WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-two women ages

  1. Aging and the Aged in the Third World: Part I. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlive, Vinson H., Ed.; And Others

    Problems regarding the aged in developing nations are examined. The aging of populations is now a global phenomenon, with crucial implications for the developing as well as the developed nations. Six articles are presented: "Introduction, Perspectives on Aging in the Third World" (Jay Sokolovsky), "What Can the Industrial World…

  2. Health screening - women - over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  3. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  4. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  5. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  6. Women and exercise in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L. Kendall

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with physiological declines, notably a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD and lean body mass, with a concurrent increase in body fat and central adiposity. Interest in women and aging is of particular interest partly as a result of gender specific responses to aging, particularly as a result of menopause. It is possible that the onset of menopause may augment the physiological decline associated with aging and inactivity. More so, a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (an accumulation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose has been shown in middle-aged women during the postmenopausal period. This is due in part to the drastic changes in body composition, as previously discussed, but also a change in physical activity (PA levels. Sarcopenia is an age related decrease in the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fibers that consequently leads to a decline in physical function, gait speed, balance, coordination, decreased BMD, and quality of life. PA plays an essential role in combating physiological decline associated with aging. Maintenance of adequate levels of PA can result in increased longevity and a reduced risk for metabolic disease along with other chronic diseases. The aim of this paper is to review relevant literature, examine current PA guidelines, and provide recommendations specific to women based on current research.

  7. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  8. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  9. Women of an uncertain age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Matthias; Colvin, Christopher; McAtackney, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Geary and Stark find that Ireland's post-Famine per capita GDP converged with British levels, and that this convergence was largely due to total factor productivity growth rather than mass emigration. In this article, new long-run measurements of human capital accumulation in Ireland are devised...... ostensibly self-reported their age. The findings show that rural Irish women born early in the nineteenth century had substantially lower levels of human capital than uncorrected census data would otherwise suggest. These results are large in magnitude and thus economically significant. The speed at which...... women converged is consistent with Geary and Stark's interpretation of Irish economic history; Ireland probably graduated to Europe's club of advanced economies thanks in part to rapid advances in female human capital....

  10. Work related injury among aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences.

  11. [Differential mortality in women of reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B; Ehrenfeld, N

    1994-01-01

    "This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  12. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors.

  13. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  14. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  15. Counseling Services for Women in Marriage Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frischa Meivilona Yendi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.

  16. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  17. Age related morphological alterations in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ribeiro dos Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to present the morphological profile of elderly women from differentage groups. The sample was made of 1,016 women, with age greater than 60 years. The following anthropometricvariables were measured: body mass, height, circumferences and skin folds and percent body fat was calculated.The mean values of the variables body mass, height, body mass index, circumferences and skin folds decreasedin the younger women group when they were compared to the oldest women. More expressive declines occurredin arm, midthigh, and medial calf circumferences, indicating a possible smaller muscle mass in older populations.Despite the fact that the body mass index mean values classify elderly women, predominantly, as overweight, itseems that the individuals that reach older age are those that present less body fatness. It´s suggested that futurestudies investigate these modifications in different populations, as elderly men. RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi apresentar o perfil morfológico em diferentes faixas etárias de mulheresidosas. A amostra foi constituída de 1016 indivíduos do sexo feminino, com idade superior a 60 anos. Forammensuradas as seguintes variáveis antropométricas: massa corporal, estatura e circunferências, dobras cutânease posterior cálculo do percentual de gordura. Os valores médios das variáveis: massa corporal, estatura, índice demassa corporal, circunferências e dobras cutâneas das mulheres mais jovens reduziram, quando comparadas àsmais idosas. Os declínios mais expressivos ocorreram nas circunferências de braço, coxa média e panturrilhamedial, indicando, possivelmente, uma menor massa muscular em populações mais idosas. Apesar dos valoresmédios do índice de massa corporal classificar em as mulheres idosas, predominantemente, com sobrepeso,parece que os indivíduos que alcançam as idades mais avançadas são aqueles que apresentam menor adiposidadecorporal. Sugere-se que

  18. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-09-19

    Female hormone influences on auditory system aging are not completely understood. Because of widespread clinical use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is critical to understand HRT effects on sensory systems. The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group. Subjects were 60-86 years old and were matched for age and health status. All had relatively healthy medical histories and no significant noise exposure, middle-ear problems, or major surgeries. Hearing tests included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), transient otoacoustic emissions, and the hearing-in-noise test (HINT). The HINT tests for speech perception in background noise, the major complaint of hearing-impaired persons. Pure-tone thresholds in both ears were elevated (poorer) for the E+P relative to the E and control groups. For DPOAEs, the E+P group presented with lower (worse) levels than the E and control groups, with significant differences for both ears. For the HINT results, the E+P group had poorer speech perception than the E and control groups across all background noise speaker locations and in quiet. These findings suggest that the presence of P as a component of HRT results in poorer hearing abilities in aged women taking HRT, affecting both the peripheral (ear) and central (brain) auditory systems, and it interferes with the perception of speech in background noise.

  19. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  20. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people.

  1. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined

  2. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "s

  3. Topical melagenine for repigmentation in twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱娥; 尉晓冬

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical melagenine for repigmentation in child patients with vitiligo on the scalp. Methods Twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp were treated with 1.2 mg/ml aqueous melagenine in combination with 20 minutes of infrared exposure twice daily. Results In 4 patients (18.2%), melagenine treatment in combination with infrared exposure led to complete recovery; in 6 patients (27.3%), treatment was shown to be effective; in 8 patients(36.3%), treatment led to improvements in patient condition; and only 4 patients (18.2%) showed no response after 1 -2 treatment sessions. The general effective rate of melagenine-infrared combination treatment was 45. 5% for the children with vitiligo on the scalp, and treatment was accompanied by minimal side effects.Conclusion Melagenine may be efficacious and a safe treatment option for childhood vitiligo affecting the scalp.

  4. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20-29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications.

  5. [Chronic cystitis in women of reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovenko, N V

    2011-01-01

    The examination of 112 women suffering from chronic cystitis has detected frequent comorbidity of genital, gastrointestinal, locomotor and pelvic varicose diseases. Myofascial syndrome, hemodynamic disorders and venous congestion play a leading role in development of pain syndrome in women with comorbid diseases of the small pelvis organs. Clinicopsychological investigation of such women has revealed frequent vegetative and psychoemotional disorders with predominance of anxiodepressive conditions. Pain, dysuria and anxiodepressive disorders are among causes of imbalance of the autonomic nervous system which acvitaves regulatory systems and has an impact on quality of life. Women with chronic cystitis show significant deterioration of quality of life. Combined treatment including physical factors and therapeutic exercise reduced treatment duration, frequency of exacerbations, raised cost effectiveness.

  6. Mortality in Danish women: age, period and cohort analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    While the life expectancy of Danish women ranked at the top of life expectancies in the OECD countries in 1970 this had changed drastically in 1990 where Danish women ranked at the bottom. This reflected a relative stagnation in the increase in Danish women’s life expectancy during the period 1960....... Smoking was suggested as the reason for the high mortality of middle-aged Danish women. The analysis focussed on the age-period effects. However, calculations based only on age and period may lead to erroneous conclusions, as the birth cohort may be an important factor for understanding trends...... in mortality and diseases. The aims of the present study were therefore: 1. To examine the long term mortality trends of women in Denmark to evaluate the influence of age, period and cohort, and thereby to suggest where to search for causes for the low life expectancy of Danish women. 2. To assess differences...

  7. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  8. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  9. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  10. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study.

  11. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  12. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of ...

  13. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  14. Physical fitness assessment of women after 60 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prystupa Tetyana.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, progressive aging of society results in the need to address problems and needs of the elderly people. Aim of this study is to evaluate the physical and health conditions among women in the age group over60 years. Material and methods of research: the study was conducted in the focus group of women from University of the Third Age (UTW and ASTW AWF Wroclaw. Average age in the focus group was 62 years. The study was conducted using the Fullerton Functional Fitness Test. As a part of the study, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated by measuring general anthropometric measurements. In addition, the study entailed an interview regarding practiced physical activity among women in the study group. They exercised 1 hour 3 times a week. Test results: The research revealed that women had similar somatic values, such as height and weight. The level of physical fitness in the focus group was in the range of healthy standards. Women from the AWF shown better results in terms of physical fitness in comparison to women from ASTW group, except for the upper body agility. Conclusions: The level of physical fitness for most of the women in both study groups was normal. The only exception was cardio-pulmonary endurance in a group of women from ASTW, where only 25% of participants exceeded the minimum expectation.

  15. Pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women aged .35 or older

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our objective was to examine pregnancy outcome in women age 35 and over. ... delay childbearing. The reasons for this delay are multiple and include delays in ... perinatal death, malprescntations, fetal disproportion, obstructed labour ...

  16. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  17. Sustainable hospitality and tourism at different ages: Women's and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable hospitality and tourism at different ages: Women's and men's attitudes in ... a growing awareness of the impact of individual choices on global effects. ... and Kaltenborn 1999), the social dominance orientation (Sidanius and Pratto, ...

  18. A new treatment strategy for severe arthrofibrosis of the knee. A review of twenty-two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Zhong; He, Yao-Hua

    2006-06-01

    To reduce the morbidity of traditional quadricepsplasty for the treatment of severe arthrofibrosis of the knee, we instituted a treatment regimen consisting of an initial extra-articular mini-invasive quadricepsplasty and subsequent intra-articular arthroscopic lysis of adhesions during the same anesthesia session. The purpose of the present study was to determine the results of this technique. From 1998 to 2001, twenty-two patients with severely arthrofibrotic knees were managed with this operative technique. The mean age of the patients at the time of the operation was thirty-seven years. After a mean duration of follow-up of forty-four months (minimum, twenty-four months), all patients were evaluated according to the criteria of Judet and The Hospital for Special Surgery knee-rating system. The average maximum degree of flexion increased from 27 degrees preoperatively to 115 degrees at the time of the most recent follow-up (p < 0.001). According to the criteria of Judet, the result was excellent for sixteen knees, good for five, and fair for one. The average Hospital for Special Surgery knee score improved from 74 points preoperatively to 94 points at the time of the most recent follow-up (p < 0.001). A superficial wound infection occurred in one patient. Only one patient had a persistent 15 degrees extension lag. This mini-invasive operation for the severely arthrofibrotic knee can be used to increase the range of motion and enhance functional outcome.

  19. Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zaytsev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Ukraine, about 17 thousands of newborns are at risk of vertical infection with hepatitis B and C. Identification of infected women at the stage of family planning is the best way to prevent infection in newborns, and therefore it must be performed strictly in accordance with established norms. In case of detection of hepatitis, further tactics depend on the variant of the virus: in case of hepatitis C, pre-pregnancy treatment is preferable. In case of hepatitis B — pregnancy with subsequent simultaneous vaccination of the newborn. Antiviral therapy is possible in women with high viral load to prevent intrauterine infection. Similar tactics should be followed in case of in vitro fertilisation too. The text of the lecture is illustrated by clinical examples. The lecture is intended for infectious disease physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists.

  20. Acute coronary syndrome in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nazimah Idris1, Sharifah Sulaiha Aznal1, Sze-Piaw Chin1, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad2, Azhari Rosman3, Sinnadurai Jeyaindran4, Omar Ismail5, Robaayah Zambahari3, Kui Huan Sim6 1International Medical University, Seremban; 2University Malaya Medical Centre, PJ; 3Institut Jantung Negara, KL; 4Hospital Kuala Lumpur, KL; 5Hospital Pulau Pinang; 6Hospital Umum Sarawak, Malaysia Background: There is scarce or no data on prevalence and presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS among women of reproductive age. Furthermore, whether women of reproductive age presenting with ACS have the same risk factors as men and older women is not known. Objective: To analyze factors associated with ACS in women of reproductive age in comparison with older women and men of a similar age group. Methodology: A total of 9702 cases of acute coronary syndrome over a 3-year period (2006–2008 from the National Cardiovascular Disease database were analyzed, with focus on women of reproductive age (20–<40 years, looking into association with ethnicity, comorbid illness, and the ACS stratum. Comparison with older women (40–<60 years; Control 1 and men of similar age group (Control 2 was made and analyzed using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test when necessary. Results: From a total of 9702 cases, 2344 (24.2% were women. Of these, 45 (1.9% were women between 20 and <40 years, which is significantly lower than the two controls (older women 30.8%, and men of same age 6.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001. The distribution of ethnicity shows a similar pattern between the study group and the controls, but patients of Indian ethnicity were over-represented when compared with the Malaysian demographics of general population (31.3% versus 7.1%; P < 0.0001. ACS in women of reproductive age was associated with diabetes mellitus in 37.8%, hypertension in 40.0%, and dyslipidemia in 24.4% of cases, similar to men of the same age but significantly lower than the older women (P < 0.0001. Smoking

  1. Why some women look young for their age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-12-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  2. Why some women look young for their age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gunn

    Full Text Available The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  3. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-05-01

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P=0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P=0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P=0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. [Acute coronary syndrome in women below 60 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Boer, M.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Women below 60 years of age with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates than similarly aged men, despite the lower prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease. When ACS occurs, gender differences in symptom presentation result in later recognition by

  5. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep circumferen

  6. Prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Brandenburg (Helen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis several aspects of prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age were studied. The effects of the increasing number of elderly gravidas. the lowering of the maternal age at which prenatal diagnosis became accessible and the introduction of chorionic villus sampling,

  7. Why some women look young for their age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely u...

  8. Analysis on Menarche Age of Chinese Reproductive Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊青; 高尔生; 张子豹

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the age of menarche of Chinese reproductive women and some related factors.Material & Methods The data used in this paper was collected through “National Demography and Reproductive Health Survey” of China in 1997.Results The menarche age declined successively and dramatically, from 16. 45 years of the women born in 194 7~1949 to 13. 86 of those born in 1980~1982, decreasing by 0. 65 years per decade.Conclusions The results revealed that some factors such as residence, year of birth,nationality, education level and living region had effects on the menarche age.

