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Sample records for twenty-two women ipa

  1. Exploring the meaning and role of spirituality for women survivors of intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Dawnovise N; Rountree, Michele A

    2010-01-01

    Literature on trauma, coping and spirituality has introduced new questions about protective factors in the healing process for intimate partner abuse survivors (IPA). This qualitative study explores the relationship between spirituality and IPA with three focus groups of twenty-two women IPA survivors residing in a shelter. A content analysis revealed central themes that explicate the meaning and role spirituality plays for participants. Viewed as a salient dimension, spirituality provides strength, influences outcomes and assists in the regulation of behavioral responses in a positive manner in terms of participants' traumatic IPA victimization. Practice implications are discussed.

  2. IPA kavandab endale uut tehast / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Ettevõte Interconnect Product Assembly (IPA) alustas juhtmeköidiste valmistajana, kuid püüab keskenduda aina keerulisemate seadmete tootmisele. Tabel: Interconnect Product Assembly. Lisa: Tootmisjuhid lõid oma tehase

  3. IPA kavandab endale uut tehast / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Ettevõte Interconnect Product Assembly (IPA) alustas juhtmeköidiste valmistajana, kuid püüab keskenduda aina keerulisemate seadmete tootmisele. Tabel: Interconnect Product Assembly. Lisa: Tootmisjuhid lõid oma tehase

  4. The Many Faces of IpaB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Picking

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system (T3SS is Shigella’s most important virulence factor. The T3SS apparatus (T3SA is comprised of an envelope-spanning basal body and an external needle topped by a tip complex protein called IpaD. This nanomachine is used to deliver effector proteins into host cells to promote pathogen entry. A key component of the matured T3SS needle tip complex is the translocator protein IpaB. IpaB can exist in multiple states when prepared as a recombinant protein, however, it has also been described as having additional roles in Shigella pathogenesis. This mini-review will briefly describe some of the features of IpaB as a T3SS needle tip protein, as a pore-forming translocator protein and as an effector protein. Reflection on the potential importance of the different in vitro states of IpaB on its function and importance in serotype-independent vaccines is also provided.

  5. Instructional Decision Making and IPAs: Assessing the Modes of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissau, Scott; Adams, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Performance Assessments (IPAs) provide elementary, secondary, and postsecondary instructors with the opportunity to align standards-based foreign language instruction with assessment practices. While IPA guidelines make it clear that all three modes of communication are to be assessed, the limited body of research on IPAs provides few…

  6. MISKONSEPSI DALAM MATERI IPA SEKOLAH DASAR

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    Dek Ngurah Laba Laksana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan miskonsepsi yang terjadi pada calon guru dalam materi IPA di sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif untuk memaparkan lebih dalam mengenai jenis miskonsepsi yang terjadi. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah calon guru SD. Jumlah subjek yang dijadikan responden adalah 64 orang, yang terdiri dari 44 orang calon guru perempuan dan 20 orang laki-laki. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah sebagai berikut. (1 terjadi miskonsepsi dalam berbagai konsep IPA di sekolah dasar, (2 konsep-konsep yang dominan mengalami miskonsepsi dengan persentase lebih dari 60% adalah (a konsep zat-zat yang diperlukan dalam proses fotosintesis tumbuhan hijau, b konsep fotosintesis membutuhkan cahaya, 3 konsep massa jenis zat, dan 4 konsep gerak jatuh bebas.

  7. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  8. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  9. Examination of printability parameters of IPA free offset printing

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    Arif Ozcan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fountain solution system in offset printing system has significant impacts on the printing quality and fountain is the indispensable part of this system. The most important chemical added into the fountain solution is isopropyl alcohol. Fundamental features of isopropyl alcohol are reducing surface tension and adjusting and stabilizing pH. However, in the course of time, the disadvantages of using alcohol have emerged. In the present study, the quality levels of IPA-based and IPA-free offset prints were compared. Specially designed test scale printing was carried out after IPA-based and IPA-free fountain solutions were prepared with the same ink on matt-coated paper under optimal printing conditions. Densitometric and spectrophotometric measurements were carried out on the prints and it was ensured that they were printed in accordance with ISO-12647-2:2013 offset printing standards. Special test scales that were printed were read through scale readers and colour profiles were obtained. Comparisons were carried out on the obtained IPA-free and IPAbased printing colour gamut. Microscopic images of the smallest dots were taken and edge sharpening was examined. Print brightness measurements were carried out for the selected areas on the test scale. The study practically demonstrated that printing performed by using IPA-free fountain solution produced a better and wider colour gamut, edge sharpening was better in the IPA-free systems as the number of prints increased and the prints made by using IPA-free fountain solution were brighter.

  10. Topical melagenine for repigmentation in twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱娥; 尉晓冬

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical melagenine for repigmentation in child patients with vitiligo on the scalp. Methods Twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp were treated with 1.2 mg/ml aqueous melagenine in combination with 20 minutes of infrared exposure twice daily. Results In 4 patients (18.2%), melagenine treatment in combination with infrared exposure led to complete recovery; in 6 patients (27.3%), treatment was shown to be effective; in 8 patients(36.3%), treatment led to improvements in patient condition; and only 4 patients (18.2%) showed no response after 1 -2 treatment sessions. The general effective rate of melagenine-infrared combination treatment was 45. 5% for the children with vitiligo on the scalp, and treatment was accompanied by minimal side effects.Conclusion Melagenine may be efficacious and a safe treatment option for childhood vitiligo affecting the scalp.

  11. Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (IPAS) Flexible Systems Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — iPAS will develop several important technologies required to support system design and integration as well as space technology maturation. These services include:A...

  12. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  13. Macrophage Apoptosis Triggered by IpaD from Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Olivia; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L

    2016-06-01

    Shigellosis, a potentially severe bacillary dysentery, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Shigella spp. Shigella invades the human colonic epithelium and avoids clearance by promoting apoptosis of resident immune cells in the gut. This process is dependent on the Shigella type III secretion system (T3SS), which injects effector proteins into target cells to alter their normal cellular functions. Invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) is a structural component that forms a complex at the tip of the T3SS apparatus needle. Recently, IpaD has also been shown to indirectly induce apoptosis in B lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the cytotoxicity profile during macrophage infection by Shigella and discovered that the pathogen induces macrophage cell death independent of caspase-1. Our results demonstrate that IpaD triggers apoptosis in macrophages through activation of host caspases accompanied by mitochondrial disruption. Additionally, we found that the IpaD N-terminal domain is necessary for macrophage killing and SipD, a structural homologue from Salmonella, was found to promote similar cytotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that IpaD is a contributing factor to macrophage cell death during Shigella infection.

  14. Shigella IpaB and IpaD displayed on L. lactis bacterium-like particles induce protective immunity in adult and infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Shannon J; Franco-Mahecha, Olga L; Chen, Xiaotong; Choudhari, Shyamal; Blackwelder, William C; van Roosmalen, Maarten L; Leenhouts, Kees; Picking, Wendy L; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. are among the enteric pathogens with the highest attributable incidence of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age living in endemic areas. There are no vaccines available to prevent this disease. In this work, we investigated a new Shigella vaccine concept consisting of nonliving, self-adjuvanted, Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLP) displaying Shigella invasion plasmid antigen (Ipa) B and IpaD and examined its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in adult and newborn/infant mice immunized via the nasal route. Unique advantages of this approach include the potential for broad protection due to the highly conserved structure of the Ipas and the safety and practicality of a probiotic-based mucosal/adjuvant delivery platform. Immunization of adult mice with BLP-IpaB and BLP-IpaD (BLP-IpaB/D) induced high levels of Ipa-specific serum IgG and stool IgA in a dose-dependent manner. Immune responses and protection were enhanced by BLP delivery. Vaccine-induced serum antibodies exhibited opsonophagocytic and cytotoxic neutralizing activity, and IpaB/D IgG titers correlated with increased survival post-challenge. Ipa-specific antibody secreting cells were detected in nasal tissue and lungs, as well as IgG in bronchoalveolar lavage. Bone marrow cells produced IpaB/D-specific antibodies and contributed to protection after adoptive transfer. The BLP-IpaB/D vaccine conferred 90% and 80% protection against S. flexneri and S. sonnei, respectively. Mice immunized with BLP-IpaB/D as newborns also developed IpaB and IpaD serum antibodies; 90% were protected against S. flexneri and 44% against S. sonnei. The BLP-IpaB/D vaccine is a promising candidate for safe, practical and potentially effective immunization of children against shigellosis.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN ASESMEN METAKOGNISI CALON GURU IPA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MASALAH

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    Anggun Zuhaida

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a metacognition assessment for students of IPA teacher candidates through problem-based learning. Subjects tested in this study were 30 students in the Department Tadris IPA IAIN Salatiga using one group pretest-posttest design. Assessment isdeveloped based on metacognition indicators including an essay test assessment, performance assessment, assessment of attitudes and self assessment. The result of essay test indicates an increase in the ability of metacognition in general by the N-gain of 0.5 (medium category where as performances and attitudes assessment lie in the good and excellent categories, while the self-assessment shows improvement results with N-gain of 0:45 (medium category. Overall, problem-based learning enhances the skills of metacognition that is "evaluation" on students of IPA teacher candidates.

  16. Twenty-two years screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: Liege-Belgium.

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    Henri, T; Jacques, S; Rene, L

    1992-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1987, in Liége--Belgium, 20,901 pregnant women were screened for toxoplasmosis. In this period an increase in seronegative women from 30% to 53% and a decrease in the seroconversion rate from 6.4% to 1.2% was observed. This decrease could be the result of advice and prophylactic measures. Due to the low rate of seroconversion (actually less than 1%), the cost/effectiveness of a systematic screening and fetal diagnosis should be investigated.

  17. Cloning and Sequencing of IpaB Gene of Shigella flexneri%福氏志贺菌ipaB基因的克隆及序列测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国富; 白丽; 薛士鹏; 吴利先

    2012-01-01

    目的:克隆福氏志贺菌(Shigella flexneri,S.flexne)的ipaB基因。方法:以福氏志贺菌2a 2457T(Nal)r为模板,用PCR扩增ipaB目的基因片段,克隆至pQE-30表达载体中,构建含目的基因的表达质粒pQE-ipaB。结果:构建了重组质粒pQE-ipaB,ipaB基因全长1 743 bp,经测序分析与预期相符。结论:成功克隆了ipaB基因。%Objective:To clone and sequence of ipaB gene of Shigella flexneri.Methods:IpaB gene was amplified by PCR.The DNA products of ipaB were inserted into a prokaryotic expression vector pQE-30,and then translated into E.coli strain Top10,restriction digestion and sequencing.Results:The recombinant plasmid was constructed and ipaB gene was sequenced as 1 743 bp,conformity with expectation.Conclusion:The results indicated that recombinant plasmid was constructed successfully.

  18. Caracterización de tres nuevas variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ en Cuba.

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    Yadelys Figueroa Aguila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La investigación se desarrolló sobre un suelo Pardo mullido medianamente lavado con las variedades de vignas (‘IPA 206’, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ de reciente introducción en nuestro país. Tiene como principal objetivo caracterizar las variedades (‘IPA 206, ‘IPA 207’ y ‘Guariba’ bajo nuestras condiciones climáticas. Teniendo como principales resultados que se logró incluir en el registro de variedades según la caracterización desarrollada por nuestro instituto utilizando dos épocas de siembra, el hábitos de crecimiento indeterminado con vainas distribuidas por toda la planta se destaca en las variedades ‘IPA 206’ e ‘IPA 207’, mientras que en la ‘Guariba’ es determinado encontrándose estas distribuidas por encima de la planta, en cuanto al rendimiento, la variedad ‘IPA 207’ es superiores que la obtenida por la ‘'PA 206’ y ‘Guariba’, el peso de 1000 semillas en las variedades ‘Guariba’ y ‘IPA 206’ son superiores al peso de la ‘IPA 207’, la variedad ‘Guariba’ es económicamente más rentable que las ‘IPA 206’ y ‘IPA 207’ por emplear un número de cosechas muy inferior a las antes mencionadas. Puede sembrarse durante todas las épocas del año, pero lo más aconsejable es en época de frío para la obtención de semilla y el verano para la producción donde es más productiva y puede sustituir al fríjol común. Tolera estrés hídrico y régimen de abundantes lluvias, excepto en el momento de la cosecha y no admite el encharcamiento. Characterization of three new varieties vignas (' IPA 206' and ' IPA 207' y 'Guariba' in Cuba. ABSTRACT The research was conducted on a fairly soft Brown soil washing vignas varieties ('IPA 206', 'IPA 207' and 'Guariba' recently introduced in our country. Its main objective is to characterize varieties ('IPA 206,' IPA 207 'and' Guariba ' under our climatic conditions. Having as main results achieved include in the record as the

  19. N-terminus of IpaB provides a potential anchor to the Shigella type III secretion system tip complex protein IpaD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Nicholas E; Arizmendi, Olivia; Patil, Mrinalini K; Toth, Ronald T; Middaugh, C Russell; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L

    2013-12-10

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri , providing a conduit through which host-altering effectors are injected directly into a host cell to promote uptake. The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is composed of a basal body, external needle, and regulatory tip complex. The nascent needle is a polymer of MxiH capped by a pentamer of invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD). Exposure to bile salts (e.g., deoxycholate) causes a conformational change in IpaD and promotes recruitment of IpaB to the needle tip. It has been proposed that IpaB senses contact with host cell membranes, recruiting IpaC and inducing full secretion of T3SS effectors. Although the steps of T3SA maturation and their external triggers have been identified, details of specific protein interactions and mechanisms have remained difficult to study because of the hydrophobic nature of the IpaB and IpaC translocator proteins. Here, we explored the ability for a series of soluble N-terminal IpaB peptides to interact with IpaD. We found that DOC is required for the interaction and that a region of IpaB between residues 11-27 is required for maximum binding, which was confirmed in vivo. Furthermore, intramolecular FRET measurements indicated that movement of the IpaD distal domain away from the protein core accompanied the binding of IpaB11-226. Together, these new findings provide important new insight into the interactions and potential mechanisms that define the maturation of the Shigella T3SA needle tip complex and provide a foundation for further studies probing T3SS activation.

  20. Evaluation of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally delivered Shigella type III secretion system proteins IpaB and IpaD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Shannon J; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Martinez-Becerra, Francisco J; Choudhari, Shyamal P; Clements, John D; Picking, Wendy L; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2013-06-19

    Shigella spp. are food- and water-borne pathogens that cause shigellosis, a severe diarrheal and dysenteric disease that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries. No licensed vaccine is available to prevent shigellosis. We have recently demonstrated that Shigella invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), IpaB and IpaD, which are components of the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS), can prevent infection in a mouse model of intranasal immunization and lethal pulmonary challenge. Because they are conserved across Shigella spp. and highly immunogenic, these proteins are excellent candidates for a cross-protective vaccine. Ideally, such a vaccine could be administered to humans orally to induce mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Shigella IpaB and IpaD administered orally with a double mutant of the Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) as a mucosal adjuvant. We characterized the immune responses induced by oral vs. intranasal immunization and the protective efficacy using a mouse pulmonary infection model. Serum IgG and fecal IgA against IpaB were induced after oral immunization. These responses, however, were lower than those obtained after intranasal immunization despite a 100-fold dosage increase. The level of protection induced by oral immunization with IpaB and IpaD was 40%, while intranasal immunization resulted in 90% protective efficacy. IpaB- and IpaD-specific IgA antibody-secreting cells in the lungs and spleen and T-cell-derived IL-2, IL-5, IL-17 and IL-10 were associated with protection. These results demonstrate the immunogenicity of orally administered IpaB and IpaD and support further studies in humans.

  1. Novel Vinculin Binding Site of the IpaA Invasin of Shigella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, HaJeung; Valencia-Gallardo, Cesar; Sharff, Andrew; Van Nhieu, Guy Tran; Izard, Tina (Globel Phasing); (Scripps); (CF)

    2012-10-25

    Internalization of Shigella into host epithelial cells, where the bacteria replicates and spreads to neighboring cells, requires a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effector coined IpaA. IpaA binds directly to and activates the cytoskeletal protein vinculin after injection in the host cell cytosol, and this was previously thought to be directed by two amphipathic {alpha}-helical vinculin-binding sites (VBS) found in the C-terminal tail domain of IpaA. Here, we report a third VBS, IpaA-VBS3, that is located N-terminal to the other two VBSs of IpaA and show that one IpaA molecule can bind up to three vinculin molecules. Biochemical in vitro Shigella invasion assays and the 1.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the vinculin {center_dot} IpaA-VBS3 complex showed that IpaA-VBS3 is functionally redundant with the other two IpaA-VBSs in cell invasion and in activating the latent F-actin binding functions of vinculin. Multiple VBSs in IpaA are reminiscent of talin, which harbors 11 VBSs. However, most of the talin VBSs have low affinity and are buried in helix bundles, whereas all three of the VBSs of IpaA are high affinity, readily available, and in close proximity to each other in the IpaA structure. Although deletion of IpaA-VBS3 has no detectable effects on Shigella invasion of epithelial cells, deletion of all three VBSs impaired bacterial invasion to levels found in an ipaA null mutant strain. Thus, IpaA-directed mimicry of talin in activating vinculin occurs through three high affinity VBSs that are essential for Shigella pathogenesis.

  2. Characterization of a novel fusion protein from IpaB and IpaD of Shigella spp. and its potential as a pan-Shigella vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Becerra, Francisco J; Chen, Xiaotong; Dickenson, Nicholas E; Choudhari, Shyamal P; Harrison, Kelly; Clements, John D; Picking, William D; Van De Verg, Lillian L; Walker, Richard I; Picking, Wendy L

    2013-12-01

    Shigellosis is an important disease in the developing world, where about 90 million people become infected with Shigella spp. each year. We previously demonstrated that the type three secretion apparatus (T3SA) proteins IpaB and IpaD are protective antigens in the mouse lethal pulmonary model. In order to simplify vaccine formulation and process development, we have evaluated a vaccine design that incorporates both of these previously tested Shigella antigens into a single polypeptide chain. To determine if this fusion protein (DB fusion) retains the antigenic and protective capacities of IpaB and IpaD, we immunized mice with the DB fusion and compared the immune response to that elicited by the IpaB/IpaD combination vaccine. Purification of the DB fusion required coexpression with IpgC, the IpaB chaperone, and after purification it maintained the highly α-helical characteristics of IpaB and IpaD. The DB fusion also induced comparable immune responses and retained the ability to protect mice against Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei in the lethal pulmonary challenge. It also offered limited protection against S. dysenteriae challenge. Our results show the feasibility of generating a protective Shigella vaccine comprised of the DB fusion.

  3. Deoxycholate interacts with IpaD of Shigella flexneri in inducing the recruitment of IpaB to the type III secretion apparatus needle tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensrud, Kenneth F; Adam, Philip R; La Mar, Cassandra D; Olive, Andrew J; Lushington, Gerald H; Sudharsan, Raghavi; Shelton, Naomi L; Givens, Richard S; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D

    2008-07-04

    Type III secretion (TTS) is an essential virulence function for Shigella flexneri that delivers effector proteins that are responsible for bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. The Shigella TTS apparatus (TTSA) consists of a basal body that spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes and a needle exposed at the pathogen surface. At the distal end of the needle is a "tip complex" composed of invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD). IpaD not only regulates TTS, but is required for the recruitment and stable association of the translocator protein IpaB at the TTSA needle tip in the presence of deoxycholate or other bile salts. This phenomenon is not accompanied by induction of TTS or the recruitment of IpaC to the Shigella surface. We now show that IpaD specifically binds fluorescein-labeled deoxycholate and, based on energy transfer measurements and docking simulations, this interaction appears to occur where the N-terminal domain of IpaD meets its central coiled-coil, a region that may also be involved in needle-tip interactions. TTS is initiated as a series of distinct steps and that small molecules present in the bacterial milieu are capable of inducing the first step of TSS through interactions with the needle tip protein IpaD. Furthermore, the amino acids proposed to be important for deoxycholate binding by IpaD appear to have significant roles in regulating tip complex composition and pathogen entry into host cells.

  4. Identification of the bile salt binding site on IpaD from Shigella flexneri and the influence of ligand binding on IpaD structure.

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    Barta, Michael L; Guragain, Manita; Adam, Philip; Dickenson, Nicholas E; Patil, Mrinalini; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D

    2012-03-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of shigellosis. The Shigella TTS apparatus (TTSA) is an elegant nanomachine that is composed of a basal body, an external needle to deliver effectors into human cells, and a needle tip complex that controls secretion activation. IpaD is at the tip of the nascent TTSA needle where it controls the first step of TTS activation. The bile salt deoxycholate (DOC) binds to IpaD to induce recruitment of the translocator protein IpaB into the maturing tip complex. We recently used spectroscopic analyses to show that IpaD undergoes a structural rearrangement that accompanies binding to DOC. Here, we report a crystal structure of IpaD with DOC bound and test the importance of the residues that make up the DOC binding pocket on IpaD function. IpaD binds DOC at the interface between helices α3 and α7, with concomitant movement in the orientation of helix α7 relative to its position in unbound IpaD. When the IpaD residues involved in DOC binding are mutated, some are found to lead to altered invasion and secretion phenotypes. These findings suggest that adoption of a DOC bound structural state for IpaD primes the Shigella TTSA for contact with host cells. The data presented here and in the studies leading up to this work provide the foundation for developing a model of the first step in Shigella TTS activation.

  5. Chapter Twenty Two

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    As a matter of fact, the act of writing novel in English language in Africa began ... advent of European colonial masters and the myths with which they have been ..... According to Odili, the surrogate author: “A common saying, in the country after.

  6. Media Flyer Lab IPA untuk Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudin Wahid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop Flyer Lab media to improve students achievement in secondary school. The development model used in this study was adapted from 4-D model of Thiagarajan and Semmel. Expert validation results of field study and expert validation results of media, assessment of science teachers, and evaluating the readability and attractiveness of junior high school students obtained in the development stages. The testing stages using a posttest only control group design, involving the experimental group and the control group, each consisting of 47 students. Class experiments using Flyer Lab media obtained higher average value of students achievement than the control class that uses Powerpoint media.Key Words: flyer lab, learning readiness, learning achievementAbstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan media Flyer Lab IPA untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar siswa SMP. Model pengembangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini diadaptasi dari model 4-D Thiagarajan dan Semmel. Studi kepustakaan dan survei lapangan dilakukan pada tahap pendahuluan. Validasi ahli bidang studi dan media, penilaian dari guru IPA, serta penilaian keterbacaan dan ketertarikan bahan ajar dari siswa SMP diperoleh pada tahap pengembangan. Tahap pengujian menggunakan desain posttest only control group, melibatkan kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol yang masing-masing terdiri dari 47 siswa. Kelas eksperimen yang menggunakan media Flyer Lab memiliki nilai rata-rata prestasi belajar lebih tinggi daripada kelas kontrol yang menggunakan media Powerpoint. Kata kunci: flyer lab, kesiapan belajar, prestasi belajar

  7. IPA CBC FUND - TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE BRCKO DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Maksimovic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union in different ways and through the structural funds, helps countries to develop in the Western Balkans. Decision of the EU, the total amount that will be available in Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period since 2007. 2013. is 4 billion. One of the priority measures under the IPA Cros-border coopertion (CBC programme is the development of tourism. These measures should help and contribute to the development of tourism. How and in what way to access and become a user of these programs can help or helps? Cross-border projects involve regional cooperation and require financial resources in the preparation of the project. Trained staff is needed for this job. Local communities, along with their capacities should take on the preparation of these projects, and as partners include the tourist industry (workers and encourage and inspire other tourist capacities in their local community.

  8. A new treatment strategy for severe arthrofibrosis of the knee. A review of twenty-two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Zhong; He, Yao-Hua

    2006-06-01

    To reduce the morbidity of traditional quadricepsplasty for the treatment of severe arthrofibrosis of the knee, we instituted a treatment regimen consisting of an initial extra-articular mini-invasive quadricepsplasty and subsequent intra-articular arthroscopic lysis of adhesions during the same anesthesia session. The purpose of the present study was to determine the results of this technique. From 1998 to 2001, twenty-two patients with severely arthrofibrotic knees were managed with this operative technique. The mean age of the patients at the time of the operation was thirty-seven years. After a mean duration of follow-up of forty-four months (minimum, twenty-four months), all patients were evaluated according to the criteria of Judet and The Hospital for Special Surgery knee-rating system. The average maximum degree of flexion increased from 27 degrees preoperatively to 115 degrees at the time of the most recent follow-up (p < 0.001). According to the criteria of Judet, the result was excellent for sixteen knees, good for five, and fair for one. The average Hospital for Special Surgery knee score improved from 74 points preoperatively to 94 points at the time of the most recent follow-up (p < 0.001). A superficial wound infection occurred in one patient. Only one patient had a persistent 15 degrees extension lag. This mini-invasive operation for the severely arthrofibrotic knee can be used to increase the range of motion and enhance functional outcome.

  9. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Gupta; Muthuvel Arumugam; Raj Vardhan Azad; Rohit Saxena; Supriyo Ghose; Nihar Ranjan Biswas; Thirumurthy Velpandian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India.Methods:Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups.Results:In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursacrumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization.Conclusions:The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  10. Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Daily Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent daily JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and global networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of daily coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for daily positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the daily coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical daily RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and global stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.

  11. Single amino acid substitutions on the needle tip protein IpaD increased Shigella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Schiavolin, Lionel; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2014-07-01

    Infection of colonic epithelial cells by Shigella is associated with the type III secretion system, which serves as a molecular syringe to inject effectors into host cells. This system includes an extracellular needle used as a conduit for secreted proteins. Two of these proteins, IpaB and IpaD, dock at the needle tip to control secretion and are also involved in the insertion of a translocation pore into host cell membrane allowing effector delivery. To better understand the function of IpaD, we substituted thirteen residues conserved among homologous proteins in other bacterial species. Generated variants were tested for their ability to surface expose IpaB and IpaD, to control secretion, to insert the translocation pore, and to invade host cells. In addition to a first group of seven ipaD variants that behaved similarly to the wild-type strain, we identified a second group with mutations V314D and I319D that deregulated secretion of all effectors, but remained fully invasive. Moreover, we identified a third group with mutations Y153A, T161D, Q165L and Y276A, that exhibited increased levels of translocators secretion, pore formation, and cell entry. Altogether, our results offer a better understanding of the role of IpaD in the control of Shigella virulence.

  12. KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF SISWA SD DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Jamaluddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Elementary School Studens' Creative Thinking Skills in Science Learning. This study aims (1 to investigate the differences of creative thinking skills among elementary school students who applied various learning methods (questioning, Think-Pair-Share, and Numbered-Head together and those who applied conventional learning methods; (2 to find out the differences in creative thinking skills between students of high and low academic ability; (3 to investigate the differences of creative thinking skills as influ­enced by learning methods and academic ability. Using a quasi -experimental design, this study found out that there are differences in creative thinking skills among students applying different learning methods and among students of different academic abilities and that these differences in creative thinking are skills as influenced by learning methods and academic abilities. Abstrak: Kemampuan Berpikir Kreatif Siswa SD dalam Pembelajaran IPA. Artikel ini didasarkan pada laporan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif, antara siswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran PBMP, PBMPTPS, PBMPNHT, dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional; (2 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dan rendah; (3 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif akibat dari interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dengan kemampuan akademik siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1 ada perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif antara siswa yang belajar dengan strategi PBMP, PBMPTPS, PBMPNHT, dan strategi Konven­sional; (2 ada perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif, antara siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dengan siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah; (3 interaksi strategi pembelajaran PBMP, PBMP.TPS, PBMP.NHT, dan konvensional dengan kemampuan akademik siswa tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap keterampilan berpikir kreatif.

  13. Molecular cloning and biologically active production of IpaD N-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesaraki, Mahdi; Saadati, Mojtaba; Honari, Hossein; Olad, Gholamreza; Heiat, Mohammad; Malaei, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2013-07-01

    Shigella is known as pathogenic intestinal bacteria in high dispersion and pathogenic bacteria due to invasive plasmid antigen (Ipa). So far, a number of Ipa proteins have been studied to introduce a new candidate vaccine. Here, for the first time, we examined whether the N-terminal region of IpaD(72-162) could be a proper candidate for Shigella vaccine. Initially, the DNA sequence coding N-terminal region was isolated by PCR from Shigella dysenteriae type I and cloned into pET-28a expression vector. Then, the heterologous protein was expressed, optimized and purified by affinity Ni-NTA column. Western blot analysis using, His-tag and IpaD(72-162) polyclonal antibodies, confirmed the purity and specificity of the recombinant protein, respectively. Subsequently, the high immunogenicity of the antigen was shown by ELISA. The results of the sereny test in Guinea pigs showed that IpaD(72-162) provides a protective system against Shigella flexneri 5a and S. dysenteriae type I. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Psychosocial vulnerability and maintaining forces related to fibromyalgia. In-depth interviews with twenty-two female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L R; Carlsson, S G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to describe, from the perspective of 22 women (aged 22-60 years) with fibromyalgia, their experiences and beliefs of the pain and its origin and how the pain affects family and social life. Open-ended interviews were analysed via a method influenced by grounded theory. Seven descriptive categories were grounded in the data, forming two higher-order concepts: psychosocial vulnerability and maintaining forces. The first of these core concepts, psychosocial vulnerability, comprises the categories: traumatic life history, over-compensatory perseverance, pessimistic life view, and unsatisfying work situation. In the interviews, there are abundant examples of early loss, high degree of responsibility early in life, and social problems with feelings of helplessness and hoplessness later in life. The second core concept, maintaining forces, consists of the categories professional care, pain benefits and family support, which seem to contribute to the persistence of pain. Our results indicate intrapsychic and psychosocial dimensions, which support the hypothesis that individuals with insecure attachment styles are overrepresented among patients with chronic pain.

  15. Molecular characterization of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli ipa genes by PCR-RFLP analysis Caracterização molecular do gene ipa de Escherichia coli enteroinvasora pela análise de PCR- RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gibotti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymorphism in ipa genes was found in five out of nine EIEC serotypes studied. When SalI and HindII were used in RFLP-PCR assays many EIEC serotypes showed polymorphism in ipaB and ipaD. On the other hand, no polymorphism was observed in ipaA and ipaC in these strains. The polymorphism present in EIEC strains is serotype-dependent, since restriction patterns were conserved amongst strains belonging to the same serotype. When IpaB deduced amino acid sequences of S. flexneri M90T and FBC124-13 were compared, ten amino acids changes could be observed mainly in the amino-terminal region. The deduced EIEC IpaD amino-acid sequence presented 91% similarity with the Shigella strain. In this case, amino acid changes were spread out through the whole structure, except in the carboxyl-terminal region.No presente estudo, foi encontrado polimorfismo no gene ipa em cinco sorotipos de EIEC, de nove estudados. Quando enzimas de restrição SalI e HindII foram utilizadas no ensaio de PCR-RFLP, amostras de EIEC apresentaram polimorfismo em ipaB e ipaD. Por outro lado, não foram observados polimorfismos nos genes ipaA e ipaC nestas cepas, quando diversas enzimas de restrição foram utilizadas. O polimorfismo presente em cepas de EIEC é sorotipo-dependente, uma vez que os padrões de restrição foram conservados entre as cepas pertencentes ao mesmo sorotipo. Quando a seqüência deduzida de aminoácidos de IpaB de S. flexneri M90T e FBC124-13 foram comparadas, mudanças foram observadas em dez aminoácidos na região amino-terminal. A seqüência deduzida de aminoácidos de IpaD de EIEC apresentou similaridade de 91% com a cepa de Shigella. Neste caso, mudanças de aminoácidos ocorreram em toda a estrutura da molécula de IpaD, exceto na região carboxi-terminal.

  16. Accumulation Systems of Electric Energy Solved by Multicriteria Analysis Methods IPA and Topsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Hradilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with utilization of multicriteria analysis methods IPA and TOPSIS to assess three storage systems (Fuel Cells, Lead Acid Batteries and Pumped Storage Hydro Plants. Procedures of IPA and TOPSIS methods are described here as like as calculation of mentioned problem. Storage systems are assessed in terms of four criteria (Start up Time, Efficiency of Accumulation, Lifetime and Specific Costs/ kW of Power Output. Weights of criteria are also focused here. They are suggested by experts and statistically calculated.

  17. IPA-3 inhibits the growth of liver cancer cells by suppressing PAK1 and NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lap-Yan Wong

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the major malignancies worldwide and is associated with poor prognosis due to the high incidences of metastasis and tumor recurrence. Our previous study showed that overexpression of p21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1 is frequently observed in HCC and is associated with a more aggressive tumor behavior, suggesting that PAK1 is a potential therapeutic target in HCC. In the current study, an allosteric small molecule PAK1 inhibitor, IPA-3, was evaluated for the potential in suppressing hepatocarcinogenesis. Consistent with other reports, inhibition of PAK1 activity was observed in several human HCC cell lines treated with various dosages of IPA-3. Using cell proliferation, colony formation and BrdU incorporation assays, we demonstrated that IPA-3 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of HCC cells. The mechanisms through which IPA-3 treatment suppresses HCC cell growth are enhancement of apoptosis and blockage of activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, our data suggested that IPA-3 not only inhibits the HCC cell growth, but also suppresses the metastatic potential of HCC cells. Nude mouse xenograft assay demonstrated that IPA-3 treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth rate and decreased tumor volume, indicating that IPA-3 can suppress the in vivo tumor growth of HCC cells. Taken together, our demonstration of the potential preclinical efficacy of IPA-3 in HCC provides the rationale for cancer therapy.

  18. Intradermal delivery of Shigella IpaB and IpaD type III secretion proteins: kinetics of cell recruitment and antigen uptake, mucosal and systemic immunity, and protection across serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Shannon J; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Andar, Abhay U; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; van de Verg, Lillian; Walker, Richard; Picking, Wendy L; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2014-02-15

    Shigella is one of the leading pathogens contributing to the vast pediatric diarrheal disease burden in low-income countries. No licensed vaccine is available, and the existing candidates are only partially effective and serotype specific. Shigella type III secretion system proteins IpaB and IpaD, which are conserved across Shigella spp., are candidates for a broadly protective, subunit-based vaccine. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of IpaB and IpaD administered intradermally (i.d.) with a double-mutant of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (dmLT) adjuvant using microneedles. Different dosage levels of IpaB and IpaD, with or without dmLT, were tested in mice. Vaccine delivery into the dermis, recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells, and colocalization of vaccine Ag within skin-activated APC were demonstrated through histology and immunofluorescence microscopy. Ag-loaded neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells remained in the tissue at least 1 wk. IpaB, IpaD, and dmLT-specific serum IgG- and IgG-secreting cells were produced following i.d. immunization. The protective efficacy was 70% against Shigella flexneri and 50% against Shigella sonnei. Similar results were obtained when the vaccine was administered intranasally, with the i.d. route requiring 25-40 times lower doses. Distinctively, IgG was detected in mucosal secretions; secretory IgA, as well as mucosal and systemic IgA Ab-secreting cells, were seemingly absent. Vaccine-induced T cells produced IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. These results demonstrate the potential of i.d. vaccination with IpaB and IpaD to prevent Shigella infection and support further studies in humans.

  19. Crystal structure of the substrate-recognition domain of the Shigella E3 ligase IpaH9.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kenji; Kim, Minsoo; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases caused by bacteria have significant impacts on global public health. During infection, pathogenic bacteria deliver a variety of virulence factors, called effectors, into host cells. The Shigella effector IpaH9.8 functions as an ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinating the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO)/IKK-γ to inhibit host inflammatory responses. IpaH9.8 contains leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) involved in substrate recognition and an E3 ligase domain. To elucidate the structural basis of the function of IpaH9.8, the crystal structure of the LRR domain of Shigella IpaH9.8 was determined and this structure was compared with the known structures of other IpaH family members. This model provides insights into the structural features involved in substrate specificity.

