applied to molecular docking simulations. Special attention is devoted to evolutionary algorithms, guided-directed evolutionary algorithms, and Lamarckian genetic algorithms. Recent applications of these methodologies to protein targets identified in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome are described.

  19. [How do first codes of medical ethics inspire contemporary physicians?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocka-Lipińska, Anna; Basińska, Krystyna

    2014-02-01

    First codes of medical ethics appeared between 18th and 19th century. Their formation was inspired by changes that happened in medicine, positive in general but with some negative setbacks. Those negative consequences revealed the need to codify all those ethical duties, which were formerly passed from generation to generation by the word of mouth and individual example by master physicians. 210 years has passed since the publication of "Medical Ethics" by Thomas Percival, yet essential ethical guidelines remain the same. Similarly, ethical codes published in Poland in 19 century can still be an inspiration to modem physicians.

  20. All-sky photogrammetry techniques to georeference a cloud field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispel, Pierre; Roberts, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we present a novel method of identifying and geolocalizing cloud field elements from a portable all-sky camera stereo network based on the ground and oriented towards zenith. The methodology is mainly based on stereophotogrammetry which is a 3-D reconstruction technique based on triangulation from corresponding stereo pixels in rectified images. In cases where clouds are horizontally separated, identifying individual positions is performed with segmentation techniques based on hue filtering and contour detection algorithms. Macroscopic cloud field characteristics such as cloud layer base heights and velocity fields are also deduced. In addition, the methodology is fitted to the context of measurement campaigns which impose simplicity of implementation, auto-calibration, and portability. Camera internal geometry models are achieved a priori in the laboratory and validated to ensure a certain accuracy in the peripheral parts of the all-sky image. Then, stereophotogrammetry with dense 3-D reconstruction is applied with cameras spaced 150 m apart for two validation cases. The first validation case is carried out with cumulus clouds having a cloud base height at 1500 m a.g.l. The second validation case is carried out with two cloud layers: a cumulus fractus layer with a base height at 1000 m a.g.l. and an altocumulus stratiformis layer with a base height of 2300 m a.g.l. Velocity fields at cloud base are computed by tracking image rectangular patterns through successive shots. The height uncertainty is estimated by comparison with a Vaisala CL31 ceilometer located on the site. The uncertainty on the horizontal coordinates and on the velocity field are theoretically quantified by using the experimental uncertainties of the cloud base height and camera orientation. In the first cumulus case, segmentation of the image is performed to identify individuals clouds in the cloud field and determine the horizontal positions of the cloud centers.