  9. Analysis on Menarche Age of Chinese Reproductive Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the age of menarche of Chinese reproductive women and some related factors. Material & Methods The data used in this paper was collected through "National Demography and Reproductive Health Survey" of China in 1997. Results The menarche age declined successively and dramatically, from 16. 45 years of the women born in 1947~1949 to 13. 86 of those born in 1980~1982, decreasing by 0. 65 years per decade. Conclusions The results revealed that some factors such as residence, year of birth, nationality, education level and living region had effects on the menarche age.

  10. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir; Rykała, Justyna; Podgórska, Justyna; Banaś, Agnieszka

    2013-10-12

    A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40-50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60-90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20-25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae muscles and controlling body posture with the aim of reducing trunk inclination

  11. Breast cancer features in women under the age of 40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Santiago Girão Eugênio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To describe the clinical features, imaging findings and pathological aspects of breast cancer diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years. Method: A retrospective, descriptive study was performed through analysis of medical records between November 2008 and August 2012. One hundred and twenty (120 patients were included, of whom 112 underwent mammography, 113 underwent ultrasonography, and 105 underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The histopathological data was obtained in most cases from post-surgical analysis, which was available for 113 patients. Results: The mean age at diagnosis of primary breast cancer was 34 years. Only 11 patients (9.0% had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relative. Ninety-two (92 patients sought medical attention after showing breast symptoms, and the presence of a palpable nodule was the main complaint. One hundred and twenty-two (122 primary tumors were diagnosed, of which 112 were invasive (95%. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (73.8%. Luminal B was the predominant molecular subtype (42.6%. Ultrasonography was positive in 94.5% of the cases and the most common finding were nodules (94.8%. At mammography, the malignancy was observed in 92.8% and the presence of suggestive calcifications was the dominant feature. The MRI was positive in 98% of patients, and mass lesions were the most common. Conclusion: Most cases of breast cancer diagnosed in patients under the age of 40 years, in our population, had symptoms at diagnosis and tumor with more aggressive biological behavior. Despite the ultrasound has been the most widely used method, we found improved characterization of breast lesions when also used mammography and MRI.

  12. Physical activity and sexual function in middle-aged women

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    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old, treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1, 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ≤ 26.55. Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9% of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6% and moderately active (66.7% females (p = 0.002. Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain and total FSFI score (20.9, indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8 and sedentary (15.6 counterparts (p <0.05. Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women.

  13. Twenty-two years screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: Liege-Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, T; Jacques, S; Rene, L

    1992-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1987, in Liége--Belgium, 20,901 pregnant women were screened for toxoplasmosis. In this period an increase in seronegative women from 30% to 53% and a decrease in the seroconversion rate from 6.4% to 1.2% was observed. This decrease could be the result of advice and prophylactic measures. Due to the low rate of seroconversion (actually less than 1%), the cost/effectiveness of a systematic screening and fetal diagnosis should be investigated.

  14. Infertility treatment in women over 40 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, M A

    1997-06-01

    Women experience a sharp decline in fecundity after the age of 40. Most research points to decreasing oocyte competency and ovarian function as the main causes of this downward trend. Aggressive treatment with in vitro fertilization, laboratory techniques that improve the implantation ability of embryos, and ovum donation can help many of these women achieve healthy pregnancies. Such medical advances are accompanied by new ethical challenges.

  15. HIV and Aging Research in Women: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoff, David M; Colosi, Deborah; Rubtsova, Anna; Wingood, Gina

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews some background issues as a foundation to place the ensuing supplement papers of this special issue section in context. The articles in this special supplement issue deepen and expand our understanding of biomedical, neurocognitive, and psychosocial aspects involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of older women, primarily through the use of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) prospective cohort study. As it relates to research on the intersection between HIV and aging in women, we discuss (i) epidemiology as introduction, (ii) the cohort study design featuring the WIHS, (iii) definitions, (iv) models, and (v) section articles.

  16. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  17. Health of Indonesian women city-dwellers of perimenopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samil, R S; Wishnuwardhani, S D

    1994-10-01

    In the last few years more women of climacteric age, living in urban areas, have been seeking medical care. In 1989, on the invitation of 6 women's organizations in Jakarta and other cities, the Indonesian Menopause Society gave talks and held discussions in cooperation with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. These occasions were used to accumulate data from women participants of 40 years of age and older. The age of the respondents ranged between 40-59 years. Most were 42 years old (13.9%). Ninety-four percent were still married. Twenty-five percent had three living children. Sixty-three percent of the respondents were high school graduates who worked full time (33%), part time, or were unemployed. The average menarche age was 13 and menopausal age 50-51. Menopausal complaints were rare, hence medical consultations were rare. Tranquilizers were prescribed for those who did seek medical help. This data constitutes the basis of the formulation of a strategy to solve menopause related problems in Indonesia, where female life expectancy, and the contribution of women to society, is on the increase.

  18. Age-related changes of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and the relationship with bone mineral density in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-juan QIN; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Wei-wei HU; Yu-juan LIU; Yun-qiu HU; Miao LI; Jie-mei GU; Jin-wei HE

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Ostcoclastic activity is mainly assessed by measurement of urinary markers (eg C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen, N-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen etc), the levels of which could often be affected by renal clearance. Recently, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) has been used as an alternative serum marker to evaluate osteoclastic activity. We investigated the age-related changes of TRACP5b level and its association with bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women. Methods: Seven-hundred and twenty-two Chinese mainland women aged 20-79 years were recruited in the study. Serum TRACP5b level was measured using immunoassay to evaluate the state of bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) at lumbar spine 1-4 and proximal femur were measured by duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The serum TRACP5b level reached a bottom value in premenopausal women aged 30-39, gradually increased in women aged 40-49, rapidly rose in women aged 50-59, and culminated with a maximum value in women aged 60-69 before a slow drop in women aged 70-79. The average level of TRACPSb was significantly higher in postmenopausal women [(3.29±1.07) U/L] than in premenopausal women ([1.70±0.59] U/L). The levels of TRACP5b were inversely correlated with BMD at all measured sites (P<0.001). Furthermore, the level of TRACP5b was obviously higher in women with osteoporosis and osteopenia than those with normal bone mass (P<0.001). Conclusion: We have established the reference values of serum TRACPSb in Chinese mainland women, and found that postmenopausal women had higher TRACP5b concentration than younger women. The results showed that serum TRACPSb was a sensitive and useful parameter for the evaluation of age-related changes of bone absorption.

  19. KNOWLEDGE OF EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As per data from WHO, 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurred globally in 2008, out of which 47,000 women died from abortionrelated complications, contributing to 13% of global maternal mortality. (1 Emergency contraceptive can be used after intercourse to prevent pregnancy in case of unprotected intercourse, contraceptive failure or sexual assault. A considerable proportion of these abortions can be prevented by the timely use of emergency contraception. OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge of emergency contraceptives among women of reproductive age group. METHODS This is a government hospital-based prospective study done for a period of 3 months. The study included 500 women of reproductive age group (16 years to 40 years attending OPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of IGMC and RI, Pondicherry. A predesigned questionnaire is provided to women asking about awareness regarding emergency contraceptives. RESULTS Majority of them were between 20 and 30 years of age, 59.6% were from urban background and 86.8% were educated; 66% of them had used regular method of contraception some time in their life, but the awareness level of emergency contraceptives was found to be only 5.4% of which only 2% (n=10 had ever used emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION Emergency contraceptives is an effective means of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but unfortunately majority of women lack awareness about the emergency methods. Efforts should be focused on providing health education regarding EC among females through media and health professionals.

  20. [Gait characteristics of women with fibromyalgia: a premature aging pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Suelen M; Leite, Neiva; de Souza, Ricardo M; Homann, Diogo; Osiecki, Ana C V; Stefanello, Joice M F; Rodacki, André L F

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a condition which involves chronic pain. Middle-aged individuals with fibromyalgia seem to exhibit changes in gait pattern, which may prematurely expose them to a gait pattern which resembles that found in the elderly population. To determine the 3D spatial (linear and angular) gait parameters of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia and compare to elderly women without this condition. 25 women (10 in the fibromyalgia group and 15 in the elderly group) volunteered to participate in the study. Kinematics was performed using an optoelectronic system, and linear and angular kinematic variables were determined. There was no difference in walking speed, stride length, cadence, hip, knee and ankle joints range of motion between groups, except the pelvic rotation, in which the fibromyalgia group showed greater rotation (P<0.05) compared to the elderly group. Also, there was a negative correlation with pelvic rotation and gluteus pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05), and between pelvic obliquity and greater trochanter pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05) in the fibromyalgia group. Middle-aged women with fibromyalgia showed gait pattern resemblances to elderly, women, which is characterized by reduced lower limb ROM, stride length and walking speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular Risk in Women With Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Compared to Premenopausal Women at Middle Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Nadine M P; Muka, Taulant; Koster, Maria P H; Roeters van Lennep, Jaenine E; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Laven, Joop S E; Fauser, Clemens G K M; Meun, Cindy; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Boersma, Eric; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A young age at menopause has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiovascular risk profile between women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and premenopausal controls of comparable age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control st

  2. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  3. Effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Lin Shou-qing; Lin Xia; Chen Yan; Yang Qiu-hong; Zhou Yong; Zhang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women.Methods:We measured body composition with dual-energy X-ray (GE Lunar Prodigy) in 316 healthy Beijing females aged 20 to 74 years (5-7 women per age).Parameters provided by the software were as following:total body bone mineral content (BMC),lean mass (LM),fat mass and fat mass percentage (FM%).Local regions measured included arm,leg,trunk,android region and gynoid region.Body mass index (BMI),fat mass index (FMI),free fat mass index (FFMI) and A/G were calculated.Volunteers were assigned to 6 groups according to age by every ten years a group.Results..BMC peaked during the 4th decade,LM peaked during the 5th decade,with a decline of 18.1% and 5.2% respectively at age 74 years.Total body fat mass and FM% showed a general increase with aging throughout the studied age range.Total body fat mass increased from (16±5) kg at age 20-29 years to (24±6)kg at age 70-74years,while FM% increased from 31.3% to 39.5%.All local region FM% increased with aging at different extents.Android region FM% showed the largest raise extent (32.2%).BMI increased gradually from 21.1 kg/m2 at age 20-29 years to 26.1 kg/m2 at age 70-74 years.FMI changed more obviously than FFMI.A/G increased from 0.85 at age 20-29 years to 1.02 at age 70-74 years.Different menstrual status in women of 40-59 years had obvious effect on A/G and BMC (P<0.05),while it had no significant effect on BMI,body weight and waist circumference (P>0.05).Conclusion:Aging has a great effect on body composition distribution in healthy Beijing women.

  4. Women, Work, and Illness: A Longitudinal Analysis of Workforce Participation Patterns for Women Beyond Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tazeen; Forder, Peta; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-06-01

    Labor policies and economic incentives encourage women to work beyond middle age. However, women exhibit complex patterns of workforce participation over this life stage. This study examined transitions in and out of paid work across the life course of middle-aged women over a 14-year period and investigated associations between work and chronic diseases. Latent class analysis identified dominant workforce participation patterns among 11,551 middle-aged women from the 1946-1951 birth cohort of Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between work patterns and chronic diseases (diabetes, asthma, depression, and arthritis), while adjusting for health risk factors, sociodemographic factors and competing activities. Five latent classes were identified: "mostly in paid work" (48%), "early paid work" (9.4%), "increasingly paid work" (8.9%), "gradually not in paid work" (11.4%), and "mostly not in paid work" (22.3%). Results showed that women with chronic diseases (diabetes, asthma, depression, and arthritis) were less likely to be in paid work. These associations remained mostly unchanged after adjustments for other factors. The findings of this study provide better understanding of workforce participation patterns in women's late working life. This has important implications for policy design, aimed to engage middle-aged women in paid employment for longer in spite of chronic diseases and their complications. We suggest that there is a need for work place programs that support people with chronic diseases. Policies are also needed to facilitate better prevention and management of chronic health issues over the life course for women, in order to encourage workforce participation over later years.

  5. VASCULAR AGING IN WOMEN: IS ESTROGEN THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eNovella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a physiological process associated with structural and functional changes in vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with an increasing prevalence of atherosclerosis. The risk of cardiovascular disease differs between men and women, remaining lower in women during their fertile years and reaching values similar to their male peers after menopause. Menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Therefore, estrogens have been implicated in premenopausal protection from cardiovascular disease, an assumption supported by experimental and some clinical studies, where estrogen induces protective effects in vascular endothelium. Indeed, estradiol promotes endothelial vasodilator synthesis, including NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release; the thromboxane A2 pathway plays a key role in regulating vascular tone in females in both normal and in pathophysiologic states.Contrary to experimental results, some clinical trials found no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in aged postmenopausal women. These discrepancies could be due to the Timing Hypothesis which suggests that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits may occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature. Thus, there is still a gap in the knowledge, understanding, and general awareness of mechanisms for cardiovascular aging in women.In this review, we discuss clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens and hormonal replacement therapy on vascular function of females to delve into how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates the vascular responses at different ages.