  20. Structural mimicry for vinculin activation by IpaA, a virulence factor of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamiaux, Cyril; Eerde, André van; Parsot, Claude; Broos, Jaap; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2006-01-01

    Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri is characterized by cytoskeletal rearrangements of the host cell membrane, promoting internalization of the bacterium. The bacterial effector IpaA is injected into the epithelial cell by a type III secretion apparatus and recruits vinculin to regulat

  1. Structural mimicry for vinculin activation by IpaA, a virulence factor of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamiaux, Cyril; Eerde, André van; Parsot, Claude; Broos, Jaap; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2006-01-01

    Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri is characterized by cytoskeletal rearrangements of the host cell membrane, promoting internalization of the bacterium. The bacterial effector IpaA is injected into the epithelial cell by a type III secretion apparatus and recruits vinculin to

  2. The Establishment of a Green Supplier Selection and Guidance Mechanism with the ANP and IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Chung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to establish a green supplier selection and guidance mechanism by integrating the features of an ANP (Analytic Network Process and an IPA (Importance–Performance Analysis to achieve sustainable management for green supply chains. Using an expert survey, this study developed green supplier selection criteria. It adopted an ANP, which allows for interdependencies and feedback between the various criteria, to select competitive green suppliers. Then, it used an IPA, which can analyze the criteria’s significance and performance levels, to provide green suppliers with direction for guidance and improvements. The green supplier selection and guidance mechanism featuring an ANP and IPA is thus established and validated through case studies. The research results showed the following: (1 the green supplier selection criteria comprise a total of 11 performance evaluation criteria from the three dimensions of operation, competence, and environmental consciousness; (2 as shown by the APN evaluation results, environmental benefits, environmental regulations, finance, technological competence, and delivery time are the top five among the overall green criteria of the company; the performance of the various suppliers is thus arranged in order, and the most competitive supplier is selected; (3 an IPA is used to analyze the criteria’s significance and supplier performance levels and to provide the suppliers with suggestions on priority improvements, including implementing the requirements in the environmental regulations, establishing comprehensive financial management procedures, improving corporate technological competence, and consolidating customer service; (4 it is suggested that an ANP and IPA should be integrated in the applications, which could simplify the green supplier selection and guidance mechanisms and increase the efficiency of supplier management, thus creating a three-win situation for the clients, the company, and the

  3. EFEKTIVITAS BAHAN AJAR IPA TERPADU TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR TINGKAT TINGGI SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yuliati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas bahan ajar IPA terpadu untuk SMP, khususnya tema Air Limbah Rumah Tangga. Desain penelitian menggunakan kuasi-eksperimen dengan Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMPN 20 Malang kelas VII. Sampel ditetapkan dengan purposive sampling. Perlakuan pada kelompok eksperimen adalah pembelajaran yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA terpadu, sedangkan kelompok kontrol  menggunakan buku  sekolah elektronik (BSE. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah butir soal tes, lembar observasi pembelajaran, dan perangkat  pembelajaran. Analisis data dilakukan dengan Anava AB untuk uji perbedaan rerata dan uji scheffe untuk uji efektivitas bahan ajar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi pada siswa SMP yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA Terpadu dengan siswa SMP yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA yang terpisah bidang kajiannya, dan bahan ajar IPA terpadu efektif untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa. This study aims totest the effectiveness of an integrated science teaching materials for students of junior high school, particularly in themeof Domestic Wastewater. The study designused a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with control group design. The experiment was conductedin Junior High School of Malang. Samples were determined by purposive sampling. Treatmentin the experimental group was learning to integrated science teaching materials, whereas in the control group with the teaching materials available in schools. The instrument used were a matter oftestitems, observation sheets of learning, and learningtools. Data analysis was performed with AnovaAB totestmean difference and Scheffetesttotestthe effectiveness ofinstructional materials. The results showed that 1there aredifferences inhigher-order thinkingskillsinjunior high school students using teaching materials in integrated science withjunior high school students

  4. EFEKTIVITAS BAHAN AJAR IPA TERPADU TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR TINGKAT TINGGI SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yuliati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas bahan ajar IPA terpadu untuk SMP, khususnya tema Air Limbah Rumah Tangga. Desain penelitian menggunakan kuasi-eksperimen dengan Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMPN 20 Malang kelas VII. Sampel ditetapkan dengan purposive sampling. Perlakuan pada kelompok eksperimen adalah pembelajaran yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA terpadu, sedangkan kelompok kontrol  menggunakan buku  sekolah elektronik (BSE. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah butir soal tes, lembar observasi pembelajaran, dan perangkat  pembelajaran. Analisis data dilakukan dengan Anava AB untuk uji perbedaan rerata dan uji scheffe untuk uji efektivitas bahan ajar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi pada siswa SMP yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA Terpadu dengan siswa SMP yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA yang terpisah bidang kajiannya, dan bahan ajar IPA terpadu efektif untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa. This study aims totest the effectiveness of an integrated science teaching materials for students of junior high school, particularly in themeof Domestic Wastewater. The study designused a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with control group design. The experiment was conductedin Junior High School of Malang. Samples were determined by purposive sampling. Treatmentin the experimental group was learning to integrated science teaching materials, whereas in the control group with the teaching materials available in schools. The instrument used were a matter oftestitems, observation sheets of learning, and learningtools. Data analysis was performed with AnovaAB totestmean difference and Scheffetesttotestthe effectiveness ofinstructional materials. The results showed that 1there aredifferences inhigher-order thinkingskillsinjunior high school students using teaching materials in integrated science withjunior high school students

  5. Group I PAK inhibitor IPA-3 induces cell death and affects cell adhesivity to fibronectin in human hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kuželová

    Full Text Available P21-activated kinases (PAKs are involved in the regulation of multiple processes including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. However, the current knowledge about their function is mainly based on results obtained in adherent cell types. We investigated the effect of group I PAK inhibition using the compound IPA-3 in a variety of human leukemic cell lines (JURL-MK1, MOLM-7, K562, CML-T1, HL-60, Karpas-299, Jurkat, HEL as well as in primary blood cells. IPA-3 induced cell death with EC50 ranging from 5 to more than 20 μM. Similar range was found for IPA-3-mediated dephosphorylation of a known PAK downstream effector, cofilin. The cell death was associated with caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and apoptotic DNA fragmentation. In parallel, 20 μM IPA-3 treatment induced rapid and marked decrease of the cell adhesivity to fibronectin. Per contra, partial reduction of PAK activity using lower dose IPA-3 or siRNA resulted in a slight increase in the cell adhesivity. The changes in the cell adhesivity were also studied using real-time microimpedance measurement and by interference reflection microscopy. Significant differences in the intracellular IPA-3 level among various cell lines were observed indicating that an active mechanism is involved in IPA-3 transport.

  6. Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio User's Guide -- Advanced Exploration Systems (AES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rigoberto; Shalkhauser, Mary Jo Windmille

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) software defined radio (SDR) was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RAICS) platform, for radio development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Software and hardware description language (HDL) code were delivered by NASA Glenn Research Center for use in the IPAS test bed and for development of their own Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) waveforms on the RAICS platform. The purpose of this document is to describe how to setup and operate the IPAS STRS Radio platform with its delivered test waveform.

  7. Hammerstein Model Based RLS Algorithm for Modeling the Intelligent Pneumatic Actuator (IPA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatimah Sulaiman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An Intelligent Pneumatic Actuator (IPA system is considered highly nonlinear and subject to nonlinearities which make the precise position control of this actuator is difficult to achieve. Thus, it is appropriate to model the system using nonlinear approach because the linear model sometimes not sufficient enough to represent the nonlinearity of the system in the real process. This study presents a new modeling of an IPA system using Hammerstein model based Recursive Least Square (RLS algorithm. The Hammerstein model is one of the blocks structured nonlinear models often used to model a nonlinear system and it consists of a static nonlinear block followed by a linear block of dynamic element. In this study, the static nonlinear block was represented by a deadzone of the pneumatic valve, while the linear block was represented by a dynamic element of IPA system. A RLS has been employed as the main algorithm in order to estimate the parameters of the Hammerstein model. The validity of the proposed model has been verified by conducting a real-time experiment. All of the criteria as outlined in the system identification’s procedures were successfully complied by the proposed Hammerstein model as it managed to provide a stable system, higher best fit, lower loss function and lower final prediction error than a linear model developed before. The performance of the proposed Hammerstein model in controlling the IPA’s positioning system is also considered good. Thus, this new developed Hammerstein model is sufficient enough to represents the IPA system utilized in this study.

  8. Extraction of glucomannan of porang tuber (Amorphophallus onchophillus) by using IPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhani, Dyah Hesti; Nugroho, Fatoni; Muslihuddin, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Amorphophallus oncophyllus also known as porang tuber is a local tuber rich of glucomannan. Due to the unique rheological and the gelling properties, glucomannan is widely employed as emulsifier and stabilizer and has been approved as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Isolation method of glucomannan from the tuber affects the mannan properties which in turn influence the scope of the applications. Ethanol solution combined with thermal treatment is commonly applied to purify glucomannan. However, the Amorphophallus sp also contains ˜0.2 mg b-carotenes/100 g dry weight, an impurities which difficult to be removed by ethanol-2 propyl alcohol (IPA) is more effective to remove undesirable components of glucomannan including carotenes compared to ethanol. This research objective was to study the effect of extraction time, temperature, IPA concentration, and ratio of solvent and flour on purification of glucomannan of A. onchophillus. Glucomannan content, starch content and viscosity were determined after the extraction. The highest glucomannan concentration was obtained at extraction by using 80% IPA and ratio of solvent/sample 8:1 (ml/g) for 4 h at 75°C. This condition gave 72.8% glucomannan and 2.69% starch with 4,300 cPs viscosity.

  9. Photosynthetic Properties of Photosystem Ⅱ in Arabidopsis thaliana Ipa1 Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Wei Peng; Jin-Kui Guo; Jin-Fang Ma; Wei Chi; Li-Xin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, we characterized a high chlorophyll fluorescence Ipa1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana,in which approximately 20% photosystem (PS) Ⅱ protein is accumulated. In the present study, analysis of fluorescence decay kinetics and thermoluminescence profiles demonstrated that the electron transfer reaction on either the donor or acceptor side of PSll remained largely unaffected in the Ipa1 mutant. In the mutant, maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) decreased with increasing light intensity and remained almost unchanged in wildtype plants under different light conditions. The Fv/Fm values also increased when mutant plants were transferred from standard growth light to low light conditions. Analysis of PSⅡ protein accumulation further confirmed that the amount of PSll reaction center protein is correlated with changes in Fv/Fm in Ipa1 plants.Thus, the assembled PSll in the mutant was functional and also showed increased photosensitivity compared with wild-type plants.

  10. PENERAPAN METODE EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PADA PEMBELAJARAN IPA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. S. Munif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penerapan metode experiential learning dalam proses pembelajaran sains IPA danpeningkatan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas V SD setelah diterapkan metode experiential learning. Penelitian tindakan kelas inidilaksanakan dalam empat siklus. Tehnik pengumpulan data hasil belajar kognitif dengan post tes, afektif dengan angket, danpsikomotorik yang diperoleh dari lembar pengamatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan metode experientiallearning dalam pembelajaran sains IPA dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa kelas lima sekolah dasar. Hal ini ditunjukkandengan peningkatan nilai rata-rata dan ketuntasan belajar siswa pada tiap siklusnya. This study aims to know application of experiential learning methods in natural science and improvement of student learningoutcomes in natural science of elementary school grade V after experiential learning method is applied. This class action study wasdone in four cycles. Data collection technique of the cognitive learning outcomes was by posttests, affective by questionnaire, andpsychomotor by observation sheet indicates that the application of experiential learning methods of learning natural science canenhance the results of fifth grade students this elementary school. This is shown by increased average scores and student masterylearning in each cycle.Keywords: natural science outcome; experiential learning methods and natural science learning process 

  11. Conformational changes in IpaD from Shigella flexneri upon binding bile salts provide insight into the second step of type III secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Nicholas E; Zhang, Lingling; Epler, Chelsea R; Adam, Philip R; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D

    2011-01-18

    Shigella flexneri uses its type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) to inject host-altering proteins into targeted eukaryotic cells. The TTSA is composed of a basal body and an exposed needle with invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) forming a tip complex that controls secretion. The bile salt deoxycholate (DOC) stimulates recruitment of the translocator protein IpaB into the maturing TTSA needle tip complex. This process appears to be triggered by a direct interaction between DOC and IpaD. Fluorescence spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy are used here to confirm the DOC-IpaD interaction and to reveal that IpaD conformational changes upon DOC binding trigger the appearance of IpaB at the needle tip. Förster resonance energy transfer between specific sites on IpaD was used here to identify changes in distances between IpaD domains as a result of DOC binding. To further explore the effects of DOC binding on IpaD structure, NMR chemical shift mapping was employed. The environments of residues within the proposed DOC binding site and additional residues within the "distal" globular domain were perturbed upon DOC binding, further indicating that conformational changes occur within IpaD upon DOC binding. These events are proposed to be responsible for the recruitment of IpaB at the TTSA needle tip. Mutation analyses combined with additional spectroscopic analyses confirm that conformational changes in IpaD induced by DOC binding contribute to the recruitment of IpaB to the S. flexneri TTSA needle tip. These findings lay the foundation for determining how environmental factors promote TTSA needle tip maturation prior to host cell contact.

  12. PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM JURUSAN TADRIS IPA BIOLOGI IAIN SYEKH NURJATI CIREBON DALAM MENGANTISIPASI PENERAPAN KURIKULUM 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartimi -

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rencana penerapan Kurikulum 2013 merupakan momentum yang tepat bagi program studi Tadris IPA-Biologi IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon untuk melakukan review dan evaluasi terhadap kelangsungan kurikulum jurusan yang sedang berlaku, dan sekaligus melakukan pengembangan, perbaikan dan modifikasi kurikulum,  agar dapat beradaptasi terhadap perubah praktek-praktek pendidikan Biologi di Sekolah Menengah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: 1 mengetahui karakteristik kurikulum jurusan Tadris IPA-Biologi yang berlaku saat ini, 2 mengetahui karakteristik kurikulum 2013 yang berkaitan dengan pengajaran Biologi di Sekolah Menengah, 3 Merumuskan dan mengembangkan desain kurikulum program studi  Tadris IPA-Biologi sebagai hasil adaptasi terhadap kurikulum 2013. Desain penelitian menggunakan Design and Development Research kategori Product & Tools Research (Richey & Klein, 2007.  Subyek penelitian adalah program studi  Tadris IPA-Biologi IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah: 1 Protokol Analisis Dokumen Kurikulum Program Studi, 2 Protokol Analisis Dokumen Kurikulum 2013 bagi Biologi SMA, 3 Bahan validasi untuk kerangka teori desain kurikulum program studi, 4 Bahan validasi untuk instrumen desain kurikulum program studi. Teknik analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif dan dianalisis menggunakan statistika deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kurikulum program studi Tadris IPA-Biologi IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon telah tersusun sebagai Kurikulum berbasis Kompetensi yang terintegrasi secara akademik dengan muatan ke-Islaman. Kelengkapan dokumen kurikulum program studi masih memerlukan penyempurnaan. Kurikulum 2013 untuk pembelajaran Biologi SMA/MA dikemas sebagai mata pelajaran peminatan Matematika dan Ilmu Alam yang mencakup kompetensi inti sikap spiritual, sikap sosial, pengetahuan dan keterampilan. Masing-masing kompetensi inti tersebut telah dijabarkan menjadi berbagai kompetensi dasar yang mengarah pada pembelajaran yang aktif dan

  13. PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM JURUSAN TADRIS IPA BIOLOGI IAIN SYEKH NURJATI CIREBON DALAM MENGANTISIPASI PENERAPAN KURIKULUM 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartimi -

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rencana penerapan Kurikulum 2013 merupakan momentum yang tepat bagi program studi Tadris IPA-Biologi IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon untuk melakukan review dan evaluasi terhadap kelangsungan kurikulum jurusan yang sedang berlaku, dan sekaligus melakukan pengembangan, perbaikan dan modifikasi kurikulum,  agar dapat beradaptasi terhadap perubah praktek-praktek pendidikan Biologi di Sekolah Menengah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: 1 mengetahui karakteristik kurikulum jurusan Tadris IPA-Biologi yang berlaku saat ini, 2 mengetahui karakteristik kurikulum 2013 yang berkaitan dengan pengajaran Biologi di Sekolah Menengah, 3 Merumuskan dan mengembangkan desain kurikulum program studi  Tadris IPA-Biologi sebagai hasil adaptasi terhadap kurikulum 2013. Desain penelitian menggunakan Design and Development Research kategori Product & Tools Research (Richey & Klein, 2007.  Subyek penelitian adalah program studi  Tadris IPA-Biologi IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah: 1 Protokol Analisis Dokumen Kurikulum Program Studi, 2 Protokol Analisis Dokumen Kurikulum 2013 bagi Biologi SMA, 3 Bahan validasi untuk kerangka teori desain kurikulum program studi, 4 Bahan validasi untuk instrumen desain kurikulum program studi. Teknik analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif dan dianalisis menggunakan statistika deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kurikulum program studi Tadris IPA-Biologi IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon telah tersusun sebagai Kurikulum berbasis Kompetensi yang terintegrasi secara akademik dengan muatan ke-Islaman. Kelengkapan dokumen kurikulum program studi masih memerlukan penyempurnaan. Kurikulum 2013 untuk pembelajaran Biologi SMA/MA dikemas sebagai mata pelajaran peminatan Matematika dan Ilmu Alam yang mencakup kompetensi inti sikap spiritual, sikap sosial, pengetahuan dan keterampilan. Masing-masing kompetensi inti tersebut telah dijabarkan menjadi berbagai kompetensi dasar yang mengarah pada pembelajaran yang aktif dan

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS IN ROMANIA-REPUBLIC OF SERBIA IPA CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Nicolae-Eugen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is based on the analysis of the sustainability aspects in cross-border cooperation programmes. The importance of this research topic consists in presenting if the implementation of the activities of the projects submitted under cross-border cooperation programmes is based on the sustainability aspects. In this matter, the article will present theoretical aspects of sustainable development, territorial cohesion and cross-border development and focuses on practical questions related to sustainability aspects in the case of the Romania – Republic of Serbia IPA Cross-border Cooperation Programme. One of the main challenges of the cross-border area is also environmental challenges. Sustainable development is represents the fundamental objective of the European Union and refers to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of development. Countries cannot develop without existing cooperation between them, therefore EU policy is based on economic, social and territorial cohesion. Methodologically, the research is based on identifying of appropriate theoretical concepts corresponding to the chosen theme, collecting and processing data. The paper concludes with answers to key questions related to the integration of sustainable development aspects in cross-border cooperation programmes and projects. The results of the research have implications that could contribute to the current problem of absorption rate of EU funds, offering information about IPA cross-border cooperation programmes and increasing the capacity of potential applicants to elaborate and implement projects for obtaining and using financial EU funds. The added value of the paper results from the fact that EU financing is a topical issue of great interest to European and national level. To the best of our knowledge, this topic has not yet been researched within the national literature. The author contributed by performing methodology of qualitative research

  15. A Useful System in Learning and Teaching English Pronunciation-IPA Cardinal Vowels System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 柳轶群

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the cardinal vowels system invented by the famous English phonetician Daniel Jones. This sys-tem enables a teacher to describe to his students a foreign vowel by comparing it with the nearest vowel in his mother tongue, which makes the learning of a foreign sound much easier to his students. Two cases of teaching Chinese students English vowels are taken as an example to illustrate the point. IPA cardinal vowel system is of use in terms of teaching and learning English. Two suggestions are put forward in the end.

  16. Analysis of Twenty-Two Performance Properties of Diesel, Gasoline, and Jet Fuels Using a Field-Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Carl; Smith, Wayne; Shende, Chetan; Gladding, Zack; Farquharson, Stuart; Morris, Robert E; Cramer, Jeffrey A; Schmitigal, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The change in custody of fuel shipments at depots, pipelines, and ports could benefit from an analyzer that could rapidly verify that properties are within specifications. To meet this need, the design requirements for a fuel analyzer based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, such as spectral region and resolution, were examined. It was found that the 1000 to 1600 nm region, containing the second CH overtone and combination vibrational modes of hydrocarbons, provided the best near-infrared to fuel property correlations when path length was taken into account, whereas 4 cm(-1) resolution provided only a modest improvement compared to 16 cm(-1) resolution when four or more latent variables were used. Based on these results, a field-portable near-infrared fuel analyzer was built that employed an incandescent light source, sample compartment optics to hold 2 mL glass sample vials with ∼1 cm path length, a transmission grating, and a 256 channel InGaAs detector that measured the above stated wavelength range with 5-6 nm (∼32 cm(-1)) resolution. The analyzer produced high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of samples in 5 s. Twenty-two property correlation models were developed for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels with root mean squared error of correlation - cross-validated values that compared favorably to corresponding ASTM reproducibility values. The standard deviations of predicted properties for repeat measurements at 4, 24, and 38℃ were often better than ASTM documented repeatability values. The analyzer and diesel property models were tested by measuring seven diesel samples at a local ASTM certification laboratory. The standard deviations between the analyzer determined values and the ASTM measured values for these samples were generally better than the model root mean squared error of correlation-cross-validated values for each property.

  17. Detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria in children using a twenty-two target reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Chelsey; Misir, Amita; Hui, Charles; Jabbour, Mona; Barrowman, Nicholas; Langill, Jonathan; Bowes, Jennifer; Slinger, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rapid detection of the wide range of viruses and bacteria that cause respiratory infection in children is important for patient care and antibiotic stewardship. We therefore designed and evaluated a ready-to-use 22 target respiratory infection reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) panel to determine if this would improve detection of these agents at our pediatric hospital. RT-qPCR assays for twenty-two target organisms were dried-down in individual wells of 96 well plates and saved at room temperature. Targets included 18 respiratory viruses and 4 bacteria. After automated nucleic acid extraction of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples, rapid qPCR was performed. RT-qPCR results were compared with those obtained by the testing methods used at our hospital laboratories. One hundred fifty-nine pediatric NPA samples were tested with the RT-qPCR panel. One or more respiratory pathogens were detected in 132/159 (83%) samples. This was significantly higher than the detection rate of standard methods (94/159, 59%) (Pviruses, bocavirus, and coronaviruses. The panel internal control assay performance remained stable at room temperature storage over a two-month testing period. The RT-qPCR panel was able to identify pathogens in a high proportion of respiratory samples. The panel detected more positive specimens than the methods in use at our hospital. The pre-made panel format was easy to use and rapid, with results available in approximately 90 minutes. We now plan to determine if use of this panel improves patient care and antibiotic stewardship.

  18. Immunogenicity of a new recombinant IpaC from Shigella dysenteriae type I in guinea pig as a vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaei, Fatemeh; Hesaraki, Mahdi; Saadati, Mojtaba; Ahdi, Ali Mohammad; Sadraeian, Mohammad; Honari, Hussein; Nazarian, Shahram

    2013-06-01

    Recombinant vaccine technology is one of the most developed means in controlling infectious diseases. However, an effective vaccine against Shigella is still missing. To evaluate recombinant IpaC protein of Shigella as a vaccine candidate. In this study we cloned IpaC gene into an expression vector in prokaryotic system. The protein expression was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western-Blotting analysis. The recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Guinea pigs were immunized with the recombinant protein and the level of immunogenicity was examined by ELISA and Western blotting of IpaC. Challenge test was done through the intraoculary injection of Shigella dysenteriae (6×108 CFU/eye) and after 48 hours was scored for keratoconjunctivitis. The results showed a remarkable level of immunogenicity in terms of antibody response and protection against keratoconjunctivitis in tested animals. The recombinant IpaC protein provided a protective system against Shigella dysenteriae type I during the challenge test. The results showed the potential of using recombinant IpaC in preparation of vaccine in perspective studies.

  19. Efeito da cianogênese na incompatibilidade entre clones de copa de seringueira e o clone de painel IPA 1 Effect of the cyanogenesis on the incompatibility of crow clones of Hevea spp. budded onto IPA 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Alexandra Cardoso Moraes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o envolvimento dos glicosídeos cianogênicos na incompatibilidade, por translocação, do clone de seringueira IPA 1 com copas enxertadas com clones de outras espécies de Hevea. Determinou-se, na casca dos clones de painel IPA 1, Fx 4098 e Fx 3864, a atividade das enzimas beta-glicosidase, beta-diglicosidase e beta-cianoalaninassintase (beta-CAS e o desenvolvimento de combinações de enxertos, tendo como clone de painel o IPA 1 e como copa enxertada, clones de baixo ou alto potencial cianogênico (HCNp. Dosou-se o HCN-p de folhas jovens e maduras de clones de copa já conhecidos como compatíveis ou incompatíveis. A atividade de beta-CAS no IPA 1 foi baixa, sendo alta no Fx 3864 e intermediária no Fx 4098. Esse fato, associado à maior atividade da beta-glicosidase e beta-diglicosidase encontradas no IPA 1, confere a este clone extrema sensibilidade ao cianeto. Os enxertos com clones de baixo HCN-p nas folhas jovens mostraram-se compatíveis, bem como com os clones em que o alto HCN-p nas folhas jovens permanece alto nas folhas maduras. Os clones incompatíveis apresentaram alto HCN-p nas folhas jovens e significativa redução nas maduras. Essas evidências reforçam a hipótese de a incompatibilidade ser causada pela translocação de linustatina, das folhas dos clones enxertados, para o caule do IPA 1. Os sintomas se assemelham aos de secamento do painel de sangria, indicando o envolvimento da cianogênese na sua evolução.The objective of this work was to verify the role of the rubber tree cyanogenic glycosides in the incompatibility of the IPA 1 clone (Hevea brasiliensis with budded crowns of clones of other species of Hevea. The activity of the following enzymes involved in the cyanide metabolism was determined: beta-glycosidase, beta-diglycosidase and beta-cyanoalaninesynthase (beta-CAS. These enzymes were studied in the stem bark of the clones IPA 1, Fx 3864 and Fx 4098. Clones of high and

  20. Liposome-mediated delivery of the p21 activated kinase-1 (PAK-1) inhibitor IPA-3 limits prostate tumor growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Missaoui, Wided N; Cummings, Brian S; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2016-07-01

    P21 activated kinases-1 (PAK-1) is implicated in various diseases. It is inhibited by the small molecule 'inhibitor targeting PAK1 activation-3' (IPA-3), which is highly specific but metabolically unstable. To address this limitation we encapsulated IPA-3 in sterically stabilized liposomes (SSL). SSL-IPA-3 averaged 139nm in diameter, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.05, and a zeta potential of -28.1, neither of which changed over 14days; however, the PDI increased to 0.139. Analysis of liposomal IPA-3 levels demonstrated good stability, with 70% of IPA-3 remaining after 7days. SSL-IPA-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth in vitro with comparable efficacy to free IPA-3. Excitingly, only a 2day/week dose of SSL-IPA-3 was needed to inhibit the growth of prostate xenografts in vivo, while a similar dose of free IPA-3 was ineffective. These data demonstrate the development and clinical utility of a novel liposomal formulation for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  1. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ANIMASI MACROMEDIA FLASH UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN IPA SISWA TUNARUNGU KELAS II SDLB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve the quality of science with the usage of the macromedia flash animation media for students with hearing impairment in the grade IIof Elementary Special School. The method used was Clasroom Action Research (CAR with qualitative design. The results of the data analysis showed that the subjects experienced an enhancement in the results of student’s activities in cycle I 50,90% increasing in cycle II 73,66%, the results of student learning in cycle I 64,99% increasing in cycle II 73,93%. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran IPA dengan menggunakan media animasi macromedia flash bagi siswa tunarungu kelas II SDLB. Metode penelitian yang digunakan Classroom Action Research (CAR adalah dengan model kualitatif. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa subjek mengalami peningkatan pada pembelajaran IPA yang dapat dilihat dari peningkatan aktivitas dan hasil belajar pada siklus I dan siklus II. Persentase aktivitas siswa siklus I 50,90% meningkat siklus II 73,66% Sedangkan hasil belajar siklus I 64,99% meningkat siklus II 73,93%.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN IPA TERPADU BERKARAKTER MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN HUMANISTIK BERBANTU ALAT PERAGA MURAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Widiyatmoko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPA terpadu yang dapat memfasilitasi siswa untuk mengembangkan kemampuan yang dimiliki secara menyeluruh sehingga memiliki daya saing yang unggul, mampu mengikuti perkembangan IPTEK, dan memiliki karakter yang bersumber pada nilai-nilai pancasila. Dari hasil penelitian dan pembahasan maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran IPA terpadu berkarakter menggunakan pendekatan humanistik berbantu alat peraga murah di sekolah menengah berupa silabus, RPP, alat peraga, LKS, dan modul yang dihasilkan melalui alur Four-D model, yaitu definition (pendefinisian, design (perancangan, development (pengembangan dan disseminate (penyebaran yang telah melalui tahap validasi dan revisi. The purpose of the research is to produce an integrated science learning tools that can facilitate learners to develop the capabilities of the whole so that it has a superior competitive, able to follow the development of science and technology, and has a character which is based on the values of Pancasila. From the results of research and discussion, it can be concluded that the development of the integrated science learning character humanistic approach berbantu cheap props in the form of school syllabi, lesson plans, visual aids, worksheets, and the modules produced by Four-D flow model, the definition (defining, design (design, development (development and disseminate (spread that have gone through the validation and revision.

  3. Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN LKS IPA TERPADU BERBASIS INKUIRI TEMA DARAH DI SMP N 2 TENGARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Putri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan LKS IPA terpadu berbasis inkuiri tema darah. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengunakan metode Research and Development (R&D. Hasil penilaian dari pakar terhadap produk yang telah dikembangkan memiliki persentase rata-rata 3,72 untuk pakar isi, 3,44 pakar penyajian, 3,79 pakar bahasa. Selain itu 100% siswa telah mencapai batas nilai KKM yang ditetapkan yaitu untuk ketuntasan individu ≥72 dan untuk keterampilan proses ilmiah siswa telah mencapai kategori baik. Produk yang telah dikembangkan efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran IPA di sekolah.This study aims to develop an integrated inquiry-based science worksheets blood theme. Research was conducted using the method of Research and Development (R & D. Results of the experts’ assessment who have developed products have an average percentage of 3.72 to content experts, presentation experts 3.44, 3.79 linguists. In addition 100% of students have reached the limit values specified passing grade is for completeness individuals ≥ 72 and for the scientific process skills students have achieved good category. The product that has been developed effectively used in science teaching in schools.

  5. [Regulation of autophagy on dendritic cells during rat liver regeneration by IPA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiwen, Wang; Wei, Jin; Cuifang, Chang; Cunshuan, Xu

    2015-03-01

    To understand the mechanism underlying autophagy in regulating dendritic cells during rat liver regeneration, we used the method of percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with immunomagnetic bead to isolate dendritic cells, the Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array to determine the expression changes of autophagy-related genes, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis 9.0 (IPA) to determine the autophagy activities. The results indicated that LC3, BECN1, ATG7 and SQSTM1 genes had significant expression changes during rat liver regeneration. There were 593 genes related to autophagy, among which 210 genes were identified as significant. We also showed that the activity of autophagy was enhanced in the priming phase and teminal phase of liver regeneration, weakened in the proliferative stage by comparative analysis method of IPA. The autophagy-related physiological activities mainly included RNA expression, RNA transcription, cell differentiation and proliferation, involving in PPARα/RXRα activation, acute phase response signaling, TREM1 signaling, IL-6 signaling, IL-8 signaling and IL-1 signaling, whose activities were increased or decreased in liver regeneration. Cluster analysis found that P53 and AMPK signaling participated in the regulation of dendritic cells autophagy, with AMPK signaling in the priming phase of liver regeneration, and both signaling pathways in the terminal phase. We conclude that dendritic cells autophagy played an important role in initiation of the immune response in priming phase and depletion of dendritic cells in late phase during rat liver regeneration.

  6. PENGARUH PENDEKATAN CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (CTL BERBANTUAN MEDIA POWERPOINT TERHADAP PENINGKATAN HASIL BELAJAR IPA FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprianto Suprianto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan hasil wawancara terbatas dengan sebagian guru IPA fisika MTs di kecamatan Camplong Kabupaten Sampang didapatkan informasi bahwa hasil belajar siswa masih rendah dibawah KKM yang sudah ditentukan pihak sekolah. Hal ini disebabkan karena kurangnya penggunaan media pembelajaran, proses pembelajaran masih bersifat teacher centered sehingga sebagian besar siswa tidak mampu menghubungkan antara apa yang mereka pelajari dengan bagaimana pemanfaatannya dalam kehidupan nyata. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh pendekatan CTL berbantuan media powerpoint terhadap peningkatan hasil belajar IPA fisika siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode Quasi Experimen dengan menggunakan Nonrandomized Control Group Pretest-Postest Design dan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, yaitu kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan berupa tes objektif bentuk pilihan ganda. Tes ini terdiri dari empat pilihan (opsi dan hasilnya diuji melalui statistik uji “t”. Dari hasil perhitungan diperoleh nilai thitung sebesar 10,81 sedangkan ttabel sebesar 2,021 pada taraf signifikansi 0,05 atau dapat diketahui thitung > ttabel. Dari perhitungan N-gain, dapat dinyatakan bahwa peningkatan hasil belajar fisika yang diterapkan pendekatan CTL berbantuan media powerpoint lebih tinggi dari pada pembelajaran konvensional yaitu 0,71 > 0,52. Berdasarkan hasil analisis statistika dan deskriptif maka dapat di simpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan pendekatan CTL berbantuan media powerpoint terhadap peningkatan hasil belajar fisika siswa di kelas VIII MTs.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR KOMIK IPA DENGAN PENANAMAN NILAI BUDAI PADA SISWA KELAS IV SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Masalah yang sering dihadapi pada siswa sekolah dasar dalam pembelajaran ilmu pengetahuan alam adalah kesulitan memahami materi yang disajikan dalam bahan ajar IPA yang digunakan di sekolah dan penggunaan media pembelajaran yang kurang menarik. Media yang ada sifatnya yang terbatas membuat siswa malas belajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran karakteristik, kevalidan, keefektifan, dan kepraktisan produk bahan ajar komik yang dikembangkan dalam pembelajaran IPA materi Bagian-bagian tumbuhan di kelas IV Sekolah Dasar. Subjek uji coba pada penelitian adalah kelas IV SDN Beji 03 dengan peserta didik sejumlah 21 siswa. Desain uji coba produk dalam pengembangan bahan ajar komik IPA adalah Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. Jenis penelitian pengembangan ini dengan menggunakan model Borg and Gall. Perangkat yang dikembangkan meliputi: Silabus, Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran, Komik Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, dan Tes Prestasi Belajar Materi Bagian-bagian tumbuhan. Data diperoleh melalui lembar pengamatan dan tes prestasi belajar materi bagian-bagian tumbuhan. Hasilnya diolah secara deskriptif, menggunakan uji ketuntasan, uji banding dan uji peningkatan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pembelajaran. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan penilaian validator terhadap perangkat pembelajaran pada kategori valid, kemampuan guru mengelola pembelajaran termasuk kategori praktis. Implementasi perangkat ini menghasilkan nilai rata-rata tes prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih dari kriteria ketuntasan minimal yang ditentukan, kelas eksperimen memperoleh rata-rata prestasi belajar lebih baik dari rata-rata nilai kelas kontrol, uji peningkatan tes prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen dengan kelas kontrol kategori sedang, peningkatan nilai-nilai budai dari kategori belum terlihat meningkat pada kategori membudaya.  Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah bahwa bahan ajar komik IPA efaktif digunakan dalam pembelajaran.Kata kunci: bahan ajar komik IPA

  8. Antidepressant-like effect of YL-IPA08, a TSPO ligand, and its possible mechanism%TSPO配体化合物YL-IPA08抗抑郁作用及其可能机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵楠; 李永臻; 王伊文; 张有志; 秦娟娟; 杨日芳; 李云峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of YL-IPA08 (a new TSPO ligand ) and the possible mechanism.Methods and Results In the tail-suspension test in mice and the forced swimming test in rats, the administration of YL-IPA08 significantly reduced the immobility time.The effective doses were 0.1 -0.3 mg/kg(po) and 1 - 10 mg/kg(po) ,respectively.These effects of YL-IPA08 were similar to those of duloxetine ( 10 mg/kg,po) and desipramine (30 mg/kg,po).The administration of PK11195 (3 mg/kg,ip), a selective antagonist of TSPO, did not interfere with the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in mice.Nevertheless, PK11195 coadministration blocked the antidepressant-like effect of YL-IPA08(0.1 mmg/kg,po) in this model.Moreover,an acute administration of YL-IPA08(3 and 10 mg/kg,po) was found to increase the levels of pregnenolone or progesterone in the rat serum after the forced swimming test by ELISA or radioimmunoassay.Conclusion YL-IPA08 has the antidepressant effect in animal behavior models, which may be related to the activation of TSPO and the promotion of neurosteroid biosynthesis.%目的 探讨TSPO配体化合物YL-IPA08的抗抑郁作用及其机制.方法 与结果在小鼠悬尾模型和大鼠强迫性游泳模型上,单次给予YL-IPA08 分别显著缩短悬尾和游泳不动时间,有效剂量分别为0.1~0.3 mg/kg(po)和1~10 mg/kg(po);分别与阳性对照药度洛西汀(DLX,10 mg/kg,po)和地昔帕明(DMI,30 mg/kg,po)作用一致.在小鼠悬尾模型上,单独给予TSPO特异性拮抗剂PK11195(3 mg/kg,ip)对悬尾不动时间无明显影响,但可以显著阻断YL-IPA08 (0.1 mg/kg) 在该模型上的抗抑郁效应.以ELISA或放免法检测发现,急性给予YL-IPA08(3,10 mg/kg,po)使强迫性游泳后大鼠血清孕烯醇酮或孕酮含量显著增加.结论 YL-IPA08在动物模型上具有抗抑郁作用,该作用可能与激活TSPO,促进神经类固醇生物合成有关.

  9. PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MASALAH DENGAN STRATEGI STAD UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suroso -

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan validitas pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran berbasis masalah melalui strategi STAD. Penelitian ini menggunakan model penelitian  Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel, yang terdiri dari empat tahap yaitu: define (pendefinisian, design (perancangan, develop (pengembangan, dan disseminate (penyebaran. Perangkat pembelajaran yang dikembangkan adalah : silabus, Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP, Lembar Kerja Siswa (LKS, Bahan Ajar, dan Instrumen Penilaian Kognitif dan Instrumen Penilaian Sikap Ilmiah. Hasil validasi menunjukkan rata-rata skor penilaian validator terhadap silabus 3,6; RPP 3,2; LKS 3,3; MA 3,2; Tes 3,1, sehingga hasil pengembangan perangkat yang dikembangkan valid. Aktivitas siswa sangat responsif yang menunjukkan bahwa sikap ilmiah siswa sangat tinggi yaitu dengan skor rata-rata sebesar 3,50. Hasil uji coba skala luas diperoleh hasil uji t berpasangan thitung = 10,727 > t0,05;20 = 1,725 artinya hasil belajar IPA siswa pada kelas eksperimen lebih baik setelah diajarkan menggunakan pembelajaran berbasis masalah melalui strategi STAD, dan hasil uji banding peningkatan hasil belajar IPA diperoleh  = 5,946 >  = 1,682 artinya peningkatan hasil belajar IPA siswa yang diajar menggunakan pembelajaran berbasis masalah dengan strategi STAD lebih baik daripada siswa yang diajar menggunakan model konvensional.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and validity of the development of problem-based learning tools by STAD. This research is the development by using models Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel, this model consists of four phases: define, design, develop, and disseminate. Learning tools developed are: Syllabi, Lesson Plan, Student Worksheet, Learning Materials, and Cognitive Assessment Instrument and Instrument Rating Scientific Attitude. Validation results show the average score of the Syllabus assessment validator 3.6; Lesson Plan 3.2; Student Worksheet 3

  10. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  11. Shigella IpaD has a dual role: signal transduction from the type III secretion system needle tip and intracellular secretion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrich, A Dorothea; Guillossou, Enora; Blocker, Ariel J; Martinez-Argudo, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein injection devices essential for the interaction of many Gram-negative bacteria with eukaryotic cells. While Shigella assembles its T3SS when the environmental conditions are appropriate for invasion, secretion is only activated after physical contact with a host cell. First, the translocators are secreted to form a pore in the host cell membrane, followed by effectors which manipulate the host cell. Secretion activation is tightly controlled by conserved T3SS components: the needle tip proteins IpaD and IpaB, the needle itself and the intracellular gatekeeper protein MxiC. To further characterize the role of IpaD during activation, we combined random mutagenesis with a genetic screen to identify ipaD mutant strains unable to respond to host cell contact. Class II mutants have an overall defect in secretion induction. They map to IpaD's C-terminal helix and likely affect activation signal generation or transmission. The Class I mutant secretes translocators prematurely and is specifically defective in IpaD secretion upon activation. A phenotypically equivalent mutant was found in mxiC. We show that IpaD and MxiC act in the same intracellular pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that IpaD has a dual role and acts at two distinct locations during secretion activation.

  12. MODIFIED IPA - II SEBAGAI UPAYA IDENTIFIKASI POTENSI PERBAIKAN DI INSTITUSI PENDIDIKAN TINGGI

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    Eko Setiawan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Persaingan yang semakin ketat mengharuskan institusi pendidikan tinggi untuk selalu meningkatkan kualitas pelayanannya, sehingga pelanggan akan terpuaskan. Hal tersebut mensyaratkan identifikasi dan pengukuran kebutuhan pelanggan, sehingga diketahui kebutuhan pelanggan yang masih memerlukan peningkatan pelayanan serta kebutuhan pelanggan yang telah sesuai dengan harapan pelanggan. Mengingat institusi apa pun tidak terlepas dari suasana persaingan, maka identifikasi serta pengukuran kebutuhan pelanggan tersebut harus menyertakan para pesaing. Makalah ini membahas salah satu usulan metode yang dapat digunakan untuk keperluan tersebut, yaitu metode modified IPA - II. Dengan metode yang diusulkan ini, dapat diketahui pada kebutuhan pelanggan yang mana saja suatu institusi pendidikan tinggi masih rendah kinerjanya relatif terhadap kinerja para pesaing, sedangkan kebutuhan tersebut menempati tingkat kepentingan yang tinggi di mata pelanggan. Dengan mengetahui peta kebutuhan pelanggan sedemikian rupa, maka agenda peningkatan kualitas pelayanan akan dapat dijalankan secara lebih terarah dan efisien.

  13. Penggunaan Metode Peer Tutoring dengan Kassitu untuk Meningkatkan Motivasi dan Hasil Belajar IPA Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatmiani Sujatmiani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan hasil belajar menggunakan metode peer tutoriing dengan Kassitu. Pengumpulan data kuantitatif dengan soal pretest dan posttest sedangkan data kualitatif didapatkan melalui angket, dan lembar observasi. Data kuantitatif dianalisis dengan analisis deskriptif komparatif dengan melihat perbandingan nilai pre test dan pos test pra siklus, siklus 1 dan siklus 2. Data kualitatif dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif dengan mencari point penting dan informasi tambahan dari hasil observasi.Motivasi belajar meningkat sebesar 11,78% sedangkan Hasil belajar meningkat sebesar 17,89%. Motivasi belajar siswa meningkat dilihat dari aktifitas kelompok dalam berdiskusi, mengerjakan soal latihan, tanya jawab bersama tutor, serta turnamen antar kelompok sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode peer tutoring dengan Kassitu dapat meningkatkan motivasi dan hasil belajar IPA

  14. 32 CFR 37.655 - Must I specify the frequency of IPAs' periodic audits of for-profit participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., when the participant has its IPA do its next financial statement audit, unless the participant already... audits of for-profit participants? 37.655 Section 37.655 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF... Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters §...

  15. Kajian Kinerja Teknis Proses dan Operasi Unit Koagulasi-Flokulasi-Sedimentasi pada Instalasi Pengolahan Air (IPA Kedunguling PDAM Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Chamdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu instalasi pengolahan air (IPA yang akan dibahas dalam tugas akhir ini adalah IPA Kedunguling PDAM Sidoarjo. Dalam proses dan pengoperasian IPA Kedunguling, terdapat permasalahan yang cukup penting dikarenakan pembubuhan koagulan tanpa perhitungan dahulu (perkiraan sehingga tidak tercapai dosis optimum. Meninjau dari permasalahan tersebut, maka perlu dilakukan kajian efisiensi proses dan operasi pada unit koagulasi-flokulasi-sedimentasi. Analisa proses dalam unit koagulasi-flokulasi-sedimentasi didapatkan dari hasil penelitian penentuan dosis optimum koagulan menggunakan metode jar test serta mengukur parameter air yaitu kekeruhan, pH air dan waktu pengendapan. Koagulan yang dipakai adalah Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC. Sedangkan, analisa sistem operasionalnya didapatkan dari membandingkan antara hasil perhitungan menurut kondisi eksisting mengenai parameter yang merupakan faktor penting sistem operasional tiap unit bangunan dengan kriteria desain. Dosis optimum koagulan pada musim kemarau dan musim penghujan yang didapatkan sama yaitu 75 ppm sedangkan dosis koagulan rata – rata yang dipakai di IPA Kedunguling PDAM Sidoarjo adalah 78,56 ppm. Sistem operasional tiap unit bangunan sudah memenuhi kriteria desain bangunan koagulasi dan flokulasi, sedangkan tidak pada bangunan sedimentasi.

  16. 32 CFR 37.660 - What else must I specify concerning audits of for-profit participants by IPAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... needed to provide reasonable assurance of the participant's compliance with award terms that have a... participant's accounting system and practices. (c) The auditing standards that the IPA will use. Unless you... audits in accordance with the Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards. 4 4 The electronic...

  17. Identification of the bile salt binding site on ipad from Shigella flexneri and the influence of ligand binding on IpaD structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Guragain, Manita; Adam, Philip; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Picking, Wendy L.; Picking, William D. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2012-10-25

    Type III secretion (TTS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of shigellosis. The Shigella TTS apparatus (TTSA) is an elegant nano-machine that is composed of a basal body, an external needle to deliver effectors into human cells, and a needle tip complex that controls secretion activation. IpaD is at the tip of the nascent TTSA needle where it controls the first step of TTS activation. The bile salt deoxycholate (DOC) binds to IpaD to induce recruitment of the translocator protein IpaB into the maturing tip complex. We recently used spectroscopic analyses to show that IpaD undergoes a structural rearrangement that accompanies binding to DOC. Here, we report a crystal structure of IpaD with DOC bound and test the importance of the residues that make up the DOC binding pocket on IpaD function. IpaD binds DOC at the interface between helices {alpha}3 and {alpha}7, with concomitant movement in the orientation of helix {alpha}7 relative to its position in unbound IpaD. When the IpaD residues involved in DOC binding are mutated, some are found to lead to altered invasion and secretion phenotypes. These findings suggest that adoption of a DOC-bound structural state for IpaD primes the Shigella TTSA for contact with host cells. The data presented here and in the studies leading up to this work provide the foundation for developing a model of the first step in Shigella TTS activation.

  18. Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shiho; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ashida, Hiroshi; Toyotome, Takahito; Franchi, Luigi; Suzuki, Masato; Sanada, Takahito; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Núñez, Gabriel; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN+/− mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN+/+ mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via

  19. Briófitas da caatinga 1: Estação Experimental do IPA, Caruaru - PE Bryophyte of caatinga 1: experimental station at the IPA, Caruaru - PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cavalcanti Pôrto

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento da brioflora de uma caatinga arbórea pertencente a Estação Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisas Agropecuárias (IPA, situada no município de Caruaru (8º08'00"-8º10'00"S, 36º02'00"-36º 10'00"W, Pernambuco. A área estudada compreende 20ha, tem altitude aproximada de 550m e médias anuais de precipitação e temperatura de 671 mm e 23ºC, respectivamente. As coletas foram realizadas durante as estações de estiagem (out-nov/1990 e chuvosa (mai-jun/1991, tendo sido investigados os seguintes substratos: solo, rocha, caules vivos e em decomposição. Registraram-se 16 espécies de briófitas, sendo 14 Bryopsida e 2 Hepaticopsida. Bryaceae e Fissidentaceae foram as famílias de maior representatividade específica na área. A maioria das coletas indicou a predominância de espécies terrícolas e saxícolas, seguindo-se as corticícolas e as epíxilas. O trabalho contém informações sobre distribuição geográfica e aspectos ecológicos das espécies.A floristic survey of bryophyte was carried out in a experimental station at the Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária at Caruaru (Lat. 8º08'00"-8º10'00"S; Long. 36º02'00"-36º10,00"W, Pernambuco State. This area has 20ha, an altitude of 550m, an annual rainfall average of 671mm and 23ºC of temperature. The bryophytes were collected during the dry season (oct-nov/1990 and the rain season (may-jui/1991, on the following substrata: soil, rocks, living and dead trunks. There were identified 16 species, 14 Bryopsida and 2 Hepaticopsida. Bryaceae and Fissidentaceae were the most rich families in number of species. In the studied area, the terricolous species were predominant followed by saxicolous, corticolous and the species of decaying wood. Geographical distribution and ecological informations about the species were included.

  20. Use of IPA to demonstrate loss of forest interior birds from isolated woodlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Boone, D.D.; Purroy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    'Empleo de indices puntuales de abundancia (IPA) para demostrar la perdida de aves forestales en bosques aislados'. En Maryland, E.U., se seleccionaron bloques boscosos de diferente superficie, divididos en seis clase de tamano (2,8-6 ha, 7-14, 20-30, 34-80, 105-1300, mayores de 4000 ha). En estas ?islas' forestales fue programado un conjunto de muestreos puntuales con estas caracteristicas: 1) Cada punto se visito tres veces. 2) En cada visita se hicieron cuatro censos consecutivos de 5 minutos de duracion, empleando diferentes simbolos para machos cantores, adultos no cantores, aves en vuelo y aves inmaduras. 3) Los conteos se hicieron en tres epocas: final de Mayo, mitad de Junio y final de Junio. 4) Se dividio el tiempo de censo en tres priodos horarios: 5,15-6,30 ; 6,30-8; 8-9,30 hrs. 5) Los puntos se agruparon en co juntos de 4 a 9, considerando que un conjunto es el nlimero que un observador puede cubrir por manana. 6) La vegetacion fue descrita exhaustivamente en cuanto composicion y fisionomla. El principal objetivo que se busca consiste en conocer los requisitos areales de ciertas especies de bosque muy sensibles a la fragmentacion del habitat. Puede observarse (Figura 1) que una serie de migrantes de largo alcance se asientan en relacion con el aumento de la superficie del rodal arbo1ado, sabre todo en macizos de 4.000 o mas hectareas. Sin embargo, las especies sedentarias (Fig. 2) tienen pauta de presencia irregular en funcion del area, forestal, con tendencia a presentarse menos en los bosques mas extensos, Dryocopus pileatus, por excepcion, reacciona negativamente al pequeno tamano de la parcela arbolado, prefiriendo bosques grandes. Parecida respuesta da tambien Sitta carolinensis. Aunque se sabe poco de las exigencias areales de las aves forestales americanas, el metodo de los IPA resulta muy adecuado para esta clase de investigacion de tanto interes en gestion ambiental, posibilitando colectar gran cantidad de datos comparables en un periodo de

  1. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Modul Elektrokimia untuk Siswa SMA Kelas XII IPA dengan Pendekatan Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Fatmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kelayakan, dan keefektifan modul elektrokimia un-tuk siswa SMA kelas XII hasil pengembangan. Modul Elektrokimia hasil pengembangan terdiri dari dua kegiatan belajar, yaitu untuk materi sel Volta dan untuk materi sel elektrolisis. Hasil penilaian oleh dua dosen kimia Universitas Negeri Malang dan dua guru kimia kelas XII sebagai ahli isi/materi pem-belajaran untuk kelayakan isi adalah 92,9%, untuk kelayakan dan kelengkapan penyajian adalah 91,1%, dan untuk kelayakan kebahasaan adalah 92,3%, yang tergolong kriteria sangat layak. Secara keseluruhan rata-rata nilai kelayakan tersebut adalah 92,1. Efektifitas modul hasil pengembangan di-tunjukkan oleh persepsi dan hasil belajar siswa. Persepsi siswa diperoleh dari penilaian siswa terhadap modul hasil pengembangan. Pada ujicoba lapangan terbatas diperoleh nilai rata-rata untuk seluruh aspek adalah 81,8 dari nilai maksimum 100. Perolehan rata-rata nilai hasil belajar siswa untuk aspek kognitif adalah 83,3, untuk aspek afektif adalah  82,3, dan untuk aspek psikomotorik adalah 83,8 dari nilai maksimum 100. Hasil keseluruhan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Modul Elektrokimia untuk sis-wa SMA Kelas XII IPA hasil pengembangan sangat layak dan sangat efektif digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran.Kata kunci: inkuiri terbimbing, modul elektrokimia, model 4-D

  2. Between chaos and petrification: a summary of the Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, R S

    1993-02-01

    The Fifth IPA Conference of Training Analysts was devoted to the problems in the integration of different theoretical and clinical perspectives in the formation of psychoanalysts, the dialectical tensions between rigidity and stultification on the one hand, and a chaotic 'anything goes' on the other. Seven presentations, from the three major geographical regions and representing a range of theoretical perspectives, though drawing upon common and shared clinical and training experiences, were widely divergent in both their descriptions and their prescriptions. The presentations by Janice de Saussure of Geneva, by Charles Kligerman of Chicago, by Marcio de Freitas Giovanetti of São Paulo, Raquel Zak de Goldstein of Buenos Aires, André Green of Paris, José Infante of Chile and André Lussier of Montreal, are arrayed along a spectrum from the most conservative to the most sweepingly radical critique of our organisations and our practices; what is shared by these seven quite disparate presentations from so many ideologically and geographically diverse quarters is a widespread dissatisfaction with so many aspects of, and so many consequences of, the operation or our extant tripartite training structure bequeathed to us by Eitingon and his colleagues almost 75 years ago and hardly changed at all ever since.

  3. PENGARUH PEMBELAJARAN STUDENT TEAM ACHIEVEMENT DIVISION DAN DISKUSI TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPA KELAS IV SD

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    Lalu Warige Hadinata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to determine the effect of STAD and discussion on learning outcomes of classroom learning for science at 4th grade. The design of this research used a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group design. Research was conducted in the 4th grade students of SDN 2 Kekeri West Lombok It’s consist of 19 students in 4th grade/a as an STAD and 19 students at 4th grade/b as the discussion. Analysis of learning outcomes data using the Independent Sample T Test with IBM SPSS 24. The analysis showed: (1 there were no significant differences in learning outcomes among students that learned STAD and students that learned discussion. (2 STAD and discussion has an effect on student learning outcomes of 4th grade. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan hasil belajar STAD dan diskusi pelajaran IPA kelas IV. Rancangan penelitian ini menggunakan eksperimen semu dengan bentuk nonequivalent control group design. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada siswa kelas IV SDN 2 Kekeri Lombok Barat terdiri dari 19 siswa kelas IV/a dengan STAD dan 19 siswa kelas IV/b dengan diskusi. Analisis data hasil belajar menggunakan Independent Sample T Test dengan IBM SPSS 24. Hasil analisis menunjukkan (1 tidak ada perbedaan hasil belajar yang signifikan antara siswa yang dibelajarkan STAD dan siswa yang dibelajarkan diskusi. (2 STAD dan diskusi mampu meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa pada kelas IV.

  4. Application of an Integrated Model with MCDM and IPA to Evaluate the Service Quality of Transshipment Port

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    Chien-Chang Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often to solve complex decision-making problems in the marine transportation environment, such as the evaluation of service quality and the location choice of ports. In this paper, an integrated model with multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM and importance-performance analysis (IPA is presented and then is applied to solve the problem of service quality evaluation of transshipment port. The MCDM approach can be used to deal with both quantitative data and qualitative ratings simultaneously. The IPA approach can be applied to realize the shortcomings of service quality of ports and rank the ranking of strategies for improving service quality of transshipment port. Finally, some useful suggestions for improving the service quality of ports are given in the paper.

  5. Functional insights into the Shigella type III needle tip IpaD in secretion control and cell contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavolin, Lionel; Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Cherradi, Youness; Biskri, Latéfa; Botteaux, Anne; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2013-04-01

    Type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) are complex nanomachines that insert a translocation pore into the host cell membrane through which effector proteins are injected into the cytosol. In Shigella, the pore is inserted by a needle tip complex that also controls secretion. IpaD is the key protein that rules the composition of the tip complex before and upon cell contact or Congo red (CR) induction. However, how IpaD is involved in secretion control and translocon insertion remains not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of 20 10-amino acids deletion variants all along the coiled-coil and the central domains of IpaD (residues 131-332). Our results highlight three classes of T3S phenotype; (i) wild-type secretion, (ii) constitutive secretion of all classes of effectors, and (iii) constitutive secretion of translocators and early effectors, but not of late effectors. Our data also suggest that the composition of the tip complex defines both the T3SA inducibility state and late effectors secretion. Finally, we shed light on a new aspect regarding the contact of the needle tip with cell membrane by uncoupling the Shigella abilities to escape macrophage vacuole, and to insert the translocation pore or to invade non-phagocytic cells.

  6. PENERAPAN TEKNIK BERMAIN KARTU PINTAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR DAN HASIL BELAJAR IPA

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    Bambang Surahmadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the application of smart card-playing techniques to improve learning motivation and learning outcomes of science learners. The medium used is a smart card, a card which contains information contained in the subject matter learning objectives are packaged in the form of questions and answers. The research was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Temanggung learners of class VIII G in 2nd semester Academic Year 2014/2015. The method used is a Class Action Research. Data collection methods used were questionnaires, pre-test and post-test. The research data in the form of learning outcomes IPA concept of test and motivation to learn is obtained from the questionnaire motivation. Statistical analysis showed in the first cycle an average yield is 56,67of pretest increased to an average is 70,58of posttes; the second cycle average is 62,24of pretest increased to an average is 80,86of posttest and third cycle average is 70,26 of pretest increased to an average is 84,24 of posttest While the motivation of learners increased by 86% from the prior-treated. Based on the results of the research, processing and data analysis and hypothesis testing measures taken in this study, we concluded that the application of smart card play technique can enhance learning motivation and learning outcomes of class VIIIG students of SMP Negeri 1 Temanggung.This study aims to determine the application of smart card-playing techniques to improve learning motivation and learning outcomes of science learners. The medium used is a smart card, a card which contains information contained in the subject matter learning objectives are packaged in the form of questions and answers. The research was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Temanggung learners of class VIII G in 2nd semester Academic Year 2014/2015. The method used is a Class Action Research. Data collection methods used were questionnaires, pre-test and post-test. The research data in the form of learning outcomes

  7. An Evaluation of Taiwanese B&B Service Quality Using the IPA Model

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    Gao-Liang Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a December 2011 report released by Taiwan’s Tourism Bureau, there were 3,763 bed-and-breakfast guesthouses (B&B in Taiwan, 3,367 of which were legal with a combined 13,389 rooms, increasing by 96 percent from December 2006. It seems that the B&B sector is quite a popular target for investors. As the word-of-mouth advertising has been considered one of the most influential marketing methods, those who invest in B&Bs must manage to utilize their limited resources to improve customer satisfaction in a fast-growing and competitive market. The best marketing approach in reaching out to B&B customers, as suggested by this study’s author, would be word-of-mouth adverting. A PZB framed questionnaire is used in this study to explore the expectations and satisfaction of B&B customers both before and after the accommodation period, with the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA model applied to analyze and measure the service quality. Findings from the questionnaire survey showed 3 out of the totally 23 service factors falling in the “concentrated concerned” quadrant (i.e., tidiness, architectural characteristics, and reasonable rates; 6 factors falling in the “continued maintenance” quadrant (i.e., adequate parking place, commitment to customers, handling of customers’ opinions, legality of B&B, grievance handling, and the local specialties-ordering service; 10 factors falling in the “low priority” quadrant (i.e., modern facilities, safety devices, availability of breakfast, security of online reservations; 4 factors falling in the “over-strived” quadrant (i.e., the availability of custom-made services, the ability to grasp customers’ needs, the availability of tour packages, and the availability of experiences regarding local industries.

  8. Rearquitetura e informação 24 horas no IPA Metodista

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    Samile Andréa de Souza Vanz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As bibliotecas universitárias vêm passando por mudanças há algumas décadas para acompanhar as alterações causadas pelas tecnologias disponíveis na sociedade atual. O ambiente físico da biblioteca é alvo de muitas destas mudanças, já que a informação, contida nas coleções de livros e periódicos, vem sendo transferida para acervos digitais, diminuindo a demanda por espaço físico e pelo contato bibliotecário-usuário, provocando alterações nos hábitos e cultura da comunidade universitária. Neste contexto, foi inaugurada em Porto Alegre a Biblioteca Central do IPA Metodista. O prédio, erguido no início do século passado, foi reformado para atender 24 horas, durante todo o ano. Apresentam-se aqui considerações acerca de layout, mobiliário, sinalização, iluminação, temperatura e preservação do acervo, e como isso foi pensado ao longo da reforma de um edifício destinado a funcionar ininterruptamente. Relata-se também o processo de adequação dos funcionários e do usuário ao horário integral da Biblioteca Central.

  9. Programme notes. 36th IPA Congress, Rome, 1989. The search for common ground: clinical aims and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A D

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary and an overview of the 36th IPA Congress, 'Common ground in psychoanalysis: clinical aims and processes'. The theme emerged from Dr Robert Wallerstein's 1987 Montreal Congress Plenary Address, 'One psychoanalysis or many'. The paper focuses on the three Rome Plenary presentations and their discussions, Wallerstein's presidential address, and the final panel review. A paper presented at the meeting by Charles Hanly, 'The concept of truth in psychoanalysis', which outlines theories of truth: correspondence versus coherence, provides the conceptual tools for considering the different points of view. The author shares Hanly's support for a pragmatically qualified commitment to a correspondence theory of truth.

  10. PENINGKATAN HASIL BELAJAR IPA SISWA KELAS 5 SD MENGGUNAKAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE TGT BERBANTUAN MEDIA GAMBAR

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    Norhayati Endah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Berdasarkan wawancara yang telah dilakukan kepada guru dan siswa kelas 5 SDN 03 Bringin, terdapat keluhan berupa nilai siswa yang masih rendah pada mata pelajaran IPA. Penyebabnya antara lain karena metode yang digunakan adalah metode ceramah sehingga siswa kurang berminat dan cepat bosan. Selain itu banyak siswa yang tidak suka membaca. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa mata pelajaran IPA kelas 5 SDN 03 Bringin dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran Teams Games Tournament. Teknik pengumpulan data yaitu dengan menggunakan soal tes (Pilihan Ganda. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilakukan dalam dua siklus yaitu siklus I dan siklus II. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa setelah penggunaan model, rata-rata hasil belajar siswa meningkat pada siklus I maupun siklus II. Selain itu, persentase ketuntasan siswa juga mendekati sempurna. Sehingga penggunaan model Teams Games Tournament berbantuan media gambar ini dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa pada pelajaran IPA di SDN 03 Bringin. Kata kunci: hasil belajar, IPA, TGT    Abstract. Based on the interviews that have been made to teachers and students of SDN 03 Bringin 5th grade, there are complaints of student scores are still low in science subjects. The reason is partly due to the method used is the lecture method so that students are less interested and bored quickly. In addition, many students do not like to read. The purpose of this research is to improve student learning outcomes 5th grade science subjects SDN 03 Bringin by using model Teams Games Tournament aided picture media. Namely data collection techniques using test questions (multiple choice. This research is a classroom action research was conducted in two cycles of the first cycle and the second cycle. The result showed that after the use of the model, the average increase student learning outcomes in the first cycle and the second cycle. In addition, the

  11. Sexuality and considering motherhood after an HIV diagnosis : an IPA exploration of the experiences of European, childless women

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of HIV acknowledges the existence of social constructs, including the incongruity between HIV, motherhood and sexuality, which may add to the psychosocial burden of an HIV diagnosis (Blystad and Moland, 2009; Long, 2006; Stinon & Myer, 2012). However the research is fragmented, and addresses the concepts of motherhood and sexuality in the presence of HIV independently. There has been little consideration of how the opposing constructs may be simultaneously experienced an...

  12. Patients' and physicians' experiences of atrial fibrillation consultations and anticoagulation decision-making: A multi-perspective IPA design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg Xuereb, Christian; Shaw, Rachel L; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-01

    To explore patients' and physicians' experiences of atrial fibrillation (AF) consultations and oral anticoagulation decision-making. Multi-perspective interpretative phenomenological analyses. Participants included small homogeneous subgroups: AF patients who accepted (n = 4), refused (n = 4) or discontinued (n = 3) warfarin, and four physician subgroups (n = 4 each group): consultant cardiologists, consultant general physicians, general practitioners and cardiology registrars. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Transcripts were analysed using multi-perspective interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) analyses to attend to individuals within subgroups and making comparisons within and between groups. Three themes represented patients' experiences: Positioning within the physician-patient dyad, Health-life balance, and Drug myths and fear of stroke. Physicians' accounts generated three themes: Mechanised metaphors and probabilities, Navigating toward the 'right' decision and Negotiating systemic factors. This multi-perspective IPA design facilitated an understanding of the diagnostic consultation and treatment decision-making which foregrounded patients' and physicians' experiences. We drew on Habermas' theory of communicative action to recommend broadening the content within consultations and shifting the focus to patients' life contexts. Interventions including specialist multidisciplinary teams, flexible management in primary care and multifaceted interventions for information provision may enable the creation of an environment that supports genuine patient involvement and participatory decision-making.

  13. Hardware Interface Description for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio Ssystem (STRS) Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Roche, Rigoberto

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS-compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx ML605 Virtex-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. Figure 1 shows the RIACS platform hardware. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications.The purpose of this document is to describe how to develop a new waveform using the RIACS platform and the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) FPGA wrapper code and the STRS implementation on the Axiomtek processor.

  14. Waveform Developer's Guide for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Roche, Rigoberto

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS-compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx(Trademark) ML605 Virtex(Trademark)-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek(Trademark) eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications. The purpose of this document is to describe how to develop a new waveform using the RIACS platform and the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) FPGA wrapper code and the STRS implementation on the Axiomtek processor.

  15. ANALISIS KESULITAN SISWA SMA DALAM PEMECAHAN MASALAH MATEMATIKA KELAS XII IPA DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA

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    Ayu Aji Wedaring Tias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan letak kesulitan siswa yang dominan dan faktor-faktor kesulitan yang dialami siswa SMA dalam memecahkan masalah matematika. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 94 siswa SMA Negeri di Kota Yogyakarta yang berasal dari tiga sekolah dengan kategori tinggi, sedang, dan rendah. Pemilihan subjek penelitian dilakukan dengan stratified proportional random sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan dokumen, tes, dan wawancara. Analisis data dilakukan dengan metode analisis deskriptif kualitatif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif yang memberikan gambaran mengenai letak dan faktor kesulitan siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesulitan matematika siswa terletak pada kesulitan mengingat fakta 1,77%, kesulitan memahami fakta 3,54%, kesulitan menerapkan fakta 3,54%, kesulitan menganalisis fakta 10,18%, kesulitan mengingat konsep 1,33%, kesulitan memahami konsep 13,27%, kesulitan menerap-kan konsep 11,95%, kesulitan menganalisis konsep 4,42%, kesulitan memahami prosedur 7,52%, kesulitan menerapkan prosedur 15,49%, kesulitan menganalisis prosedur 16,37%, kesulitan mengingat konsep visual-spasial 1,33%, kesulitan memahami visual-spasial 3,54%, kesulitan menerapakan visual-spasial 3,10%, dan kesulitan menganalisis visual-spasial 2,65%. Faktor-faktor kesulitan yang dialami siswa SMA dalam memecahkan masalah matematika kelas XII program IPA yakni: siswa kurang teliti, tergesa-gesa dalam mengerjakan soal, lupa, kurang waktu untuk mengerjakan soal, cepat menyerah, terkecoh, dan cemas. Kata Kunci: analisis kesulitan, pemecahan masalah matematika, kemampuan pemecahan masalah   AN ANALYSIS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ DIFFICULTIES IN MATHEMATICS PROBLEM SOLVING BASED AT GRADE XII OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN YOGYAKARTA CITY Abstract This research aims to describe the locations of the difficulties and the factors

  16. KUALITAS SOAL UJIAN SEKOLAH MATEMATIKA PROGRAM IPA DAN KONTRIBUSINYA TERHADAP HASIL UJIAN NASIONAL

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    C. Heri Sulistiawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kualitas soal Ujian Sekolah Matematika program IPA dan kontribusi skor Ujian Sekolah terhadap nilai Ujian Nasional. Jenis penelitian ini deskriptif eksploratif dengan pendekatan survei. Populasi penelitian ini adalah enam SMA Swasta Yayasan Katolik di Kota Yogyakarta. Sampel adalah lima SMA yang representatif dalam menggambarkan ciri populasi. Naskah soal ditelaah tiga orang ahli untuk analisis kualitas soal secara kualitatif. Jawaban siswa dianalisis secara Teori Tes Klasik dan Teori Respons Butir untuk mengetahui kualitas soal secara kuantitatif. Skor Ujian Sekolah dikorelasikan terhadap nilai Ujian Nasional untuk mengukur kontribusinya. Hasil penelitian: (1 kualitas soal secara kualitatif adalah sangat baik (satu SMA, baik (dua SMA, cukup baik (satu SMA, dan kurang baik (satu SMA; (2 secara kuantitatif menurut Teori Tes Klasik adalah cukup baik (satu SMA, kurang baik (tiga SMA, dan tidak baik (satu SMA, dengan reliabilitas Alpha termasuk reliabel; (3 secara kuantitatif menurut Teori Respons Butir adalah baik (tiga SMA, cukup baik (satu SMA, dan kurang baik (satu SMA; (4 Indeks konsistensi analisis butir soal termasuk cukup konsisten; (5 korelasi skor Ujian Sekolah terhadap nilai Ujian Nasional termasuk kategori besar; (6 berdasarkan telaah validitas isi perangkat, lebih dari 90% soal valid dan skor Ujian Sekolah valid/akurat dalam memprediksi hasil Ujian Nasional. Kata kunci: kualitas soal, ujian sekolah, matematika, ujian nasional   THE QUALITY OF MATHEMATICS SCHOOL EXAMINATION OF SCIENCE MAJOR AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE RESULT OF NATIONAL EXAMINATION Abstract The purpose of this research is to describe the quality of Mathematics School Examination of Science Major and the contribution of School Examination scores to the result of National Examination. This research is a descriptive explorative research with survey approach. The population in this research are six Senior High Schools in

  17. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN IPA MODEL LEARNING CYCLE 7E UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS

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    Fembriani -

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proses pembelajaran dalam KTSP memerlukan pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran. Observasi yang peneliti lakukan di kelas IV pada lima sekolah dasar, 80% guru tidak membuat perangkat pembelajaran sendiri, 60% SD masih menggunakan perangkat pembelajaran teacher center, dan 50% belum mengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis yang sesuai dengan indikator. Penelitian ini menggunakan model pengembangan Plomp dengan tujuan untuk memperoleh perangkat pembelajaran yang valid, efektif, dan praktis. Hasil Penelitian menunjukan: (1 pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran learning cycle 7E menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran yang valid. Skor rata-rata validasi ahli terhadap silabus 3,6 (sangat baik, RPP 3,7 (sangat baik, bahan ajar 3,5 (sangat baik, LKS 3,6 (sangat baik, dan evaluasi  3,5 (sangat baik. (2 implementasi perangkat  pembelajaran yang valid terbukti efektif karena setelah diberi perlakuan menggunakan model learning cycle 7E terdapat perbedaan antara kelas kontrol dan ekperimen dengan nilai signifikansi 0,02 < 0,05 dan peningkatan hasil N-gain kelas eksperimen sebesar 0,62 yang menunjukan kriteria sedang. (3 Berdasarkan analisis kuisioner, perangkat pembelajaran yang  praktis dapat diterima oleh siswa dan guru sebesar 80% dan 80%. Simpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran IPA model learning cycle 7E adalah valid, efektif, dan praktis.The learning process in school based curiculum requires the development of learning instrument. The observation that researcher done on fourth grade at five Elementary Schools, 80% of teachers do not make their own learning device, 60% of  school teachers still use the teacher learning center, and 50% have not yet developed learning tools to improve critical thinking skills in accordance with the indicators. This study use a model of development Plomp in order to obtain a valid learning device, effective, and practical. The result of

  18. Shigella IpaH0722 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Effector Targets TRAF2 to Inhibit PKC–NF-κB Activity in Invaded Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945

  19. IMPLEMENTASI KURIKULUM 2013 PADA PEMBELAJARAN AKUNTANSI PERUSAHAAN JASA SISWA KELAS X IPA DI SMA NEGERI 1 UNGARAN TAHUN AJARAN 2013/ 2014

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    Dini Anisah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran pengimplementasian Kurikulum 2013 pada pembelajaran akuntansi perusahaan jasa kelas X IPA di SMA Negeri 1 Ungaran. Subjek penelitian ini adalah guru akuntansi dan siswa kelas X IPA 2013/2014. Jumlah subjek sebanyak 3 guru akuntansi, 7 siswa X IPA yang diambil dengan purposive sampling. Metode pengumpulan data melalui wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Tehnik analisis data menggunakan pengumpulan data, reduksi data, data display, dan verifikasi. Tehnik keabsahan data dengan triangulasi sumber. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengimplementasian Kurikulum 2013 di SMA Negeri 1 Ungaran, dimana penguatan kompetensi siswa masih dominan pada aspek kognitif dan psikomotorik, guru akuntansi mengalami ketidakpahaman menganalisis silabus dan menyusun RPP, kesiapan belajar siswa X IPA rendah, serta proses pembelajaran akuntansi menggunakan pendekatan scientific yang belum terlaksana secara optimal. The purpose of this study was to determine how the image on the implementation of Curriculum 2013 learning services company accounting class X science in. The number of subjects as much as 3 accounting teacher, 7 student X IPA by using purposive sampling. Method of collecting data through interviews, observation, and documentation. Methods of data analysis using the techniques of data collection, data reduction, the data display, and verification. Data validation techniques using triangulation source. The results showed that the implementation of Curriculum 2013 in SMAN 1 Ungaran is still having some problems, which are still the dominant strengthening students' competence in cognitive and psychomotor aspects, accounting teacher experienced in analyzing syllabi ignorance, preparing lesson plans, learning readiness X low IPA students, as well as accounting learning process using a scientific approach has been implemented in class X science but not optimal.

  20. DAMPAK APLIKASI HERBISIDA IPA GLIFOSAT DALAM SISTEM TANPA OLAH TANAH (TOT TERHADAP TANAH DAN TANAMAN PADI SAWAH

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    S. Dharma Kesuma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Weed is one of the important constraints in rice production, and therefore its effective control measure should be considered that the production can be optimized. The application of no tillage by using herbicide is assumed more effective and efficient than conventional one. However, herbicide which is used as contionusly can influence residue in soil, plant and rice. The objectives of the research were to analyze the effect of no tillage and its combination of IPA glyphosate herbicide concentration levels to rice productivity and to analyze IPA glyphosate herbicide residue in soil, straw and rice. The study was conducted in the field by using IPA glyphosate herbicide with five treatments, namely maximum tillage (Gm, no herbicide spraying (G0, glyphosate herbicide doses 1.5 l ha-1(G1, 3 l ha-1 (G2 and 4.5 l ha-1(G3. The analysis of glyphosate residue was done in soil, straw and rice samples by using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography method. The research results showed that Gm and G1 treatments had highest with rice yield average were 938 g m-2 and 728 g m-2, respectively. Gm treatmen more profitable with R / C ratio of 1.84 with a profit of Rp 13.714 million, but using more labor than G1 treatment. Thereby, no-tillage treatment (G1 could be done by using glyphosate herbicide in doses 1.5 l ha-1, economically. Glyphosate contained in soil samples, straw, and rice proved that using of gyphosate intensively could have negative impacts on soil microbial activity, plant resistance to plant diseases and residue of glyphosate carried by plants. Glyphosate residue concentration was highest found on rice sample in treatments G3 was 0.272 mg kg-1. These glyphosate residual values on rice was highest than maximum residue limit which was decided by Indonesia government (0.1 mg kg-1. Glyphosate residues contained in food is not within safe limits if taken every day and can cause adverse effects to human health. Keywords: glyphosate herbicide

  1. The Lack of Affect and Imbalances of Character--An Interpretation of Mao Zhen in Twenty-two Nights in Spring%情感缺失与角色失衡--《春天的二十二个夜晚》主人公毛榛形象解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单静

    2014-01-01

    《春天的二十二个夜晚》是徐坤的一部半自叙传小说,是徐坤人生体验的艺术再现和审美创造。它通过对主人公毛榛的成长经历的内部和外部的描述展现了一代女人甚至一类女人的生存遭际和情感体验,展现了职业女性成长过程中的得与失,以及她们在事业与家庭之间角色转换的失衡。这部小说强烈的时代特征,对当代文学中职业女性的生存状况的研究具有重要意义。%Twenty-two Nights in Spring is a Semi-autobiographical novel of Xu Kun,and it is aesthetic creation and art reproduction of his life experience . Based on internal and external description of Mao Zhen's grow-up experience , this paper presents the living condition and emotional experience of generation of women's , even a type of women , as well as the gain or loss in the process of female professional grow-up , the balance of changing roles between family and enterprise . The prominent feature of times in this novel has important role in the research for living condition of professional female.

  2. Kajian Dampak Proses Pengolahan Air di IPA Siwalanpanji Terhadap Lingkungan dengan Menggunakan Metode Life Cycle Assessment (LCA

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    Fara Pratiwi Eka Riyanty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proses pengolahan air minum secara konvensional dapat menyebabkan dampak lingkungan akibat konsumsi energi dan pemakaian bahan kimia. Penelitian ini mengidentifikasi dampak pencemaran yang dihasilkan dari proses pengolahan air di IPA Siwalanpanji menggunakan life cycle assessment. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA merupakan metode untuk menganalisis dampak suatu produk terhadap lingkungan sepanjang siklus hidupnya. Siklus hidup dari suatu produk terdiri dari ekstraksi bahan baku, proses produksi hingga proses pembuangan akhir. Dari hasil analisis LCA, menggunakan software Simapro 7.33 dampak pencemaran yang terjadi berupa pencemaran udara yang disebabkan oleh penggunaan klorin, polyaluminium chloride (PAC dan konsumsi listrik. Dampak pencemaran terbesar terjadi pada penggunaan listrik dalam pemakaian satu hari yaitu menyebabkan respiratory inorganics sebesar 0,748 kg PM2.5, ozone layer depletion sebesar 0,000295 kg CFC-11 dan global warming sebesar 1000 kg CO2. Solusi untuk mengurangi dampak lingkungan yang dapat dilakukan instalasi pengolahan air adalah dengan cara peningkatan efesiensi peralatan.