  6. In-vitro Fertilization in Women of Advanced Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreiter M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Postponement of family planning can be seen as a consequence of increased life expectancy and extended education in industrialized countries. The increasing number of prospective parents undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF due to advanced reproductive age, however, reflects the discrepancy between socio-cultural development and physical limits. Assisted reproduction is, therefore, challenged to create and adapt treatment regimens for women of advanced reproductive age to bridge between this wish for late parenthood and the age-related decline in fecundity. Consequently, the knowledge concerning age-related changes of reproductive functions gains in importance. While follicular depletion and impaired oocyte quality, frequently also called ‘diminished ovarian reserve’, are generally acknowledged as the underlying mechanisms for the decline in maternal fecundity, the way to correctly assess the status of ovarian reserve has remained controversial. Besides increasing attempts to achieve conception, deferring pregnancy and delivery into older age also implies medical risks and ethical considerations. The use of IVF in older women, therefore, raises the issue of the utilization of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in the assessment of embryonic aneuploidies, as well as in attempts to optimize pregnancy rates with IVF. Moreover, expected future concepts in assisted reproduction are warranted to allow for the establishment of viable singleton pregnancies in women of advanced reproductive age.

  7. Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Goode-Null, Susan K

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico. An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1 years, and the majority were employed as saleswomen in small businesses. Symptom frequencies were collected by open-ended interviews and with a structured symptom list that queried symptom experience during the two weeks prior to interview. In response to open-ended questions, "dolores de huesos" (bone pain) was volunteered by 47% of respondents as a symptom associated with menopause, second only to hot flashes (53%). From the structured symptom list, 55.8% and 55.6% reported back pain and joint stiffness during the two weeks prior to interview. Women with back pain and joint stiffness were less likely to report being active during their leisure time (p<.01). The results of backwards stepwise logistic regressions indicate that women with back pain were more likely to be older, with less education, a higher BMI, and ate less meat. Women with joint pain were more likely to be post-menopausal, with less education, more children, a higher BMI, and were likely to drink milk and coffee more than once/week but less than once/day. While menopause is not necessarily a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain, it is important to recognize the pervasiveness of this complaint among women of menopausal age.

  8. Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-07-01

    Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes. Physician contribution to this decision should in our opinion be restricted to accurate outcome information for both options. Achievable pregnancy and live birth rates in older women are, however, frequently underestimated, thereby mistakenly biasing fertility providers, private insurance companies and even regulatory government agencies. Restriction on access to IVF for older women is then often the consequence. In this review, we summarize the limited published data on best treatments of 'older' ovaries, while also addressing treatment approaches that should be avoided in older women. This focused review, therefore, to a degree is subjective. Research addressing aging ovaries in IVF has been disappointingly sparse, and has in our opinion too heavily concentrated on methods of embryo selection (ES), which, especially in older women, not only fail to improve IVF outcomes, but actually, negatively affect live birth chances. We conclude that, aside from breakthroughs in gamete creation, only pharmacological interventions into early (small growing follicle stages) follicle maturation will offer new potential to positively impact oocyte and embryo quality and, therefore, IVF outcomes. Research, therefore, should be accordingly redirected.

  9. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The "Jolly Fat" Effect in Middle-Aged Korean Women.

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    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-09-18

    It has been hypothesized that depression and obesity are bi-directionally associated, and when overweight people appear to show a lower risk of depression, this supports the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis in middle-aged women in Korea, by different perceived stress levels. We performed a cross-sectional study of 44 to 56 aged Korean women (n = 2201) who underwent a health check-up program at the healthcare centers of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital (Seoul and Suwon centers) in Korea. General and abdominal obesity were defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) and waist circumference ≥85 cm, respectively. Depressive symptoms were measured by a Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. The association between obesity and depressive symptoms was investigated by using multiple logistic regression analyses by different levels of perceived stress, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and depressive symptoms were 23.7%, 21.4%, and 16.5%, respectively. Women with general obesity were less likely to have depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-1.00; p-value: 0.049) in the low-stress group. We also found that women with abdominal obesity had a 60% decrease in the odds of having depressive symptoms (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; p-value: 0.02) in the low-stress group. No significant association was found in the high-stress group. These findings indicate that the relationship between obesity and depressive symptoms in the Korean middle-aged women supports the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis. Further, our results underscore the role of stress as an important potential mediator exerting effects on the association between obesity and depressive symptoms.

  11. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p geometry in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Good Health Status of Rural Women in the Reproductive Ages

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    Joan Rhule

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are traditionally over represented among the poor and therefore in the long run, have less access to remuneration and health resources, including health insurance and social security services. Women are disadvantaged on some fundamental economic indicators such as unemployment and access to economic resources. In 2007 in Jamaica, for instance among the 124 500 unemployed persons in the labour force, 65.4% were women (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2008. Thus, women's health and the control that they can exercise over resources are key factors in achieving effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability in health interventions. Aims and Objectives: This study examined the good health status of rural women in the reproductive ages of 15 to 49 years. Having extensively reviewed the literature, this paper is the first study of its kind in Jamaica and will provide pertinent information on this cohort for the purpose of public health planning. Method/Study Design: The current research extracted a sample of 3450 respondents who indicated that they were rural women ages 15 to 49 years. This sample was taken from a national cross-sectional survey from the 14 parishes in Jamaica. The survey used a stratified random probability sampling technique to draw the original 25 018 respondents. The non-response rate for the survey was 29.7%. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sample and logistic regression was used to establish a good health model. Results/Findings: Using logistic regression analyses, 6 variables emerged as statistically significant predictors of current good health status of rural women (i.e. ages 15 to 49 years in Jamaica. These are social standing (two wealthiest quintile – OR=0.524, 95%CI: 0.350,0.785; marital status (separated, divorced or widowed – OR=0.382, 95%CI: 0.147, 0.991; health insurance (OR=0.041, 95%CI: 0.024, 0.069; negative affective psychological conditions (OR=0.951, 95

  13. Use of valproates in women of childbearing age and pregnant women with epilepsy

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    P. N. Vlasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the specificity of using valproic acid (VA preparations in young childbearing-aged women with epilepsy and discusses the clinical situations of practical application of valproates during pregnancy in view of the baseline efficiency of therapy, the type of epileptic seizures, and the form of epilepsy. It provides a few scenarios of the course of pregnancy and possible treatment policy. Owing to its multiple mechanism of action, VA has been effectively used to treat idiopathic (generalized/focal cryptogenic and symptomatic focal epilepsies in patients of different age groups, including in childbearing-aged women. It is also effectively used to treat manias in the pattern of bipolar disorders and to prevent migraine. The range of action (the efficiency against different types of seizures and forms of epilepsy, good tolerance, a minimal aggravation risk, high continuous therapy rates, various drug dosage forms, including long-acting or intravenous formulatons, and favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles make VA indispensable at the present developmental stage of epileptology. However, VA has definite limitations: the drug is contra-indicated in some forms of mitochondrial encephalopathies; its prescription to young women requires comprehensive assessment of possible therapy consequences, especially in pregnancy planning, the drug should be used with extreme caution in the first trimester of pregnancy. The ideal variant of VA prescription in young women of fertile age is monotherapy, by using its minimal effective daily dose and sustained-release formulations. 

  14. Individual fertility assessment and counselling in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch

    2016-10-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to validate the new concept of the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) Clinic at Rigshospitalet. The intention was to: explore the prognostic value of fertility risk factors by a risk score and provide an estimate of female fecundity, to quantify the impact of oral contraception (OC) on ovarian reserve parameters defined as Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and ovarian volume, and to gain knowledge of attitudes and considerations toward family formation in women of advanced age. The thesis is based on the following four manuscripts:   Manuscript I describes the predictive value of individual fertility assessment and counselling in terms of subsequent time to pregnancy within two years after the initial consultation at the FAC Clinic. The follow up study comprised 519 women, of which 352 had tried to conceive. At the time of follow-up, 259/352 had achieved a pregnancy, 74/352 were still trying and 19/352 had given up. The remaining 167 women had no attempts to conceive. The risk assessment provided a score based on the appearance of fertility risk factors: green (low), yellow (low), orange (medium) and red (high). Two-thirds of the women with only low risk scores conceived spontaneously within 12 months (65%), while this figure was only 32% for women with at least one high risk score (n=82). Accordingly, presence of at least one high risk score reduced the odds of achieving a pregnancy within 12 months by 73% (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.13-0.57). The FAC Clinic concept seems as a usable tool for fertility experts to guide women on how to fulfil their reproductive life-plan, but longer follow-up studies are needed. Manuscript II describes the impact of OC on ovarian reserve parameters in 887 women at the FAC Clinic. Of the 887 women, 244 (27.5%) used OC.  The 244 users of OC were significantly younger than non-users with a mean age of 31.5 (SD 4.3) vs. 34.1 (SD 4.3) years (p counselling at the FAC Clinic. The

  15. Age at Menarche and Gallstone Disease in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Yuni; Kwon, Min-Jung; Yun, Kyung Eun; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo Jin; Kim, Kye-Hyun; Cho, Juhee; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Suh, Byung Seong

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the association between age at menarche and gallstone disease (GSD) in Korean women and to determine whether any of the observed associations were mediated by adult adiposity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 83 275 Korean women, aged 30 years or older, who underwent a health checkup examination between March 2011 and April 2013. Information regarding age at menarche was collected using standardized, self-administered questionnaires. Gallstone disease was defined as either having gallstones or having had a cholecystectomy based on ultrasound. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between age at menarche and GSD. Of the 83 275 women evaluated in this study, 3341 had GSD. Age at menarche was negatively associated with the prevalence of GSD. In a multivariable-adjusted model adjusting for potential confounders including reproductive factors and body weight at age 20, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for GSD comparing menarche at <12, 12, 14, 15, and 16 to 18 years to menarche at 13 years were 1.46 (1.23-1.75), 1.19 (1.04-1.35), 0.97 (0.87-1.09), 0.92 (0.82-1.03), and 0.89 (0.78-1.02), respectively (P for trend <.001). Adjusting for adult body mass index or percentage fat mass (%) partially reduced these associations; however, they remained statistically significant. Early menarche was associated with increasing prevalence of GSD in a large sample of middle-aged women. The findings of this study extend the range of adverse health outcomes associated with early menarche and suggest that obesity prevention strategies could be useful for reducing the risk of GSD in women who experience early menarche. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  17. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

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    Dorean Nabukalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods: Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo were determined for females (aged 15–49 years resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown. Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95%CI was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1, peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1 and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.410.9. Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.211.1, accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR, 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05, self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15, and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82; external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62 CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, CI: 1.79–3.75. Conclusion: HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment

  18. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  19. [Successful aging: perception of aged immigrant women from Black Africa in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noubicier, Agnès Florette; Charpentier, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on older immigrant women from Black Africa living in Montreal. Its purpose is to present the meaning that they give to "successful aging" in their hosting country and to highlight the factors they consider essential to experience "a maximum of satisfaction and happiness" during this stage of their life. It is based on the fact that Quebec society is facing an ever increasing aging of its population which is accompanied with a more and more significant ethnocultural diversification due to immigration. Statistically the number of black women over 65 years increases over the years. In Canada, older women in general are victims of various social inequalities. These vulnerabilities are even more flagrant when one comes from a visible ethnocultural community and can have a biopsychosocial impact on the lives of these older women. These situations justify our concern for the quality of life and well-being of these aged women. Our methodology leans on an exploratory qualitative approach conducted with seven women aged from 65 to 77 years who immigrated to Canada when they were more than 50 years old. Five of them had less than 10 years of stay in Quebec while the other two were 18 and 20 years. To gather their views, semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded. The content was analyzed with an approach inspired by analysis techniques of data from the grounded theory. Then, an intersectional analytical framework has been favored, firstly to understand the complex nature of various forms of identities and social inequalities experienced by the participants, and secondly to examine the connections between discriminatory phenomena such as ageism, racism or sexism, ethnicity and even the migratory journey. As results, this research allows noting that older immigrant women of Black Africa are facing many difficulties due to the interrelation of their age, their ethnic background, their gender, with other aspects of their identity such as

  20. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  1. Clothing selection behavior of the aged women for thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, W S

    1999-05-01

    Wearing behavior and thermoregulatory responses of five young women (YG; 20 +/- 1 yr) and five aged women (AG; 65 +/- 3 yr) to indoor cold in summer were investigated in this study. The subjects were exposed to 21.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% RH while seated during a 90-minute experiment. The subjects were allowed to select and wear for thermal comfort clothing whenever they needed additional clothing during the experiment. Rectal temperature (Tre) and temperatures of 7 sites (head, chest, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, foot) of the skin of the subjects were measured every 10 minutes. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) of the subject was obtained every 10 minutes. First selection time of additional clothing was monitored and weight of selected total clothing was calculated. The results for this study were as follows: Tre and Tsk gradually decreased in YG and AG, however Tre decreased less than Tsk which decreased greater in AG than YG (p clothing and thermal sensation response were slower than YG's. Furthermore, total clothing weight was less in AG than YG. It was concluded that clothing selection behavior would modify the intrinsic thermoregulatory responses of the aged women to the cold stress in the summer.

  2. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

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    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  3. Chapter Twenty Two

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    As a matter of fact, the act of writing novel in English language in Africa began ... advent of European colonial masters and the myths with which they have been ..... According to Odili, the surrogate author: “A common saying, in the country after.

  4. Circuit resistance training improved endothelial dysfunction in obese aged women

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    Ignacio Rosety

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is widely accepted that obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction. In a recent paper, we have also found circuit resistance training may reduce visceral fat in obese aged women. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to ascertain the effects of circuit resistance training on markers of endothelial dysfunction in this population group. Methods: In the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using an immunoassay (ELISA for endothelin-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Results: When compared to baseline, resistance training significantly reduced serum levels of endothelin-1 (2.28 ± 0.7 vs. 1.98 ± 1.1 pg/ml; p = 0.019; d = 0.67 and ICAM-1 (290 ± 69 vs. 255 ± 76 ng/ml; p = 0.004; d = 0.92 in the experimental group. No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. Conclusion: A short-term circuit resistance program improved endothelial dysfunction in aged obese women. Further studies on this topic are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.