  3. Game support in modern Western culture (through the example of activities of the International Play Association, IPA

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    Smirnova E.O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the support of children's games, initiated by the International Play Association (IPA. The most prominent political and legislative initiatives of UN Organization is the adoption of general comments and amendments to article 31 of the Convention on the rights of the child, proclaiming the right to play, as well as a list of measures to support the games for educational organizations both in the family and in the city. It describes the spatial projects and object-related conditions for the games brought into practice in Western countries: Adventure playground (APG-, play streets, Scarpstore PlayPod. The article specifies the functions of playwokers called up for supporting the game and also their training.

  4. Shigella effector IpaB-induced cholesterol relocation disrupts the Golgi complex and recycling network to inhibit host cell secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Joëlle; Boncompain, Gaëlle; Senerovic, Lidija; Lagache, Thibault; Chrétien, Fabrice; Perez, Franck; Kolbe, Michael; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Sauvonnet, Nathalie

    2012-09-13

    Shigella infection causes destruction of the human colonic epithelial barrier. The Golgi network and recycling endosomes are essential for maintaining epithelial barrier function. Here we show that Shigella epithelial invasion induces fragmentation of the Golgi complex with consequent inhibition of both secretion and retrograde transport in the infected host cell. Shigella induces tubulation of the Rab11-positive compartment, thereby affecting cell surface receptor recycling. The molecular process underlying the observed damage to the Golgi complex and receptor recycling is a massive redistribution of plasma membrane cholesterol to the sites of Shigella entry. IpaB, a virulence factor of Shigella that is known to bind cholesterol, is necessary and sufficient to induce Golgi fragmentation and reorganization of the recycling compartment. Shigella infection-induced Golgi disorganization was also observed in vivo, suggesting that this mechanism affecting the sorting of cell surface molecules likely contributes to host epithelial barrier disruption associated with Shigella pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation on prevalence of Escherichia coli strains carrying virulence genes ipaH, estA, eaeA and bfpA isolated from different water sources

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    Reza Ranjbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate prevalence of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains carrying virulence genes ipaH, estA, eaeA and bfpA, isolated from different water sources in Alborz Province. Methods: This study was carried out in 2014. The research included all E. coli strains isolated from different surface water sources in Alborz Province of Iran. E. coli isolates were detected and identified by standard microbiological and biochemical tests. The strains were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes ipaH, estA, eaeA and bfpA by PCR using specific primers. The PCR amplicons were visualized via electrophoresis and stained with ethidium bromide. Results: One hundred E. coli strains were isolated and included in the study. The PCR results showed that 97% of the strains harbored ipaH gene. Moreover, estA, eaeA and bfpA genes were found in 37%, 31% and 3% of the isolates. Conclusions: Our finding showed that the prevalence rates of virulence genes ipaH and estA were very high among E. coli strains isolated from different surface water sources in Alborz Province. Considering their plasmid-borne nature, the risk of transmission of these genes between other bacterial species could pose a high threat to public health.

  6. Elevated Triglyceride Level Is Independently Associated With Increased All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Established Coronary Heart Disease: Twenty-Two-Year Follow-Up of the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study and Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempfner, Robert; Erez, Aharon; Sagit, Ben-Zekry; Goldenberg, Ilan; Fisman, Enrique; Kopel, Eran; Shlomo, Nir; Israel, Ariel; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The independent association between elevated triglycerides and all-cause mortality among patients with established coronary heart disease is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large cohort of patients with proven coronary heart disease. The study cohort comprised 15 355 patients who were screened for the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) trial. Twenty-two-year mortality data were obtained from the national registry. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to strata of fasting serum triglycerides: (1) low-normal triglycerides (triglycerides (100-149 mg/dL); (3) borderline hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (150-199 mg/dL); (4) moderate hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (200-499 mg/dL); (5) severe hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (≥500 mg/dL). Age- and sex-adjusted survival was 41% in the low-normal triglycerides group than 37%, 36%, 35%, and 25% in groups with progressively higher triglycerides (Ptriglycerides elevation was associated with a corresponding 6% (P=0.016) increased risk of 22-year all-cause mortality. The 22-year mortality risk for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia was increased by 68% when compared with patients with low-normal triglycerides (Pdisease, higher triglycerides levels are independently associated with increased 22-year mortality. Even in patients with triglycerides of 100 to 149 mg/dL, the elevated risk for death could be detected than in patients with lower triglycerides levels, whereas severe hypertriglyceridemia denotes a population with particularly increased mortality risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Dating and intimate relationships of women with below-knee amputation: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias, Zoë; Harcourt, D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates experiences of dating and intimate relationships amongst women who use a below-knee prosthesis. Method: Four women took part in semi-structured online interviews. Transcripts were subject to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results: Five themes were identified: Revealing and Exposing: Disclosing the Amputation and Prosthesis; Judging and Judged: Internal Fears and Self-Doubt; Trusting and Accepting: Good Guy/Bad Guy Elimination; Taking it Further: The Ne...

  8. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN IPA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN BERPIKIR TINGKAT TINGGI CALON GURU SEBAGAI KECENDERUNGAN BARU PADA ERA GLOBALISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Liliasari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian people as human resources should be prepared to globalization era in the 21st  century, therefore they have to develop their higher order thinking skill rapidly, to improve their quality. Science education has an important role to develop young generation thinking skill, that makes science teachers training needs to be improved. Three science teaching models  have been developed to increase science teacher candidates high order thinking skill, consist of Chemical Bond Model of Teaching (MPIK, Thermodynamics Model of Teaching (MPTD and Anatomy and Physiology of Human Body Model of Teaching (MPAF. Each of the models consists of concept analysis and concept map, learning activities, teaching materials, test item. These studies show the dependency of the higher order thinking aspects and the characteristics of the subject matter in the models, including kind of concepts, width and depth of the subject matter areas. The models have been implemented and evaluated in three institutes of teacher training in Java. The findings show that the models had successfully increased the science teacher candidates way of thinking, on the whole stages of critical thinking skills, that have raised their propositional and combinatorial thinking. The impact shows that science models of learning (MPIPA are available as new trend of science teacher training for the globalization era. Kata kunci  : model pembelajaran, berpikir tingkat tinggi, calon guru IPA

  9. ANALISIS PENINGKATAN KUALITAS PELAYANAN MAHASISWA MAGISTER MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI ITS SURABAYA DENGAN METODE SERVQUAL DAN IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS (IPA

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    Lissa Rosdiana Noer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MMT-ITS Study Program is a program that has orientations in developing and implementing Technology Management science. This program has some fields and they are Industrial Management, Project Management, and Information Technology Management. Service quality can be known by using Service Quality Methods, they are: (i tangible, (ii reliability, (iii responsiveness, (iv assurance, and (v emphaty. The assesment of service levels use questionnaire and this research propose to use Gap 5.  Based on the integration result of Servqual Method and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA, MMT-ITS students’ satisfaction will be reached by improving some variables, they are: motorcycle parking space, availability of cleaning service, the ease of delivering facilities and infrastructures complaints, the efficiency of security guard (a main priority of quadrant I. Maintaining the achievement of quadrant II includes: quick in delivering academic information, satisfying literatures of books/references/journals, good lecture materials comprehension, online journal can be accessed easily and fast, any replacement class, fast response to students’ complaints, the ease of academic students’ complaints, the good conditions of tables and chairs, clean classroom,  employees willing to give lectures information, clarity in giving information related to college payment and another activities, guarantee of students’ data confidentiality, bright light in the room, safe feeling in students, polite and kind employees, room temperature which is cool. While, another very important variables are fast wifi/internet facility and clean toilet (quadrant IV that has high satisfaction level.

  10. Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave

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    Feder Gene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation

  11. Programmable Logic Device (PLD) Design Description for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. At the conclusion of the development, the software and hardware description language (HDL) code was delivered to JSC for their use in their iPAS test bed to get hands-on experience with the STRS standard, and for development of their own STRS Waveforms on the now STRS compliant platform.The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx ML605 Virtex-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. Figure 1 shows the RIACS platform hardware. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications.The purpose of this document is to describe the design of the HDL code for the FPGA portion of the iPAS STRS Radio particularly the design of the FPGA wrapper and the test waveform.

  12. Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah melalui Keterampilan Proses Sains terhadap Berpikir Kreatif Siswa pada Materi Sistem Gerak Kelas XI IPA 2 T.A 2015/ 2016 SMA Nurul Falah Pekanbaru

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    Raudhah Awal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran berbasis masalah melalui keterampilan proses sains terhadap berpikir kreatif siswa pada materi sistem gerak dikelas XI IPA2 SMA Nurul Falah Pekanbaru tahun ajaran 2015/2016. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada semester genap bulan Maret 2016. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah weak experiment one group pretest-posttest design. Sampel penelitian adalah siswa kelas XI IPA2 dengan jumlah siswa 30 orang siswa, yang diambil dengan teknik purposivesampling. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berupa paired samplet-test. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui pretest, posttest dan lembar observasi aktivitas guru dan siswa. Rerata N-Gain yang diperoleh 0,72 (kategori tinggi. Berdasarkan hasil uji paired sample t-test  maka diperoleh data yang berbeda signifikan. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh pembelajaran berbasis masalah melalui keterampilan proses sains terhadap kemampuan berpikir kreatif siswa pada materi sistem gerak kelas XI IPA2 SMA Nurul Falah Pekanbaru tahun ajaran 2015/2016. Kata kunci: Berpikir kreatif, keterampilan proses sains, Pembelajaran berbasis         masalah, sistem gerak

  13. Prioritizing Improvable Human Capital Processes in Esfahan Oil Refinery Company Based on PCF and by IPA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Behmanesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development and management of human capital is an important task because it affects the performance of organization and hence the process improvements. However, it is necessary to deploy performance evaluation to prioritize improvable processes due to limited human resource, time and equipments. The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of the developed and managed human capital based upon the predetermined key performance indicators of American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC and to prioritize processes by Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA approach. As a case study, Esfahan Oil Refining Company (EORC has been studied. In order to analyze hypotheses, the state of human resource has been determined through data extracting among the best practice industries, and hence the strengths and weaknesses of the EORC have been identified. Finally, fuzzy numbers have been assigned to the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs and then the processes have been measured using the average value of its related KPIs. Consequently, the importance of the developed and managed human capital processes could be determined using the five points Likert spectrum. The reliability of the questionnaire has been determined by the Cronbach's Alpha of higher than 0.7, which is satisfactory. Findings imply that 10 out of 35 HCM processes in needs of improvement are prioritized as managing employee performance managing employee relations managing employee orientation and deployment developing and managing employee metrics developing and training employees managing employee communication managing human resource information systems (HRIS managing and maintaining employee data managing employee inquiry process and developing and managing time and attendance.

  14. Patients' Experience of therapeutic footwear whilst living at risk of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Joanne S; Roberts, Anne; Bruce, Graham K; Marsden, Jonathan

    2014-02-22

    Previous work has found that people with diabetes do not wear their therapeutic footwear as directed, but the thinking behind this behaviour is unclear. Adherence to therapeutic footwear advice must improve in order to reduce foot ulceration and amputation risk in people with diabetes and neuropathy. Therefore this study aimed to explore the psychological influences and personal experiences behind the daily footwear selection of individuals with diabetes and neuropathy. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach was used to explore the understanding and experience of therapeutic footwear use in people living at risk of diabetic neuropathic foot ulceration. This study benefited from the purposive selection of a small sample of four people and used in-depth semi structured interviews because it facilitated the deep and detailed examination of personal thoughts and feelings behind footwear selection. Four overlapping themes that interact to regulate footwear choice emerged from the analyses: a) Self-perception dilemma; resolving the balance of risk experienced by people with diabetes and neuropathy day to day, between choosing to wear footwear to look and feel normal and choosing footwear to protect their feet from foot ulceration; b) Reflective adaption; The modification and individualisation of a set of values about footwear usage created in the minds of people with diabetes and neuropathy; c) Adherence response; The realignment of footwear choice with personal values, to reinforce the decision not to change behaviour or bring about increased footwear adherence, with or without appearance management; d) Reality appraisal; A here and now appraisal of the personal benefit of footwear choice on emotional and physical wellbeing, with additional consideration to the preservation of therapeutic footwear. For some people living at risk of diabetic neuropathic foot ulceration, the decision whether or not to wear therapeutic footwear is driven by the

  15. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants.

  16. Reassessment of the four yield-related genes Gn1a, DEP1, GS3 and IPA1 in rice using a CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiru eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR-associated (Cas systems have been successfully used as efficient tools for genome editing in a variety of species. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate the Gn1a (Os01g0197700, DEP1 (Os09g0441900, GS3 (Os03g0407400 and IPA1 (Os08g0509600 genes of rice cultivar Zhonghua 11, genes which have been reported to function as regulators of grain number, panicle architecture, grain size and plant architecture, respectively. Analysis of the phenotypes and frequencies of edited genes in the first generation of transformed plants (T0 showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was highly efficient in inducing targeted gene editing, with the desired genes being edited in 42.5% (Gn1a, 67.5% (DEP1, 57.5% (GS3 and 27.5% (IPA1 of the transformed plants. The T2 generation of the gn1a, dep1, and gs3 mutants featured enhanced grain number,dense erect panicles and larger grain size, respectively. Furthermore, semi-dwarf, and grain with long awn, phenotypes were observed in dep1 and gs3 mutants, respectively. The ipa1 mutants showed two contrasting phenotypes, having either fewer tillers or more tillers, depending on the changes induced in the OsmiR156 target region. In addition, we found that mutants with deletions occurred more frequently than previous reports had indicated and that off-targeting had taken place in highly similar target sequences. These results proved that multiple regulators of important traits can be modified in a single cultivar by CRISPR/Cas9, and thus facilitate the dissection of complex gene regulatory networks in the same genomic background and the stacking of important traits in cultivated varieties.

  17. Expression, limited proteolysis and preliminary crystallographic analysis of IpaD, a component of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Steven [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Roversi, Pietro [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Espina, Marianela [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Deane, Janet E. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Birket, Susan; Picking, William D. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Blocker, Ariel [Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Picking, Wendy L. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Lea, Susan M., E-mail: susan.lea@path.ox.ac.uk [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the S. flexneri type III secretion system, has been crystallized in a variety of crystal forms using in-drop proteolysis. Native and selenomethionine-labelled data collection and preliminary analyses are reported. IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system, has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals were grown of the native protein in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.9, b = 100.7, c = 112.0 Å, and data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. Analysis of the native Patterson map revealed a peak at 50% of the origin on the Harker section v = 0.5, suggesting twofold non-crystallographic symmetry parallel to the b crystallographic axis. As attempts to derivatize or grow selenomethionine-labelled protein crystals failed, in-drop proteolysis was used to produce new crystal forms. A trace amount of subtilisin Carlsberg was added to IpaD before sparse-matrix screening, resulting in the production of several new crystal forms. This approach produced SeMet-labelled crystals and diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. The SeMet crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 139.4, b = 45.0, c = 99.5 Å, β = 107.9°. An anomalous difference Patterson map revealed peaks on the Harker section v = 0, while the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a twofold noncrystallographic symmetry axis, which is consistent with two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  18. MxiA, MxiC and IpaD Regulate Substrate Selection and Secretion Mode in the T3SS of Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Kang Shen

    Full Text Available Type III secretion systems (T3SSs are central virulence devices for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of humans, animals & plants. Upon physical contact with eukaryotic host cells, they translocate virulence-mediating proteins, known as effectors, into them during infection. T3SSs are gated from the outside by host-cell contact and from the inside via two cytoplasmic negative regulators, MxiC and IpaD in Shigella flexneri, which together control the effector secretion hierarchy. Their absence leads to premature and increased secretion of effectors. Here, we investigated where and how these regulators act. We demonstrate that the T3SS inner membrane export apparatus protein MxiA plays a role in substrate selection. Indeed, using a genetic screen, we identified two amino acids located on the surface of MxiA's cytoplasmic region (MxiAC which, when mutated, upregulate late effector expression and, in the case of MxiAI674V, also secretion. The cytoplasmic region of MxiA, but not MxiAN373D and MxiAI674V, interacts directly with the C-terminus of MxiC in a two-hybrid assay. Efficient T3S requires a cytoplasmic ATPase and the proton motive force (PMF, which is composed of the ΔΨ and the ΔpH. MxiA family proteins and their regulators are implicated in utilization of the PMF for protein export. However, our MxiA point mutants show similar PMF utilisation to wild-type, requiring primarily the ΔΨ. On the other hand, lack of MxiC or IpaD, renders the faster T3S seen increasingly dependent on the ΔpH. Therefore, MxiA, MxiC and IpaD act together to regulate substrate selection and secretion mode in the T3SS of Shigella flexneri.

  19. MxiA, MxiC and IpaD Regulate Substrate Selection and Secretion Mode in the T3SS of Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Da-Kang; Blocker, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are central virulence devices for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of humans, animals & plants. Upon physical contact with eukaryotic host cells, they translocate virulence-mediating proteins, known as effectors, into them during infection. T3SSs are gated from the outside by host-cell contact and from the inside via two cytoplasmic negative regulators, MxiC and IpaD in Shigella flexneri, which together control the effector secretion hierarchy. Their absence leads to premature and increased secretion of effectors. Here, we investigated where and how these regulators act. We demonstrate that the T3SS inner membrane export apparatus protein MxiA plays a role in substrate selection. Indeed, using a genetic screen, we identified two amino acids located on the surface of MxiA's cytoplasmic region (MxiAC) which, when mutated, upregulate late effector expression and, in the case of MxiAI674V, also secretion. The cytoplasmic region of MxiA, but not MxiAN373D and MxiAI674V, interacts directly with the C-terminus of MxiC in a two-hybrid assay. Efficient T3S requires a cytoplasmic ATPase and the proton motive force (PMF), which is composed of the ΔΨ and the ΔpH. MxiA family proteins and their regulators are implicated in utilization of the PMF for protein export. However, our MxiA point mutants show similar PMF utilisation to wild-type, requiring primarily the ΔΨ. On the other hand, lack of MxiC or IpaD, renders the faster T3S seen increasingly dependent on the ΔpH. Therefore, MxiA, MxiC and IpaD act together to regulate substrate selection and secretion mode in the T3SS of Shigella flexneri.

  20. Peningkatan Aktivitas, Motivasi dan Hasil Belajar IPA Biologi Peserta Didik Kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN Watampone melalui Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiati Pujiati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan aktivitas belajar, motivasi belajar dan hasil belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone melalui model pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilaksanakan di MTsN  1 Watampone Kabupaten Bone. Subjek  penelitian ini adalah peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 dengan jumlah peserta didik 32 orang. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada semester genap tahun pelajaran 2015/2016, bulan Januari sampai bulan April 2016. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 aktivitas belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone meningkat dari  62,25% menjadi 87,5% melalui model pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing (2 motivasi  belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone meningkat dari 85,71% menjadi 87,06%  melalui model pembelajaran inkuri terbimbing (3 . Hasil   belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VIIIA-1 MTsN 1 Watampone meningkat dari 59,37% menjadi 87,5%  melalui model pembelajaran inkuri terbimbing.Kata kunci: pendekatan saintifik, keterampilan proses sains, hasil belajar kognitif biologi.ABSTRACTThis study aims to determine the increase activity, motivation and learning outcomes of science biology for VIIIA-1 Class of MTsN 1 Watampone through guided inquiry learning model. This study is classroom action research conducted in MTsN 1 Watampone, Bone. The subjects were students of Class of VIIIA-1 with the number of students is 32. This research was conducted in the second semester of 2015/2016 academic year, January to April 2016. Results showed that (1 the activity of students to learn science biology of VIIIA-1 Class of MTsN 1 Watampone increased from 62.25% to 87.5% through the inquiry guided learning model, (2 motivation to learn science biology of Students of VIIIA-1 Class of MTsN 1 Watampone increased from 85.71% to 87.06% through the inquiry guided learning model, (3 Biological science learning

  1. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Treffinger dengan Bantuan Media Audio Visual Untuk Meningkatkan Aktivitas dan Hasil Belajar IPA Terpadu pada Siswa Kelas VII SMP Frater Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Indah Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah  jenis Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (Classroom Action Research yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa pada pembelajaran IPA Terpadu melalui penerapan model pembelajaran Treffinger dengan bantuan media audio visual pada materi ekosistem siswa kelas VII SMP FRATER Makassar. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi aktivitas belajar siswa dan evaluasi pada setiap akhir siklus. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis statistik deskriptif dan dilengkapi dengan tabel frekuensi dan presentase. Dari hasil kegiatan pembelajaran yang telah dilakukan terjadi peningkatan hasil belajar siswa, siklus I sebanyak 14 orang dengan presentase 37,83%, sedangkan pada siklus II sebanyak 32 orang dengan persentase 86,48%. dan terjadi peningkatan aktivitas belajar siswa, Semangat siswa dalam mengikuti pembelajaran IPA Terpadu pada siklus I 50,15% dan  meningkat pada siklus II menjadi 80,05%. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penerapan model pembelajaran Treffinger dengan bantuan media audio visual dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar IPA Terpadu pada materi ekosistem pada siswa kelas VII A SMP FRATER Makassar.Kata kunci: model pembelajaran treffinger, hasil belajar, ipa terpadu.ABSTRACTThis study is classroom action research study that aims to increase activity and study results of Integrated Science of  student by using Treffinger model with audio visual media on ecosystem material of Class VII Student at SMP Frater Makassar. Data collection used in this study was observation and achievement test in the end of every cycle. Analytical data by using descriptive statistical analysis include the frequency tables and percentages. The results of this study indicate that: Treffinger  model with audio visual media showed a positive tendency from 14 students with 37,83% in cycle I and improve to 32 students with 86,48% in cycle II and showed a positive tendency on student’s activity in study. Student

  2. Heparin-induced platelet aggregation (H-IPA): dose/response relationship for two low molecular weight (LMW) heparin preparations (CY 216 and CY 222)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brace, L.D.; Fareed, J.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that heparin and a LMW heparin derivative (PK 10169) causes platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner that can be inhibited by antagonists of the thromboxane pathway. Using fractions of these agents separated on the basis of molecular weight (MW) by gel permeation chromatography, the authors showed that H-IPA was directly dependent upon the MW of the agents tested. In order to further examine this MW dependence, the authors tested two other LMW heparin preparations, CY 216 and CY 222 and subfractions of these agents separated on the basis of MW. Citrate anticoagulated whole blood was drawn from drug-free normal healthy donors whose platelets aggregated when heparin was added to their platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was prepared, various concentrations of the agents or their subfractions were added and aggregation was monitored for 40 minutes at 37/sup 0/C. The results demonstrate that like heparin and PK 10169, CY 216 and CY 222 caused platelet aggregation in a dose and MW dependent manner. Fractions with MW less than 2500 daltons caused aggregation only at concentrations exceeding the therapeutic range of the agents. The authors conclude that the ability to cause H-IPA is an inherent property of heparin and its fractions.

  3. Pengaruh Penggunaan Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik Berbasis Pendekatan Ilmiah Terhadap Aktivitas dan Hasil Belajar IPA Biologi Kelas VII Peserta Didik SMP Negeri 2 Watampone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsa Marsa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKParadigma pendidikan menuntut perubahan pembelajaran  yang berpusat pada guru menjadi pembelajaran yang berpusat  pada peserta didik. Pembelajaran dengan menggunakan Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik berbasis pendekatan ilmiah adalah pembelajaran yang berpusat pada peserta didik. Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik berbasis pendekatan ilmiah merupakan lembaran kerja peserta didik yang  berisikan  petunjuk  untuk melaksanakan kegiatan pembelajaran yang harus dilakukan oleh peserta didik dengan mengaplikasikan pendekatan ilmiah yang melalui tahapan-tahapan  mengamati, menanya, mengumpulkan data, mengasosiasi,  dan mengomunikasikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan  untuk (1 mengetahui  aktivitas belajar IPA Biologi  peserta didik kelas VII SMP Negeri  2 Watampone yang diajar dengan menggunakan LKPD berbasis pendekatan ilmiah, (2 mengetahui  hasil belajar  IPA Biologi   peserta didik kelas VII SMP  Negeri  2 Watampone yang diajar dengan menggunakan LKPD berbasis pendekatan ilmiah, dan (3 mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan LKPD berbasis pendekatan ilmiah terhadap hasil  belajar IPA Biologi peserta didik kelas VII SMP Negeri 2 Watampone. Penelitian ini merupakan peneltian  pre eksperimen dengan  desain one group pretest-posttest design. Subyek penelitian adalah peserta didik kelas VII semester genap tahun pelajaran 2015/2016, yaitu kelas VII A sebanyak 24 peserta didik sebagai kelas eksperimen tanpa  kelas kontrol. Teknik analisis data menggunakan statistik deskriptif . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1  aktivitas belajar peserta didik   yang diajar dengan menggunakan LKPD berbasis pendekatan ilmiah berada pada kategori sangat aktif, (2 hasil belajar peserta didik setelah diajar dengan menggunakan LKPD berbasis pendekatan ilmiah mencapai nilai rata-rata 83,13 dengan standar deviasi 9,143, dan (3  Peningkatan kemampuan peserta didik  setelah diajar dengan pembelajaran menggunakan LKPD berbasis pendekatan ilmiah  berada pada klasifikasi

  4. [IPA secretary and patron--Freud's patient, financial administrator and friend. Anton von Freund's letters to Sigmund Freud (1916-1919)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppke, Andrea; Schröter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although the letters, of which numerous and lengthy excerpts are presented in this paper, have repeatedly been used by scholars, they have so far remained unpublished. There are 45 items, written between 4. 1. 1916 and 13. 7. 1919. They indicate a passionate transference to Freud, unfolding against the background of two Hungarian revolutions. After suffering a relapse of his cancer, v. Freund had several stretches of analysis with Freud. While he was better, he established two major funds: one of them allowing the foundation of the psychoanalytic publishing house, the other destined to sponsor a psychoanalytic clinic in Budapest. V. Freund helped organize the Budapest IPA congress, became a member of the "secret committee" and started to actively conduct analyses. Freud was very attached to him and felt deeply shaken by the inexorable progression of v. Freund's disease and then death in January 1920.

  5. Conjunctival melanoma: survival analysis in twenty-two Mexican patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Angélica Salcedo-Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever o intervalo livre de doença (DFI e sobrevida global (OS de pacientes com melanoma conjuntival (CM. Método: Prontuários de 22 pacientes que foram internados em dois hospitais entre 1985 e 2006 foram revisados para dados pertinentes, incluindo dados demográficos, local de envolvimento na conjuntiva e outros locais de acometimento, tratamento cirúrgico e tratamento adjuvante. Resultados: Dez (45,45% homens e 12 (54,55% mulheres foram selecionados. A média de idade foi de 52,3 anos. Em 15 pacientes (68,1% CM envolveu a conjuntiva bulbar, e em 7 (31,9% envolveu a conjuntiva palpebral. Dos 22 pacientes, 72,72% tinham história de melanose conjuntival. O tamanho médio do tumor foi de 20,4 mm. Oito (36,36% pacientes foram submetidos à exenteração orbital, 2 (9,06% à enucleação, 5 (22,72% à ampla excisão da lesão seguida de radioterapia, 2 (9,06% à exenteração orbital com esvaziamento cervical e os restantes 5 pacientes (22,72% foram considerados adequadamente tratados apenas com excisão ampla. Oito (36,36% pacientes receberam tratamento adjuvante. Sobrevida livre de doença em 5 anos foi de 51% e sobrevida global em 5 e 10 anos foi de 50% e 37%, respectivamente. Conclusão: Melanoma conjuntival é uma entidade rara. Comportamento do tumor é agressivo, e o melhor tratamento é a cirurgia com terapia adjuvante.

  6. Twenty-two cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark and in other industrialized countries there are cases where people complain about annoying low-frequency or infrasonic noise in their homes. Besides noise annoyance people often report other adverse effects such as insomnia, headache, lack of concentration etc. In many cases the noise...

  7. Lesson Twenty-two The early repolarization variant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2007-01-01

    @@ The ST-segment elevation seen in apparently healthy and asymptomatic persons,the so-called early repolarization variant (ERPV)1.Hiss et al reported that 91% of 6014 healthy men in the US Air Force who were between 16 and 58 years old had an ST-segment elevation of 0.1 to 0.3 mV in one or more precordial leads2.The elevation was most common and marked in lead V2.

  8. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Twenty-two years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L W; Tompkins, R K; Urrea, P T; Longmire, W P

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-four patients underwent operation for chronic pancreatitis during a 22 year period at UCLA Hospital. Follow-up data obtained for 60% of these patients an average of 3.2 years postoperation were analyzed by computer for statistically significant benefit between paired operation combinations and the variables of pain relief, stool habits, alcohol use, readmission for pancreatitis, and narcotic use. The combined group of total and cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy proved more effective with respect to pain relief and readmission (p less than 0.05) than the group that had pseudocyst drainage. The comparison of groups that underwent resection or ductal drainage showed no statistical differences for the above variables. Regardless of type of operation, if the patient had evidence of pancreatic calcifications and had abstained from alcohol postoperatively, the likelihood of a return to normal activity was more favorable (p less than 0.05). PMID:485605

  9. An exploration of the role of employment as a coping resource for women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing interest amongst researchers and practitioners regarding the various coping strategies adopted by women experiencing intimate partner abuse (IPA). These studies have tended to adopt and adapt the stress-coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) and thus make the distinction between emotion and problem-solving coping strategies and the resources available for women to cope. Even though, contemporary coping scholars acknowledge the role of employment and coping, it is still unclear as to how employment facilitates women's coping strategies. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study, this article explores how employment and workplace environments provide survivors of IPA with resources that allow them to cope with the abuse. By incorporating theoretical insights developed in the field of organizational studies, namely boundary work and organizational identities, these findings develop our understanding of the role of employment in survivors' coping strategies. Finally, the findings demonstrate the valuable contribution of interdisciplinarity in furthering our knowledge of coping strategies and the positive aspects of employment for survivors of IPA.

  10. 荒诞世界里的自由选择——《第二十二条军规》中的存在主义解读%The free choice in absurd world—— Existentialism in "twenty-two military discipline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新川

    2012-01-01

      作为黑色幽默文学流派的重要作家,约瑟夫·海勒和他的代表作《第二十二条军规》在世界文坛上占有重要的地位。海勒是黑色幽默的代表作家,但是他的写作过程中深受存在主义的影响。作为流行于二十世纪欧美的一种非理性主义哲学思潮,存在主义可以概括为三个方面:“自由选择”,“存在先于本质”,“世界是荒诞的,人生是痛苦的”。本文试图通过分析小说中主要人物尤索林的行为选择来解读海勒的《第二十二条军规》中的存在主义思想,以期能对这部经典有更好的理解%  As the writer of black humor literature genre, Joseph Heller and his masterpiece "twenty-two military discipline" occupies an important position in the world literature. Heller is the representative writer of black humor, but influenced by the existentialism in his writing process. As a non rationalist philosophy popular in Europe and the United States in twentieth Century, existentialism can be summarized as three respects:" freedom of choice"," existence precedes essence"," the world is absurd, life is painful". This paper attempts to analyze the major characters in the novel Usolin's choice behavior to explain existentialism in Heller's "twenty-two military discipline", in order to have a better understanding of this classic.

  11. PENGGUNAAN BAHAN AJAR BERBASIS IMTAQ DALAM MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA PADA POKOK BAHASAN SISTEM REPRODUKSI MANUSIA DI KELAS XI IPA SMA NEGERI 1 ASTANAJAPURA KABUPATEN CIREBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Makhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pendidikan merupakan salah satu sumber dasar peradaban umat manusia, karakter yang dibentuk melalui pendidikan akan diaplikasikan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Penggunaan bahan ajar berbasis Imtaq diharapakan siswa tidak hanya baik secara IQ (Intelligence Quotient akan tetapi baik juga dari segi EQ (Emotional Quetiont dan SQ (Spiritual Quotien. Metode penelitian yang digunakan Research and Development dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI IPA. peningkatan N-gain kelas eksperimen 0,32 dengan kriteria sedang dan kelas kontrol peningkatan N-gain 0,23 dengan kriteria rendah. Aktivitas siswa dalam penggunaan bahan ajar berbasis imtaq yang mendukung (On task 87,36 %; yang tidak mendukung (Off task   12,66 %. Terdapat perbedaan hasil belajar siswa yang signifikan antara kelas eksperimen dengan kelas kontrol dengan hasil Sig (2-tailed 0.040 pada uji independent sample t test. Respon siswa terhadap penggunaan bahan ajar berbasis imtaq rata-rata prosentase 82 %; sehingga sikap siswa dapat dikatakan sangat baik (sangat kuat.Kata Kunci : Bahan Ajar Modul, Imtaq, Hasil Belajar

  12. Root produced DHZR-, ZR- and IPA-like cytokinins in xylem sap in relation to coppice shoot initiation and growth in cloned trees of Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, P; Saarelainen, A

    1994-10-01

    Six-year-old cloned Betula pubescens Ehrh. trees, grown outdoors at 65 degrees 01' N, were cut on six dates during the growing season to study coppice shoot development in relation to root-produced cytokinin-like compounds. Bleeding sap was collected over timed intervals for two days after cutting, and endogenous cytokinin-like compounds were measured by ELISA assay in HPLC-purified fractions of xylem sap. Initiation and development of coppice shoots on the clonally propagated plants were comparable to those in seedlings. Coppice shoot initiation was affected by the time of cutting, diminishing significantly after June. Of the cytokinin-like compounds detected in the xylem sap, zeatin riboside-like (ZR) compounds were present in the highest concentrations, and the concentrations of dihydrozeatin riboside-like (DHZR) and isopentenyladenoside-like (IPA) compounds were approximately one third and one eighth of the ZR concentrations, respectively. The concentration of cytokinin-like compounds was positively correlated with xylem sap flow rate. The export of cytokinin-like compounds, especially DHZR- and ZR-types, was positively correlated with the initiation and elongation rate of coppice shoots, the number of lateral branches, and the radial growth of the more slowly growing coppice shoots. The export of cytokinin-like compounds collected immediately after cutting may represent the basal value for each tree. This value is probably affected by the size and activity of the root system and may be a relevant estimate for predicting the success of coppicing.

  13. 基于IPA评价的义乌会展旅游特征感知研究%Yiwu MICE Tourism Feature Perception Based on IPA Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖绪信

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing 20 feature items of Yiwu MICE tourism by means of IPA evaluation, the results show that the actual performance and the positive impact have been recognized and affirmed by the participants. These features are malnly related to economic and social effects. However, the lack of exhibition site and culture impact have reduced satisfaction. This study makes suggestions on marketing resource al-location and work focus for Yiwu MICE industry.%通过运用IPA评价对义乌会展旅游20个特征项进行研究可知,义乌会展业在多个特征项目上的实际绩效和积极影响得到了会展参与者的认同和肯定。这些特征主要涉及经济效益、社会效应方面。但是,在会展选址和控制会展对地方文化的影响方面存在的不足降低了被访者对义乌会展旅游业的满意度,并为未来义乌会展业营销资源配置和工作重点提出建议。

  14. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n 1 = 10) or a control group (n 2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, ...

  15. Factors Influencing Pap Screening Use Among African Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, Adebola; Hatcher, Jennifer

    2016-07-28

    Papanicolau (Pap) screenings disparities exist for immigrant women in the United States. This study sought to have an understanding of factors influencing Pap screening among sub-Saharan African immigrant women. This is a qualitative descriptive study. Women were recruited from the community and by word of mouth following institutional review board approval. Data were gathered through in-depth focus group and demographic questionnaires. Interview sessions were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Twenty-two women aged 24 to 65 years were interviewed. Barriers to screening included low knowledge of screening, cost, cultural beliefs, fear and communication issues. Motivators to improve Pap use include provider's recommendations, enlightenment, and family support. Interventions addressing the barriers peculiar to this population may alleviate these barriers and improve Pap screening use in this population. Providers have the opportunity to influence screening attitudes of African-born women by providing awareness and patient-targeted interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. PENERAPAN METODE SIMULASI TENTANG PERKEMBANGBIAKAN VEGETATIF BUATAN DALAM MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN IPA DI MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH PANGERAN AJI KABUPATEN OKU TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Falahuddin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSimulation method is a method of learning that can create a conducive learning atmosphere. The learning method is an important factor in improving student’s learning outcomes for all subjects, particularly on the subjects of Natural Sciences (IPA. The use of methods that do not comply with the purpose of teaching would be an obstacle in achieving the goal. Therefore, this study looked at and determined whether there was an influence between the applications of simulation methods to the learning outcomes of students in science subjects of artificial vegetative propagation in MI Pangeran Aji East OKU. Besides. The study was also aimed at finding out whether those factors support or inhibit the application of simulation methods of artificial vegetative propagation in improving student learning outcomes in science subjects in MI Pangeran Aji East OKU. This study used an experimental method, with data analysis by using product moment correlation. The final conclusion is that there was a significant relationship between the application of simulation methods to the learning outcomes of students in science subjects of artificial vegetative propagation as seen in the result where rt is smaller than ro;  0.374 < 0.832 > 0.478 . By its antecedents, which does not require a large fee, students interest in learning was more increased. Moreover, teachers could assess the interaction of learning in groups. Whereas, the inhibiting factor was the high motivation of the students to make students communicate with friends so that they can exchange knowledge, the time required seemed slightly. Keywords: Simulation methods, Learning achievement, Science lesson

  17. Comparisons of guardianship laws and surrogate decision-making practices in China, Japan, Thailand and Australia: a review by the Asia Consortium, International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoh, Joshua; Peisah, Carmelle; Narumoto, Jin; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; O'Neill, Nick; Jiang, Tao; Ogano, Shoichi; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Yuka; Chiu, Helen

    2015-06-01

    The International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce was established to promote the autonomy, proper access to care, and dignity of persons with decision-making disabilities (DMDs) across nations. The Asia Consortium of the taskforce was established to pursue these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. This paper is part of the Asia Consortium's initiative to promote understanding and advocacy in regard to surrogate decision-making across the region. The current guardianship laws are compared, and jurisdictional variations in the processes for proxy decision-making to support persons with DMDs and other health and social needs in China, Japan, Thailand, and Australia are explored. The different Asia-Pacific countries have various proxy decision-making mechanisms in place for persons with DMDs, which are both formalized according to common law, civil law, and other legislation, and shaped by cultural practices. Various processes for guardianship and mechanisms for medical decision-making and asset management exist across the region. Processes that are still evolving across the region include those that facilitate advanced planning as a result of the paucity of legal structures for enduring powers of attorney (EPA) and guardianship in some regions, and the struggle to achieve consensual positions in regard to end-of-life decision-making. Formal processes for supporting decision-making are yet to be developed. The diverse legal approaches to guardianship and administration must be understood to meet the challenges of the rapidly ageing population in the Asia-Pacific region. Commonalities in the solutions and difficulties faced in encountering these challenges have global significance.

  18. HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Intervention for Women who have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Michele A

    2010-06-01

    A growing body of literature highlights the association between women who have experienced intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their heightened risk for HIV/AIDS (human immune deficiency syndrome/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) infection. Finding HIV risk reduction strategies that are contextually relevant for this population is an important public policy priority. This qualitative study researched women who have experienced intimate partner abuse in order to develop a HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention unique to their circumstances. This pilot study explored the critical components of such an intervention among a racially/ethnically stratified (African-American, Mexican-American and Anglo) sample of women (n=43) who have experienced IPA. Focus groups were conducted and transcribed, and a content analysis was used to identify major themes. In all five focus groups, participants viewed the research as interesting, good, beneficial, and/or important based on their perceptions of risk for infection. Respondents felt that they knew of ways to protect themselves from infection in non-abusive relationships; however, acknowledged the difficulties of doing so given the context of their abusive relationships. Examining the racial/ethnic differences across focus groups showed that the language used by women is quite variable. The ways in which survivors define rape, sexual abuse, and their own experiences are all unique; however, their actual experiences have many similarities. Discussed at length are the topics participants shared as critical in informing the design of an intervention and the relevance of the findings to social work clinical practice is explained.

  19. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  20. Seeking and processing information for health decisions among elderly Chinese Singaporean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha; Teo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Information behavior includes activities of active information seeking, passive acquisition of information, and information use. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study explored elderly Singaporean women's health information behavior to understand how they sought, evaluated, and used health information in everyday lives. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with elderly Chinese women aged 61 to 79. Qualitative analysis of the interview data yielded three meta-themes: information-seeking patterns, trustworthiness of health information, and peripheral route of decision making. Results revealed that elderly women took both systematic and heuristic approaches to processing information but relied on interpersonal networks to negotiate health choices.

  1. Analysis for the Satisfactions of Nanjing Tulou Based on IPA%基于I PA分析法的南靖土楼游客满意度实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨梅

    2013-01-01

    In order to further enhance Nanjing Tulou tourism market competitiveness, on the basis of on-the-spot investigation on the scenic area, this paper adopts the way of questionnaire survey to collect data, and then use IPA (importance performance analysis) methods to research Nanjing Tulou scenic tourist satisfaction by carrying on the empirical analysis. This article selects 17 observation variables to do tourists satisfaction research on Tulou scenic spots, through on-the-spot investigation. Firstly, using the questionnaire survey to collect data, then using IPA to analyze them. Tulou's advantages and deficiencies can be learned from the IPA model, and on this basis, this paper put forward some improvement measures for Tulou's future development, so as to promote the sustainable development of scenic spots.%为了进一步提升南靖土楼的旅游市场竞争力,本文在对景区实地考察的基础上采用问卷调查、IPA(重要性---表现性分析)研究方法,选取17个观测变量对土楼景区进行游客满意度研究分析。首先采用问卷调查对数据进行收集,进而运用IPA对得到的数据进行研究分析。从IPA模型中可以得知景区存在的优势与不足,在此基础上为土楼景区的发展提出改进措施,促进景区可持续发展。

  2. Peningkatan Prestasi Siswa pada Konsep Fluida Statis dengan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Two Stay-Two Stray (TS–TS Bervariasi Demonstrasi di Kelas XI IPA SMA Negeri 5 Yogyakarta TA 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadiyah Suryani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar fisika konsep fluida statis pada siswa kelas XI IPA SMA N 5 Yogyakarta tahun ajaran 2012/2013 melalui model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Two Stay-Two Stray (TS-TS bervariasi demonstrasi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada kelas XI IPA2 yang berjumlah 36 siswa. Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian tindakan kelas (action research sebanyak 2 siklus, dimana setiap siklus meliputi empat tahap yaitu perencanaan, tindakan, pengamatan (obsservasi dan refleksi. Siklus 1 Peneliti melakukan demonstrasi pada materi tekanan kemudian siswa berdiskusi sesuai dengan kelompok dan sharing antar kelompok. Dua siswa bertamu(stray ke kelompok lain dan 2 siswa tetap(stay berada di kelompok untuk menerima kedatangan dari kelompok lain.Beberapa kelompok mempresentasikan hasil kerja kelompok dan hasil sharing dengan kelompok lain. Dari hasil tes pada siklus 1 menunjukkan hasil yang belum memuaskan karena ada 15 siswa yang belum tuntas dan kurangnya partisipasi siswa dalam belajar kelompok dan kurang tertib ketika pelaksanaan sharing antar kelompok. Maka diadakan siklus 2 dengan materi hukum Archimedes, teknik pelaksanaan sama seperti siklus 1, siswa dapat lebih berpartisipasi aktif dalam kelompok dan pelaksanaan setiap kegiatan pembelajaran berlangsung lebih tertib, siswa tampak termotivasi dalam belaja, hal ini tampak pada saat siswa berdiskusi.. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran dengan model two stay two stray bervariasi demonstrasi dapat meningkatkan prestasi siswa. Tiap siklus ada peningkatan hasil belajar, yaitu siklus 1 presentasi ketuntasan42% , siklus 2 presentase ketuntasan 83% sehingga ada kenaikan hasil belajar sebesar 41%.

  3. Rapidly detecting ipaH gene of Shigella and EIEC through improved Loop - mediated isothermal amplification technology%LAMP技术应用于志贺菌及侵袭性大肠埃希菌ipaH基因快速检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱水荣; 徐宝祥; 余昭; 章海文; 张政; 梅玲玲

    2010-01-01

    目的:建立一种适合基层实验室快速检测志贺菌及侵袭性大肠埃希菌(EIEC)的实验方法.方法:根据志贺菌及EIEC共同含有的侵袭性质粒抗原ipaH基因序列设计4条引物,应用环介导等温扩增(Loop-mediated isothermal am-plification)方法,分别对8株背景明确的不同血清型志贺菌标准株、34株志贺菌地方分离株、1株EIEC实验标准株、7株大肠埃希菌本室保存标准株、3株大肠埃希菌暴发株、10株其他肠道实验对照株进行检测,验证该方法的特异性及最低检测限,通过肉眼目测与电泳检测比较结果.结果:本方法中共计42株志贺菌、1株EIEC及1株44147大肠埃希菌,经用LAMP方法检测,均为绿色并电泳有相应阶梯状条带为阳性结果,而9株其他大肠埃希菌及10株其他肠道实验对照株均呈橙色并电泳无相应阶梯状条带为阴性结果.至于1株44147大肠埃希菌为何也检测出ipaH基因,我们怀疑该菌株要么是EIEC中的一种,要么是在长期进化过程中从别处获得该基因,这尚待今后做进一步探讨.本方法具有较好的特异性,其最低检测限为53 cfu/反应,自然光下通过肉眼即可判断结果,从菌株核酸的提取至检测完成仅需1.5 h左右.应用本方法对24份不同临床病人样本进行实际考核,3份痰液、1份胸积水、2份粪便及18份尿样经检测ipaH基因均为阴性,该结果与分离培养/普通PCR检测结果相符.结论:本次建立的LAMP方法,能快速、特异地检测志贺菌/EIEC,较适合基层实验室应用.

  4. The effect of an aerobic training period on mental health and depression in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saremi A; Kazemi M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is among the common endocrine women disorders that can create manifestations such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of aerobic training on mental health and depression among Iranian women suffering from PCOS has been examined. Methods: This semi experimental study was carried out based on pre-test and post-test on experiment and control groups in Arak, Iran. Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (aged 27.82 ±5.23 y...

  5. Strengthening of the Blood Safety System in the National Blood Transfusion Service - Implementation of the European Union IPA Project - at the Institute for Transfusion Medicine of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada M. Grubovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Safety of the Blood Supply in any country is of utmost importance to safeguard patients from serious adverse events of blood transfusion. Implementation of a Quality System in the Blood Transfusion Service, with support of Government and Ministry of Health is a key element to guarantee safe blood. The IPA TAIB 2009 project - Strengthening of the Blood Safety System executed in 2013/14 provided the means to start implementing a Quality System in the Institute for Transfusion Medicine of the Republic of Macedonia. This project aimed to ultimately bring the Blood Transfusion Service to European Union standards, allowing the exchange of blood components and all other types of collaboration with other European Union countries in future. The project put the basis for unification of blood transfusion standards and operating procedures in the whole country as well as set up essential education of blood transfusion personnel.

  6. The Evaluation of Tourists" Satisfaction in Lhasa Based on the IPA Approach%基于IPA分析法的拉萨市游客满意度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚秋芬

    2012-01-01

    在游客满意度概念的基础上,对拉萨市游客满意度进行了实地调查,运用IPA分析法对满意度进行了分析,发现拉萨市旅游业在发展过程中存在的问题,并提出改善和提高拉萨市游客满意度的措施,以促进其健康发展。%On the base of customer satisfaction,the article collects data and examines tourists" satisfaction in Lhasa by applying Importance-Performance Analysis(IPA). The article finds out the problem in the developing of Lhasa tourism and points out corresponding measures to improve Lhasa tourism,so as to promote it's healthy development.

  7. Knowledge and Acceptability of Anal Cytology Screening Among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Stephanie A; Debnath, Priyanka; Szlachta-McGinn, Alec W; Maguire, Karla; Garcia, Jorge J; Aserlind, Alexandra; Lipshultz, Emma; Potter, JoNell E

    2016-01-01

    Medical providers have initiated anal cytology screening among women to detect anal neoplasia early. Lack of knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and anticipated screening discomfort may limit patient acceptance. This study investigates attitudes toward anal cytology screening among women. Women seen for gynecologic care at an urban university medical center were invited to complete an anonymous survey assessing their understanding of HPV and interest in anal cytology screening. Subjects reported the level of pain, discomfort, and embarrassment they expected from screening on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Four hundred four women with mean (SD) age 36 (13) years met criteria for participation. Three hundred thirty-five women reported their race: 52% were white and 36% were African American. Three hundred forty-eight women reported their ethnicities: 76% were Hispanic and 12% were Haitian. Twenty-two percent had never heard of HPV, 57% were not familiar with anal cytology screening, 67% acknowledged that screening was very helpful in detecting anal neoplasia early, and 28% were very interested in undergoing screening. Mean (SD) level of anticipated pain, discomfort, and embarrassment during screening was 62 (32), 68 (30), and 58 (34) mm, respectively. Level of familiarity with anal cytology screening (p cytology screening among at-risk women to familiarize them with the procedure, describe its role in detecting anal neoplasia, and address expectations surrounding pain to increase its acceptability.

  8. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...... of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing...

  9. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...... of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing...

  10. Historical Approach to the Role of Women in the Legislation of Iran: A Case Study on the Twenty-First Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sheibani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ten years ago, men and women took constitutionalism to achieve justice in Iran. National Council was the result of the Iranian people's struggle for justice, both women and men. Men policies from the beginning of legislation put women as minors and lunatics and bankrupted and banned them from vote. However, the Constitutional Revolution as a turning point and a national revolution played a key role in changing attitudes to women and structural context of their participation provided. In this paper, with the use of descriptive-analytical as well as quantitative methods, we sought to answer the question that what was the position of women in the twenty-first Parliament. The results of this study suggest that when Iranian women were allowed to participate politics, they have achieved to show their ability in politics as we saw examples in the twenty-first Parliament in which women had twenty-two percent participation.

  11. Development of prenatal event history calendar for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chin Hwa Gina; Lori, Jody; Martyn, Kristy

    2008-01-01

    To identify psychosocial factors that Black women think should be addressed in prenatal care assessment and develop a Prenatal Event History Calendar to assess these factors. A qualitative descriptive study. Two inner city hospital prenatal care clinics in Southeastern Michigan. Twenty-two Black women who had attended at least 2 prenatal care visits. Three focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Using the constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) themes were identified that were relevant to Black women during prenatal care visits. The women in this study wanted to talk with their providers about psychosocial factors and not just the physical aspects of pregnancy. To "go off the pregnancy" represents pregnant women's desire to discuss psychosocial factors that were important to them during prenatal care. Five themes emerged from the data and were used to develop categories for the Prenatal Event History Calendar: relationships, stress, routines, health history perceptions, and beliefs. One vital component of prenatal care assessment is assessing for psychosocial risk factors. Prenatal Event History Calendar was specifically developed to provide a comprehensive and contextually linked psychosocial risk assessment for use with pregnant Black women.

  12. Veintidós años de evolución de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en la mortalidad en la ciudad de Barcelona Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Dalmau-Bueno

    2010-01-01

    from 1983 to 2004. Methods: We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, with the basic health area (BHA as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of men and women aged 20 years or more living in Barcelona. The information sources were the mortality registry, the municipal census and the census of inhabitants and dwellings. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate (ASMR for all causes was used as the dependent variable. As the independent variable, a composite index of socioeconomic deprivation of the BHA was calculated; BHAs were grouped in quartiles according to the values on the index. Poisson models were adjusted to estimate the relative risk of mortality from all causes in the 4 groups of BHA, stratified by age groups and sex. Results: In all the study periods, inequalities in mortality were found, depending on the BHA of residence, both for men and for women: the ASMR of the most deprived BHAs were greater than those of less deprived BHA, and were greater among men than among women. Likewise, relative risks in the youngest age groups were higher than in the oldest age groups. However, from the second to fourth study periods, inequalities decreased in absolute and relative terms, especially among men. Conclusions: Inequalities in mortality persist in BHA in Barcelona but have decreased over the last 2 decades. Public policies should take this information into account when tackling inequalities among BHA.

  13. Empowering Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, Gro Harlem

    1994-01-01

    An edited version of Prime Minister of Norway Gro Harlem Brundtland's keynote address to the International Conference on Population and Development in September 1994. This address focuses on the role played by women in population growth and emphasizes the urgency of economic and political rights and education for women. (LZ)

  14. Hidden Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolanda Bosch; René Moelker

    2008-01-01

    Discussing the visibility and cultural factors that inf luence the position of women in the armed forces is the object of the study that is presented here. The Netherlands do not have a martial tradition and are believed to have a feminine ‘soft’ culture , but nevertheless women have always been

  15. Relationship between serum trace elements and antioxidant capacity indexes in women of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Mei Xu; Ying Jiang; Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship between serum trace elements, antioxidant capacity index and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP). Methods: Forty cases of normal healthy pregnant women, twenty-one pregnant women with high blood pressure, twenty-eight pregnant women with early stage of mild preeclampsia and twenty-two pregnant women with early stage of severe preeclampsia were selected respectively. Then, the differences of blood routine examination and blood coagulation function of the four groups were compared. At the same time, the levels of the serum trace elements and oxidative stress related indexes in the placental villi tissue were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:The white blood cells and hematocrit of HDCP pregnant women were significantly higher than those of normal healthy pregnant women;platelet and fibrinogen levels were obviously lower than those of normal healthy pregnant women, while thrombin time was shorter than that of normal healthy pregnant women;levels of serum copper, zinc and manganese were also significantly lower than whose of normal healthy pregnant women, while iron level was distinctly higher than that of normal healthy pregnant women. The differences between groups were statistically significant. The activities of SOD and GSH-PX in the placental villi tissue of HDCP pregnant women were significantly smaller than those of normal healthy pregnant women, while the Hcy level was higher than that of normal healthy pregnant women. The differences between groups were statistically significant. Conclusions:Pregnant women with HDCP has both imbalance of trace elements and redox system equilibrium, so we should strengthen the determination of the trace elements and redox related indexes of HDCP pregnant women to ensure health of maternal and child.

  16. Are post-menopausal women "half-a-man"?: sexual beliefs, attitudes and concerns among midlife Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Davina C Y; Wong, William C W; Ho, Suzanne C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the concerns and issues specific to sexual behaviors and interests among postmenopausal women in a metropolitan urban city in Southern China. This was a qualitative study using semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs). Twenty-two informants aged 50 and above recruited through an ongoing research project on early post-menopausal women under the purview of the School of Public Health at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The main outcome measures were themes identified as health concerns towards sex among postmenopausal women. Contrary to prior expectations and stereotypes, we found that the respondents were very open in discussing their sexual concerns and shared extensively from their personal experiences. Our respondents perceived significant differences in sexual needs between older men and women. Many respondents identified the effects of menopause and general health problems, as well as environmental limitations and communication problems between spouses as barrier to healthy sexual relationships within their marriages. Conversely, sexual disharmony was seen as an important cause of marital strife among older couples. There is a growing need in studying health concerns among the fast-growing, Chinese middle-aged and older population. Our qualitative study revealed a wide gap in the knowledge regarding general and sexual health issues among post-menopausal Chinese women. Raising awareness among health professionals of these issues is essential in addressing health concerns regarding this traditionally taboo subject within the Chinese context.

  17. Unconscious collusion: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the maternity care experiences of women with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m²).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sandra; McNamara, Patricia Mannix

    2017-06-01

    obstetric and midwifery literature continually emphasise incidence and consequence of obesity in pregnancy. However, they offer less consensus on how best to support women who are obese. Therefore, this study explores in depth the lived experience of women who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30kg/m². This exploration provides a bio-psycho-social understanding of the lived experience of women to identify how best to support them throughout their childbirth experience. an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) design was adopted for this qualitative study. Purposive sampling of participants was conducted on the postnatal wards of a maternity hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In total, 15 participants volunteered to take part in semi-structured interviews conducted at six to ten weeks postnatally. Data were analysed utilising the IPA framework. the results indicate that participants were conscious of the problematics of communicating obesity in pregnancy. The narrative data revealed an unconscious collusion between healthcare professionals and women as they navigate obesity related conversations. The behaviours related to unconscious collusion are incorporated in the sub-ordinate themes; 'just recorded and that's all', 'but what's eating healthy? 'pussy footing around' and 'I hate that word obesity. the findings highlight a lack of information received by participants from healthcare professionals regarding increased BMI or weight management. The data suggests that healthcare professionals appeared to collude with women to avoid challenging discussions regarding obesity. This may be related to avoidance on participants' part and/or may be linked with healthcare professionals' reluctance to communicate issues relating to increased BMI. Although participants were generally unhappy with the communication skills of health professionals, they readily acknowledged the sensitive nature of obesity related communications. The findings provide healthcare

  18. Women NGO's and Women Empowerment in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    psychology, political and legal circumstances of women. Women NGO's ... directed the searchlight on a variety of issues affecting the status of women in the society. .... marginalization of women in this domain still remains. Some of the ...

  19. Overcoming the toxic influence of subtle messaging: Utah women who persist in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Susan L.

    It is important to train more females to support the needs of a national and global economy workforce. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the proposition of the effect subtle messaging has on a Utah young woman's future career choice. The literature review will approach the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects with historical, psychological, and cultural vantage points. An examination of three interconnected topics of research will include a history of women in the workforce and identified barriers to STEM education and careers to identify what types of messages are delivered to women as it relates to STEM and how it influences their career interest decisions. While there are historical barriers towards women in training for and entering STEM careers, no strong evidence is identified for sustained improvement. The changing concepts of social cognitive career theory can potentially provide a framework for constructivist assumptions regarding the topic of what can focus Utah young women learners to influence their own career development and surroundings to persist into STEM careers. Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis (IPA) provides increased understanding of the experiences of how Utah young women come to their decision and what role their environment contributes to that experience. Preliminary research outcomes demonstrate that the participants describe feelings of self-efficacy along with cultural expectations that do not align with their personal goals to enter into STEM education and careers.

  20. Women's experiences of wearing therapeutic footwear in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravey Michael I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic footwear is recommended for those people with severe foot problems associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is known that many do not wear them. Although previous European studies have recommended service and footwear design improvements, it is not known if services have improved or if this footwear meets the personal needs of people with RA. As an earlier study found that this footwear has more impact on women than males, this study explores women's experiences of the process of being provided with it and wearing it. No previous work has compared women's experiences of this footwear in different countries, therefore this study aimed to explore the potential differences between the UK, the Netherlands and Spain. Method Women with RA and experience of wearing therapeutic footwear were purposively recruited. Ten women with RA were interviewed in each of the three countries. An interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA was adopted during data collection and analysis. Conversational style interviews were used to collect the data. Results Six themes were identified: feet being visibly different because of RA; the referring practitioners' approach to the patient; the dispensing practitioners' approach to the patient; the footwear being visible as different to others; footwear influencing social participation; and the women's wishes for improved footwear services. Despite their nationality, these women revealed that therapeutic footwear invokes emotions of sadness, shame and anger and that it is often the final and symbolic marker of the effects of RA on self perception and their changed lives. This results in severe restriction of important activities, particularly those involving social participation. However, where a patient focussed approach was used, particularly by the practitioners in Spain and the Netherlands, the acceptance of this footwear was much more evident and there was less wastage as a

  1. Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    When honored guests visit, Tu women will block the door and invite them to show their respect by drinking three cups of wine. Only after this ritual can the guests be led indoors and shown to their seats.

  2. Women Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Jiangyong County,a remote place in central China's Hunan Province,has been gathering more attention due to a strange-looking language passed down exclusively by women for hundreds of years. The language,which is called nushu,or women's script,is said to originate from Chinese square-block characters,but the orthography and pronunciation are quite different from all other branches of Chinese dialects.

  3. Leibniz's women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.

  4. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  6. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  7. Study on the Tourist Satisfaction of the Chinese Liquor Culture in Yibin Based on IPA Analysis%基于IPA方法的宜宾白酒文化旅游游客满意度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宝; 郭五林; 周陶; 周倩

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire survey was conducted among the Yibin wine culture landscape area visitors, and the tourist perception was analyzed by using the method of the IPA law.The findings show that the satisfaction degree about key projects of Yibin liquor culture tourism factors is low.Recreational activities related to liquor culture, tourist souvenirs, sanitary conditions, and consultation and complaint status should be given more attention to for future tourism development.Therefore, wine culture themed tourism programs should be developed for facilitating tourists to have indepth-experience of the wine culture of Yibin region, so as to shape the tourist city with rich Chinese liquor cultural atmosphere, increase the construction of tourism infrastructure and service level.%对宜宾酒文化景观区游客进行问卷调查,运用IPA法分析游客对景区的感知度,结果显示:游客对宜宾白酒文化旅游关键项目因子满意度较低,其中白酒文化相关娱乐活动、旅游纪念品、景区卫生条件、投诉及咨询状况等是未来旅游开发应重点关注的因素。未来宜宾白酒文化旅游开发应打造白酒文化深度体验之旅,塑造白酒文化氛围浓郁的城市旅游环境,加强旅游基础服务设施和服务水平的建设力度。

  8. Diet and carbohydrate food knowledge of multi-ethnic women: a comparative analysis of pregnant women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba I Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diet therapy is the cornerstone for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Carbohydrate is the primary nutrient affecting postprandial blood glucose levels. Hence, knowledge of food containing carbohydrates can assist women with GDM optimize glycemic control. Despite that, there is a paucity of research on carbohydrate-related knowledge of women with GDM. The United Arab Emirates (UAE has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes (19.2% in the world. This study compared diet and knowledge of carbohydrate-containing foods among pregnant women with and without GDM in the UAE. METHODS: The sample consisted of multi-ethnic women with GDM (n = 94 and a control group of healthy pregnant women (n = 90 attending prenatal clinics in three hospitals in Al Ain, UAE. Data were collected using a questionnaire and a 24-hour recall. Knowledge of food sources of carbohydrate, dietary patterns, and nutrient intakes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the mean knowledge score of food sources of carbohydrate between women with GDM and that of pregnant women without GDM. Similarly, there were no significant differences in energy and nutrient intakes between the two groups with the exception of percent energy from protein. Women with GDM reported significantly lower intake of fruits and fruit juices (P = 0.012 and higher consumption of milk and yogurt (P = 0.004 compared to that of women without GDM. Twenty-two percent of women with GDM indicated they never visited a dietitian for counseling while 65% reported they visited a dietitian only once or twice during the pregnancy. Predictors of carbohydrate knowledge score were perceived knowledge of diet and GDM and parity among women with GDM and parity and educational level among those without GDM. CONCLUSION: The results of the study highlight the urgent need to provide nutrition education for women with GDM in the UAE.

  9. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  10. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients.

  11. PREGNANT WOMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women attending an antenatal clinic and gynaeco- logical clinic ... Other observa- tions are less specific and may be part of the gen- .... be due to the high levels of corticosteroids though there is no direct proof ... Scully C, Cawson RA. Medical ...

  12. Women's Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Arlene Kaplan

    1978-01-01

    The women's movement may show us some of the changes to come in the content and form of the social sciences. Among issues which will be increasingly addressed are those of work and the family, personal growth and social responsibility, and the emotional component in rational, objective, and scientific enterprise. (Author/GC)

  13. Smokefree Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infographic that presents all the benefits to quitting smoking during pregnancy to help you have a happy, healthy birth ... of smoke… Read full story: 3 Very Real Dangers of Secondhand Smoke » share 4 Benefits of Quitting Smoking Many women are surprised by how well… Read ...

  14. Rebellious Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At the background of a short presentation of concepts of discourse (in particular in Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault) and of the concept of shari'a a Spanish court case against an imam in reference to his publication on Women in Islam, where sura 4 verse 34 of the Quran is a central reference...

  15. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study. Final Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…

  16. Twenty-two-month-olds discriminate fluent from disfluent adult-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Melanie; Morgan, James L

    2007-09-01

    Deviation of real speech from grammatical ideals due to disfluency and other speech errors presents potentially serious problems for the language learner. While infants may initially benefit from attending primarily or solely to infant-directed speech, which contains few grammatical errors, older infants may listen more to adult-directed speech. In a first experiment, Post-verbal infants preferred fluent speech to disfluent speech, while Pre-verbal infants showed no preference. In a second experiment, Post-verbal infants discriminated disfluent and fluent speech even when lexical information was removed, showing that they make use of prosodic properties of the speech stream to detect disfluency. Because disfluencies are highly correlated with grammatical errors, this sensitivity provides infants with a means of filtering ungrammaticality from their input.

  17. The Houle Typology after Twenty-two Years: A Large-Scale Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Rogier; Collins, John B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, Education Participation Scale data from 13,442 learners in Africa, Asia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States were combined and subjected to a cluster analysis designed to examine the extent to which Houle's typology fitted the phenomenological reality that exists within adult education participants. Results are described.…

  18. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study. Final Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-two. Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maryland governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE:Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-two EPILEPSY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海菊; 尚秀英; 刘文红

    2001-01-01

    Epilepsy is a kind of paroxysmal mental disorder and is characterized by sudden and repeated attack, and short duration. When it attacks, the patient falls unconscious suddenly with tic of the limbs or crying; after waking up, his or her condition is the same as normal person. In clinic it is generally divided into primary and secondary types, and each of them has manypatterns.

  1. Aortico-left ventricular tunnel in adulthood: twenty-two year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rose; Kafka, Henryk

    2009-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that is usually managed by surgical or catheter intervention. This case documents the 22 year follow up of a 44 year old man who has been managed medically through a programme of close clinical and echocardiographic monitoring. This report illustrates that conservative management of Type I ALVT can be undertaken without adverse clinical consequences.

  2. The Portrayal of Canada in American Textbooks. Occasional Paper Number Twenty-two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, Marion C.; Wilson, Donald C.

    A new awareness of the importance of understanding Canada has made its way to U.S. public school classrooms. Canada and the Canadian-U.S. relationship have joined the spectrum of countries featured in the U.S. curriculum. As a response to this development, an investigation of leading textbooks used in U.S. classrooms was undertaken to examine the…

  3. Twenty-Two Years of Training Social Work Practitioners in Africa: Reflections on Strategies and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupedziswa, Rodreck

    2008-01-01

    Reminisces on teaching social work from the baccalaureate through the doctoral level for more than two decades, with special attention to comparing classroom teaching and field work supervision; provides an overview of strategies of the lecture methods which have been found to be successful; also discusses methods such as small group interaction,…

  4. Women's worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.

  5. PARADIGMA INTEGRATIF DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA MI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Nugroho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge is intrinsically comes from Allah SWT which is revealed to Prophet Muhammad SAW and is embodied in Al Qur’an. Paradigm is a group of values which form one’s thought as his or her starting point of view so that it will form one’s subjective image – about a reality – which finally will determine how this one responds the reality. Human should not ever stop thinking about him/her self, his/her surrounding, and (the most important The Creator. Islam taught its followers to always undertake studies on behavior or any rotation and changes happen, either on natural phenomenon or what happen amongst human beings.   Science teaching in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (Islamic Elementary School should instill moral values that educate students to become caracterized. It can be undertaken by science teaching using integrated bayani, burhani, and irfani approach. Keyword: science teaching, integrated bayani burhani irfani approach.

  6. Exploring the Inner Solar System During IPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Stockman, S. A.; Carter, B. L.; Bleacher, L. V.

    2008-12-01

    During 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, both the MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to orbit the Moon will use key mission milestones to engage the public. For the MESSENGER mission key millstones will be the release to the public of data from the Oct 6th 2008, flyby and the Sept 29th 2009 third and last Mercury flyby before MESSENGER orbits Mercury in 2011. IYA activities will include participating in 365 Days of Astronomy podcasts, making the second flyby data publicly available and exciting the public with images from the third flyby. The data from the first flyby can be seen in a variety of locations across the country on Science on a Sphere. During IYA, the MESSENGER mission will also be reaching a wide variety of audiences through social media networking such as Facebook and Twitter. Informal education communities will be able to include Mercury data in their IYA programming through the distribution of MESSENGER data through the NASA Museum Alliance. The LRO mission will return the public's attention to our nearest neighbor, the Moon, in 2009. As a result, the public will see high resolution images of the Moon never seen before. LRO will also engage the public in the lunar observation program. Starting in early 2009, LRO and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will be launched, and will continue their science missions throughout IYA. The public will be encouraged to make observations of the Moon during critical maneuvers for the LRO and LCROSS missions, including the LCROSS encounter, impacting the Moon which will occur in 2009. These events will help shift the public's attention to the Moon, and highlight the role our nearest neighbor plays in helping scientists learn about the early history of our Solar System. In addition to viewing LRO images and observing the Moon, the public can learn about the Moon, LRO, LCROSS, and past lunar missions virtually via the "Return to the Moon Hall" on CoLab Island in Second Life. As with MESSENGER, LRO will also be featured on Facebook, Twitter and the Museum Alliance.

  7. The impact of polygamy on women's mental health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, L D

    2013-03-01

    Aims. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify and appraise the present state of prevalence research on the mental health of polygynous women, or plural wives, and to summarize its implications for future research and social work practice. Methods. PsycInfo (1967 to November 2011) and Medline (1985 to November 2011) databases, systematic bibliography hand-searches, personal communication with a leading expert, and gray literature searching were applied in a systematic literature search of the prevalence of mental-health issues in polygynous women compared to monogamous women. Twenty-two studies meeting eligibility criteria were identified. Study characteristics, methods and findings were systematically extracted and appraised for quality. Results. The identified studies are of mixed methodological quality, but generally suggest a more significant prevalence of mental-health issues in polygynous women compared to monogamous women. Individual studies report a higher prevalence of somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism and psychiatric disorder in polygynous wives as well as reduced life and marital satisfaction, problematic family functioning and low self-esteem. Conclusions. The current state of the research reveals with moderate confidence, a more significant prevalence of mental-health issues in polygynous women as compared to monogamous women. Implications for practice and research are indicated.

  8. Caçar, preparar e comer o ‘bicho do mato’: práticas alimentares entre os quilombolas na Reserva Extrativista Ipaú-Anilzinho (Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Alves de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Resumo A caça de animais silvestres tem desempenhado um papel importante para a reprodução física e simbólica de famílias rurais que vivem em diferentes regiões tropicais do planeta. Com efeito, muitas dimensões do uso de recursos cinegéticos como fonte de alimentação ainda não foram suficientemente estudadas, sobretudo dos pontos de vista da Antropologia e da Etnoecologia. Tais dimensões, com frequência, são ignoradas nas intervenções de conservação da biodiversidade. Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar o uso da fauna silvestre em práticas alimentares por famílias da comunidade quilombola de Joana Peres, localizada na Reserva Extrativista Ipaú-Anilzinho, uma unidade de conservação situada no município de Baião, Pará, Amazônia brasileira. Conduzimos o estudo a partir dos pressupostos da Etnoecologia. Destacamos os elementos de ordem social e cultural que norteiam os processos de obtenção, preparo e consumo de alimentos a partir da atividade cinegética. Empregamos os métodos da observação participante e entrevistas abertas e semiestruturadas. Interpretamos os dados tanto de modo qualitativo como quantitativo. Particularmente, para cada uma das espécies citadas procuramos calcular o índice de Valor de Uso (VU, que possibilita demonstrar o grau de importância relativa das espécies conhecidas localmente. O estudo evidenciou que a atividade cinegética envolve tanto aspectos nutricionais como socioculturais, uma vez que os recursos faunísticos fornecem proteína e as práticas alimentares são permeadas por diferentes processos que incluem costumes, imaginários, sociabilidades, tabus e modos de preparo.

  9. 基于IPA方法的上海崇明岛生态旅游评价研究%Study of Eco-tourism Evaluation in Shanghai Chongming Island Based on IPA Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立龙

    2013-01-01

    生态旅游是以环境友好为特点的一种新兴旅游形式,IPA(important and performance analysis)即“重要性与满意度评价分析方法”,是一个广泛应用于对研究对象进行综合评价的重要方法。本文以崇明为例,开展游客对崇明生态旅游的满意度及相关要素的重要性评价研究,比较它们的差异,在此基础上,构建崇明生态旅游感知评价的IPA四象限图,旨在为发展崇明生态旅游提供对策。研究得出:“高重要性、低满意度”的重点改进区域包括六个要素,分别是“专业人才缺乏”,“人员素质不高”、“村民保护意识不强”、“管理水平低下”、“卫生状况堪忧”、“垃圾处理设施不全”。%Ecological tourism is the emerging forms of tourism which is environmentally friendly , the IPA (important and performance analysis) is "the importance and satisfaction evaluation method", which is widely used on evaluating the object of research. This paper took Chongming as an example, study on evaluating visitors’s satisfaction and related factors of importance of eco-tourism as well as comparing their differences, on this basis, IPA’s four quadrant diagram of eco-tourism evaluation of perception was constructed, which aimed at offering the countermeasures for development of ecological tourism in Chongming. In a conclusion,the key improving area which is high importance and low performance including six elements:absence of professional faculty, low quality of staff, weak protection awareness in villagers, low level of management, bad condition of hygiene, lack of garbage facilities.

  10. Research on the Customer Satisfaction Based on the IPA of the Budget Hotel%基于IPA分析法的经济型酒店顾客满意度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 牛瑞

    2015-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is the eternal pursuit goal for the enterprise.In recent years,customer satisfaction’s research relates to various industries.Taking Dalian budget hotel as an example,using em-pirical research method this paper analysis the factors influencing the Budget Hotel customer satisfaction, and examines those customer satisfaction factors by applying importance-performance analysis (IPA), which aims at offering countermeasures for development of budget hotel in Dalian.Results show that Dalian doesn’t meet customers’needs well.The key to improving area which is high importance and low performance including four elements:poor of soundproof room insulation,lack of network communica-tion,low quality of staff and poor of the food environment.At last,in order to enhance the customer satis-faction,the problem in the forth department should be solved.%顾客满意度是企业追求的永恒目标。近年来,对顾客满意度的研究涉及到各个行业领域。以大连经济型酒店为研究对象,以实证研究方法分析经济型酒店顾客满意度的影响因素,并运用 IPA分析法对这些因素进行分析探讨,旨在为经济型酒店的发展提供对策建议。研究表明,顾客对酒店的满意度一般,“重要性高,满意度低”重点改进的象限分布四个因素,分别是:客房隔音效果差、卫浴及热水供应不及时、服务人员态度差以及周边购物娱乐设施不健全。而目前大连市经济型酒店的重中之重是,集中精力解决第 IV象限的4个因子,有针对性的解决问题,从而提高顾客的满意度。

  11. Opposing effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and free testosterone on metabolic phenotype in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Giuliani, Albrecht; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    To study the association of adrenal and ovarian androgen levels with metabolic parameters in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic of an academic hospital. Six hundred twenty-two women with PCOS. None. Analysis of the association of endocrine dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and free testosterone (FT) parameters with metabolic measurements. In multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance was statistically significantly higher (4.42, range: 2.26-8.67) for women with PCOS who had elevated FT levels compared with the women with normal DHEAS and FT levels (reference group). We found no statistically significant differences when women with PCOS with elevated DHEAS or a combined elevation of DHEAS and FT levels were compared with the reference group. Women with PCOS and a high DHEAS/FT ratio had a more beneficial metabolic profile compared with the women with a low DHEAS/FT ratio. In multivariate adjusted binary logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significantly lower risk for insulin resistance in the women with PCOS in the highest DHEAS/FT-ratio quartile compared with women with PCOS in the lowest quartile (OR 0.35, range: 0.14-0.89). Our results suggest that the distinction between adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism is important when evaluating metabolic risk in PCOS. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

     Coffee Morning Tuesday 7th February 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant n°2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Terre des Hommes Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  13. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th October 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Nous aussi”. Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  14. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Women's Club

    2014-01-01

        CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th Avril 2014, 9:30 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  15. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning   Tuesday 24th  April 2012, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504, Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  16. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  March 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 - Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) - 1st Floor, Club Room 3. German Theme Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet fo...

  17. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

        CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet for tea, coffee, and a chat. We will meet every 3rd Tuesday of the month, starting on 20th March 2012, in building 504 (Restaurant 2) in room E-005. 20th March at 9-11am 17th April at 9-11am 22nd May at 9-11am 19th June at 9-11am For more details contact Mme Jean RODERICK, +41 (0) 76 426 61 08, jean.chow.roderick@gmail.com http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC-華人茶敍 越來�...