  5. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  6. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma in women aged below 30 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Shen Keng; Wu Ming; Pan Ling-ya; Huang Hui-fang; Yang Jia-xin; Lang Jing-he

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the manifestation, pathohistologic type, stage of disease, treatment and outcome of epithelial ovarian carcinoma in women under the age of 30 years.Methods: The 21 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma in women aged below 30 years between Jan, 1986 and Mar, 2002 were analyzed retrospectively.Results: The median age at the time of diagnosis was 24 years (range, 16-29 years). All carcinomas occurred after menarche. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (50%), followed by tympanites (25%) and menstrual disorders (19%). The initial diagnosis was usually made by physical examination, ultrasonography and serum CA125. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 17.6 cm. Ten patients had Stage I disease (5 Ia, 5 Ic), five had Stage Ⅲ disease, and the other six were unknown during staging operation. There were nine mucinous tumors, six serous tumors. Most tumors were well-differentiated and classified as Grade1 in 11 cases, Grade2 in 2 cases, Grade3 in 2 cases, unknown in 6 cases. Optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction was achieved in 14 patients in primary treatment and 5 in recurrent treatment. 8 patients were treated with conservative surgery. 18 patients were treated with chemotherapy and 7 patients had experienced six or more than six courses of chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 50 months (range, 2-192 months). There were 6 deaths, 2 alive with tumor, 11 alive without the disease, 2 losing follow-up. The 3-year survival rate was 89%, and 5-year survival rate was 76%.Conclusion: Young patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma appeared to have a less aggressive form of the disease and a more favorable prognosis.

  7. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  8. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing

  9. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area.

  10. Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhail, A.P.; Bothwell, T.H.; Torrance, J.D.; Derman, D.P.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Charlton, R.W. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine); Mayet, F.G.H. (Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-06-20

    The iron status of 320 Indian women living in Chatsworth, Durban, who had volunteered for iron absorption studies, was assessed using a number of measurements. These included radio-iron absorption, the transferrin saturation, the serum ferritin concentration and the haemoglobin concentration. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin concentration smaller than 12 g/dl, with two or more abnormal measurements of iron status) was 14,4%. A further 26% had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin smaller than 12..mu..g/l) and 8,4% also had evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (serum ferritin smaller than 12..mu..g/l and transferrin saturation below 16%). A profile of iron status based on the cumulative frequency distribution of iron stores showed that the sample with calculated median iron stores of 150 mg and lower and upper 10 percentiles of -355 mg and 655 mg respectively, was significantly more iron deficient than a sample of women studied in Washington State, USA. Of interest was the observation that all measurements of iron status were better in the older age groups, presumably as a result of the cessation of menstruation. In addition, there was evidence that the duration of menstruation, as volunteered in a brief history, had a significant effect on several measurements of iron status. This was particularly true of the serum ferritin concentration and radio-iron absorption, both of which reflect the size of the iron stores.

  11. Prevalence of Urinary Frequency Among Women Aged 60 Years and Older in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Hsieh

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: Urinary frequency is a common symptom in menopausal women and is significantly related to age. More than half of the women interviewed experienced intervals of < 1 hour between visits to the restroom during the day.

  12. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yan-Min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, su...

  13. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic sta...

  14. Psychosocial vulnerability and maintaining forces related to fibromyalgia. In-depth interviews with twenty-two female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L R; Carlsson, S G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to describe, from the perspective of 22 women (aged 22-60 years) with fibromyalgia, their experiences and beliefs of the pain and its origin and how the pain affects family and social life. Open-ended interviews were analysed via a method influenced by grounded theory. Seven descriptive categories were grounded in the data, forming two higher-order concepts: psychosocial vulnerability and maintaining forces. The first of these core concepts, psychosocial vulnerability, comprises the categories: traumatic life history, over-compensatory perseverance, pessimistic life view, and unsatisfying work situation. In the interviews, there are abundant examples of early loss, high degree of responsibility early in life, and social problems with feelings of helplessness and hoplessness later in life. The second core concept, maintaining forces, consists of the categories professional care, pain benefits and family support, which seem to contribute to the persistence of pain. Our results indicate intrapsychic and psychosocial dimensions, which support the hypothesis that individuals with insecure attachment styles are overrepresented among patients with chronic pain.

  15. [Effects of perceived health status, self-esteem and family function on expectations regarding aging among middle-aged women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Yoo Rim; Jeon, Hae Ok

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate expectations regarding aging by middle-aged women in the community, and identify factors contributing to their expectations about aging. Participants in the survey for this study were 303 middle-aged women from community health centers and religious facilities in Seoul, Gyeonggi Province, and Chungcheongbuk Province. Data were collected from March 2 to April 17, 2012 using self-report structured questionnaires. The instruments were the Health Perceptions, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), Family APGAR, Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA-12). The data were analyzed using t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson correlation coefficients and hierarchical multiple regression with IBM SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. Perceived health status (β=0.16, p=.009) and self-esteem (β=0.20, p=.001) of middle-aged women were identified as significant predictors of expectations regarding aging, after adjusting for age, education, occupation, monthly income and menstrual status. These results suggest that nurses should make an effort to improve expectations about aging among middle-aged women. Ultimately, community health programs for middle aged women need to be developed to achieve successful aging.

  16. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  17. Frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age, aged 18 – 45 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ioannidou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis (BV in women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women undertook a microbiological examination of vaginal secretion either in the context of preventive control or because of the appearance of clinical symptoms.Material and method: A microbiological test of vaginal secretion was done in 500 women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women came for examination, either in the context of preventive control or because they had disturbing symptoms in the genital area. The following factors were recorded: age, existence of clinical symptoms such as itching, burning, excessive vaginal secretion, pain, as well as history of vaginitis. During the sample intake, the presence of pathological secretion, rush or pain were recorded. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginitis was based on the Amsel’s criteria.Results: Out of the 500 women of reproductive age, BV was detected to 145 (29% and 33% of them were asymptomatic. 86,2% of the women reported excessive smelly vaginal secretion. Furthermore, 95,8% of women were found with excessive vaginal secretion and last but not least in 73% of women, pain was detected. History of vaginitis was reported by the 83,3% of women with BV.Conclusion: It can be argued that BV was detected in a great number of women of reproductive age. The high percentages of asymptomatic women with BV, as well as the serious complications, and the fact that BV constitutes a predisposition factor for infection with HIV, impose the application of preventive laboratory control in order to avoid bacterial vaginitis.

  18. Characteristics of reproductive health of women in their generative age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Any research of reproductive health has to encompass the relevant connotations of this complex term. In order to establish relevant multidimensional characteristics, it is necessary to assess intercorrelations of the characteristics most commonly used to describe it. Objective. Our aim was to describe the characteristics of reproductive health and to establish their significance in describing this term. Methods. Within the study of health of adult inhabitants of Serbia, on the sample of 2,817 women aged 20-49 years, the data on different reproductive health characteristics were collected by way of a structured questionnaire. By way of factorial analysis (principal components method, Kaisser Varimax criterion, representative characteristics (factors were selected out of a large number of characteristics, describing reproductive health of women in a multidimensional way, interrelationships of the factors were explained, and carriers - the most important individual characteristics - were selected for further analysis. Results. The characteristics of female reproductive health in Serbia are poor, both from the health policy standpoint and in comparison with other countries. Reproductive health describes 7 relevant factors and their carriers (characteristics which best reflect the variability of characteristics involved in a factor. These involve sexual behaviour (self-assessed HIV infection risk, contraception (use of contraceptive devices on one’s own initiative, adequate protection of reproductive health (usage of gynaecological services even when healthy, abortions (pregnancy outcome, HIV control (HIV testing usage, postpartal protection (visits of field nurses after being discharged from maternity ward and reproductive period (doctor visits after being discharged from maternity ward. Conclusion. All the characteristics of reproductive health used in various studies are not equally important in the description of this complex

  19. Moderate to severe vasomotor and sexual symptoms remain problematic for women aged 60 to 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartoulla, Pragya; Worsley, Roisin; Bell, Robin J; Davis, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms in older postmenopausal women and, hence, the need for treatment options for women of this age. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 among 2,020 women aged 40 to 65 years and living independently across Australia. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS), as measured by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the current use of prescription therapy for menopausal symptoms. The prevalence of moderate to severe VMS was as follows: 2.8% in premenopausal women, 17.1% in perimenopausal women, 28.5% in postmenopausal women younger than 55 years, 15.1% in postmenopausal women aged 55 to 59 years, and 6.5% in postmenopausal women aged 60 to 65 years. Prescription therapy for menopausal symptoms was used by 135 women: 120 (5.9%) women using hormone therapy and 15 (0.7%) women using nonhormonal medication. The factors positively associated with moderate to severe VMS were smoking (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3; P VMS even in women aged 60 to 65 years. The use of vaginal estrogen and nonhormonal prescription therapy with proven efficacy for treatment of menopausal symptoms is strikingly low, suggesting that menopause remains an undertreated condition.

  20. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1 psychological benefit, (2 physical benefit, and (3 social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  1. Aging is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in premenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the relationship between age, menopause, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women.METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by using abdominal ultrasonography, and investigated the relationship of age and menopause with the development of NAFLD in women. We followed 1829 women and 2572 men (response rate, 86%) selected in 2001 to represent the non-institutionalized adult population of Gifu, Japan. Data collected included self-reported medical history, lifestyle factors, and menopausal status. The postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year after the cessation of menses. We diagnosed NAFLD with the aid of abdominal ultrasonography by using diagnostic criteria described previously.RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in women increases with age, but does not alter with age in men. Furthermore, the prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal women (6%) was lower than that in men (24%) and in postmenopausal women (15%). The associations of the postmenopausal state and hormone replacement therapy with NAFLD were statistically significant in a univariate logistic regression model. At the follow-up examination, 67 women (5%) were newly diagnosed with NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD was 3.5% (28/802) in premenopausal women, 7.5% (4/53) in menopausal women, 6.1% (24/392) in postmenopausal women, and 5.3% (11/206) in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. The weight gain in premenopausal women was equal to that in postmenopausal women. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain were independent risk factors for NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women, but age was an independent risk factor in premenopausal women only.CONCLUSION: Aging is a risk factor for NAFLD in premenopausal women, independent of weight gain or influence of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Gupta; Muthuvel Arumugam; Raj Vardhan Azad; Rohit Saxena; Supriyo Ghose; Nihar Ranjan Biswas; Thirumurthy Velpandian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India.Methods:Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups.Results:In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursacrumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization.Conclusions:The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  3. Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Daily Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent daily JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and global networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of daily coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for daily positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the daily coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical daily RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and global stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.

  4. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  5. STRESS BURDEN IN WOMEN IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN SLOVENIA – SOME CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Pahor

    2009-06-01

    Conclusions Public health activities to reduce stress burden among women in reproductive age in Slovenia (e.g. changes of legislation, changes of workplace behaviour should be focused on women with lowest education and of lowest social class, especially working in heavy industry, and on employed women with highest education.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM SCREENING ON THE AMNIOCENTESIS RATE IN WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEEKHUIS, [No Value; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A; HERINGA, MP

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effect of maternal serum screening on the amniocentesis (AC) rate in women of advanced maternal age. The AC rate after maternal serum screening was compared in two groups of women with a singleton pregnancy, 855 women of 30-35 years and 98 of 36 years and older. In our population

  7. Morphological model of the population of working-age women in Belgrade measured using electrical multichannel bioimpedance model: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the actual model of body composition status of working age women in the territory of Belgrade. The sample comprised 109 women respondents, of an average age of 35.2±9.5 and the length of service = 9.6±9.3 years. All measurements were performed in the period from 2011-2012 in the Teaching -research laboratory of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education of the University of Belgrade, by applying standardized procedure of electrical multichannel bioimpedance method. The researched encompassed twenty-two (22 variables - fourteen basic (14 and eight (8 derived (index variables. Basic variables were: BH - body height, BM - body mass, ICF - intracellular fluid, ECW - extracellular fluid, TBW - total body fluids, Proteins, Minerals, BMC (Osseous - bone mineral contents, BFM - total body fat mass, SMM - skeletal muscle mass, VFA - visceral fat area, BCM - body cell mass, BMR - basal metabolic rate, FIS - fitness score as assessment of body composition. The derived (index variables were: BMI - body mass index, PBF% - percent of body fat, PBW - percent of body water, PFI - protein fat index, PSMM - percent of skeletal muscle mass, SMMD - skeletal muscle mass density, OBMi - Osseous-body mass index, PBMi - protein body mass index. The results showed that the average body mass of the respondents was 67.66±13.39 kg, body height 167.04±6.62 cm, body mass index 24.27±4.66 kg/m2, muscle mass 26.55±4.46 kg, muscle mass percentage 29.09±8.47, body fat mass 20.52±9.74 kg, body fat percentage 29.09±8.47, visceral fat area was 77.92±40.23 cm2 and fitness score 73.23±6.75 of index points. The obtained results led to the conclusion that the current morphological status of the studied women partially corresponds to a type of normal weight. BMI and the representation of body fat had nearly limiting values towards obesity. A very high percentage of women was recorded in the category of pre-obese and obese according to BMI

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  9. Eating attitudes and weight concern among Chinese middle-age women: A comparison between different age and BMI groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few studies have been conducted to explore eating behavior and weight concern among middle-aged women. Methods: Participants were a sample of 236 Chinese women aged 30-52. Outcome measures were various symptoms related to eating disorders, the weight concern and psychological characteristics subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 questionnaire (EDI-2. Independent variables were age, education level and BMI. ANOVA-Test and Linear Regression were performed. Results: A group of women (N = 132, 78% with normal weight (19 < BMI < 24 showed dissatisfaction with their weight and wanted to reduce it. Overweight and obese women scored significantly higher on the subscale Body Dissatisfaction on the EDI-2 than women with lower BMI. In comparison to the older group (50-59, the younger group (30-39 and middle-aged group (40-49 expressed the desire to lose weight with a lower BMI. Conclusions: In comparison to age, the BMI had a stronger impact on the psychological and behavioral traits related to the eating disorders among a group of middle-aged Chinese women.

  10. Health in middle-aged and elderly women : A conceptual framework for healthy menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; Van Dijk, Gabriella M.; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M. Carola; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H.; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the conce

  11. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  12. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cuervo; Leticia Goni; Susana Santiago; Itziar Zazpe; Aquilino García; J. Alfredo Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Background: The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. Me...

  13. Activity Involvement in Aging Women: Career Pattern and Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole Kovalic

    Some research has found that women's retirement from the labor force produces significant changes in their lives and requires further investigation. The effects of career pattern and retirement on activity involvement and life satisfaction for women who had been in the work force was investigated. Subjects were members of the Terman Study of the…

  14. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Magnusson, Stig Peter;

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jump...... on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P ......This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps...

  16. The relationship between stressors and mental health among Japanese middle-aged women in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junko; Takeda, Fumi; Kishi, Kaori; Monma, Takafumi

    2017-04-27

    In middle age, some people may become mentally or emotionally unstable. Additionally, in Japan, mood disorders, such as depressive symptoms, occur mostly among middle-aged women (i.e., aged 40-49 years). However, few studies have examined stressors related to mental health. In the present study, we developed a stressor scale for middle-aged women and examined stressors correlated with middle-aged women's mental health. In January 2015, an anonymous, self-administered survey was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected women aged 45 through 64 years living in Tokyo, Japan. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 329 women (32.9 percent). Factor analysis identified the following stressor categories: "relationship with my husband," "uneasiness about old age," "health concerns," "work-life balance," and "relationship with my friends." "Uneasiness about old age" and "health concerns" were correlated negatively with participants' mental health. Improving middle-aged women's health requires interventions that relieve stressors resulting from age-related problems and promote a positive image of old age.

  17. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Lynne C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 1,031 women aged 65-103 years. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR associated with lower age at menarche using Cox proportional hazards models, and adjusted for a broad range of reproductive, demographic, health and lifestyle covariates. Results During the follow-up period, 673 women (65% died (average 7.3 years (SD 4.1 of follow-up for decedents. Women with menses onset Conclusion Women with lower age at menarche may have reduced survival into old age. These results lend support to the known associations between earlier menarche and risk of metabolic disease in early adulthood. Strategies to minimise earlier menarche, such as promoting healthy weights and minimising family dysfunction during childhood, may also have positive longer-term effects on survival in later life.

  18. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P menopause, those who had early menopause (age menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  19. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  20. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  1. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-08-18

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  2. The Miracle Drug : Hormone Replacement Therapy and Labor Market Behavior of Middle-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Orsini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In an aging society, determining which factors contribute to the employment of older individuals is increasingly important. This paper sheds light on the impact of medical innovation in the form of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) on employment of middle-aged women. HRT are drugs taken by middle-aged women to soften symptoms related to menopause. Before 2002, HRT products were among the most popular prescription drugs in America. We use the timing of the release of information of t...

  3. Age-related change in sit-to-stand power in Japanese women aged 50 years or older

    OpenAIRE

    Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether the age-related change in power, calculated from the score of a sit-to-stand (STS) test, corresponds to those in knee extension torque and leg lean tissue mass in Japanese women aged 50 years or older. Findings Time for a 10-times-repeated STS test and knee extension torque were determined in 556 Japanese women aged 50 to 94 years. STS power was calculated using an equation reported previously. In addition, leg lean tissue mass was estimated using muscle...

  4. [Detection of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women with different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis J O; Cruz, Thomaz; Daltro, Carla; França, Caroline S; Nascimento, Avelina O S

    2005-12-01

    To detect subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Seventy-five pregnant women who resided in the town of Itabuna, state of Bahia, were voluntarily studied. Inclusion criteria were age pregnant women. In 5.4% of them, thyroid ultrasonographic changes were documented. Based on finding of a 4% prevalence of elevated TSH during pregnancy, the authors consider important the inclusion of thyroid function laboratory evaluation in the routine prenatal examination. Further studies appear necessary to establish at what gestational age thyroid function evaluation should be started in pregnant women and how frequently it should be repeated during the course of gestation.

  5. Prospective Relationships Between Physical Activity and Optimism in Young and Mid-aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women. 9688 young women (born 1973-1978) completed self-report surveys in 2000 (age 22 to 27), 2003, 2006, and 2009; and 11,226 mid-aged women (born 1946-1951) completed surveys in 2001 (age 50-55) 2004, 2007, and 2010, as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equation models (with 3-year time lag) were used to examine the relationship between PA and optimism in both cohorts. In both cohorts, women reporting higher levels of PA had greater odds of reporting higher optimism over the 9-year period, (young, OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 3.85-6.59; mid-age, OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 4.76-7.00) than women who reported no PA. Odds were attenuated in adjusted models, with depression accounting for a large amount of this attenuation (young, OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.57-2.55; mid-age, OR = 1.64 95% CI: 1.38-1.94). Physical activity can promote optimism in young and mid-aged women over time, even after accounting for the negative effects of other psychosocial indicators such as depression.

  6. Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid - New York, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian K; Shin, Yejee; Roohan, Patrick

    2016-04-29

    Exposure to opioids during pregnancy can lead to adverse infant outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (1) and birth defects (2). Ascertaining opioid prescriptions for women who become pregnant or have no indication of contraceptive use is important to determine the number of women who are at potential risk for adverse fetal outcomes. The New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DOH) analyzed data for women aged 15-44 years (i.e., reproductive-aged women) enrolled in Medicaid to examine opioid drug prescriptions during 2008-2013. On the basis of Medicaid drug claims for any drug with an opioid ingredient, prescriptions were identified for the enrolled population of reproductive-aged women and for three subgroups: women whose diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes indicated contraceptive use or infertility; women who were not using contraceptives and not infertile; and women who had had a live birth during the reporting year. During 2008-2013, among all women of reproductive age, 20.0% received a prescription for a drug with an opioid component; the proportion was highest (27.3%) among women with an indication of contraceptive use or infertility, intermediate (17.3%) among women who had no indication of contraceptive use, and lowest (9.5%) among women who had had a live birth. Although New York's proportion of opioid prescriptions among female Medicaid recipients who had a live birth is lower than a recent U.S. estimate (3), these results suggest nearly one in 10 women in this group may have been exposed to opioids in the prenatal period.

  7. Prevalence of menopause, chronic illnesses and life style of middle aged women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Saleem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : Objectives: To determine the prevalence of menopause, chronic illnesses and lifestyle of middle aged women in Karachi, Pakistan. Design: A Cross Sectional survey was conducted among women of 40-60 years living in socio-economically different areas of Karachi. Information was gathered on their current menstrual status, age at menopause, body mass index, exercise habits, weekly recall of food consumed and chronic illnesses. These variables were also examined according to the socio economic status of the area where women reside. Results: A total of 1764 women in age group 40-60 years were interviewed. The prevalence of menopausal women in this age group was 39.3 percent (%. The mean age at menopause was 45.2 (±3.8 years. Only seven percent of women were doing some kind of exercise and approximately eighty percent had their Body Mass Index ≥ 23 kg/m2 according to Asian Standard. Approximately 31 percent (% of women reported eating any type of meat at least four times a week, of these most were from higher income area. Majority consumed meat less than three times a week. Similar pattern was observed for consumption of fruits and milk. Approximately 36 percent (% of women reported diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardio vascular heart disease and arthritis. Conclusion: The sedentary life style, obesity and chronic illnesses are highly prevalent and are serious emerging public health problem for 40-60 years old women of Karachi. We recommend that awareness about balanced diet, exercise and healthy eating habits should be inculcated in women early in life, where possible through schools and media. Health policies and public health messages should be formulated according to the various stages of life cycle of women, so that women can prepare themselves for the next stage of life.

  8. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  9. In-home Smoking in Households with Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: Does Women's Empowerment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Murugan, Vithya; Karki, Yagya B; Mathur, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Authors examined the prevalence and predictors of in-home smoking in households with women of reproductive age. They analyzed data from 9,837 ever married women from 2011 Nepal Demographic Health Survey. About 17 percent of women and 66 percent of their husbands smoked and 58 percent of the women lived in homes that permitted in-home smoking. About 6 percent of the women were pregnant and 42 percent had given birth within the past five years. In-home tobacco use was equally prevalent in homes with and without young children and irrespective of women's pregnancy status. Husband's use of tobacco doubled the odds of in-home smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52-3.69) and wife's use of tobacco quadrupled the odds of in-home smoking controlling for other factors (OR = 3.94; 95% CI = 3.30-4.70). In addition, employed women were 39 percent more likely to allow in-home smoking than their unemployed counterparts (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.19-1.63). Protective factors against in-home smoking were women's education, intrahousehold decision-making ability, household wealth, and urban residence. To reduce in-home smoking, social workers should increase awareness about the adverse consequences of secondhand smoke by providing counseling services to male and female tobacco users. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  10. Body appreciation in adult women: relationships with age and body satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; McCourt, Alice

    2013-09-01

    The major aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age on positive body image (operationalized as body appreciation) across the female lifespan. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of age on the relationship between positive body image and body satisfaction. Participants were 158 women aged between 18 and 75 years who completed questionnaire measures of body appreciation and body dissatisfaction-satisfaction. A significant positive linear relationship was found between age and body appreciation; that is, older women had higher levels of body appreciation than their younger counterparts. Although body appreciation was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction-satisfaction across all age groups, the association was weaker for older women. The results contribute to a richer picture of women's body image across the lifespan, as well as confirming positive body image as something beyond the mere absence of body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Naturopathy/herbalism consultations by mid-aged Australian women who have cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Sibbritt, D; Young, A F

    2005-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is now a significant practice issue for those delivering cancer care with a range of CAM being utilized by a significant number of patients with cancer. While various studies have explored the prevalence of CAM use among cancer patients, little is currently known about naturopathy/herbalism use by patients with cancer in Australia. This paper reports the prevalence of naturopath/herbalist consultations among mid-aged Australian women with cancer. The research was conducted as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, with the data for this analysis coming from the third survey of 11,202 women aged 50-55, conducted in 2001. For all cancers combined, 15.7% of women with cancer were found to consult a naturopath/herbalist. Mid-aged women with cancer were found to be more likely to consult a naturopath/herbalist than mid-aged women without cancer. Naturopathy/herbalism consultations appear to be utilized by the women with cancer alongside and as a supplement to conventional health services. Given the prevalence of consultations with herbal therapists/naturopaths among mid-aged women with cancer in Australia, it is important that physicians and others involved in cancer patient care and management are informed and educated about naturopathy/herbalism and its use among their patients.

  12. [Secrets of women: gynaecology in the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    A fifteenth-century Dutch manuscript entitled Der vrouwen heimelijcheit (Secrets of women) presents medieval knowledge on gynaecology and obstetrics in the form of an educational poem. Practical knowledge of women's physiology is combined with what we now consider to be superstition. It mentions, for example, that menstruating women often suffer from headaches and back pain, but also that they should not look in the mirror during their periods because it might get stained. The development of the unborn child is discussed and there are instructions for midwives on how to act in case of a difficult birth, e.g. when the child has a very big head, when the child is in the breech position or when an arm or a foot comes out first. The author also explains how to evoke abortion, but changes the subject quickly, because abortion was a sin. A recent edition including an English introduction and translation makes this text available for a broad audience.

  13. Facilitating communication about sexual health between aging women and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Lewinson, Terri D W

    2015-04-01

    Many women experience changes in sexual health as they age, and discussing these changes with health care providers is an essential component of optimal health management. The purpose of this study was to understand aging women's perspectives about communicating with providers about sexual health. We used the integrative model of behavioral prediction as a theoretical lens to explore women's attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived self-efficacy that promote or inhibit the likelihood of communicating about sexual health. In this theory-based qualitative study, we interviewed 28 community-dwelling older women in the Midwestern United States. Through thematic analysis, we identified both positive and negative attitudes about communicating with providers. Women seemed most inclined to discuss sexual health if they perceived that important patient-provider conditions, such as trust and rapport, were in place. Despite situational obstacles and perceived norms, these women held strong beliefs about their abilities to discuss sexual health topics with providers.

  14. Accuracy of gestational age estimated by menstrual dating in women seeking abortion beyond nine weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V; Bergunder, Jeannette; Eccles, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    We sought to quantify the accuracy of estimating gestational age by reported last menstrual period among women seeking surgical abortion. We observed that women seeking surgical abortion underestimated their gestational age when making the appointment, leading to poor allocation of resources. This tendency to underestimate has not previously been reported and differs from the accurate dating reported among women choosing either medical abortion or continuation of the pregnancy. We performed a retrospective review of randomly selected medical records for women with abortions scheduled at 9 to 20 weeks' gestation (n = 415) at two clinics in Vancouver between 2002 and 2008. The mean gestational age calculated by menstrual dates (14.3, SD 3.9) was 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.4) weeks less than that calculated by ultrasound (15.5, SD 3.4) (P abortions, illicit drug use, and contraceptive method at conception) were not significant predictors of inaccurate menstrual dating. Women seeking surgical abortion for pregnancies of 9 to 20 weeks underreport gestational age by an average of 1.2 weeks using menstrual dating. We found that women who intended to continue with their pregnancy overestimated their gestational age, those seeking very early abortion estimated most accurately, and those seeking surgical abortion at more than nine weeks had a clinically significant underestimation of their gestational age. Clinicians referring and counselling women who are considering surgical abortion must facilitate timely access to clinical or ultrasound dating of their pregnancy.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaghaz kanani R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.