  18. Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in pregnant women in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Custódio Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: The impact of gestational toxocariasis is an understudied topic on female reproductive health. We estimated anti-Toxocara IgG prevalence among pregnant women in Brasília, Brazil, and investigated the association of the infection with history of abortion and contact with pets. METHODS: Infection was diagnosed using ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens. Participant information was obtained via questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 311 pregnant women, 23 were anti-Toxocara IgG positive. Twenty-two percent of anti-Toxocara IgG-positive participants and 26% had previously miscarried. Previous contact with pets was associated with higher toxocariasis prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: A direct relationship between toxocariasis and contact with pets was observed, but there was no relationship with the miscarriage prevalence.

  19. [Intimate partner violence and family dysfunction among Mexican women seen a Primary Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriz-Mora, M I; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for intimate-partner violence (IPV) in women who attended a Family Medicine Unit in Tijuana, Mexico. A total of 297 women were interviewed and evaluated using two validated scales: violence and severity index and family APGAR to assess family functioning and IPV respectively. The mean age (± SD) was 40.6±13.8 years, and 120 (40.4%) women had suffered IPV: 47 (15.8%) psychological violence; 31 (10.4%) sexual violence; 77 (25.9%) physical violence, and in 19 (6.4%) there were actions that threatened the lives of women. The most common causes of domestic violence were women who reported that their partner had been jealous, or suspicion from friends (37.4%). Twenty two (7.4%) of the women with domestic violence reported that they had sought help. The prevalence of IPV was high and associated with the education level of the couple and family functioning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Sociocultural Influences On Undergraduate Women's Entry into a Computer Science Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Louise Ann

    Computer science not only displays the pattern of underrepresentation of many other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but has actually experienced a decline in the number of women choosing the field over the past two decades. Broken out by gender and race, the picture becomes more nuanced, with the ratio of females to males receiving bachelor's degrees in computer science higher for non-White ethnic groups than for Whites. This dissertation explores the experiences of university women differing along the axis of race, class, and culture who are considering majoring in computer science in order to highlight how well-prepared women are persuaded that they belong (or not) in the field and how the confluence of social categories plays out in their decision. This study focuses on a university seminar entitled "Women in Computer Science and Engineering" open to women concurrently enrolled in introductory programming and uses an ethnographic approach including classroom participant observation, interviews with seminar students and instructors, observations of students in other classes, and interviews with parents of students. Three stand-alone but related articles explore various aspects of the experiences of women who participated in the study using Rom Harre's positioning theory as a theoretical framework. The first article uses data from twenty-two interviews to uncover how interactions with others and patterns in society position women in relation to a computer science major, and how these women have arrived at the point of considering the major despite messages that they do not belong. The second article more deeply explores the cases of three women who vary greatly along the axes of race, class, and culture in order to uncover pattern and interaction differences for women based on their ethnic background. The final article focuses on the attitudes and expectations of the mothers of three students of contrasting ethnicities and how reported

  1. Rural Women Get Help from Women Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    SINCE more and more rural women have become involved in commercial production, they have become more and more eager to learn about scientific technology. The Women’s Federation of Beijing had long been looking for a direct and effective way to help them. Luo Xiaolu, vicedirector of the Federation, found in her investigation of the present conditions of intellectual women in Beijing that women students were also eager to get in touch with society. Then she had an idea that women students in universities and colleges should go to the countryside. Thus, an activity developed called "women college students and rural women, hand in hand."

  2. Unsettled women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Amy Bock (alias Percy Redwood) created a media sensation when "The Case of the Woman Bridegroom" hit the newspapers throughout New Zealand in 1909. She was hailed as the "queerest and most interesting character that has ever been before the New Zealand public" and "pitiable in her freakish exploits." Debates ensued as to whether her crimes were evidence of a mania, a disease, or simply due to a flawed, criminal character. This article focuses on media portrayals of women who did not conform to normative constructions of acceptable womanhood within the latter decades of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century in New Zealand, as a means of tracing the mutable boundaries of intelligible genders. Newspaper debates and emergent discourses around the medicalisation of social de-viancy are drawn upon to demonstrate how normative constructions of gender were premised upon a defining matrix of mad/bad/woman.

  3. Women and Industrial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkquist, David C.

    1973-01-01

    Deals with these three questions: (1) What is the employment status of women, (2) What do advocates of the women's rights movement want, (3) How should industrial educators respond to the women's rights movement? (SB)

  4. Competition between Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined competition and physical attractiveness among women. Results indicated that a large number of females are highly critical of other women, particularly attractive ones, and are highly concerned about their own appearance in relation to other women. (Author/BL)

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  6. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  7. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  8. Gallstones in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / Gallstones in Women Gallstones in Women Basics Overview Did you know that women are at increased risk for gallstones? Gallstones occur in up to 20% of American ...

  9. Bleeding Disorders in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Bleeding Disorders in Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... risk for a bleeding disorder. What is excessive bleeding in women? Women with excessive bleeding may experience ...

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  11. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  12. Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

    2001-01-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

  13. Women of ATLAS - International Women's Day 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.

  14. Pregnancy outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected young women in Madrid, Spain: 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Luis M; Fernández McPhee, Carolina; Rojas, Patricia; Mazariegos, Diana; Muñoz, Eloy; Mellado, Maria José; Holguín, África; Navarro, María Luisa; González-Tomé, María Isabel; Ramos, José Tomás

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are reaching adulthood and becoming pregnant. Most PHIV women have been exposed to a high number of antiretroviral regimens, and they may have difficulties to achieve viral suppression. Psychosocial problems are not uncommon and could be an important barrier for treatment adherence. The effects of chronic HIV infection and long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment of PHIV women cause concerns on the developing fetus. The aims of this study were to describe the prevention of mother-to-child transmission strategies in PHIV women and the infant outcomes in the Madrid Cohort of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs. All PHIV pregnant women registered in the Cohort that gave birth from 2000 to 2015 were included in the study. Twenty-eight pregnancies in twenty-two perinatally infected women were registered. Most women were Caucasian and heavily treatment-experienced. Nine cases (32.1%) were at high risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was detectable close to delivery in four women (14.3%). The management of these cases was described, and the treatment strategies were discussed. None of the newborns acquired HIV infection. Eight infants (28.6%) were small for gestational age. This study included a large series of pregnancies among PHIV women attended according to a youth-centered care model. The challenges in the management of this population by health-care providers were described. Specific strategies to minimize perinatal transmission risks should be addressed in future collaborative studies.

  15. Serum Fetuin-A levels, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enli, Yasar; Fenkci, Semin Melahat; Fenkci, Veysel; Oztekin, Ozer

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to determine serum Fetuin-A levels and establish whether serum Fetuin-A level is related with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, ovarian hyperandrogenism and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-two patients with PCOS and twenty-one healthy control women were evaluated in this controlled clinical study. Serum Fetuin-A, lipid fractions, glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and other hormone (gonadotropins, androgens) levels were measured. The estimate of insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R). The women with PCOS had significantly higher serum fasting glucose, insulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), MDA, Fetuin-A levels, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, free androgen index (FAI), HOMA-IR than healthy women. However, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and GSH levels were significantly lower in patients with PCOS compared with controls. Fetuin-A was positively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and FAI. Multiple regression analysis revealed that FAI was strong predictor of serum Fetuin-A level. Serum Fetuin-A level was related with insulin resistance and ovarian hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. These results suggest that Fetuin-A may have a role in triggering the processes leading to insulin resistance and androgen excess in PCOS.

  16. Comparative Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Iranian Women with Cervicitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zaeimi Yazdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI recognized throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among a randomized statistical group of women suffering from cervicitis in Tehran- Iran. During a 12- month- period, Jan 2003 to Jan 2004, 142 endocervical samples were taken from women suffering from cervicitis attending to Mirzakoochakkhan Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA and PCR techniques were used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples. Twenty two (15.5% [95% CI, 9.54-21.4] of 142 samples were diagnosed as Chlamydia positive according to PCR results, while DFA diagnosed 20 (14.1% positive cases [95% CI, 8.37-19.8]. No statistically significant difference was found between two diagnosis methods applied in this study. The prevalence was the highest (25% among women aged 25 to 29 yr and 35 to 39 yr. The x 2 test showed a significant relationship between positive test result and bearing a history of STI (P= 0. The results of this study showed high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women suffering from cervicitis and suggested that patients diagnosed with genital Chlamydia infection should be referred to the genitourinary medicine clinic for further STI screening and partner notification.

  17. Disparity in neural and subjective responses to food images in women with obesity and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Larson, Michael J; Romney, Lora; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Christensen, William F; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports tend to differ from objective measurements of food intake, particularly in adults with obesity; however, no studies have examined how neural responses to food (an objective measure) and subjective ratings of food differ by BMI status. This study tested normal-weight women (NWW) and women with obesity (OBW) for group differences in neural indices of attention towards food pictures, subjective ratings of these pictures, and the disparity between objective and subjective measurements. Twenty-two NWW (21.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) ) and 22 OBW (37.0 ± 5.7 kg/m(2) ) viewed food and flower pictures while late positive potential amplitude, an event-related potential, was recorded. Participants rated pictures for arousal and valence. Late positive potential amplitude was larger toward food than flower pictures. OBW self-reported flower pictures as more pleasant than food; NWW showed no difference for pleasantness. There were no significant main effects or interactions for arousal. Standardized scores showed that only on subjective, but not objective, measures did OBW compared with NWW disproportionately indicate food pictures as less pleasant than flowers. Compared with NWW, OBW showed larger discrepancies between neural and subjective reports of attention towards food. Inaccurate self-reports of attention towards food may reduce the efficiency of health interventions. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Does anterior knee pain severity and function relate to the frontal plane projection angle and trunk and hip strength in women with patellofemoral pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Carvalho E Silva, Ana Paula de Moura Campos; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Magalhães, Maurício Oliveira; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between knee pain severity and function with the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and trunk and hip peak torque (PT) in women with patellofemoral pain (PFPS). Twenty-two women with PFPS were assessed. Knee pain severity (KPS) was assessed with an 11-point visual analog scale and function with an Anterior Knee Pain Scale. The FPPA was recorded with a digital camera. PT of extensors, abductors, and the lateral rotators of hip and lateral core stability were measured with a handheld dynamometer. FPPA was the only predictor for the KPS. Regarding predictors of function, PT of lateral core stability and the extensor and abductor of the hip explained 41.4% of the function. Increase in FPPA was associated with greater KPS, and the lowest PT of lateral core stability, hip abductors, and extensors was associated with lower function in women with PFPS.

  19. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other ... YourDiabetesInfo.org American Diabetes Association Get Other FDA Publications for Women For Women Homepage FDA Diabetes Information ...

  20. Resources for Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B.

    Over 120 bibliographies and other reference sources relevant to women's studies are identified in this annotated listing. Subjects include feminist scholarship, women in management, popular culture, autobiographies, other cultures and countries, history, lesbian women, women's education, the arts, politics, and rape. In addition to author, title,…

  1. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  2. 基于IPA方法的酒店工作设计感知研究--以长沙市高星级酒店为例%The Research on the Perception of Hotel Job Design Based on the Method of IPA:A Case of High Star Hotels in Changsha City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华丽

    2013-01-01

    Job design becomes one of the important ways for managers to achieve employees' motivation, and it is important to study the perception of hotel job design. It is of significance for improving hotel job design scientific, increasing employees' satisfaction and job performance. Taking a case of high star hotels in Changsha City, the author obtained basic data by a questionnaire survey, and used IPA method to analyze the perception of hotel job design by IPA. The results showed that: the important degree of job design elements is high, and its satisfaction is low. Therefore there is still room for the improvement of hotel job redesign.%工作设计逐渐成为激励员工的重要途径之一,研究酒店员工工作设计感知,有利于促进酒店工作设计科学化,增强员工满意度,提高工作绩效。本研究以长沙市高星级酒店为例,采用问卷调查获得基础数据,采用IPA方法分析酒店员工工作设计感知。研究结果发现:作为工作设计的具体感知者,员工对工作设计重视程度较高,而对其满意度偏低。因此酒店工作设计还存在较大的完善空间。

  3. WOMEN AND RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    KIREGIAN ELISE

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes Russian women and their ability to embrace Western educational and business practices following the fall of the Soviet Union. As recently as the 1980s, women managers in Russia were rare. Today, a total of 42 percent of senior management posts in Russia are held by women. Unlike women in Western nations who tend to frame their emerging role in ideological terms, Russian women enrolled in academic programs that gave them valuable skills for the market economy. The paper a...

  4. Women Battle Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WTTH women parliamentarians worldwide gathering in Beijing on 15 September 1996, China’s capital city was once again in the spotlight as women gathered to promote gender equality. One year after the Fourth World Conference on Women and the NGO Forum, and one day before the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) held its 96th Conference, 150 women parliamentarians from more than 70 countries gathered in Beijing to attend the 96th Women

  5. Voices and Images of Migrant Women who are Survivors of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOYA, EVA M.; BARAY, SILVIA MARÍA CHÁVEZ; MARTÍNEZ, OMAR

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-two Mexican immigrant women, using the Photovoice method, discuss their experiences and the challenges they have faced as domestic violence survivors in El Paso, Texas, usa. These include limited access to health services, their status as immigrants, and the lack of education on sexual and reproductive health, in conjunction with their deteriorating physical and mental health as well as that of their children. The final outcome of the project includes a bilingual Photovoice gallery of 28 photographs and stories as well as a “Call-to-action” addressed to policy and decision makers insisting on visibility, gender equality, legal support, education, as well as sexual and reproductive health education. PMID:25328561

  6. Domestic violence in women with serious mental illness involved with child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda C; Abdrbo, Amany; Burant, Christopher J

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe mothers with serious mental illness who have experienced domestic violence and are involved with child protective services. One hundred twenty-two files from the Department of Child and Family Services were reviewed. According to this retrospective review, the majority of the mothers and children had been exposed to domestic violence (62.6%). Mothers with the diagnoses of major depression-single episode and major depression-recurrent were most likely to have disclosed domestic violence exposure, compared to mothers with other serious mental illnesses. Our findings, and that of other cited studies, support the practice of routine assessment of domestic violence in women with serious mental illnesses, identification of safe havens for mothers and children, and access to continuing parenting support for these vulnerable family groups.

  7. A Community-Based Study of Enduring Eating Features in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Rodgers

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1 identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. A comparative sample (Cohort 2 of 706 similar aged self-selected college women (221 with disordered eating was recruited one year later. Both ED groups were given a health literacy package in the first year. ED symptoms, health related quality of life, and psychological distress were assessed annually with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Short Form—12 Health Survey and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, respectively. Forty percent (Cohort 1 and 30.3% (Cohort 2 completed questionnaires at each year of follow-up. In both groups, there was early improvement in ED symptoms which plateaued after the first year, and participants retained high EDE-Q scores at 5 years. BMI increased as expected. Mental health related quality of life scores did not change but there were small improvements in psychological distress scores. The findings suggest little likelihood of spontaneous remission of ED problems in community women.

  8. Cues to action: pelvic floor muscle exercise compliance in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, M L; Staskin, D R

    1997-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises are recommended as an initial treatment to women with stress urinary incontinence. This treatment is often unsuccessful because of patient noncompliance. A post-test, experimental control group design was used to examine Pender's (1992) concept of an external cue to action, an audiocassette tape, to enhance patient compliance to pelvic floor exercises. Eighty-six women with urodynamically evaluated stress urinary incontinence participated through a Pelvic Floor Exercise Unit at a large teaching hospital. Patients received biofeedback training and written information to reinforce pelvic floor muscle exercises during a 45-min appointment with a nurse. Patients were instructed to perform the exercises for 10 min twice daily. Forty-three women randomly assigned to an experimental group received an audiocassette tape. Four to 6 weeks later all patients completed a researcher-developed questionnaire that was validity and reliability tested assessing pelvic floor exercise compliance. The 43 patients (100%) who received the audiocassette tape reported compliance with "routine" exercises. Twenty-two of 34 patients (65%) who did not receive the tape were compliant (P = 0.0003). Thirty-four of 41 patients (83%) who received the tape reported exercise compliance twice a day, while 4 of 34 patients (12%) in the control group were similarly compliant (P = 0.0000). The findings suggest adding an audiocassette tape to a pelvic floor exercise program enhances patient compliance for incontinent women compared to verbal and written instruction combined with biofeedback.

  9. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizire, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives.

  10. Albanian women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.

  11. Women's rights to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Women's rights and health are threatened by cultural, religious, and social biases against women that create barriers in women's ability to access health information, education, and services. The fact that women's basic human rights include a right to health has been incorporated in international rights covenants, but violations occur in the form of 1) direct state actions, such as coercive abortion; 2) failure of states to meet health needs; 3) discrimination that denies health care to specific groups; and 4) failure of states to protect women from violence, child marriage, female infanticide, and other forms of health- and life-threatening discrimination. In order to improve this situation, a basic set of indicators must be developed to monitor implementation of agreements to protect women. Health professionals must continue to incorporate women's rights into the ethics or charters of health practices, to improve service to women, and to increase governmental advocacy on behalf of women. Governments must acknowledge the benefits of applying a rights approach to women's health status and must develop plans to implement recommendations arising from international conferences on women's rights. Women-centered nongovernmental organizations must create a clear framework on women's rights to health and develop advocacy and networking strategies.

  12. Alternatives for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Jean M.

    1975-01-01

    This article summarized the perspective of this issue by recognizing the validity of the issues being raised by the women's rights movement and also recognizing that the "liberation of women" means the liberation of men. (Author/RK)

  13. Women and schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thara, R; Kamath, Shantha

    2015-01-01

    Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives...

  14. Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers.

  15. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors ... ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. Visit the Women in Clinical Trials ...

  16. Anorgasmia in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can decrease blood flow to the vagina and clitoris, which can delay or stop orgasm entirely. Psychological ... women need direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris in order to orgasm, but not all women ...

  17. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  18. Women's Career Development Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Pamela J.

    1998-01-01

    Women's career development is characterized by balance of work and family, career interruptions, and diverse career paths. Alternative work arrangements such as flexible schedules, telecommuting, and entrepreneurial opportunities may offer women more options for work. (SK)

  19. How Women Changed History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivienne; Gill; 袁爱萍

    2003-01-01

    Men sometimes say, "We are better and cleverer than women. Women never invent things. We do. " It is true that men have invented a lot of useful things: the alphabet, machines, rockets, and guns, too.

  20. Women of Jino Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The dress of the Jino nationality differs greafiy from village to village. The upper photo shows the women of Xinyuan Village, Mengwang Township, with the photo on the right featuring women from Jiamazhai Village, Jino Township.

  1. College Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the College Women's Social Media Kit! College Women's Social Media Toolkit Use the Social Media Toolkit to ... International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & ...

  2. Women Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report summarizes the history of women Veterans in the military and as Veterans. It profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2015, and illustrates how...

  3. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and preterm labor(birth) in pregnant women-an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaosong; Sun, Dehong; Li, Chuansheng; Ying, Jie; Yan, Youde

    2017-08-29

    We aimed to explore whether maternal chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection certainly affects preterm labor (birth) in pregnant women. Four databases were systematically searched up to May 31, 2017, without language restriction. Any study was included if it clearly defined exposure to chronic HBV infection, reported risk of preterm labor or birth in pregnant women, and reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) or provided data for estimation. RRs (or ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Twenty-two observational studies involving 6 141 146 pregnant women (three prospective cohort studies, n = 1 116 799; 15 retrospective cohort studies, n = 5 022 513 and four case-control studies, n = 1834) were included. The risk of preterm labor was significantly intensified with chronic HBV infection compared with uninfected women, with substantial heterogeneity. Chronic HBV infection was also significantly associated with a 16% increase in the risk of preterm birth, with substantial heterogeneity. The risk of preterm birth significantly increased by 21% in HBsAg+/HBeAg+ pregnant women compared with uninfected pregnant women. Chronic HBV infection intensifies the risk of preterm labor and birth in pregnant women, but this conclusion should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding and be confirmed by well-designed studies in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Women in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a major concern about the drop of young women entering Computer Science degree programs and a drop in the participation of women in these information technology occupations. In all levels of educational institutions across the nation, girls and women remain under-represented in computer and information science studies and subsequently,…

  5. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  6. Women in Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mary L.

    Perhaps the most significant challenge of the 1970's will be the effect the women's rights movement will have on the nation's established institutions and the extent to which the nation responds to the call of women for equal opportunities. Social pressures and expectations have been, until recently, such that women simply have not opted for jobs…

  7. Longevity of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Kim C.

    2014-01-01

    Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…

  8. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  9. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Heart diseases that affect women more than men include Coronary ...

  10. Women of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  11. Four Women Bank Directors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FOUR of the five directors of state banks in Beihai City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are women. These women show that women are no longer only able to manage family finance, but they are able to take charge of the important responsibility for state finance. The mayor of Beihai City calls them the city’s outstanding financial affairs managers.

  12. Women with breast cancer: experience of chemotherapy-induced pain: triangulation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt-Börjesson, Susanne; Nordin, Karin; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Holmström, Inger K; Arving, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatment for cancer diseases can cause body pain during adjuvant therapy. The aim was to describe the perceived impact of adjuvant chemotherapy-induced pain (CHIP) on the daily lives of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, using triangulation. Fifty-seven women scheduled for chemotherapy in doses of 75 mg/m or greater of epirubicin and/or docetaxel participated. Twenty-two of these women registered pain with values of 4 or more on the visual analog scale on day 10 following chemotherapy. Of these 22, 16 participated in an interview and colored a printed body image. A qualitative thematic stepwise analysis of the interviews was performed. Chemotherapy-induced pain had a profound impact on daily life. Ten women reported the worst possible pain, with visual analog scale scores of 8 to 10. Three different categories crystallized: perception (A) of manageable pain, which allowed the women to maintain their daily lives; perception (B) of pain beyond imagination, whereby the impact of pain had become more complex; and perception (C) of crippling pain, challenging the women's confidence in survival. The findings highlight the inability to capture CHIP with 1 method only; it is thus necessary to use complimentary methods to capture pain. We found that pain had a considerable impact on daily life, with surprisingly high scores of perceived pain, findings that to date have been poorly investigated qualitatively. Nurses need to (1) better identify, understand and treat CHIP, using instruments and protocols; and (2) provide improved communication about pain and pain management.

  13. Raloxifene Administration in Women Treated with Long Term Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist for Severe Endometriosis: Effects on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Hwa; Um, Mi Jung; Kim, Suk Jin; Kim, Soo Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of raloxifene in preventing bone loss associated with long term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration. Methods Twenty-two premenopausal women with severe endometriosis were treated with leuprolide acetate depot at a dosage of 3.75 mg/4 weeks, for 48 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at admission, and after 12 treatment cycles. Results At cycle 12 of GnRH-a plus raloxifene treatment, lumbar spine, trochanter femoral neck, and Ward's BMD differed from before the treatment. A year after treatment, the lumbar spine and trochanter decreased slightly, but were not significantly different. Conclusions Our study shows that the administration of GnRH-a plus raloxifene in pre-menopausal women with severe endometriosis, is an effective long-term treatment to prevent bone loss. PMID:28119898

  14. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  15. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  16. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects’ level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:25931757

  17. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

  18. Vaccination for Group B Streptococcus during pregnancy: attitudes and concerns of women and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, San; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Manning, Shannon D; Mucenski, Melissa; Vidakovich, Jeanne; Davies, H Dele

    2006-07-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading infectious cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) strategies are effective in preventing GBS transmission from mothers to newborns, there are growing concerns about adverse effects, and the development of antibiotic resistance. GBS vaccines targeting the most virulent neonatal disease serotypes are currently under development and may be used during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to explore the key issues and concerns that would be associated with GBS vaccination during pregnancy from the perspectives of pregnant women and health care providers. Twenty-two women and 25 health care professionals in Alberta, Canada participated in 10 focus groups, each group ranging from 2 to 20 participants. Valuable information emerged from the focus groups about the factors that would affect acceptance of a maternal GBS vaccine. This information will be essential for health systems to consider in the introduction, promotion and delivery of such a vaccine. The data may help optimize education about GBS and a putative vaccine to pregnant women.

  19. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  20. Women residents, women physicians and medicine's future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Karen

    2007-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and women now represent half of all incoming medical students. Yet residency training still resembles the historical model when there were few women in medicine. This article reviews the issues facing women in residency today. Data suggest that the experience of female residents is more negative than that of males. Unique challenges facing female residents include the existence of gender bias and sexual harassment, a scarcity of female mentors in leadership positions, and work/family conflicts. Further research is needed to understand the experience of female residents and to identify barriers that hinder their optimal professional and personal development. Structural and cultural changes to residency programs are needed to better accommodate the needs of female trainees.

  1. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  2. HIV incidence in a cohort of women at higher risk in Beira, Mozambique: prospective study 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Zango, Arlinda; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Meque, Ivete; Ferro, Josefo J; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ma, Sabrina; Jolles, Erik; Fumo, Afonso; Robb, Merlin L; Feldblum, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    HIV is prevalent in Sofala Province, Mozambique. To inform future prevention research, we undertook a study in the provincial capital (Beira) to measure HIV incidence in women at higher risk of HIV and assess the feasibility of recruiting and retaining them as research participants. Women age 18-35 were recruited from schools and places where women typically meet potential sexual partners. Eligibility criteria included HIV-seronegative status and self-report of at least 2 sexual partners in the last month. History of injection drug use was an exclusion criterion, but pregnancy was not. Participants were scheduled for monthly follow-up for 12 months, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing. 387 women were eligible and contributed follow-up data. Most were from 18-24 years old (median 21). Around one-third of participants (33.8%) reported at least one new sexual partner in the last month. Most women (65.5%) reported not using a modern method of contraception at baseline. Twenty-two women seroconverted for a prospective HIV incidence of 6.5 per 100 woman-years (WY; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1-9.9). Factors associated with HIV seroconversion in the multivariable analysis were: number of vaginal sex acts without using condoms with partners besides primary partner in the last 7 days (hazard ratio (HR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.5) and using a form of contraception at baseline other than hormonal or condoms (vs. no method; HR 25.3; 95% CI: 2.5-253.5). The overall retention rate was 80.0% for the entire follow-up period. We found a high HIV incidence in a cohort of young women reporting risky sexual behavior in Beira, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened. Regular HIV testing and condom use should be encouraged, particularly among younger women with multiple sexual partners.

  3. First Mayan Women's Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teissedre, S

    1997-01-01

    In October 1997, over 200 participants attended the First Mayan Women's Congress in Mexico and called for financial assistance, capacity building, and training to help Mayan women escape poverty. The Congress was initiated by the UN Development Fund for Women in collaboration with the Small Grants Program of the UN Development Program. Traditionally, Mayan women and men have played distinct roles in society, and efforts are underway to increase gender sensitivity and achieve a new balance of power. Mayan women attending the Congress reported that they face daily challenges in gaining their husbands' approval for participation in income-generating activities outside of the home. Eventually, however, some husbands also start working in these enterprises and are learning to assume their share of domestic responsibilities. Mayan women have been forced to reevaluation their role in society by a prevailing agricultural and environmental crisis as well as a high unemployment rate. Crafts that were once produced only for household consumption are now considered for export. Because the women need funds to initiate income-generating activities, the Conference linked women's groups with development practitioners, policy-makers, and donors. The women requested financial aid for more than 30 specific projects, and Congress participants agreed to pursue innovate strategies to support the enterprises with funds, training, and technical assistance. The Congress also encouraged environmental nongovernmental organizations to include Mayan women in mainstream development activities. This successful Congress will be duplicated in other Mexican states.

  4. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  5. Chinese Women Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FOR the last three years I have been working on two big projects about women around the world. One is Mothers of the World, and the other one is Working Women of the World. So I travel to different parts of the world to meet Women and photograph them. I knew from the start that I would be able to see China only very superficially, because there was no way I could spend more than two to three weeks there. I therefore

  6. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu,

    2012-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...

  7. Organization Champions Menopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    CURRENTLY, the ageing of the population has created problems for a developing China. Jiangsu is one of the provinces that has encountered these problems, where the average lifespan for women is 73. Women aged 40 to 55 who are going through menopause account for about 8 percent of Jiangsu’s total population. Whether this group is able to live a healthy life during menopause or not decides whether the women are healthy and happy and influences the rest of society.

  8. Women's empowerment: what works

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea, Cornwall

    2016-01-01

    With radical roots in the 1980s, women’s empowerment is now a mainstream development concern. Much of the narrative focuses on instrumental gains—what women can do for development rather than what development can do for women. Empowerment is treated as a destination reached through development’s equivalent of motorways: programmes rolled out over any terrain. But in the process, pathways women are travelling in their own individual or collective journeys of empowerment remain hidden. Revisiti...

  9. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  10. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  11. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  12. Women in Otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Hu, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Advances in gender equality have been sought in the field of medicine for centuries, including the specialty of otolaryngology. Currently, about 14.5% of practicing otolaryngologists are women. Strides have been made to support equality by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery through the development of the Women in Otolaryngology Section in 2010, among other efforts. This article reviews the literature of women in otolaryngology, as well as current trends toward equality among otolaryngologists of all genders.

  13. The effect of an aerobic training period on mental health and depression in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saremi A*

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is among the common endocrine women disorders that can create manifestations such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of aerobic training on mental health and depression among Iranian women suffering from PCOS has been examined. Methods: This semi experimental study was carried out based on pre-test and post-test on experiment and control groups in Arak, Iran. Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (aged 27.82 ±5.23 yr were selected and randomly divided to training (n=12 and control (n=10 groups. Aerobic training program was performed 25-40 min/d, 3d/wk, for 10 weeks. Mental health and depression were evaluated using a general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28 and a Beck depression inventory (BAI-II in the two groups before and after the study. Results: The 10 week aerobic training had a significant effect on mental health, subscales of physical symptoms, anxiety and depression (p0.05. Conclusion: The result of present study suggests that aerobic exercise can improve the mental disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  14. Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE): A Pilot Study in Alcohol-dependent Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anna; Back, Sudie E; Killeen, Therese K; Brady, Kathleen T; Schwandt, Melanie L; Heilig, Markus; Magnusson, Åsa

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders are highly comorbid. Effective treatments are largely lacking. This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of a novel intervention, Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE), in preparation for a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two treatment-seeking women with current DSM-IV-TR PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD) were recruited. Participants received COPE. Safety and feasibility were evaluated, as were efficacy-related outcomes: PTSD and depression symptom severity, alcohol use, craving, and dependence severity. No adverse events occurred. COPE was implemented in routine clinical practice. Among the assessed women, 95.8% were eligible to participate. Treatment attendance and completion were higher than in previous studies. Post treatment, all efficacy-related outcomes, including PTSD and depression symptom severity, alcohol use, craving, and dependence severity, were significantly reduced. COPE was safe and feasible to use. Concerns that trauma-focused, exposure-based therapy might promote relapse in this population appear unwarranted. Our findings provide initial evidence suggestive of COPE efficacy for comorbid PTSD and AD in women. These results provide a strong rationale for investigating the efficacy of COPE for comorbid PTSD and AD in women in a randomized controlled trial.

  15. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  16. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  17. [Women's participation in science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men.

  18. Women and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, M V

    2000-03-01

    Several important questions emerge from the study of gender differences in schizophrenia: Why does schizophrenia begin later in women? Why is outcome superior in women, at least in the first 15 years after onset? What causes sex differences in symptoms? What can gender differences teach us about the etiology of schizophrenia? Do men and women require substantially different treatments? What interventions during pregnancy and after childbirth ensure optimal health for the children of mothers with schizophrenia? Although complete answers may not yet be forthcoming, it is important to define the questions and keep them in mind when delivering services to women suffering from this severe, persistent mental illness.

  19. Rediscovering Women Mathematicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Karen D.

    The lives and mathematical contributions of seven famous women mathematicians are presented. They are: Hypatia, Agnesi, Sophie Germain, Mary Sommerville, Augusta Lovelace, Sofya Kovalevsky, and Emmy Noether. (MP)

  20. Health of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that women face in social, health, and nutritional areas in India. India's 135th ranking in the Human Development Index reflects the marginalization of women, the aged, the poor, the disabled, lower castes, and other neglected groups. The sex ratio has declined. Maternal mortality is high. 84% of rural women and 42% of urban women rely on untrained persons during childbirth. The systems of education, religion, health care, law, employment, and the mass media promote gender discrimination. Patriarchal structures resist efforts to build a gendered perspective and to provide gender sensitivity within health care and development. Women experience deficits in educational development, rest, food, recreation, and freedom of movement and action. Girls lack sufficient breast feeding and health care from a health system that is 80% private. 40% of the population is poor and needs access to affordable health services. Inadequate diets and nutrition have long term health consequences. Women's health deteriorates due to early marriage and childbearing. Adequate nutrition is exacerbated by high food prices, limits in the Public Distribution System, and the shift to non-edible cash crops. The family planning program focuses on women, despite the prevailing belief that women are not in a position to make decisions. Responsible use of modern contraception requires adequate health infrastructure, personnel, and gender sensitivity. The new emphasis on reproductive health must address the issues of unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, women's domestic burden, violence, and mental health.

  1. Womens Business Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  2. Osteoporosis Medication and Quality of Life in Older Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Dicle Turhanoğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of drug therapy on quality of life in older women with osteoporosis. Material and Methods: One hundred seventy seven women over 65 years were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated by Short-Form-36 (SF-36. Participants’ quality of life was compared according to their medication use for osteoporosis by comparing Physical Component Summary (PCS and Mental Component Summary (MCS score of SF-36 between groups. Results: While one hundred twenty two(68.9% of the participants had not used any drug, 20 (11.3% women had used only vitamin D-calcium and, 35 (19.8% women had used antiresorptive agents plus vitamin D-calcium. There were no statistically difference between groups in respect to age and bone mineral density (p>0.05. The mean values of PCS were 34.80±11.24, 30.33±9.49, and 31.56±7.28 respectively in the groups 1, 2 and 3. The mean values of MCS were 44.91±9, 44.15±11.93, and 44.42±12.09 respectively in the groups 1, 2 and 3. There were no significant differences between the PCS and MCS values (p>0.05, p>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study were considered that vitamin D plus calcium and antiresorptive agents were not sufficient to improve the quality of life in the older women with osteoporosis. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2008;14:7-11

  3. Health screening - women - over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  4. Twenty-two years of failure to set up undisputed assays to detect patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Philip G.; Derksen, Ronald H. W. M.; de Laat, Bas

    2008-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is defined by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in plasma of patients with a history of thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity. From the definition in 1985 onwards, confusion has arisen concerning who has the syndrome and who has not. Although the cl

  5. Predictive Potential of Twenty-Two Biochemical Biomarkers for Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Cristiano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential of a panel of 22 biomarkers to predict the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 patients. The study enrolled 96 DM2 patients with (n = 75 and without (n = 21 evidence of CAD. We assessed a biochemical profile that included 22 biomarkers: total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, LDL/HDL, triglycerides, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fructosamine, homocysteine, cysteine, methionine, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione, L-arginine, asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, symmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine/L-arginine, nitrate plus nitrite, S-nitrosothiols, nitrotyrosine, and n-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. Prediction models were built using logistic regression models. We found that eight biomarkers (methionine, nitratate plus nitrite, n-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, BMI, LDL, HDL, reduced glutathione, and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine along with gender and BMI were significantly associated with the odds of CAD in DM2. These preliminary findings support the notion that emerging biochemical markers might be used for CAD prediction in patients with DM2. Our findings warrant further investigation with large, well-designed studies.

  6. Aging and the Aged in the Third World: Part I. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlive, Vinson H., Ed.; And Others

    Problems regarding the aged in developing nations are examined. The aging of populations is now a global phenomenon, with crucial implications for the developing as well as the developed nations. Six articles are presented: "Introduction, Perspectives on Aging in the Third World" (Jay Sokolovsky), "What Can the Industrial World…

  7. Twenty two cases of canine neural angiostronglyosis in eastern Australia (2002-2005 and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunn Julian A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cases of canine neural angiostrongylosis (NA with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF evaluations in the peer-reviewed literature were tabulated. All cases were from Australia. A retrospective cohort of 59 dogs was contrasted with a series of 22 new cases where NA was diagnosed by the presence of both eosinophilic pleocytosis and anti-Angiostrongylus cantonensis immunloglobulins (IgG in CSF, determined by ELISA or Western blot. Both cohorts were drawn from south east Queensland and Sydney. The retrospective cohort comprised mostly pups presented for hind limb weakness with hyperaesthesia, a mixture of upper motor neurone (UMN and lower motor neurone (LMN signs in the hind limbs and urinary incontinence. Signs were attributed to larval migration through peripheral nerves, nerve roots, spinal cord and brain associated with an ascending eosinophilic meningo-encephomyelitis. The contemporary cohort consisted of a mixture of pups, young adult and mature dogs, with a wider range of signs including (i paraparesis/proprioceptive ataxia (ii lumbar and tail base hyperaesthesia, (iii multi-focal central nervous system dysfunction, or (iv focal disease with neck pain, cranial neuropathy and altered mentation. Cases were seen throughout the year, most between April and July (inclusive. There was a preponderance of large breeds. Often littermates, or multiple animals from the same kennel, were affected simultaneously or sequentially. A presumptive diagnosis was based on consistent signs, proximity to rats, ingestion/chewing of slugs or snails and eosinophilic pleocytosis. NA was diagnosed by demonstrating anti-A. cantonensis IgG in CSF. Detecting anti-A. cantonensis IgG in serum was unhelpful because many normal dogs (20/21 lb dogs; 8/22 of a hospital population had such antibodies, often at substantial titres. Most NA cases in the contemporary series (19/22 and many pups (16/38 in the retrospective cohort were managed successfully using high doses of prednisolone and opioids. Treatment often included antibiotics administered in case protozoan encephalomyelitis or translocated bacterial meningitis was present. Supportive measures included bladder care and physiotherapy. Several dogs were left with permanent neural deficits. Dogs are an important sentinel species for NA. Human cases and numerous cases in tawny frogmouths were reported from the same regions as affected dogs over the study period.

  8. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  9. Twenty-Two Anti-Tank Mines Linked Together: The Effect of Student Stories on Classroom Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Because Dominique (or D-Mon, as he liked to be called) had drill before class, he would sometimes come in late in the author's class, his army boots silently moving across the tile as though he were trying to sneak by a sentry. The army fatigues that he wore were supposed to help him blend into a desert landscape, a tan-and-brown world of sand. In…

  10. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did not increase over time, and (iii) the direct contribution of recalls to the food waste stream was associated with the largest recalls.

  11. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-06-22

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  12. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil—Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir dos Santos Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z-β-ocimene and (E-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  13. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  14. Effects of Inertial Setting on Power, Force, Work, and Eccentric Overload During Flywheel Resistance Exercise in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Aranda, Luis M; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e., loads) during isoinertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force, and eccentric overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n = 11) and men (n = 11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing 6 inertias (0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 kg·m). Power decreased as higher inertias were used, with men showing greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrements than women (-36 vs. -29% from lowest to highest inertia). In contrast, work increased as higher inertias were employed, independent of sex (p ≤ 0.05; ∼48% from lowest to highest inertia). Women increased CON and ECC mean force (46-55%, respectively) more (p ≤ 0.05) than men (34-50%, respectively) from the lowest to the highest inertia evaluated, although the opposite was found for peak force data (i.e., peak force increased more in men than in women as inertia was increased). Men, but not women, increased ECC overload from inertia 0.0125 to 0.0375 kg·m2. Although estimated stretch-shorting cycle use during flywheel exercise was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in men (6.6%) than women (4.9%), values were greater for both sexes when using low-to-medium inertias. The information gained in this study could help athletes and sport and health professionals to better understand the impact of different inertial settings on skeletal muscle responses to flywheel resistance exercise.

  15. Professional Women and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne M.; Kalish, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Explored the phenomenon of late marriage in 41 highly educated professional women. Compared with normative marriers, the late-marrying women had higher career goals, a more egalitarian role structure in marriage, and were more accepting of premarital sex and cohabitation. Factors associated with family backgrounds were identified. (JAC)

  16. Shattering women's glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri Podesta, Marie Therese; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The role of women in academia has always greatly interested me. Several years ago, when I was asked to become Gender Issues Committee chairperson at the University of Malta, I readily accepted. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/shattering-womens-glass-ceiling/

  17. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  18. Women and Computer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breene, L. Anne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning women in computer science education, and in the workplace, and sex bias in the computer science curriculum. Concludes that computing environment has not improved for women over last 20 years. Warns that, although number of white males entering college is declining, need for scientists and engineers is not. (NB)

  19. An Intergenerational Women's Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Janet

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Intergenerational Women's Group, formed to provide social support and an interchange of ideas between women of different generations. Provides a model for such a program that may be offered in geriatric medical clinics. Discusses the impact of intergenerational support for both the old and the young. (Author/BHK)

  20. Women Lead the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Vietnamese women love physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Kim Tran; Vu, Thi Bich; Nguyen, Ngoc Toan; Do, Tran Cat; Vo, Thach Son

    2013-03-01

    More and more females are studying physics and applying their physics knowledge in Vietnam. Women are well represented in physics in Vietnam, occupy high positions in the field, and win many national and international science awards. Overwhelmingly, women in physics in Vietnam have happy families with children who love physics.

  3. Entrepreneurs: Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Lilialyce

    A program was designed to meet the needs of Kentucky women who wished to supplement their incomes by producing articles in their homes for sale. Its three-phase objective was to identify women who already had knitting skills and train them to produce a finished product; to provide basic knowledge about how to run a small business; and to provide…

  4. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  5. American Women and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jane; Bingham, Marjorie

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan dealing with women and sport in U.S. history. Discusses the themes of physical capabilities, propriety, and femininity. Describes exercises and projects that can be used to integrate the lesson into different subjects. Includes a reading list, modified rules for women's basketball, and portions of the social debate on women…

  6. Women and Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The Platform for Action adopted at the United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women acknowledges the media’s role in eliminating sexual discrimination and promoting women’s development.It lists women and media as one of the ten fields that require strategic targeting and action.

  7. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    oil multinational companies to enthrone justice, peace and development in the region. ... political autonomy of their land. Together with ... In situations of war, between ethnic group women are called ... children, and also taking care of their feeding health and training. .... “Women and Conflict Resolution: Feminism, Peace-.

  8. Women and Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.

  9. Androgenetic alopecia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Vera H

    2003-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known in women as female pattern hair loss, is caused by androgens in genetically susceptible women and men. The thinning begins between ages 12 and 40 years, the inheritance pattern is polygenic, and the incidence is the same as in men. In susceptible hair follicles, dihydrotestosterone binds to the androgen receptor, and the hormone-receptor complex activates the genes responsible for the gradual transformation of large terminal follicles to miniaturized follicles. Both young women and young men with AGA have higher levels of 5alpha reductase and androgen receptor in frontal hair follicles compared to occipital follicles. At the same time, young women have much higher levels of cytochrome p-450 aromatase in frontal follicles than men who have minimal aromatase, and women have even higher aromatase levels in occipital follicles. The diagnosis of AGA in women is supported by early age of onset, the pattern of increased thinning over the frontal/parietal scalp with greater density over the occipital scalp, retention of the frontal hairline, and the presence of miniaturized hairs. Most women with AGA have normal menses and pregnancies. Extensive hormonal testing is usually not needed unless symptoms and signs of androgen excess are present such as hirsutism, severe unresponsive cystic acne, virilization, or galactorrhea. Topical minoxidil solution is the only drug available for promoting hair growth in women with AGA. Efficacy has been shown in double-blind studies using hair counts and hair weight.

  10. Chinese Women in Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    According to international research only when the percentage of women with decision-making power reaches 30 percent can their effect on policy making be seen. In 1994, women accounted for an average of 5.7 percent of state cabinet seats throughout the world. Authoritative thinking is that in the past decade almost no progress was made in realizing the 30

  11. Women and Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WOMEN’S rights concern the world over. Even though China has a different legal tradition and social system, participants from the Beijing Sino-British Women and Law Symposium discovered that both Chinese and foreign scholars could reach agreement and understanding on many issues. Enacting Laws for Women Professor Yang Dawen, from the

  12. Dating and intimate relationships of women with below-knee amputation: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Zoë; Harcourt, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates experiences of dating and intimate relationships amongst women who use a below-knee prosthesis. Four women took part in semi-structured online interviews. Transcripts were subject to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Five themes were identified: Revealing and Exposing: Disclosing the Amputation and Prosthesis; Judging and Judged: Internal Fears and Self-Doubt; Trusting and Accepting: Good Guy/Bad Guy Elimination; Taking it Further: The Need for Depth; and Realisation: Accepting and Feeling Accepted. Participants described how, despite negative feelings towards their appearance and body image, they chose not to conceal their prosthesis when dating. Rather, it was used as a means of screening potential partners in their search for deep and meaningful relationships. Realising that others were not prejudiced towards people who use a prosthetic had helped them become more comfortable with their own prosthesis. These findings suggest that facilitating contact with other below-knee amputees and, in some cases specialist support, could help those who are struggling with the challenges they face regarding dating and intimate relationships. They also highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to give more attention to these important aspects of amputees' lives. Implications for Rehabilitation Amputation can have a significant psychosocial impact for those affected. The relative invisibility of below-knee amputation and prostheses can present particular challenges for amputees looking to establish romantic and intimate relationships, particularly around when and how to disclose the limb loss to potential partners. Developing a sense of resilience to the reactions of other people can help those who have undergone below-knee amputation. Support for people affected by below-knee amputation should routinely consider their needs and concerns in relation to new and established relationships, offer specialist psychosocial input when

  13. Women's Rights Network (WRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, K; Cuthbert, C

    1997-02-01

    The Massachusetts-based Women's Rights Network (WRN) was founded in 1995 in response to the need to develop collaborative, crosscultural, and international strategies to eliminate domestic violence. The WRN initiated meetings with local advocates to identify the most pressing issues facing the US battered women's movement and then began to contact advocates for battered women throughout the world. To date, the WRN offers a resource center documenting strategies used around the world to end domestic violence, gives workshops and presentations to increase public education and awareness about domestic violence, organizes international strategy sessions between women's advocates in Massachusetts and those in other countries, facilitates one-on-one partnerships between groups for battered women in Massachusetts and sister organizations in other countries, and participates in the annual "16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence." The WRN also plans to publish a biannual journal.

  14. Iranian Women in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Seiedfadaei, Azita

    2009-04-01

    Women in the world have made great contributions to science. In Iran more than 60% of undergraduate university students are women, most in physics. Women's representation in postgraduate studies is lower; however, these numbers do not account for those who go to other countries to continue their studies, of which there are many. Alinoush Tarian, the oldest woman professor in Iran, the first Iranian woman professor of physics, and the founder of the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran, is one of them. There are some women physicists in Iran that are working as professors at the universities and famous institutes such as the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics. Iranians have always showed their talents and intelligence everywhere in the world, and nowadays, some of the women physics teachers in Iran are trying to teach physics with new methods to attract more students.

  15. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  16. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  17. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  18. Do women lack ambition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Anna

    2004-04-01

    For men, ambition is considered a necessary and desirable part of life. Most women, however, associate ambition with egotism, self-aggrandizement, or manipulation. Getting to the bottom of why this is so required study of what ambition consists of--for both sexes. In childhood, the research uncovered, girls are clear about their ambitions. Their goals are grand, and they make no apologies for them. In nearly all childhood ambitions, two distinct factors are in place: the mastery of a special skill, and recognition for it. And what's true in childhood is no less true in later life: We all want our efforts and accomplishments acknowledged. Yet there are dramatic differences in how women and men create, reconfigure, and realize (or abandon) their goals. Most women are demure when praised for their achievements. One could chalk up this behavior to women's innate modesty or see it as a passive way of highlighting their accomplishments. But the fear of recognition that many women express suggests otherwise. Research has shown that such behavior varies according to social context: Women more openly seek and compete for affirmation when they are with other women, but they behave differently when competing with men. The underlying problem has to do with cultural ideals of femininity. Women face the reality that to appear feminine, they must provide or relinquish scarce resources to others--and recognition is indeed a scarce resource. Although women have more opportunities than ever before, they still come under social scrutiny that makes hard choices--such as when and whether to start a family or advance in the workplace--even harder. There are no easy solutions, but there are ways women can hold fast to their dreams. They must band together, learn to blow their own horns, and structure their lives in a way that promotes recognition.

  19. HIV in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulcahy F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally over 50% of HIV-infected individuals are women. With the widespread use of HAART, we can expect women to have mortality rates approaching normal. Indeed, studies have shown that women may expect a slower disease progression than men following seroconversion; furthermore, it appears that female who injects drugs can live longer than their male counterparts. However, other studies from cohort analysis have reported worse outcomes in women. In essence, many studies are consistently underpowered to adequately address these questions. The proportion of women in clinical trials remains at 20 to 30%, with pregnancy potential being a major exclusion factor. Hence, many questions remain unanswered. Recent data suggest women are more likely to present late with a new AIDS diagnosis. Why this should be the case is not well understood. In addition, HIV-positive women should have the same access to reproduction health as their negative counterparts, but unfortunately many inequalities remain. Advise on contraception and fertility services are very variable across both the developed and developing world. Data are limited on the most appropriate use of contraceptives in the presence of HAART, the possible drug interactions and possible increased risk of HIV transmission. There remain significant differences in guidelines regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT across Europe, and implications of stopping and starting HAART for MTCT have not been adequately addressed. The mode of timing of delivery, and the effect of length of time of ruptured membranes on this decision is also contentious. Further issues relate to the desire for HIV-positive women to breastfeed in the setting of HIV viral suppression, where some guidelines now support women in this situation and others categorically would inform child protection authorities. Finally as women age it is more difficult to separate the effect of the menopause and its symptoms from the

  20. Long-term effectiveness and costs of a brief self-management intervention in women with pregnancy-related low back pain after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaanssen Janneke M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-related low back pain is considered an important health problem and potentially leads to long-lasting pain and disability. Investigators draw particular attention to biomedical factors but there is growing evidence that psychosocial and social factors might be important. It prompted us to start a large cohort study (n = 7526 during pregnancy until one year after delivery and a nested randomized controlled intervention study in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial (n = 126 nested within a cohort study, of brief self-management techniques versus usual care for treatment of women with persisting non-specific pregnancy-related low back pain three weeks after delivery. Women in the intervention group were referred to a participating physiotherapist. Women in the usual care group were free to choose physiotherapy, guidance by a general practitioner or no treatment. Follow up took place at 3 months, 6 months and one year after delivery. Outcomes included change in limitations in activities (RDQ, pain (VAS, severity of main complaints (MC, global feeling of recovery (GPE, impact on participation and autonomy (IPA, pain-related fear (TSK, SF-36, EuroQol and a cost diary. For the outcome measures, series of mixed models were considered. For the outcome variable global perceived effect (GPE a logistic regression analysis is performed. Results Intention-to-treat outcomes showed a statistical significant better estimated regression coefficient RDQ -1.6 {-2.9;-0.5} associated with treatment, as well as better IPA subscale autonomy in self-care -1.0 {-1.9;-0.03} and TSK -2.4 {-3.8;-1.1} but were not clinical relevant over time. Average total costs in the intervention group were much lower than in usual care, primarily due to differences in utilization of sick leave but not statistically significant. Conclusion Brief self-management techniques applied in the first 3 months after delivery may be a more viable first

  1. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  2. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Girls ADHD Medication and Pregnancy Women and Girls Knowledge of ADHD in women at this time ... Impact of ADHD in women ADHD in young girls is often overlooked, the reasons for which remain ...

  3. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to drink than their peers. Staying Away From Alcohol. Young women under age 21 should not drink alcohol. ... talk frankly with their daughters about not drinking alcohol. Women in Young and Middle Adulthood Young women in their twenties ...

  4. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  5. Women's Status on the Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of March 8,Beijing's department stores and shopping malls were crowded with women on shopping sprees to celebrate International Women's Day.This year marks the 100th anniversary of the establishment of International Women's Day.

  6. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  7. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  8. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  9. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Anshu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, ownership and transition issues and possible gender discrimination are examined. The findings support the paradigm of a different, more feminine style of management, while signs of discrimination are not clearly revealed. This paper is based on a research intended to provide acomparative analysis of the status of women entrepreneurs and men entrepreneurs in Family Business in India. It first draws demographic & psychographic profiles of women and men entrepreneurs in family business, identifies & addresses operational problems faced by women and men entrepreneurs in family business, draws theirinclination for future plans for growth and expansion and also for the furtherance of research on women entrepreneurs in India.

  10. HIV, poverty and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing.

  11. SEXUAL ASSAULT ON WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Durga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our India is a vast nation with rich cultural heritage and social diversity. We have been respecting women in the highest form as Goddesses since ages. There have been several laws to protect women from many centuries in this ancient country. Yet our country is still facing difficulties in achieving women safety. And the situation is no different in the rest of the world. The prevailing situation, laws and suggestions to prevent atrocities were discussed. AIM: The current situations of women hardships around the world were mentioned. The current legal situation and recent legal changes were described. The mammoth task ahead of us to achieve the desired social objective of women safety and respect were discussed. MATERIAL & METHODS: various news articles, police journals, legal textbooks and forensic medicine text books. CONCLUSION: Many things were done to prevent sexual assaults on women, yet the true goal is still a mirage. It’s time to look into the issue from its true grass root levels, i.e., from the psycho-social view apart from legal measures, to achieve the much desired objective of prevention of sexual assaults on women.

  12. Ten Outstanding Women Chosen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    BEFORE the celebration of the 85th anniversary of International Women’s Day, the All-China Women’s Federation sponsored an activity to choose ten outstanding Chinese women, which involved the Ministries of Labor and Personnel, the General Political Department of the People’s Liberation Army, the All-China Federation of Trade Union, the Youth League of China, the China Association of Science and about a dozen Chinese news agencies. The results were recently announced, and including following women: Yue Xicui, one of the third generation of women aviators. Since she joined the air force she has accumulated 5,180 hours

  13. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  14. Smoking and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  15. Hereditary angioedema in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.

  16. Migraine in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christine L; Broner, Susan W

    2009-05-01

    Of the nearly 32 million Americans with migraine, 24 million are women. It is a disorder affecting women throughout their lifetimes, from childhood and puberty through the postmenopausal years. In childhood, before puberty girls are afflicted with migraine at approximately the same rate as boys, but after puberty, there is an emerging female predominance. Estrogen plays a key role in this epidemiologic variation but is not the only factor. There are numerous times when hormonal influences have an impact on migraine and its pattern, including menarche, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause. Hence practitioners treating women with migraine need to have a clear understanding of these special considerations.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections in cervical samples from cuban women older than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Yudira; Torres, Griselda; Kourí, Vivian; Limia, Celia María; Goicolea, Adibel; Capó, Virginia; Pérez, Lissette; de la Torre, Ana Isabel; López, Ledy Xiomara; Govín, Anamays; Correa, Consuelo Beatriz; Alemán, Yoan; Alvarez, Alina Ana; Manzano, Blanca Rosa

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to provide information about the molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a group of Cuban women. DNA from cervical samples was analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects 6 of the clinically most relevant high-risk HPV types. Furthermore, end point PCR and sequencing were performed. Three hundred twenty-two women (211 with positive and 111 with negative cytologic results) aged between 30 and 69 years were enrolled. Risk factors associated with HPV infections and premalignant lesions were also investigated. HPV DNA was detected in 76.1% (245/322) of the studied population, and 34 different genotypes were found. There was an association between HPV infection and low educational level, history of oral contraceptives, menopausal stage, as well as cigarette and/or alcohol consumption. Besides, in a multivariate analysis, previous positive Pap test result and positive colposcopy finding were both predictor variables for HPV infections and for premalignant lesions. Human papillomavirus infection was found in 94.3% of women (199/211) with positive cytologic result and in 41.4% (46/111) of those with negative results, being more likely that the first group was infected with any HPV (odds ratio = 23.43; 95% CI = 11.70-46.92; p = .000). The most common genotypes were HPV types 16, 18, 31, 58, 33, and 45. All the cases with HPV positive findings had at least 1 high-risk HPV genotype. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of HPV in Cuban women, based on results from a DNA sequence and quantitative PCR. Most individuals were infected with high-risk HPV types. These findings support the inclusion of HPV vaccine in Cuba.

  18. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pchange comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance.

  19. 全球性包装及食品业盛会EMBALLAGE&IPA 2006——2006巴黎国际包装工业展及巴黎国际食品加工工业展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    两年一届的巴黎国际包装工业展创建于1947年,是欧洲最重要的国际包装技术和设备的展览会。2006年11月,“第37届巴黎国际包装工业展”,即“EMBALLAGE 2006”以及同期举办的巴黎国际食品加工工业展,即“IPA2006”再次亮相法国巴黎,将全球的目光再一次会聚到这个时尚的世界包装之都。主办方法国第二大展览公司——爱博集团(EXPOSIUM)具有近60年主办展会的丰富经验,为来自40多个国家的2300多位参展商及11000名国际精英参观者(35%为国际观众)在76000多平方米的6大区域15个专业展厅里,展示了世界最先进的食品加工设备及包装技术工艺。希望能通过这个权威的国际包装及食品专业盛会让世界更近距离的了解法国的包装机械。

  20. 基于IPA方法的非中心城市酒店一线员工满意度研究%Study on the Front-line Employees' Satisfaction of Star-hotels in Non-central Area Based on IPA:A Case Study of Mianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛艳琳

    2014-01-01

    酒店业普遍存在一线员工工作满意度过低的问题,导致一线员工频繁地跳槽,人才流失严重,影响了整个酒店业的发展。在如今一线中心城市尚且存在高度“用工荒”的情况下,非中心城市的星级酒店如何留住一线员工?本文通过对市级不同星级酒店的实地调查研究以及对个别酒店领导的访谈,通过IPA方法分析了影响一线员工工作满意度的具体因素。%There generally exists a low job satisfaction of the workers at the production line in hotel industry, and it leads to employees' frequent job-hopping and serious brain drain, which affects the development of the entire hotel industry. Considering the "labor shortage"condition in the first line center cities, how to retain the front-line staff of starred hotels in non-central cities is a matter that must be taken into account. In this paper, by means of the field research in secondary and tertiary cities as well as interviews with leaders of individual hotels, the author analyzed the specific factors affecting staff's job satisfaction by the IPA method, and proposed the specific measures to improve front-line staff's job satisfaction.

  1. The Study on the Degree of Tourist Satisfaction Based on IPA-- Evidence from Zigong Dinosaur Museum%基于IPA分析法的博物馆游客满意度研究——以自贡恐龙博物馆为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雄; 刘唐

    2012-01-01

    当前博物馆旅游的发展面临诸多问题,其中,博物馆旅游自身产品和服务存在的问题成了博物馆旅游进一步发展的瓶颈。游客对博物馆提供的旅游产品和服务满意度是衡量其持久吸引力和竞争力的重要指标,了解游客的期望与需要,最大限度地满足他们的各种要求,有利于博物馆提高游客忠诚度、吸引更多的游客,有利于博物馆旅游科学发展。本文以自贡恐龙博物馆为例,采取IPA分析法对游客满意度进行分析研究,并根据分析结果为恐龙博物馆今后旅游发展提出相应的改善措施和建议。%museum tourism currently faces many problems, especially, tourism's own products and service becomes the bottleneck problem for its further development. Tourist satisfaction to museum's products and service is a very important index to scale the museum's sustainable attraction and competition capability, to know the tourists' expectation and need, and to furthest meet their demand are helpful for enhancing tourists' loyalty, attracting more new tourists, as well as for the museum tourism's scientific development. The paper makes Zigong Dinosaur Museum as an example, and use IPA as the analysis method to analyze the data, finally, according to the analyzed results, the paper give some constructive suggestion for Zigong Dinosaur Museum's further development.

  2. El inventario fonético del español de Chile: principios orientadores, inventario provisorio de consonantes y sistema de representación (AFI-CL (The phonetic inventory of chilean spanish: guiding principles, provisional inventory of consonants and system of representation (IPA-CL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Sadowsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo propone un conjunto de principios orientadores para la elaboración del inventario fonético segmental del castellano hablado actualmente en Chile. Se presenta un inventario fonético provisorio de las consonantes basado en los principios aquí explicitados, el cual tiene como punto de referencia el castellano hablado hoy en la provincia de Concepción (Chile. Se presenta, además, un sistema de representación fonética (AFI-CL para este y futuros inventarios, y se propone un programa de investigación cuyo objetivo es la elaboración del inventario fonético definitivo y de consenso del español de Chile contemporáneo. El objetivo final del artículo es motivar la realización de un caudal de trabajos que investiguen tanto los supuestos teórico-metodológicos contenidos en la propuesta como la selección y caracterización de los fonos del inventario provisorio. (The present article proposes a set of principles to guide the process of defining the segmental phonetic inventory of contemporary Chilean Spanish. It presents a provisional phonetic inventory of consonants based on the above-mentioned principles, using the Spanish spoken in the province of Concepción (Chile as its point of reference. In addition, it presents a system for the phonetic representation of this and future inventories (IPA-CL and proposes a research program with the goal of establishing a definitive phonetic inventory of contemporary Chilean Spanish. The long-term objective of this article is to spur research on both the theoretical and methodological issues presented here, and the selection and characterization of the phones of the provisional inventory.

  3. The Right for Women--After Professions for women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文莉

    2000-01-01

    Woolfwas a flag of right fighter for women. Women fight for their rights genaration after genaration and devote themselves in different professions like men. It was proved that women can do every thing as they are willing ,women can creat many outstanding achievements in their professional life.

  4. Infertility and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with production or quality of sperm. What causes female infertility? About 25 percent of women with infertility have ... 40 percent of infertility cases are due to female infertility, but just as many cases are due to ...

  5. Women Astronomers through History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, Lj.

    2008-10-01

    We review the contributions of women to astronomy starting from the antique Greece and Alexandria, and mention briefly some works of nun-scientists in the Middle Ages, which are of interest only for keeping alive the spirit of inquiry during this Dark Age. We discuss in more details important contributions coming after the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, made by women working within their families, as assistants to their brothers or husbands. We show that by the late 19th century the role of women in astronomy becomes more independent, with more women working not only as "computers" in the great observatories, but also making important discoveries that placed them in a very high position as scientists at the dawn of 20th century.

  6. Drum Performance Tnvolues Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    DRUM teams from along the Yellow River are known not only in China but by many foreign friends. Recently women have formed their own teams and their performances have further increased the popularity of this ancient Chinese folk art.

  7. Women and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an advertisement for Dr. Pierce's "Favorite Prescription," which he developed in the 1880's to relieve women of nervous symptoms caused by disease of the...

  8. Sexual Health (Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with ... you can still get pregnant. Most birth control methods are safe for women with diabetes. Talk with ...

  9. Mostly Women and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses educational leadership and women with a focus on roles, characteristics, stereotypes, and change. Describes some sources that deal with this topic, including an article, a study, two books, and some websites. (AEF)

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  11. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  12. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ... care provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign- ...

  13. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  14. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  15. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  16. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Registries - Sign-up for a study to help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women ... in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA ...

  17. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adopted policies that specifically placed women at a disadvantage, either by charging them higher premiums than men ... SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 ASEC Supplement to the Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. ...

  18. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...

  19. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your sex life. Certain medicines (such as oral contraceptives and chemotherapy drugs), diseases (such as diabetes or ... have heard that taking sildenafil (Viagra) or the male hormone testosterone can help women with sexual problems. ...

  20. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... awareness about diverse women of different ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  1. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  2. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the type of diabetes you have. Use these resources to help you talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women Insulin - easy- ...

  3. Democracy and Women's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly.However, none of them have a focus on women's health.This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  4. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need depends on your health and the type of diabetes you have. Use these resources to help you ... Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ...

  5. Democracy and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health. PMID:21836777

  6. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol.” What is dyslipidemia? Having abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides is called dyslipidemia . A common dyslipidemia in the ... the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. When should my cholesterol levels be measured? Women ...

  7. Center for Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014-2020 VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Claims Representation RESOURCES Careers at VA Employment Center Returning Service Members Vocational Rehabilitation & Employment Homeless Veterans Women Veterans Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents ...

  8. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency room or die from overdose or other effects of certain substances. Women who are victims of domestic violence are at increased risk of substance use. Divorce, loss of child custody, or the death of ...

  9. Democracy and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  10. Women in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of girls and women during the transition, highlighting their role in regional progress and the obstacles they face. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including women’s participation in the emerging market economy and democratic governments, female access to health and education, trends in family formation and violence against women and girls. The Report cal...

  11. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  12. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  13. Women and the sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantoni, Carmelita; Castellino, Santina; Cicchetti, Teresa; Rastelli, Stefania; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The education level of women has increased significantly in recent decades. However, although there is a continued positive trend overall, women remain underrepresented (or misrepresented?) in the main fields of science. In Europe the proportion of women in scientific research is growing faster than that of men, but women are more likely than men to choose education, arts and humanities, health and welfare. Moreover, of the total number of women graduating in all faculties (55%), the percentage of women graduating in medicine is 65%-68%, in Europe as in the United States. As far as nephrology is concerned, unpublished data from the Italian Society of Nephrology indicate that female nephrologists make up almost 30% of the total number in the age group between 40 and 55, and this proportion is even higher in the age group younger than 40 years. In comparison with the past, there are some hints that things are going to change, but the path is still a difficult one, much effort is needed and there is a long way ahead.

  14. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  15. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  16. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  17. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  18. An Extraordinary Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jeanne Marcum

    2011-01-01

    "Missing Chapters: Ten Pioneering Women in NCTE and English Education" is the first historical text to explore the impact women have had on English education. It is true that women have been a vital part of National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) since the Council's founding in 1911 when 13 of the 34 founding members were women. As part of…

  19. The Commoditization of Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Hill

    1989-01-01

    Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

  20. Should weight loss and maintenance programmes be designed differently for men? A systematic review of long-term randomised controlled trials presenting data for men and women: The ROMEO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Clare; Avenell, Alison; Boachie, Charles; Stewart, Fiona; Archibald, Daryll; Douglas, Flora; Hoddinott, Pat; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Boyers, Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence for long-term (≥12 months) weight management interventions for obese men in contrast to women to help understand whether programmes should be designed differently for men. We searched 11 databases up to October 2014. Twenty-two RCTs reported data separately for men and women in weight loss or weight maintenance interventions. We found men were under-represented in RCTs of weight loss interventions open to both sexes. Men comprised 36% of participants (4771 from 13,305 participants). Despite this, men were 11% (95% CI 8-14%, pmeta-analysis of 13 trials showed no significant difference in weight loss between men and women, either for weight loss in kg (p=0.90) or percentage weight loss (p=0.78), although men tended to lose more weight with intensive low fat reducing diets, with or without meal replacements, and structured physical activity/exercise programmes than women. Orlistat was less beneficial for men for weight maintenance. Individual support and tailoring appeared more helpful for men than women. We found evidence that men and women respond differently to, and have different preferences for, varying types of weight management programme. We suggest that it is important to understand men's views on weight loss, as this is likely to also improve the uptake and effectiveness of programmes for men.

  1. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  2. Androgens and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, G P

    1998-01-01

    Androgenic disorders are those conditions in women characterized by excessive androgen action. They are the most common endocrinopathy of women, affecting from 10% to 20%. Signs are: persistent acne, hirsutism and androgenic alopecia, which is the female equivalent of male pattern baldness. A subgroup, those traditionally labeled as having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), additionally have anovulation, as well as menstrual abnormalities and, often, obesity. Although women with androgenic disorders usually present themselves for help with the skin or menstrual changes, there are other important implications regarding their health. Women with PCOS have varying degrees of insulin resistance, and an increased incidence of Type II diabetes mellitus, as well as unfavorable lipid patterns. The presence of these risk factors is suggested by upper segment obesity, darkening of the skin, and the other skin changes that make up acanthosis nigricans. Diagnosis involves measurement of circulating androgens (of which free testosterone is most important), together with prolactin and FSH when menstrual dysfunction is present. Many women with androgenic skin changes have normal serum androgen levels, suggesting increased end organ sensitivity to androgens. Others have hyperandrogenism (of ovarian or adrenal origin). Treatment is usually successful in controlling acne, reducing hirsutism and stabilizing, or partially reversing, androgenic alopecia. Pharmacological approaches involve suppressing androgen levels, for example, the use of an appropriate oral contraceptive, or antagonizing androgen action with several medications that have this activity. Unfortunately, most women with androgenic disorders are frustrated in their efforts to obtain medical help. Understanding androgenic disorders will enable the physician to significantly help the majority of women with these conditions.

  3. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ila

    1998-03-01

    The contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has played an important role in bringing gender issues to the forefront of development planning and defining feminist politics. This paper examines how this movement has addressed the issue of women's education. The first section highlights contributions of the social reformist movement in the 19th century and the nationalist movement in promoting women's education. The role of the contemporary women's movement in changing school curricula is examined in the second section, followed by discussion on how women's studies has contributed to redefining knowledge. The fourth section discusses women's empowerment and education from the perspective of the women's movement. The article concludes by highlighting challenges facing the women's movement in promoting women's education for equality and empowerment.

  4. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  5. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  6. Celebrating women in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    Next Monday the 8th of March is International Women’s Day. In an ideal world, there would be no need for such an event – equality would be taken as read. But since the world is not there yet, let’s take the opportunity to celebrate women in physics, and indeed the full cultural diversity of our field. Perceived as a discipline dominated by men, reality has been diverging from that perception for a long time. Today at CERN, women play key roles in every aspect of the Organization’s activities.   On Women’s Day, we will be sending a clear message to all young women interested in science and engineering that this is also a field for them. In the CERN Control Centre, half of the Engineers-in-Charge who take responsibility for operating the world’s most powerful particle accelerator are women. In the experiments, in all CERN departments and in the management, women are increasingly represented. That’s because at CERN, and in particl...

  7. [Advances in women's rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Colombia's Constitutional Court has frequently dealt with the theme of women's rights in its pursuit of the inalienable human rights recognized in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. Equality remains a goal, as inequalities persist. The Constitutional proposal to end the historic situation of inferiority suffered by women authorizes the adoption of positive measures to correct de facto inequalities, compensate past abuses, and promote true economic and social equality. The Court has decried the invisibility and lack of social and economic recognition of domestic work. It has declared that the right to health carries the right to medical protection of reproduction and to necessary treatment. The reproductive autonomy of women has been supported with the declaration that prison regulations cannot impose the requirement to control fertility as a condition of conjugal visits, because it constitutes an arbitrary intrusion into private life and a disregard of the social functions of motherhood. The Court has also ordered the reintegration of pregnant adolescents expelled from educational establishments. It has ordered immediate protection for women suffering from aggression and abuse at the hands of their husbands or partners. These pronouncements are unprecedented in Colombian jurisprudence. The high court merits recognition by women, whose basic rights it has begun to protect.

  8. [Hypertension in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.

  9. Contraception in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merki Feld G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today obesity is an epidemic. Within Europe the prevalence of obesity is 20–30% with a tendency to increase further. Obesity is associated with severe complications like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE and metabolic syndrome. Especially availability of efficient methods which do not further enhance the cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk in obese women is an important point. Using contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is recommended to all women whatever their weight, as it reduces the risks of unplanned pregnancy, which is higher in women with overweight. Progestin-only contraceptives and IUDs have no or minimal metabolic effects and are first choices options, also it has to be taken in account that oral progestins and the implant might have lower efficacy in very obese women. CHC are associated with a higher risk for VTE in obese women,but should be used if other methods are not acceptable. A long-cycle or use of preparations with 30 mcg EE can contribute to improve efficacy.

  10. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  11. Early Vascular Damage in Young Women with DM-1 and Its Relation to Anti-Müllerian Hormone: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelien C. de Kat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular function is suggested to be associated with ovarian reserve, but the relationship with microvascular function has never been studied. In this cross-sectional pilot study, the relationship of microvascular damage markers with AMH was studied in premenopausal women. Twenty-two regularly cycling women with type 1 diabetes (DM-1 and a reference group of 20 healthy regularly cycling women were included, from whom blood was drawn in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The main outcome was the correlation between circulating progenitor cells (CPCs, markers for early vascular damage, and AMH, a marker for ovarian reserve. Secondary endpoints for early vascular impairment were circulating angiogenic cells and additional biomarkers. Median AMH levels were 2.2 µg/L [1.2–3.5] in the DM-1 group and 2.1 µg/L [0.85–3.8] in the reference group. CPCs were significantly decreased in women with DM-1; 1204±537 CD34+/CD45dim cells were counted in the DM-1 group, compared to 2264±1124 in the reference group. CPCs and other markers of early vascular damage were not correlated with AMH levels in a multivariable analysis. These results underscore previous findings of early vascular damage in DM-1 and suggest that there may not be a relationship between vascular function and ovarian reserve. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01665716.

  12. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P contractions did not elicit a differential magnitude of responses in heart rate, heart rate variability indices and systemic vascular resistance in obese versus lean women; however, they did result

  13. Discrimination against women and the human rights of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concept of the human rights of women and its connection with the phenomenon and the instances of discrimination against women. Discrimination against women, its social visibility and the fight against it, within the idea of the rights and the equality of women, are a source of many theoretical debates. Academic discussions and a powerful influence of the women's movement have brought about the establishment and the exercise of the human rights of women at different levels of the public and the private spheres of society, as a substantial part of the universal regime of human rights.

  14. EVALUASI PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA SMP MENGGUNAKAN MODEL COUNTENANCE STAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astin Lukum

    2015-06-01

    THE EVALUATION OF SCIENCE TEACHING ON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL USING STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL Abstract The purpose of the study was to describe the science learning program on junior high school in Bone Bolanga district based on the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 65 of 2013 about Processing Standard of Primary and Secondary Education. This study used Stake’s Countanance evaluation model. The data were collected using observation, interview and documentation techniques. The conclusion was: (1 the planning of science learning was categorized fair (68%, it was found that lesson plan was not in accordance with the learning processing standard. (2 The implementation of science learning was categorized fair (57%, that unconformitted with learning processing implementation standard. (3 Student learning outcomes have not met the completeness of minimum criteria (KKM that categorized enough (65% and (4 There were the contingency of planing learning proces and outcome. Keywords: Program Evaluation, Stake's Countenance, Science Learning

  15. Perception of neonatal jaundice among women attending children out patient and immunization clinics of the UPTH Port Harcourt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneh, A U; Ugwu, R O

    2009-06-01

    Neonatal Jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide. Early identification and proper management is needed to prevent the serious neurological complications associated with it. To determine the knowledge of the women attending Children Outpatient (CHOP) and Immunization clinics on the causes, treatment and complications of neonatal jaundice. Women who brought their children/wards to the immunization/children out patient clinics at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Port Harcourt were interviewed using structured questionaire. There were 255 mothers who participated in the study. Of these 30 (11.8%) have never heard of neonatal jaundice while 225 (88.2%) have heard and only those who have heard were further analyzed. The age range was from 16 to 47 yrs (mean age 27.1 +/- 3.3 years). Median parity was 2. One hundred and twenty two (54.2%) women had tertiary education. One hundred and seventy four (77.3%) correctly defined neonatal jaundice, and in 114 (44.7%) source of information was from health talk in the clinic. Seventy five (33.3%), and 50 (22.2%) erroneously believed that eating too much groundnut in pregnancy and mosquito bite respectively were the main causes while 55 (24.4%) correctly answered that it is due to mismatch of mother and baby's blood. Only a few knew that use of dusting powder on baby's cord, prematurity, and storing baby's clothes in camphor were risk factors for NNJ. One hundred and fourteen (50.7%) and 60 (26.7%), wrongly believed that exposure to sunlight and use of glucose drinks respectively were the main forms of treatment and 50 (22.2%) knew brain damage as a possible complication There is still misconception on the causes and risk factors and treatment of neonatal jaundice among our women. Also only a few women are reached by the health talk in the clinics. There is therefore urgent need for massive health enlightenment campaign.

  16. [Episiotomy: focusing women's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previatti, Jaqueline Fátima; de Souza, Kleyde Ventura

    2007-01-01

    Enough scientific evidences exist for the recommendation of the abolition of the used episiotomia in a liberal way. With objective of identifying the vision of a group of post-partum women in relation to the episiotomy it was done a study of qualitative approach, with the participation of 20 women, in the postpartumn period. It was used for data collection a semi-structured tool applied from April to June, 2004. The results were analyzed based in thematic analysis. The women's ignorance was verified in relation to the episiotomy and on their own body; although, they did not receive information, in any moment that this is a selective intervention, indicating the need of knowledge amplification and of the ransom of the woman's autonomy in the childbirth process and birth.