  16. Epidemiological correlates of contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata K. Murarkar, S. G. Soundale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of availability of a wide range of contraceptives and mass media campaigns population control is a distant dream to achieve. It is pertinent to identify the factors responsible for poor contraceptive acceptance. The study was conducted to find out contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group and to study epidemiological correlates affecting contraceptive practices. A cross-sectional population based study covered 512 married women in reproductive age group in the village Chanai, Taluka- Ambajogai, Dist.-Breed. They were interviewed by predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Out of 512 married women 48.63% were contraceptive acceptors. Contraceptive acceptance was more in women who are graduate and above(82.76%, women from nuclear family (58.79%, Upper middle socioeconomic class (79.62%.Contraceptive acceptance was lowest in agricultural laborer(38.87% .A significant association was found between contraceptive acceptance and literacy status, occupation, type of family, socioeconomic status and age at marriage.

  17. Osteoporosis-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Middle-aged and Elderly Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭绩; 赵志广; 梁渊; 卢祖洵

    2004-01-01

    OSTEOPOROSIS (OP) is an important problemseriously affecting the health of middle-aged andelderly women. One third of women are likely tosuffer from OP. Because OP can cause irreversiblepathologic changes, bone structure is difficult torecover. Fracture and its complications, such as bed-sore, lung infection and urinary tract infection, arethe main causes of morbidity in these women.1Therefore, much attention should be paid to earlyprevention and treatment of OP. This study wasdesigned to understand the kno...

  18. Serum dioxin levels and age at menopause in women of Seveso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Warner, M.; Marks, A. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Samuels, S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Bicocca, Desio-Milano (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In the present investigation, we examine the relationship of TCDD and age of onset of menopause in a population of women residing near Seveso, Italy in 1976, at the time of a chemical plant explosion. These women, who participated in the Seveso Women's Health Study, were exposed to the highest levels of TCDD known in residential populations. Serum specimens collected near the time of the explosion allowed for individual estimates of exposure.

  19. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  20. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  1. Life Satisfaction and Death Anxiety in Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Lenore Artie

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the life satisfaction and death anxiety of elderly women (N=60) as a function of demographic, life history, and stress variables. Through multiple regression, life satisfaction was predicted by number of friends, good health, and, surprisingly, by having fewer offspring living in the same city. (Author)

  2. Dementia, women and sexuality: How the intersection of ageing, gender and sexuality magnify dementia concerns among lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Sue

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the significance of socio-cultural context for the experiences of an individual living with dementia. There is, too, an emergent awareness that dementia is a gendered issue, disproportionately affecting women compared with men. However, little attention has been given as yet to the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women living with dementia. This article addresses this gap in knowledge, exploring the significance of the intersection of ageing, gender and sexuality for lesbian and bisexual women with dementia. It suggests that stigma and social marginalisation associated with dementia and with ageing, gender and sexuality intersect to compound the social exclusion of lesbians and bisexual women. This has implications for early diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, community care policy, which is predicated on heterosexist norms fails to take into account older lesbians and bisexual women's support networks and so is less likely to be attuned to their needs. Residential care provision is perceived by older lesbians and bisexual women as being heteronormative at best and homophobic at worst. Services which do not recognise, validate and support their identities will compound their anxiety, confusion and distress. This may be contrary to Equality and Human Rights legislation and UK social policies. This paper draws upon, and analyses, extracts from a range of authorship, synthesising the material to present novel insights into the significance of gender and sexuality for the experience of dementia and dementia care.

  3. Experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing of women of advanced maternal age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kyoko; Turale, Sue; Skirton, Heather; Doris, Faye; Tsujino, Kumiko; Ito, Misae; Kutsunugi, Saeko

    2016-03-01

    The number of pregnant women of advanced maternal age has increased worldwide. Women in this group have an increased chance of fetal abnormality. To explore Japanese women's experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing, we conducted a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women aged 35 years or over who had given birth within the previous three months to a healthy, term infant. Thematic analysis of transcribed interview data was performed and three major themes were identified: inadequate understanding of genetic risks; insufficiently informed choice regarding prenatal testing; and need for more information from health professionals. Some participants were not aware of maternal age-specific risks to the fetus. Many took their cues from health professionals and did not raise the topic themselves, but would have considered prenatal testing if made aware of the risks. Nurses, midwives and other health professionals need to adequately inform pregnant women about the genetic risks to the fetus and offer testing at an appropriate stage early in the pregnancy.

  4. Is social engagement linked to body image and depression among aging women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Natalie J

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining an active and engaged social life is a critical component of aging well, and women are generally more socially active than men. However, as women age their self-perceptions of their bodies may reduce social behaviors and consequently, increase depressive symptoms. Because little is known about how body image is associated with social engagement and depressive symptoms among aging women, four aspects of body image: satisfaction with cosmetic features, body function, physical appearance, and weight were assessed among women aged 65 and older (n = 123). Regression analyses indicated that cosmetic appearance, body function, and physical appearance were associated with depressive symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weight was unrelated. Further, both greater satisfaction with cosmetic features and body function were associated with higher levels of social engagement, and social engagement mediated the association between these aspects of body satisfaction and depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that specific age-relevant aspects of body satisfaction are linked to social behavior and depression among aging women, and reduced body satisfaction may lead to lower social engagement, and consequently aging women's health and well-being may be diminished.

  5. Working women worldwide. Age effects in female labor force participation in 117 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Keune, M.; Steinmetz, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effects of economic conditions, families, education, and gender ideologies on the labor force participation rates of women in eleven age groups in 117 countries. We find that participation rates of young and older women are partly explained by sector sizes and the

  6. Surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in women of 80 years of age and older.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, K.J.; Vierhout, M.E.; Milani, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the long-term results of women over 80 years of age following surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. METHODS: We reviewed all records of women of 80 years and older operated for pelvic organ prolapse; all patients alive were contacted

  7. Age and Second Language Acquisition in Adulthood: The Learning Experiences and Perceptions of Women Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    Presents 30 adult Chinese immigrant women's accounts of their experiences with, and perceptions of, learning English as a Second Language in Canada. Results from interviews with two age groups of adult women reveal the complexity of adult second-language acquisition, which involves factors pertaining both to the learners, and to the social context…

  8. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  9. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  10. Impacts of obesity on the health of women of childbearing age: A call ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-08

    Mar 8, 2016 ... the energy through physical activity, causing much of the surplus ... choices, such as when women of child bearing age eat large .... without children) who were obese during ..... http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Obesity/Pages/C.

  11. NCHS - Birth Rates for Unmarried Women by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes birth rates for unmarried women by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1970. National data on births by Hispanics...

  12. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Berti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine; to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β and SE(β were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P<0.00001; that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P<0.00001, that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P=0.001, that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women.

  13. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-min WU; Jia LIU; Wei-lian SUN; Li-li CHEN; Li-guo CHAI; Xiang XIAO; Zheng CAO

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health.Methods:The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi,a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China.A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care.Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview.Clinical periodontal indices,such as bleeding on probing (BOP),probing depth (PD),and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination.Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed.Results:The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%).A significant association was found between the disease and educational level,pregnancy,taking oral contraceptives,stress,alcohol consumption,overweight,dental visit,and teeth brushing (P<0.05).Women who suffered periodontal disease showed deep PD,obvious BOP,and clinical attachment loss.Among this population,pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (P<0.001) after adjusting for age and stress.Conclusions:The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently.Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted,especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness.

  14. CAPABILITY OF PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION PREVENTION IN GIRLS AND WOMEN OF VARIOUS AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Ch. Shakhtakhtinskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at one of the critical issues in modern medicine — human papilloma virus infection. The prevalence of this infection in the world and the possibility of primary prevention in females of various age groups are highlighted in details. It provides the results of vaccine prevention against the human papilloma virus in Russian in girls and women aged 9 to 26 years.Key words: papilloma virus infection, cervical cancer, women, girls, vaccinal prevention.

  15. Perceptions of Benzodiazepine Dependence Among Women Age 65 and Older

    OpenAIRE

    Canham, Sarah L.; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: 1) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to...

  16. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuervo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved 4,471 Spanish women at childbearing-age that were planning a pregnancy. Information was collected through a questionnaire by community health professionals. Results: The profile of childbearing-age recruited women planning a pregnancy were in her early thirties (31.4 ± 4.8 years and 72.5% were seeking for her first baby. They had a good self-perception of their nutritional and health status and followed a balanced diet. Interestingly, primiparae women had lower risk of health complications but they were greater consumers of tobacco and alcohol (p < 0.001, and consumed less fortified milk, iodine and iron supplements than multiparae women. Additionally, the examined population showed a more sedentary pattern in primiparae women as compared to the remaining group concerning hours/day lying, sitting and standing. Conclusion: Differences between both preconceptional conditions (primiparae and multiparae women bring a great opportunity to promote healthy habits among childbearing-aged women, according to the personal profile, in order to prevent burdens in future pregnancies underlying modifiable or preventable factors.

  17. Body composition of physically active women aged over 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Antonio Herrera Mogollón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of analyzing the body composition of physical active seniors: 116 women enrolled on the Program of Integrated Care for the older Adult in the Municipality of Chacao, Venezuela, were studied. Anthropometric variables were measured. Comparisons between variables revealed no statistical differences, with the exception of suprailiac skinfolds (p <0,05. Results indicated that most of the mean values were lower in the oldest group, with the exception of height, which was greater. The waist/hip ratio remained constant. More than 50% of women exhibited good nutritional status with appropriate body mass index. Cases of energy malnutrition were observed (defi ciencies and excesses, with overweight prevailing at around 20%. Waist circumference and the waist/hip ratio indicated that around 55% of the sample exhibited a high risk of developing chronic non-infectious illnesses. Comparisons with other population samples indicated greater similarity with those in their environment (Venezuelan and Mexican samples and with Italian and Australian women, and distant from the American pattern, with minor values of the variables compared.

  18. Age at menopause: imputing age at menopause for women with a hysterectomy with application to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Colditz, Graham A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Age at menopause, a major marker in the reproductive life, may bias results for evaluation of breast cancer risk after menopause. Methods We follow 38,948 premenopausal women in 1980 and identify 2,586 who reported hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy, and 31,626 who reported natural menopause during 22 years of follow-up. We evaluate risk factors for natural menopause, impute age at natural menopause for women reporting hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy and estimate the hazard of reaching natural menopause in the next 2 years. We apply this imputed age at menopause to both increase sample size and to evaluate the relation between postmenopausal exposures and risk of breast cancer. Results Age, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, pregnancy history, body mass index, history of benign breast disease, and history of breast cancer were each significantly related to age at natural menopause; duration of oral contraceptive use and family history of breast cancer were not. The imputation increased sample size substantially and although some risk factors after menopause were weaker in the expanded model (height, and alcohol use), use of hormone therapy is less biased. Conclusions Imputing age at menopause increases sample size, broadens generalizability making it applicable to women with hysterectomy, and reduces bias. PMID:21441037

  19. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  20. Breast cancer in women under age 40 years: treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jeffery E; Chu, Carrie; McCullough, Meghan; Anderson, Erica; Losken, Albert; Carlson, Grant W

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer in women under 40 years of age is rare, accounting for approximately 5% of cases. The disease tends to be more aggressive in younger women. Younger age has been shown to be an independent predictive of breast reconstruction after total mastectomy. Treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction is examined in relation to patient age. A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients treated by total mastectomy and reconstruction between 2005 and 2009 was performed by querying a prospective database. A total of 671 patients underwent total mastectomy and reconstruction; of them, 106 (16%) aged mastectomy (P mastectomy.

  1. "You get old. You get invisible": Social isolation and the challenge of communicating with aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkner, Tammy J; Weare, Andrea M; Tully, Melissa

    2017-04-04

    Social isolation is a problem facing many older women. Isolation can contribute to poor health as adults age without social support. Increased and tailored communication offers service organizations more opportunities to provide social support to these adults. This research examines perceptions of aging to explore communication behaviors, barriers, and opportunities for improved communication and service provision for aging women. Using data from focus groups and interviews, this study finds that participants from community organizations rely on word of mouth and traditional media to communicate with their aging constituents, despite opportunities to use digital communication and to develop communication plans for this population.

  2. Successful ageing amongst elderly women living independently in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, impact greatly on the experience of old age (Baltes and Smith 2003). In .... successful ageing, the importance of trade-offs in later life (Schulz .... They moved to Pretoria and she was employed in the retail sector at a junior ..... black elderly in selected white urban areas: An explorative study], Pretoria: Human.

  3. Nutritional Status of Settler and Indigenous Women of Reproductive Age Group in Khagrachari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Monoarul Haque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health is closely related with nutritional status of a country. Women are regarded as the nerve centers of the families and society, maternal nutrition and health is considered as the most important regulator of human fetal growth. Objective: This study was conducted with a view to assess the nutritional status of settler and indigenous women of reproductive age group (15--49 years in Khagrachari district. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the purposively selected Panchari thana of Khagrachari district in Bangladesh from 01 May to 31 August 2013. A total of 200 reproductive aged women were interviewed. Among them 100 were indigenous and 100 were settlers. Their anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for Asian people. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29.8 ± 11.1 years and maximum were in the age group of 15--24 years. Among the indigenous subjects Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Boisnu were 20.5%, 20.5%, 6.5% and 2.5% respectively. Among 100 indigenous reproductive aged women 17 were underweight; but among settlers 19 were underweight. Forty nine settler women were normal and in case of indigenous women 46 were normal. But regarding overweight indigenous women went ahead than settler women and obesity was found equal in both groups. Mean difference of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC was significantly different (p<0.005 between the groups. Conclusion: This study provided a vivid picture of the nutritional status of the settler and indigenous reproductive aged women.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-01-19

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  5. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy.

  6. Anthropometrical data of middle-aged Japanese women for industrial design applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, K; Okada, A; Kouchi, M; Horino, S; Kikuchi, Y

    1994-06-01

    Despite the growing importance of human interface design, and despite the growing number of working women, no considerations have been given to women's working spaces and tools. Their designs are based on men's anthropometrical data, and this does not assure safety and amenity of women's working environments. Moreover, few data on women's body measurements are available. The Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life is carrying out an ergonomic anthropometrical study on a large number of Japanese people to create a database for industrial use. The fee for the use of these data is, however, making it very difficult to profit from their acquisition. Therefore, we conducted an anthropometrical study for industrial design use on middle-aged female subjects, who are in the most difficult age group to access. This report should be useful in designing working spaces and tools for women as laborers as well as users.

  7. Physically and sexually violent experiences of reproductive-aged women displaced by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Carla W; Burton, Shirley; Naponick, John

    2010-01-01

    Measure the frequency of physical and sexual abuse in a sample of reproductive aged women displaced by Hurricane Katrina, and compare those experiences to the year before Hurricane Katrina. Sixty-six English-speaking women aged 18-49 years residing in Louisiana Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) housing were screened for physical and sexual abuse seven to nine months after Hurricane Katrina, using modified 30x7 cluster sampling methodology. Twenty-three percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 14, 34%) of women reported being hit or verbally threatened since Hurricane Katrina. Abuse had increased for 33% (95% CI, 13, 63%) and decreased for 13% (95% CI, 4, 37%) of women. Twenty percent (95% CI, 6, 51%) of abused women were with a new partner, while 13% (95% CI, 4, 39%) reported new abuse with the same partner. Four women reported sexual abuse since Hurricane Katrina. Compared to before the storm, the frequency of sexual abuse was the same for two women, and one reported new abuse with the same partner. Physical abuse was not uncommon among displaced women following Hurricane Katrina. Increasing and new abuse were the most commonly reported experiences. Violence against women should not be overlooked as a continued, and perhaps escalating, occurrence requiring attention following displacement after disasters of such magnitude as Hurricane Katrina.

  8. Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

  9. Perceptions of benzodiazepine dependence among women age 65 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: (a) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; (b) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; (c) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and (d) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use.

  10. 2. Prevalence of Hypertension Among Women of Child Bearing Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    and 2) risk factors for hypertension among non- pregnant ... hours, changes in creatinine, liver enzymes, and symptoms of ... obesity, insulin resistance, high alcohol intake, high salt intake, age .... that could be consumed, such as high fat, high.

  11. Age- and menopause-related differences in physiological factors of health quality in women aged 35-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiacek, Magdalena; Jegal, Bo Seul; Hagner, Wojciech; Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Zubrzycki, Igor Z

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate using time series analysis age and menopause induced differences in selected health quality related physiological factors. The study was conducted, using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and the NHANES 1999-2002 data, on women aged 35-60. Subjects who had not had surgical menopause, did not use contraceptives, did not smoke, and did not breastfeed during the examination, and did not use contraception and for whom follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH) activity was assessed, were included in the study. Menopausal status was defined by months since the last period (12 months for pre-, peri-, and postmenopause, respectively). The results indicate that postmenopausal women, aged less than 45, are characterized by a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP), an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and a decrease in triglyceride (TG) levels. It was also determined that aging is the main factor leading to physiological variability in systolic blood pressure and high density lipoprotein levels, in pre- and perimenopausal women, and in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activity in peri- and postmenopausal women.

  12. Effect of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) on Bone Mineral Density in Women of Reproductive Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling GAI; Jing-lu ZHANG; Hui-zhen ZHANG; Ping GAI; Yong-hong LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare bone mineral density (BMD) between users of intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate(DMPA) and nonhormonal control subjects. Methods The study included 68 women aged between 25 and 40 years using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for 24 months and 59 women aged between 25 and 40 years using nonhormonal contraception as control subjects. BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were obtained using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results At 24 months of treatment, as compared with baseline, the mean BMD in lumbar spine and femoral neck was decreased by 5.5% and 5.9%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in women who used DMPA were significantly decreased compared with the subjects in nonuser (P<0.001). Conclusion These results show BMD declined during using DMPA in women aged 25 -40 years old.

  13. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Betha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45 living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted.

  15. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare;

    2015-01-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronologi......Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled...

  17. Anti-Mullerian hormone serum concentrations in normoovulatory and anovulatory women of reproductive age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.E. Laven (Joop); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); A.G.M.G.J. Mulders (Annemarie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the number of antral follicles as well as age and constitute an endocrine marker for ovarian aging. In normogonadotropic anovulatory infertile women [World Health Organization (WHO) class 2], the number of early

  18. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  19. The Miracle Drug : Hormone Replacement Therapy and Labor Market Behavior of Middle-Aged Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Orsini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In an aging society, determining which factors contribute to the employment of older individuals is increasingly important. This paper sheds light on the impact of medical innovation in the form of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) on employment of middle-aged women. HRT are drugs taken by

  20. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection.

  1. Oocyte or embryo donation to women of advanced age: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Physicians should obtain a complete medical evaluation before deciding to attempt transfer of embryos to any woman over age 50. Embryo transfer should be strongly discouraged or denied to any woman over age 50 with underlying issues that could increase or further obstetrical risks and discouraged in women over age 55 without such issues. This statement replaces the earlier ASRM Ethics Committee statement titled, "Oocyte donation to postmenopausal women," last published in 2004 (Fertil Steril 2004;82:S254-5).

  2. The relationship between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking among women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kaer, Susanne K; Munk, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the association between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking, and to examine whether there are differences in this association between four countries. METHODS: The data consisted of 68,539 women aged 18-47 years randomly selected from the general population...... in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Frequency of binge drinking, defined as consuming >6 U of alcohol at the same occasion once or more per month, and age at drinking debut were assessed through a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: Overall, 12-26% reported binge drinking once or more per month in the four...... countries. Median age for starting drinking was 16 years in all four countries. Women who started drinking at 14 years or younger were significantly more likely to binge drink than women who started drinking at 19 years or older with adjusted odds ratios of 2.9 (95% confidence intervals 2.3-3.7), 2.8 (2...

  3. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15-44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Jonas, Anna; Beukes, Anita; Anderson, Raydel; Rota, Paul A; Bankamp, Bettina; Gary, Howard E; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gerber, Sue; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-01

    Namibia experienced a large measles outbreak starting in 2009, with 38% of reported cases in adults, including women of reproductive age. Population immunity was assessed among pregnant women to determine whether immunization activities were needed in adults to achieve measles elimination in Namibia. A total of 1708 and 2040 specimens sampled from Namibian pregnant women aged 15-44 years who were included in the 2008 and 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey, respectively, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G antibody. The proportion of women seropositive overall and by 5-year age strata was determined, and factors associated with seropositivity were analyzed by logistic regression, including age, facility type, gravidity, HIV status, and urban/rural setting. Seropositivity in 2008 versus 2010 was compared. In both analysis years, measles seropositivity was lower in 15-19-year-olds (77%) and 20-24-year-olds (85-87%) and higher in 25-44-year-olds (90-94%) (2008, pmeasles seropositivity did not differ between 2008 (87%) and 2010 (87%) (p=0.7). HIV status did not affect seropositivity. Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15-19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The relationship between body image, age, and distress in women facing breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah J; Schnur, Julie B; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Montgomery, Guy H

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the strength of the relationship between body image and emotional distress decreases with age. Past research has focused on expected aging-related body changes, and has not yet examined unexpected body changes (e.g., breast cancer surgery). The present post-hoc study assessed relationships between age, body image, and emotional distress in women facing breast cancer surgery. Older (≥ 65 years, n = 40) and younger (women were matched on race/ethnicity, marital status, and surgery type. Within one week prior to surgery, participants completed measures of demographics, aspects of body image, and emotional distress (general and surgery-specific). Results indicated that: (1) body image did not differ by age (p > 0.999); (2) older women reported less pre-surgical emotional distress than younger women (p's body image and emotional distress (p's women, particularly those with poor body image, are at an increased risk for pre-surgical emotional distress. These women may benefit from pre-surgical interventions designed to improve body image or to reduce pre-surgical emotional distress.

  5. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  6. Mammography utilization among california women age 40-49 in a managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Sennett, C; Legorreta, A P

    2001-05-01

    To examine the utilization of screening mammography and the relationship between risk factors and mammography use in women age 40-49 in a managed care environment. Retrospective observational study based on a mailed survey. A large HMO in California. The study population included respondents age 40-49 who completed a breast health assessment questionnaire mailed to all women age 34-49 and enrolled in a California HMO in early 1997. About 67.6% of the 20,391 women age 40-49 had at least one mammogram during 1995 and 1996. Logistic regression revealed that women age 40-44 were less likely (odds ratio: 0.83-0.90) than women age 45-49 to obtain mammography. Family history of breast cancer (odds ratio: 1.12-1.16), breast biopsy (odds ratio: 1.14-1.18), and a mammogram in the previous three years (odds ratio: 1.15-1.18) were associated with an increased likelihood of taking a mammogram. However, monthly breast self-exams (odds ratio: 0.996-1.04), having a child at or after age 30 (odds ratio: 0.97-1.02), and having menarche at age 12 or younger (odds ratio: 0.96-1.01) had no significant effect on the screening mammography rates. A relatively higher percentage of younger HMO members receive screening mammography than that of general population. However, some higher-risk groups, especially women whose first pregnancies were late in life, do not show a higher rate of using mammography.

  7. Study of factors affecting contraceptive use among married women of reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of contraception can prevent pregnancies related complication and helps in improving the women’s health and quality of their lives. Objective To explore reproductive characteristics among married women of reproductive age. To find out method of contraceptive use and side effects among married women of reproductive age. To uncover factors related to contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age. Methods This cross-sectional was carried out among (369 married couples of reproductive age group in ward number 5, 6 and 7 of Dhulikhel Municipality using purposive sampling. Those who fell in between the age group of (14-49 years and willing to participate were included and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain informations. Results Among 369(81.3% of the respondents of reproductive age were using a modern contraceptive method. Regarding education 331(89.5% of women’s and 352(95.1% of husbands were literate and 275(91.6% of women were found to be involved in decision making and had good inter-spousal communication that is 280(93.3%. Among the temporary method of family planning, Depo-Provera was the choice 150(54.5% of contraceptive method. Conclusion The present study put more emphasis on increase in women’s literacy, women’s involvement in decision making and inter-spousal communication which helps to promote the effective use of contraceptive methods. As women play an important role in the decision making, women should be included in all aspects of reproductive health and family planning programs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 24-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10233

  8. Season of birth and the risk of hip fracture in Danish men and women aged 65+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eAbrahamsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status in pregnant women has been linked to childhood bone mineral density in their offspring but it is unclear if effects extend to fracture risk in adulthood or even old age. As vitamin D levels in the population show pronounced seasonal variation in Denmark, we performed an epidemiological analysis of hip fracture rates as a function of season of birth, age and sex. We retrieved information on all hip fractures in the nine-year period between 1997-2005 in all men and women aged 65-95, excluded hip fractures that occurred in current and recent prednisolone users, and subsequently calculated fracture rates and relative risks. The analysis covered 541,109 men and 691,522 women.In women, we observed a small but statistically significant difference between fracture rates by season of birth for all age intervals expect the youngest (age 65-69. A similar pattern was seen in men, but this was only statistically significant in the two oldest age groups (age 85-89 and 90-95. These findings suggest that vitamin D availability in the first and second trimester of intrauterine life could have a small but lasting impact on bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fractures

  9. Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age.

  10. Effect of submaximal repetitive exercise on knee coactivation in young and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Joanne N; Plashkes, Tova E; Franklin, Regan A; Hickey, Heather K; Maly, Monica R

    2014-04-01

    Coactivation of the knee extensors and flexors increases knee joint contact forces, which may lead to degradation of the articular surfaces. This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular fatigue induced by submaximal, repetitive, dynamic contractions on coactivation of knee musculature in young and middle-aged women. Data from 10 young women (24.6±1.8 years) and 8 middle-aged women (55.4±4.2 years) were analyzed. Measures included peak knee extension and flexion torques and the average amplitude of surface electromyography of rectus femoris and biceps femoris. Coactivation ratios were calculated from these activations. To induce fatigue, participants completed up to ten sets of 50 concentric knee extension and flexion contractions at 60°/s. A two-factor analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of age and fatigue. The young group showed higher peak torque compared with the middle-aged group (Pknee extension compared with young women (P=.066). This coactivation likely contributed to extension torque decrements in middle-aged women.

  11. Is age a risk factor for hypothyroidism in pregnancy? An analysis of 5223 pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potlukova, Eliska; Potluka, Oto; Jiskra, Jan; Limanova, Zdenka; Telicka, Zdenek; Bartakova, Jana; Springer, Drahomira

    2012-06-01

    The guidelines of American Thyroid Association from 2011 include age over 30 as one of the risk factors for hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Our objective was to verify whether age increases the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease in pregnancy. We performed a cross-sectional study in 2006-2008 with laboratory assessment in a single center using primary care gynecological ambulances in cooperation with a referral center. The study included 5223 consecutive pregnant women in gestational wk 9-12. We assessed the occurrence of pathological serum concentrations of TSH and/or antibodies against thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) with regard to age. Reference interval for TSH was 0.06-3.67 mU/liter; the upper cutoff value for TPOAb was 143 kU/liter. Overall, 857 women (16.4%) were positively screened. Of these, 294 (5.63%) had TSH elevation, 146 (2.79%) had TSH suppression, 561 (10.74%) were TPOAb positive, and 417 (7.98%) were euthyroid and TPOAb positive. The average age of women was 31.1 yr. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 5.5 and 5.8% in women aged 30 or older and those under 30 yr, respectively (P value nonsignificant). Using a logistic regression model, we didn't find any significant association between age and serum TSH suppression, TSH elevation, or TPOAb positivity (P = 0.553, P = 0.680, and P = 0.056, respectively) or between age and TSH elevation with TPOAb positivity (P = 0.967). In a subgroup analysis of risk factors for hypothyroidism in 132 hypothyroid women, addition of age 30 or older increased the proportion of women identified in a case-finding screening strategy from 55.3 to 85.6%. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease does not increase with age in pregnant women; however, addition of age 30 or over to the case-finding screening strategy may substantially improve its efficiency due to a larger number of women screened.