  17. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Neena; Sharma, Indira; Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, M S; Chaudhuri, Uday; Parial, Sonia; Sharma, Avdesh; Kataria, Dinesh

    2015-07-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a major public health problem in the country. The problem is grossly under-reported. A number of factors have been blamed for crimes against women. An inefficient law enforcing machinery has often been targeted for the increasing number of cases being reported. There is little recognition that psychiatric morbidity can perpetuate such crimes. Of late, there appears to a continuous increase in the number of crimes committed against women; especially the very serious ones like gang rapes. The latter have shaken the very conscience of people. Even harsher legislation does not seem to have made any effect. One wonders how this could be possible in a society heading toward high education, economic and technological development. Media has played a pivotal role by highlighting the problem to the masses. The need for the hour is for mental health professionals to take the challenge and present a comprehensive proposal for definite action to prevent all forms of VAW.

  18. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  19. Spirituality in Childbearing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Khalaf, Inaam

    2010-01-01

    Childbearing is the ideal context within which to enrich spirituality. The purpose of this study was to generate themes regarding spirituality and religiosity among culturally diverse childbearing women. A secondary analysis was performed, using existing narrative data from cross-cultural studies of childbearing women. The following themes emerged from the data: childbirth as a time to grow closer to God, the use of religious beliefs and rituals as powerful coping mechanisms, childbirth as a time to make religiosity more meaningful, the significance of a Higher Power in influencing birth outcomes, and childbirth as a spiritually transforming experience. In clinical settings, understanding the spiritual dimensions of childbirth is essential. Assessments of childbearing women may include the question, “Do you have any spiritual beliefs that will help us better care for you?” PMID:20498751

  20. Women and Wissenschaft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pelle Oliver

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark women gained academic citizenship in 1875 but it took almost half a century before they obtained formal access to the professorships. Contrary to Germany where the mandarins – to use Fritz K. Ringer’s term – opposed women’s entrance into the academic world, the Danish case was much more...... double sided. Though there was indeed a strong opposition against female students and their membership of the students’ associations, there was also a stronger and stronger group among the mandarins who not only accepted women but even welcomed them – also to university chairs should they be qualified....... Around the turn of the century the modernizers had prevailed. From the beginning of the 20th century a woman would without much doubt have been appointed to a professorship if she had been thought to be the best candidate. One of the main reasons why this did not happen is, of course, that few women were...

  1. Status of women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  2. Women and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, K; Stjernswärd, J; Koroltchouk, V

    1987-01-01

    The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.

  3. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  4. Can women detect cues to ovulation in other women's faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Bobst, Cora; Probst, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that men find portraits of ovulatory women more attractive than photographs of the same women taken during the luteal phase. Only few studies have investigated whether the same is true for women. The ovulatory phase matters to men because women around ovulation are most likely to conceive, and might matter to women because fertile women might pose a reproductive threat. In an online study 160 women were shown face pairs, one of which was assimilated to the shape of a late follicular prototype and the other to a luteal prototype, and were asked to indicate which face they found more attractive. A further 60 women were tested in the laboratory using a similar procedure. In addition to choosing the more attractive face, these participants were asked which woman would be more likely to steal their own date. Because gonadal hormones influence competitive behaviour, we also examined whether oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels predict women's choices. The women found neither the late follicular nor the luteal version more attractive. However, naturally cycling women with higher oestradiol levels were more likely to choose the ovulatory woman as the one who would entice their date than women with lower oestradiol levels. These results imply a role of oestradiol when evaluating other women who are competing for reproduction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Women Doctors in 1914

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE five women shown here are doctors. Eighty-four years ago, they sat for this photographic portrait. The photo depicts the tasteful combination of East and West. While the photographic studio was decorated in the European style, the women doctors were dressed in traditional Chinese fashion with their hair coiled in Japanese style. We can also see that though the ladies were in vogue for their time, they still displayed shyness facing a male photographer, as most can be observed shifting their eyesight away from the lens.

  6. Pride of Uygur Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    WOMEN of the Uygur nationality are known near and far for their delicate features and good manner. A popular Uygur folk song sings their praises: "Take off the scarf covering your face, Let me look at you. Your rosy cheeks smooth and glowing, Like an apple that ripens in autumn; Your eyebrows arched and fair, Like the new moon in the sky. …." Since China opened its door to the outside world a decade ago, Uygur women have taken an active part in social

  7. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  8. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  9. Images of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderberg, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Images of Women, which took place in Copenhagen in March 1970, at the same time as the first political interventions of the feminist movement, the "Redstockings", was the first feminist art exhibition in Scandinavia. The essay analyses the content of this collaborative project and demonstrates how...... the artists radically approptiated the exhibition space as a platform for political confrontation and involvement, while upholding the idea of artistic space as a utopian space. Thus the exhibition addressed the actual social situation of women as well as their position within the representational field....

  10. Women as Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Košťál, Jaroslav; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2011-01-01

    This part of the project report contain an overview of some quantitative characteristics of the Eurosphere interview data, with a specific view to addressing the two broad research areas ‘where are the women?’ and ‘gendering as a process'. We consider two aspects of whether gender matters...... for the overall research questions of the project: I) women´s position/presence within the organizations, and II) gender differences in attitudes towards key questions in the interview guide....

  11. Age-related changes of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and the relationship with bone mineral density in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-juan QIN; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Wei-wei HU; Yu-juan LIU; Yun-qiu HU; Miao LI; Jie-mei GU; Jin-wei HE

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Ostcoclastic activity is mainly assessed by measurement of urinary markers (eg C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen, N-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen etc), the levels of which could often be affected by renal clearance. Recently, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) has been used as an alternative serum marker to evaluate osteoclastic activity. We investigated the age-related changes of TRACP5b level and its association with bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women. Methods: Seven-hundred and twenty-two Chinese mainland women aged 20-79 years were recruited in the study. Serum TRACP5b level was measured using immunoassay to evaluate the state of bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) at lumbar spine 1-4 and proximal femur were measured by duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The serum TRACP5b level reached a bottom value in premenopausal women aged 30-39, gradually increased in women aged 40-49, rapidly rose in women aged 50-59, and culminated with a maximum value in women aged 60-69 before a slow drop in women aged 70-79. The average level of TRACPSb was significantly higher in postmenopausal women [(3.29±1.07) U/L] than in premenopausal women ([1.70±0.59] U/L). The levels of TRACP5b were inversely correlated with BMD at all measured sites (P<0.001). Furthermore, the level of TRACP5b was obviously higher in women with osteoporosis and osteopenia than those with normal bone mass (P<0.001). Conclusion: We have established the reference values of serum TRACPSb in Chinese mainland women, and found that postmenopausal women had higher TRACP5b concentration than younger women. The results showed that serum TRACPSb was a sensitive and useful parameter for the evaluation of age-related changes of bone absorption.

  12. Promoting nutrition in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Pugh, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    Nurses have a vital role in providing nutritional education to breastfeeding women. In this article, the authors discuss the nutritional requirements for breast-feeding women in terms of micronutrients, macronutrients, and minerals. They provide recommendations for women with vegetarian diets and low-income women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children program who may have dietary deficiencies, and they present a directed case study to provide an example of how to perform a dietary assessment and the educational support that may be offered by nurses to breastfeeding women.

  13. Laparoscopic management of endometrial cancer in nonobese and obese women: A consecutive series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Fabio; Cromi, Antonella; Bergamini, Valentino; Uccella, Stefano; Beretta, Paolo; Franchi, Massimo; Bolis, Pierfrancesco

    2006-01-01

    To assess the technical feasibility and surgical outcome of a 5 mm-ports technique in a consecutive series of women with endometrial cancer laparoscopically managed. Prospective collaborative cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Two gynecologic oncology units of university hospitals. A series of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. A 10-mm zero-degree umbilical operative laparoscope and three 5-mm suprapubic trocars were used. The lymph nodes were removed with the use of a specimen bag through the umbilical port. Intraoperative and postoperative details and complications were prospectively collected. A total of 101 patients were enrolled. Twenty-two (21.8%) had a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or higher, and nine (8.9%) were severely obese (BMI > or =35 kg/m2). One hundred procedures (99%) were carried out entirely with only three 5-mm ancillary trocars. In one patient, a 5-mm trocar was replaced with a 10-mm trocar because of a lesion of the external iliac vein requiring the placement of vascular clips. One procedure needed to be converted to laparotomy. Intraoperative complications occurred in three patients (one bladder injury and one iliac vein injury, both managed laparoscopically, and one subcutaneous emphysema). Postoperative complications occurred in 10 (10%) patients. The only complication requiring a subsequent intervention was a symptomatic pelvic lymphocyst. No difference was found in surgical outcomes between obese women and those of ideal BMI. The use of only 5-mm ancillary trocars for the laparoscopic treatment of endometrial cancer can further minimize surgical invasiveness without compromising surgical efficacy and safety in patients with high BMI as well as for women with ideal BMI.

  14. Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production And Marketing In Ezinihitte Local Government Area Of Imo State, Nigeria. ... On the other hand, education and income were negative and statistically significant at 1% and 5% ...

  15. PERANAN GURU IPA DAN IPS DALAM MENANAMKAN NILAI YANG TERKANDUNG DALAM KONTEN IPA DAN IPS DI MADRASAH IBTIDA’IYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafia Wafiqni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the role of science and social studies teachers in instilling the values contained in science and social studies content at Government Elementary School. The method used in this research was descriptive qualitative. Through a case study, this qualitative approach was intended to gain in dept understanding of social situation, and find patterns, hypotheses and theories. Subjects in this study were 10 teachers who teach science and social studies at Islamic elementary schools that were selected from randomly chosen elementary schools from North Jakarta, South Jakarta, Central Jakarta, West Jakarta and East Jakarta. The results of the study revealed  that responsibility, collaborative work, mutual respect, and respect could be developed by teachers through teaching and learning process. Yet, other values that were specifically generated from the material content of science and social studies have not been tried out to be developed except in teachers’ lesson plans. DOI: 10.15408/tjems.v1i2.1271

  16. PENINGKATAN KOMPETENSI PEDAGOGIK GURU IPA BERBASIS PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM MELALUI ALAT PERAGA IPA KONTEKSTUAL DI MI KECAMATAN NGABLAK, MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiono Saputro

    2015-09-01

    training management model contextual equipment science with the use of the natural surroundings as His grace revealed to man. Increased the ability of science teachers can be seen from the results of the pre-posttest through paired t test significance 0.000 < 0.05, the observation capabilities of teachers used contextual equipment science for science teacher based of Islamic education in the post-training schools was competent results.

  17. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  18. The Menba Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Gama Qunzong, director of the women’s federation of Lebu District, Cona County, Tibet; Menba nationality women usually wear a woolen gown with a cap and a string of colorful beads. A family enjoying home-made wine. The Menbas usually live in bamboo houses.

  19. Educated women in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2008-01-01

    in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However...

  20. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatme

  1. Women and sexual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Causes of sexual dysfunction References Miller M. Sexual dysfunction in women. First Consult. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1016356?scrollTo=%23top. Elsevier BV. Revised Mar 11, 2014. ... CK. Female sexual function and dysfunction. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ...

  2. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  3. Women at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To mark International Women's Day on 8 March, the Weekly Bulletin has looked at the careers of six female physicists, engineers and administrators working at CERN. A frequent question on the lips of newcomers to CERN as they take a quick look around them is 'But where are the women?' However, while it's true that the Laboratory has never had a huge number of female personnel, a closer look reveals that there are in fact quite a few around. To mark International Women's Day, the Bulletin has interviewed six women working at CERN to find out how they see the Organization, what they do and what they think about their daily working lives. Creating a link 'Maybe because I grew up during World War II, my parents always taught me to respect people of other nationalities, religions, colour, etc., so one thing I have always appreciated about CERN is that it promotes this tolerance and understanding by giving us the great privilege of working side by side with colleagues from many cultures and walks of life.' Pegg...

  4. Women at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiant, Sharon

    During the prehistoric era, most advances in society were developed by women. These advances included agriculture, building, weaving, basketry, pottery, woodworking, trading, and domesticating animals. Pottery and basketry allowed for the long-term storage of food and water and permitted humanity to stop living the nomadic life and begin the first…

  5. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Oct 21, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email ... of the ACA on women’s coverage. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.5 million ...

  6. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women ...

  7. HIV among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  8. Microneurographic research in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eFu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews microneurograpic research on sympathetic neural control in women under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions across the lifespan. Specifically, the effects of sex, age, race, the menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, estrogen replacement therapy, and normal pregnancy on neural control of blood pressure in healthy women are reviewed. In addition, sympathetic neural activity during neurally mediated (presyncope, the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, obesity, the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, chronic essential hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction in women are also reviewed briefly. It is suggested that microneurographic studies provide valuable information regarding autonomic circulatory control in women of different ages and in most cases, excessive sympathetic activation is associated with specific medical conditions regardless of age and sex. In some situations, sympathetic inhibition or withdrawal may be the underlying mechanism. Information gained from previous and recent microneurographic studies has significant clinical implications in women’s health, and in some cases could be used to guide therapy if more widely available.

  9. Women in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.

    This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in physics. Included are summaries of research areas in physics (optical physics, solid-state physics, materials science, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma physics, biophysics, atmospheric physics) and differences between theory and…

  10. Women in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Indovino, Shaina

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to be a physicist? Lise Meitner, Katharine Blodgett, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Chien-Shiung Wu, Ursula Franklin, Argelia Velez-Rodriguez, Sau Lan Wu, Shirley Ann Jackson, Lisa Randall and opportunities for women in physics today.

  11. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  12. Women in Sport Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mary Ann; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The philosophy, purpose, grading procedure, and course requirements for the University of Delaware's "Women in Sports" course are set forth. A course outline is provided, along with tips and a resource materials listing for those interested in initiating similar programs. (LH)

  13. What Women Do Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛勤

    1994-01-01

    As any woman can attest, there are some things at which her gender naturally excels. In the past decade,academic research has offered insight into the feminine advantage. The Language Gap. Studies show that, on average, women perform better in all aspects of language usage,says Diane Halpern,a psychology professor and author of Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. The differ-

  14. Inguinal herniorrhaphy in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Inguinal hernias in women are relatively rare, and an outcome in this specific subgroup of hernias has not been documented in the literature. An analysis was performed using data from the prospective recording of 3,696 female inguinal hernia repairs in the national Danish hernia database, in the 5...

  15. Giant prolactinomas in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (Pwomen (n=34), we...

  16. Women and Literacy. Women and World Development Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballara, Marcela

    This book examines the connection between poverty and illiteracy among women in a global context and presents guidelines for developing literacy activities for women. The following topics are covered: defining literacy (negative effects of illiteracy and literacy programs for women); global context (literacy gap, gender disparities, urban/rural…

  17. Women and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ellen Hirschman

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of insomnia in women is influenced in great part by the complex hormonal cycles they undergo. Patterns of insomnia in younger women may be physiologically different on a hormonal basis from those found in older women. Although significant objective sleep disturbances have been difficult to demonstrate across the menstrual cycle in normal women, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) includes premenstrual insomnia and premenstrual hypersomnia as sleep disorders within the category of menstrual-associated sleep disorder. On the other hand, during pregnancy and after childbirth, profound fluctuations in steroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-related hormones produce significant physiological changes, including sleep disruption. During the menopausal transition, significant sleep disruptions are provoked by sleep-disordered breathing, vasomotor disturbance, and mood disorders. Regardless of age, women with chronic insomnia are at higher risk for developing or sustaining depression. Thoughtful management approaches must consider known relationships between menstrual or menopausal status and various sleep disorders, and should rely on pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, or a combination of treatments to achieve successful relief from insomnia. The off-label, first-line use of antidepressants for treating insomnia in the absence of depression is now considered debatable. The long-term efficacy and safety of the newer benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) for insomnia, whether taken nightly or episodically, are supported by existing clinical experience. US Food and Drug Administration guidelines limiting the use of hypnotics to only a few weeks predate the newer generation BZRAs, and, as such, the guidelines may no longer be truly appropriate for these new agents.

  18. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  19. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  20. Women are still the key

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    and marketing.3,4 Despite their traditional specialisation in food production .... A third strategy is for extension agents, whether men or women, to ... was used, for example, for a course on integrated pest .... communication, 1995). Women in ...

  1. Women and Computers: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ruth; Greber, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Discusses women's central role in the development of the computer and their present day peripheral position, a progression paralleled in the fields of botany, medical care, and obstetrics. Affirms the importance of computer education to women. (DM)

  2. The Dress of Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Women of the Tu ethnicity, who live on the highlands in northwest China, wear bright and colorful dresses. The married women favor shirts with sleeves decorated in a rainbow of colored flowers: yellow, green, blue, red, purple, black

  3. Disabled women's attendance at community women's groups in rural Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourn, T.; Budhathoki, B.; Sen, A.; Adhikari, D.; Bamjan, J.; Pathak, S.; Basnet, A.; Trani, J. F.; Costello, A.; Manandhar, D.; Groce, N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. PMID:26519006

  4. Impact of an HPV6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in seropositive women with HPV16/18 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt, Richard M; Wheeler, Cosette M; Brown, Darron R;

    2011-01-01

    The impact of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2-3/AIS) in women with ongoing HPV16 or 18 infections prevaccination is reported. Seventeen thousand six-hundred and twenty-two women aged 16-26 were...... enrolled in 1 of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, efficacy trials (Protocols 013 and 015). Vaccine or placebo was given at day 1, month 2 and 6. Women were tested for HPV6/11/16/18 DNA and antibodies at day 1. We focus on the subset of women who were seropositive and DNA positive to HPV16 or HPV18...... prevaccination. Incidence is expressed as the number of women with an endpoint per 100 person-years-at-risk. In total, 419 vaccine and 446 placebo recipients were both seropositive and DNA positive to HPV16 or HPV18 prevaccination and had at least one follow-up visit. In Protocol 013, the incidence of HPV16...

  5. Conditions of Elderly Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ACCORDING to the fourth national census in 1990, the population of women over the age of 60 had reached 51 million. With the increasing population of elderly people, the number of elderly women is becoming larger and larger The number of women who are 80 or more. is twice that of men over age 80. The problems of elderly women are attracting public attention. The information given in this article mainly comes from the 1990 national census except where noted otherwise.

  6. Sustainable development: women as partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dem, M

    1993-02-01

    The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic

  7. An Evaluation of Tourists' Satisfaction Degree of Folk House World Heritages Based on IPA Analysis:A Case Study of Yongding Hakka Earth Building in Fujian Province,China%基于IPA法的民居类世界遗产地游客满意度评价——以福建永定土楼为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡彩云; 骆培聪; 唐承财; 张宪玉

    2011-01-01

    Tourism in folk house world heritages has been rapidly developing in recent years.Hakka Earth Building of Yongding in Fujian Province,a typical folk house category of World Heritage,was investigated in this study.An evaluation index system on tourist satisfaction about Hakka Earth Building was built.The tourists' satisfaction degree of Yongding Hakka Earth Building was evaluated with importance-performance analysis (IPA) and the questionnaire method.Results show that:1) all the factors and indicators affecting tourists' satisfaction degree have generally high importance,especially the characteristic of tourism resources,tourism transportation conditions,tourism security,and environment quality.2) The results from IPA Index analysis show that the satisfaction degree in the factor layer and indicator layer is essentially lower that the importance of these layers.There is a disparity between the degrees of satisfaction and importance in 87.5% of factors,ranging from 3.15% to 35.48%,whereas the disparity between the degrees of satisfaction and importance in 93.10% indicators ranges from 1.11% to 56.38%.In terms of the evaluation standard of the IPA index,the factors and indicators were evaluated.The satisfaction degrees in tourism resources and consumption cost are relatively high,followed by the satisfaction degrees in tourism service quality,combination of tourism products,conditions of infrastructural facilities,and tourism security and environment quality.Tourists do not seem to be satisfied with tourism transportation conditions and scenic spot management,thereby showing low satisfaction degrees.3) The improvement strategies were put forward for each quadrant.The indicators of quadrant Ⅰ have high importance,but their performances are poor,including 13 indicators which need to be further improved.The indicators of quadrant Ⅱ have high importance and performances,involving 10 indicators which need to be continuously improved.The indicators of

  8. Three Generations of Lancashire Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscomb, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In 1914 opportunities for working-class women's sports participation were limited and peripheral, but the 1980s, policy reforms resulted in the then Sports Council identifying women as a "target group". Subsequently the notion that barriers to women's participation are issues to be identified and resolved has become commonplace in contemporary…

  9. Women and Entrepreneurship. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    The spectrum of women-owned businesses ranges from full corporations to microenterprises. Women business owners share many characteristics and motivations of business owners generally; other factors are dissatisfaction with "glass ceiling" limits, desire for job flexibility, and age discrimination. Women entrepreneurs often face barriers…

  10. Women's Rights Are Human Rights!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Kalamu Ya

    1979-01-01

    This article emphasizes that the women's rights movement must be viewed as a vital part of the human rights struggle. It is argued that both men and women should speak out against sexism and support the struggles of women to defend and develop themselves. (Author/EB)

  11. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  12. Business Education for Women Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy, presents a profile of women small business owners, reviews the research pertaining to business education for women entrepreneurs, and indicates an agenda directed toward the educational needs of women venture initiators. (NRJ)

  13. Wings: Women Entrepreneurs Take Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1997-01-01

    Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…

  14. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  15. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  16. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  17. Success and Women's Career Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joyce E. A.; Burgess, Jennifer R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Women still face barriers to career success and satisfaction: stereotypes, assumptions, organizational culture, human resource practices, and lack of opportunities. Despite individual and organizational strategies, many women leave to become entrepreneurs. There is a need to investigate how women define career success. (SK)

  18. Women Prove Theil Mayoral Qualifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    OF the 517 large and small cities in the country, more than 300 have women mayors and vice mayors. These women play an important role in the construction and development of their cities. Ordinary Chinese people like to call their local officials "father-and- mother officials," but these women

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicines Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Professional Views and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rouf Pallivalappila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To undertake a systematic review of the recent (2008–2013 primary literature, describing views and experiences of CAM use during pregnancy by women and healthcare professionals. Method. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review Library and Allied, and Complementary Medicine Database were searched. Studies reporting systemic CAM products (homeopathic preparations, herbal medicines, Vitamins and minerals, homeopathy, and special diets alone or in combination with other nonsystemic CAM modalities (e.g., acupuncture were included. Results. Database searches retrieved 2,549 citations. Removal of duplicates followed by review of titles and abstracts yielded 32 relevant studies. Twenty-two reported the perspectives of women and their CAM use during pregnancy, while 10 focused on healthcare professionals. The majority of studies had significant flaws in study design and reporting, including a lack of appropriate definitions of CAM and associated modalities, absence of detailed checklists provided to participants, the use of convenience sampling, and a general lack of scientific robustness in terms of data validity and reliability. Conclusion. To permit generalisability of study findings, there is an urgent need to expand the evidence base assessing CAMs use during pregnancy using appropriately designed studies.

  20. Lightening the load for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvinic, M

    1995-01-01

    Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women.

  1. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  2. Women need health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.

  3. Features of Women's language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何延凌

    2008-01-01

    Language is a means of verbal communication.People use language to communicate with each other.In the society,no two speakers are exactly alike in the way of speaking.Some differences are due to age,gender,statue and personality. Above all,gender is one of the obvious reasons.The writer of this paper tries to describe the features of women's language from these perspectives: pronunciation,intonation,diction,subjects,grammar and discourse.From the discussion of the features of women's language,more attention should be paid to language use in social context.What's more,the linguistic phenomena in a speaking community can be understood more thoroughly.

  4. Urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  5. Acne in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Women'S issues and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Katherine H; Pack, Alison M

    2010-06-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) may experience changes in seizure control related to alterations in neuronal excitability mediated by estrogen and progesterone. A third or more of women will reliably note seizures that are linked to menstruation or ovulation. Reproductive hormone-related exacerbation of seizure control is also observed during perimenopause. Seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) also can adversely affect reproductive health. WWE have higher than expected rates of menstrual disorders and infertility. Enzyme-inducing AEDs interact with hormonal contraceptives, potentially limiting options for birth control. Exposure to AEDs during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital malformations and cognitive impairments in children born to WWE. Chronic AED use increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, decreased bone quality and density, and fractures. These concerns heighten the need to taper AEDs when appropriate and to manage WWE on the simplest AED regimen that will maintain seizure freedom.

  7. WOMEN WITH FACIAL TATTOOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    For a long time in the past,the Derungs were known for having their women's faces tattooed.I had got to know before leaving for the Nujiang Canyon that this somewhat strange tradition had long been abandoned. Once in the Derung area,however,I decided to find out whence this “tradition”, so to speak, had originated and if there wer still “living specimens” of it.

  8. Women's Educacion on Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Aparecida Poluca Proença

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A EDUCAÇÃO DAS MULHERES NA TEORIA ROUSSEAUNIANA Resumo: neste artigo nos propomos a explorar os aspectos da vida e obra de Rousseau, evidenciando os fatos que envolveram sua relação com as mulheres. O texto mostra pontos importantes para que Jean-Jacques Rousseau viesse a desenvolver suas ideias a respeito da educação e comportamento da mulher na sociedade francesa do século XVIII. Para a sustentação de nossas hipóteses, compusemos um estudo bibliográfico de aproximação sócio-histórico-filosófica, explorando a formação de Rousseau como pessoa e identificando mulheres importantes em sua formação, apresentaremos as questões sociais e condutas, vivenciadas por Rousseau. Na formação desse cenário compomos o quanto a influência das mulheres na vida de Rousseau determinaram a sua proposta educacional. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Educação das Mulheres. Século XVIII Abstract: In this text, we intend to explore aspects of Rousseau's life and writings, putting in evidence the facts which involved his relationship with women. The text shows relevant topics so that Jean-Jacques Rousseau could develop his ideas about education and women's behavior in 18th century of French society. To support our hypothesis, we composed a bibliographical study of philosophical-social-historical characteristics, exploring Rousseau's formation as a subject and identifying important women in his formation and on his prospect of education. Keywords: Rousseau. Women's education. 18th century.

  9. Stroke and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Benbir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the differences in vascular risk factor and etiology of stroke in two sexes. METHODS: We reviewed the medical files of 2798 patients being followed-up in our Stroke Clinic between the years 1996-2011. The stroke subtypes and risk factors were recorded on the basis of clinical data, physical and neurological examinations, and neuroimaging findings. Data were collected in SPSS 11.5 system and Pearson chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of a total of 2798 patients, 2564 patients (91,6% had ischemic stroke, and 234 of them (8,4% had hemorrhagic stroke. The mean follow-up duration was 50.2+42.7 months. Of whole study population, 1289 patients were women (46%, 1509 of them were men (54%. The analysis of stroke subtypes showed that the most common subtype was stroke of unknown etiology in both sexes. Following this, the most common subtype was atherothrombotic stroke in men, and cardioembolic stroke in women. Coronary heart disease was more common in men, while atrial fibrillation and other rhythm anomalies were more common in women. Smoking and alcohol consumption were more common in men. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that there are major differences in stroke subtypes and vascular risk factors. Better knowledge of these differences, as well as influencing factors, is of crucial value – in addition to the need of hormonal changes, pregnancy and depression to be better identified in women – for both primary and secondary prevention.

  10. Women Writers in Macheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Many centuries ago, Li Zhi (1527-1602), thinker andwriter of the Ming Dynasty edtablished a famousfemale-only school in China. Today, there has emergeda group of women writers. They are sparing their timefrom work and household chores and have entered thesacred hall of literature by expending greater effortsthan their male counterparts. Many of their works havebeen published. They are full of talent and have wonseveral national level prizes.

  11. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

    offee Morning Tuesday 12th  June 2012, 12:30 Annual Club Lunch at "The Physalis" in Prévessin Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  12. Cheering On Women Journalists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    RECENTLY, a special seminar on Lu Xiaofei’s news works was held at the People’s Daily, the most authoritative newspaper in China. Lu is editor-in-chief of the page "Local News of the Nation" for the People’s Daily. She is one of some 200 women journalists who has made a name for herself at the newspaper. Her work, Real Facts on the Issue of the Tibet Population, reflects the sensitivity and

  13. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

  14. Footprints of Women Reporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In every important historical event from the Founding Ceremony of New China in 1949 to today's opening and reform, from domestic economic construction to regional wars in the word, Chinese women journalists have left their footprints. The eight pictures shown here are not able to display all of their charms, but at least our readers may see how they cover their reports with diligence and hard work.

  15. Hui’an Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    HUI’AN women in eastern Hui’an County of Fujian’s Quanzhou are well-known for their industriousness as well as their unique dressing habits and marriage customs. The peculiarity of Hui’an women’s dress mainly focuses on the upper coats, trousers, silver chains around their waists, scarves and bamboo hats. The dresses are indigo blue, apple green, black or half green and half white. Some

  16. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th November 2011, 9:00 - 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 - DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Organization of our Christmas Sale In favour of “Terre des Hommes” Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  17. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th January 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Epiphany (French tradition – “Tirer les rois”) Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  18. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club des cernoises

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 11th October, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale TERRE DES HOMMES New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  19. Women and radicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Badran, Margot

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on women and radicalization within the context of Muslim societies (majority, minority, and half Muslim) societies and groups, mainly in Asia and Africa. The basic argument advanced in this paper is that Islamic feminism with its gender-egalitarian discourse and practices has a major role to play in the empowerment of Muslim women—and of men and society as a whole—and should be brought to bear in devising policy, strategy, and tools.

  20. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  1. Women in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Since 1963 women have successfully flown and worked in space so much so that having a female aboard the shuttle, on Soyuz or on the International Space Station is considered commonplace. We do know that women have historically been virturally equal in capabilities and performance with their male counterparts. For example, there have been superb shuttle pilots, shuttle commanders, EVA participants as well as mission specialists and payload specialists. Thus, gender is not an issue within the ranks, rather a simple fact. In addition, there is a positive psychological factor that has been noted in that a mixed crew seems to have better intercommunications dynamics. JAXA has conducted the experiments on 7 subjects on bone mineral density in short duration of space flight and noticed a slight decrease in that density in both male and female. Lean body mass was also examined and found to be reduced by 3.0 % on average. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects in short duration of space flight. Unfortunately, only 1 of the 7 subjects was a woman. In fact, only 48 women have flown in total, some more than once, and science is still discovering the effects of the space experience. This is due to the limited exposure on orbit and in microgravity and the limited number of potential subjects. Time in space is beginning to increase with the continued progress of the ISS, thereby creating a demand for more knowledge on what effects long term exposure will have on the female of the species. The presentation will address these and other concerns involved with women in space from the perspective of a female scientist and an astronaut.

  2. Women on the move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. González Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The special issue Women on the Move that the reader holds in their hands is the result of the hard work of very creative specialists in gender and mobility. Research on mobility and gender has progressively advanced from traditional, non-gender-specific literature on migration or mobility of highly skilled people. And, as these authors prove, the topic is already quantitatively and qualitatively relevant.

  3. Prolonged labour : women's experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Nystedt, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate, describe, and promote understanding of women’s experiences of prolonged labour. The thesis compromises four studies. Methods: Paper I describes a case-referent study that recruited women (n = 255) giving singleton live birth to their first child by spontaneous labour after more than 37 completed weeks’ pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire that investigated childbirth experiences, previous family relationships, and childhood e...

  4. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Women's Club

    2014-01-01

      CERN WOMEN’S CLUB   Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th  June 2014, 12:30   Annual Club Lunch at the restaurant “Le Coq Rouge” in St-Genis-Pouilly Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  5. Cern women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2014-01-01

    CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  May 2014, 9:30 Bldg 504,  (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3   Annual General Meeting Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  6. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 15th  May 2012, 9:00 Building 504,  (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Annual General Meeting Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  7. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th April 2013, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  8. Cern Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 5th  February 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st  Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Nous Aussi Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/    

  9. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 12th March 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Eastern Tradition Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  10. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th September 2013, 9:00 Bldg 504, (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Registration Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  11. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 15th January 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Epiphany (French tradition – “Tirer les rois”) Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  12. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 11th  June 2013, 12:30 Annual Club Lunch at the restaurant “Bois Joly” in Crozet Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  13. Women, work and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Evolahti, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Work-related stress has become a major public health problem in Western societies. In Sweden women account for the majority of long-term sick leave and the most common reasons are psychiatric conditions such as depression and stress-related diagnoses. Stressful working conditions have been shown to influence both physical and psychological health by acting as important mediating factors in the development of e.g. cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms of depr...

  14. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  15. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  16. HIV incidence in a cohort of women at higher risk in Beira, Mozambique: prospective study 2009-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Dubé

    Full Text Available HIV is prevalent in Sofala Province, Mozambique. To inform future prevention research, we undertook a study in the provincial capital (Beira to measure HIV incidence in women at higher risk of HIV and assess the feasibility of recruiting and retaining them as research participants.Women age 18-35 were recruited from schools and places where women typically meet potential sexual partners. Eligibility criteria included HIV-seronegative status and self-report of at least 2 sexual partners in the last month. History of injection drug use was an exclusion criterion, but pregnancy was not. Participants were scheduled for monthly follow-up for 12 months, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing.387 women were eligible and contributed follow-up data. Most were from 18-24 years old (median 21. Around one-third of participants (33.8% reported at least one new sexual partner in the last month. Most women (65.5% reported not using a modern method of contraception at baseline. Twenty-two women seroconverted for a prospective HIV incidence of 6.5 per 100 woman-years (WY; 95% confidence interval (CI: 4.1-9.9. Factors associated with HIV seroconversion in the multivariable analysis were: number of vaginal sex acts without using condoms with partners besides primary partner in the last 7 days (hazard ratio (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.5 and using a form of contraception at baseline other than hormonal or condoms (vs. no method; HR 25.3; 95% CI: 2.5-253.5. The overall retention rate was 80.0% for the entire follow-up period.We found a high HIV incidence in a cohort of young women reporting risky sexual behavior in Beira, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened. Regular HIV testing and condom use should be encouraged, particularly among younger women with multiple sexual partners.

  17. HIV Incidence in a Cohort of Women at Higher Risk in Beira, Mozambique: Prospective Study 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Zango, Arlinda; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Meque, Ivete; Ferro, Josefo J.; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ma, Sabrina; Jolles, Erik; Fumo, Afonso; Robb, Merlin L.; Feldblum, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV is prevalent in Sofala Province, Mozambique. To inform future prevention research, we undertook a study in the provincial capital (Beira) to measure HIV incidence in women at higher risk of HIV and assess the feasibility of recruiting and retaining them as research participants. Methods Women age 18–35 were recruited from schools and places where women typically meet potential sexual partners. Eligibility criteria included HIV-seronegative status and self-report of at least 2 sexual partners in the last month. History of injection drug use was an exclusion criterion, but pregnancy was not. Participants were scheduled for monthly follow-up for 12 months, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing. Results 387 women were eligible and contributed follow-up data. Most were from 18–24 years old (median 21). Around one-third of participants (33.8%) reported at least one new sexual partner in the last month. Most women (65.5%) reported not using a modern method of contraception at baseline. Twenty-two women seroconverted for a prospective HIV incidence of 6.5 per 100 woman-years (WY; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1–9.9). Factors associated with HIV seroconversion in the multivariable analysis were: number of vaginal sex acts without using condoms with partners besides primary partner in the last 7 days (hazard ratio (HR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2–2.5) and using a form of contraception at baseline other than hormonal or condoms (vs. no method; HR 25.3; 95% CI: 2.5–253.5). The overall retention rate was 80.0% for the entire follow-up period. Conclusions We found a high HIV incidence in a cohort of young women reporting risky sexual behavior in Beira, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened. Regular HIV testing and condom use should be encouraged, particularly among younger women with multiple sexual partners. PMID:24475035

  18. Women and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hesse

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  19. The Evaluation of Diastolic Dysfunction with Tissue Doppler Echocardiography in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment on Diastolic Dysfunction: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbanu Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH predominantly affects women. The necessity of treatment in SH is controversial. Objective. We aimed to investigate the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT in women. Methods and Results. Twenty-two female subjects with SH and 20 euthyroid female controls were enrolled. Baseline and follow-up biochemical, hormonal, and echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Repeat echocardiograms were performed three months after the achievement of a euthyroid status with THRT. Mean baseline myocardial performance index (MPI was 0.27±0.08 in the SH group, and 0.22±0.06 in the control group (P=0.03. MPI did not change significantly after THRT. Pulsed-wave Doppler findings were not different among the groups. However, tissue Doppler-derived mitral annular E’ velocities were significantly lower in the SH group. A moderate but significant improvement was observed in E’ velocities after THRT (13.2±3.87 versus 14.53±2.75, P=0.04. We also observed left ventricular concentric remodeling in SH patients which was reversible with THRT. Conclusions. Tissue Doppler echocardiography may be a useful tool for monitoring the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with SH. Our findings suggest that THRT may reverse diastolic dysfunction in women with SH.

  20. The evaluation of diastolic dysfunction with tissue Doppler echocardiography in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of L-thyroxine treatment on diastolic dysfunction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Gulbanu; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Cemri, Mustafa; Karaahmetoglu, Selma; Cesur, Mustafa; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-01-01

    Background. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) predominantly affects women. The necessity of treatment in SH is controversial. Objective. We aimed to investigate the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) in women. Methods and Results. Twenty-two female subjects with SH and 20 euthyroid female controls were enrolled. Baseline and follow-up biochemical, hormonal, and echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Repeat echocardiograms were performed three months after the achievement of a euthyroid status with THRT. Mean baseline myocardial performance index (MPI) was 0.27 ± 0.08 in the SH group, and 0.22 ± 0.06 in the control group (P = 0.03). MPI did not change significantly after THRT. Pulsed-wave Doppler findings were not different among the groups. However, tissue Doppler-derived mitral annular E' velocities were significantly lower in the SH group. A moderate but significant improvement was observed in E' velocities after THRT (13.2 ± 3.87 versus 14.53 ± 2.75, P = 0.04). We also observed left ventricular concentric remodeling in SH patients which was reversible with THRT. Conclusions. Tissue Doppler echocardiography may be a useful tool for monitoring the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with SH. Our findings suggest that THRT may reverse diastolic dysfunction in women with SH.