  12. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  13. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  14. Food Consumption and Iron Intake of Pregnant and Reproductive Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the eating habits and consumption of natural and fortified iron sources in pregnant and reproductive aged women. This cross-sectional study was developed in a health center located in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. We studied 61 women, of which 30 were pregnant. A food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour recall instrument were used. The main natural sources of iron were beans and greens, although fortified foods were also an important source. There was little statistically signi...

  15. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C; Amin, Minal M; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988-1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (Pwomen (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12-19, 20-29, and 30-49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission.

  16. Cultural beliefs and attitudes of Black and Hispanic college-age women toward exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Fischetti, Natalie

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural knowledge that informs exercise behaviors among Black and Hispanic college-age women. Focus groups were conducted among 26 Black or Hispanic female college students. Questions were based on constructs from social cognitive theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Latinas were found to be more likely to view vigorous exercise as "unfeminine" and cited family responsibilities as barriers. Black women enjoyed the competition and camaraderie of exercise, but felt pressure to conform to White standards of beauty. There appear to be distinct differences in the cultural beliefs that inform exercise behaviors among these women.

  17. Body esteem and self-esteem in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowska-Kotala, Agnieszka

    2017-04-28

    The aims of the study were (a) to identify predictors of body esteem and (b) to expand on previous research by examining the link between global self-esteem and body esteem in a community-based sample of women in midlife. We found that body esteem in midlife women was predicted by body mass index (BMI), optimism, self-esteem, and menopausal symptoms. Although BMI was the main predictor of body esteem in middle-aged women, global self-esteem was more strongly related to feelings about appearance and physical condition than feelings about body size.

  18. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  19. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-12-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this intervention. We conducted a qualitative study in a Dutch university medical center and held in-depth interviews with women on the waiting list for oocyte banking. We recorded the interviews, transcribed them verbatim and used thematic analysis. All women were financially independent and lived in single-person urban households. They opted for oocyte banking because they wished to share parenthood with a future partner rather than becoming a single parent. This strong desire was key in their interpretation of all aspects of the intervention. Women set aside information about the limited success rates and potential risks, as they were optimistic about their own prognosis, thought that the chances for success were equally likely as the chances it would fail, and because of "anticipatory regret". They perceived oocyte banking as a "helping hand" to achieve shared parenthood. Although women found the costs of the intervention high, they were willing to invest their money to increase their chances for shared parenthood. Oocyte banking allows women to circumvent age-related fertility decline. The prospect of potential shared parenthood overrules the perceived health risks and burden. Health professionals should take this into account when informing potential users of oocyte banking. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  1. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  2. Combined hormonal contraception use in reproductive-age women with contraindications to estrogen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauring, Julianne R; Lehman, Erik B; Deimling, Timothy A; Legro, Richard S; Chuang, Cynthia H

    2016-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use recommends that combined hormonal contraceptives (ie, birth control pills, contraceptive patch, vaginal ring) should be avoided in women with specific medical conditions because of the increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with estrogen use. Whether women with category 3 (theoretical or proven risk usually outweigh the advantages) or category 4 (unacceptable health risk) contraindications are appropriately avoiding estrogen-containing combined hormonal contraceptives is unknown. We describe the prevalence of combined hormonal contraceptive use among a sample of reproductive-age women with medical contraindications to estrogen use. Our hypothesis was that women with categories 3 and 4 contraindications would use estrogen-containing contraception less often than women without medical contraindications. We also explored whether inappropriate estrogen-containing contraceptive use is related to contraceptive provider characteristics. Data are from the baseline survey of the MyNewOptions study, which included privately insured women residing in Pennsylvania aged 18-40 years, who were sexually active and not intending pregnancy in the next year. Women were surveyed about their medical conditions, contraceptive use, and characteristics of their contraceptive provider. Women were considered to have a contraindication to combined hormonal contraceptives if they reported a category 3 or category 4 contraindication: hypertension, smokers older than age 35 years, a history of venous thromboembolism, diabetes with complications, coronary artery disease, systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid antibodies, breast cancer, or migraine headaches with aura. χ(2) tests for general association were used to compare combined hormonal contraceptives use, contraceptive health provider characteristics, and sociodemographic data in women with and without

  3. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  4. Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Stephen A; Fagbamigbe, Francis A; Okareh, Titus O; Lawal, Ganiyu O

    2012-12-01

    Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women aged 15-49 (N = 24,986) was used. Chi-square, OLS regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. The mean AFM was 17.8 +/- 4.8 years and significant difference existed between the mean AFM of women in the North (16.0 +/- 3.6) and South (20.4 +/- 5.0) (p marriage (p marriage was more common in all the regions in the North than the South and the hazard was highest in the North West and North East. Women who reside in rural area (H.R = 1.15; C.I = 1.11-1.18) married early than their counterparts in the urban area. Age at first marriage was directly related to levels of education (p marriage more common in the North than the South. Education has influence on AFM; therefore, women should have at least secondary education before marriage in Nigeria.

  5. Middle-aged women's preferred theory-based features in mobile physical activity applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA). Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred. Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application. Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middle-aged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.

  6. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, modified Kupperman Index (KI, and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ≥7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2% were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64% women were postmenopausal and 88 (36% were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001 compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems.

  7. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (ptelomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  8. Does aging increase vitamin D serum level in healthy postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Asadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is the most under-diagnosed medical condition in postmenopausal women. There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in postmenopausal women living in Tehran, capital of Iran. In this cross sectional study, 110 women were selected via convenience sampling method from menopause clinic of Tehran Women General Hospital between 2011 and 2012. For each woman, a questionnaire was completed, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by chemiluminescence's immunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency has been considered as a 25(OHD of less than 20ng/ml. Vitamin D insufficiency has been defined as a 25(OHD of 21-29ng/ml, and sufficiency as a 25(OHD of 30-100ng/ml. The data was analyzed by using Pearson correlation test in SPSS version 16. The mean age of women was 52.67±5 years. The mean age at natural menopause onset was 47.66±4.44 years, and the median menopause age was 49.00. The median 25(OHD level was 19.28 (Inter Quartile Range=26.08. We found vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency 52.7% and17.3% respectively. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were significantly correlated with age(r=0.21, P=0.024. These findings indicate that 25(OHD level in postmenopausal women from Tehran is low. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between vitamin D concentration and age in late postmenopausal period.

  9. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  10. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population.

  11. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  12. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    .1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20...... turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.......PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14...

  13. Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement.

  14. Laterality and age-level differences between young women and elderly women in controlled force exertion (CFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Demura, Shinichi; Kawabata, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine laterality and age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE using women as subjects. The subjects were 50 young women (mean age 20.9±1.9 years) and 50 elderly women (mean age 72.9±6.6 years). The maximal handgrip strength was measured twice with a 1-min interval, and the larger value was used in this study. In the CFE test, the subjects matched their submaximal grip strengths to the demand values changing at a constant frequency (range=5-25% of the maximal grip strength). The CFE test was performed twice after one practice trial (one trial was 40s). The sum of the percent of differences between the demand value and the grip exertion value was used as an estimate of CFE. CFE was estimated using a mean from two trials, excluding the first 15s of each trial. The elderly were significantly inferior in maximal handgrip strength of the dominant and non-dominant hands to young adults (about 70%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior to the dominant hand. The elderly were significantly inferior in CFE of both hands to young adults (about 50%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior. In conclusion, the age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE are found in the dominant and non-dominant hands, and laterality is also found in both young adults and the elderly. The CFE relating closely to nerve function may have a larger age-level difference than maximal handgrip strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in fertile age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Andrea; Centini, Gabriele; Lazzeri, Lucia; Zupi, Errico

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common gynecological disease and represents one of the most frequent reasons for hospital admission to a specialist unit, often requiring further surgical treatment. Following the so-called PALM-COEIN system we will attempt to further clarify the surgical treatments available today. The first group (PALM) is characterized by structural lesions, which may be more appropriately treated by means of surgical management. Although hysterectomy remains the definitive and decisive choice, there are many alternative techniques available. These minimally invasive procedures offer the opportunity for a more conservative approach. Precise and accurate counseling facilitates better patient selection, based on the patient's desires, age and disease type, allowing treatment to be individually tailored to each woman.

  16. Association between delivery at an advanced maternal age and osteoporosis in elderly Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eunju; Lee, Jungkwon; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Kim, Bo Ha

    2015-11-01

    Although several reproductive factors have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women, few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of delivery at a high-risk maternal age on BMD. Using nationally representative survey data collected from 736 women aged 65 years or older, we evaluated the relationship between delivery during adolescence or at an age of 35 years or older and osteoporosis in elderly women. Data regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle risk factors, reproductive history, and history of osteoporosis and fracture were collected by administration of self-report questionnaires. Anthropometric data and BMD were measured in accordance with standardized guidelines. Independent determinants of BMD were identified by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, and the resulting model was used to evaluate the risk of osteoporosis according to delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age. Of the 736 subjects, 426 (60.1 %) were found to have osteoporosis (T score ≤ -2.5), and 19.2 and 38.9 % reported delivery during adolescence and at an advanced age, respectively. The incidence of delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age was significantly higher in subjects with osteoporosis than in those without osteoporosis. After adjustment for covariates, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that elderly women with a history of delivery at an advanced maternal age are at an increased (2.164-fold greater) risk of osteoporosis (95 % confidence interval 1.109-4.223) compared with elderly women without a history of delivery at an advanced age. However, a history of delivery during adolescence did not affect the risk.

  17. Women's anxiety in old age and long-term care provision for the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota M

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the differences in women's anxiety in old age, the expected long-term care provision, and the expected final location for terminal care for the women themselves and for their parents. In addition, we examined factors that related to their anxiety and needs. The subjects were 1,000 women of the Seikatsu Club customer cooperative association in Chiba; 539 responded to our survey. The subjects were more anxious for their parents than for themselves. They more strongly expected long-term care for their parents to be provided by their family than they expected the same for themselves. Although no differences were observed in the expected location for terminal care, most subjects expected their home to be the terminal location. Analysis by the multiple logistic regression model indicated that the following factors were significantly related to the anxiety in old age: age odds ratio [OR = 1.81], employment [OR = 2.25] for women, and planning to live with parents [OR = 2.42], housing conditions [OR = 0.56] for parents. The following factors were significantly related to the expected long-term care provision: age [OR = 2.22] for women, and age [OR = 2.15], living with parents [OR = 3.58], and employment [OR = 2.33] for parents. Age [OR = 2.14] for women, and planning to live with parents [OR = 2.09] for parents were significantly related to the expected final location of terminal care. This survey showed that women expected long-term care for their parents to be provided by their family, while many expected public long-term care services for themselves. This is the biggest difference in women's outlook on long-term care for their parents and for themselves. Multivariate analysis suggested that women aged 40 years or over, who will need long-term care in the future, tended to expect public home care services for themselves. It is virtually certain that the demand for public home care services will increase in the

  18. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women.

  19. Dental insurance and dental service use by U.S. women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2011-01-01

    Oral health has a significant effect on health, and for women, poor oral health can lead to poor birth outcomes and can affect their child's health. Nursing interventions to improve the oral health of at-risk women have the potential to increase maternal and child systemic and oral health. The identification of women at a high risk for poor oral health is a necessary to develop and evaluate these interventions. This study examined the factors related to dental insurance and dental service use for women of childbearing age in the United States. A secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was completed to examine the predisposing, enabling, and need variables associated with dental insurance status and dental service use in a representative random sample of 1,071 women. The results showed that over 40% of women had no dental insurance. Women with less education, lower income, and dental need were significantly less likely to have dental insurance. Dental utilization by the uninsured was low and a racial/ethnic disparity was noted. A lack of dental insurance and dental service utilization is a significant concern. Nurses working with low-income women should educate the population about oral health and advocate for policies to increase dental insurance coverage. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency among non-pregnant Jordanian women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, E K; Khatib, I M D; Aburto, N J; Sullivan, K M; Scanlon, K S; Wirth, J P; Serdula, M K

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, a risk factor for osteomalacia and osteoporosis, is a re-emerging health problem globally. While sunlight is an important vitamin D source, previous investigations among women whose culture encourages skin covering have been small, not nationally representative, or both. We investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D(3)) status and factors associated with deficiency in a nationally representative survey of 2013 Jordanian women of reproductive age in Spring 2010. We measured 25(OH)D(3) concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and calculated prevalence ratios for deficiency associated with skin covering and other factors. Results showed 60.3% (95% CI: 57.1-63.4%) deficiency (education, prevalence of deficiency was 1.30 times higher for urban women of the same education level (95% CI: 1.08-1.57, P = 0.006), 1.18 times higher for urban women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.98-1.43, P = 0.09), and 0.66 times lower for rural women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.52-0.84, P = 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency pose significant public health problems in Jordanian women. Prevalence of deficiency is significantly higher among urban women and among women who cover with a scarf/hijab or niqab.

  1. Does age affect visualization of the levator ani in nulliparous women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Shobeiri, S Abbas; White, Dena; Wild, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Our aim was to assess whether differences in the ages of nulliparous women affect: (1) interobserver reliability, and (2) visualization of the levator ani (LA) muscle subdivisions in nulliparous women using 3D endovaginal ultrasound (3D-EVUS). This was a cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling nulliparous women ages 21-70 years were recruited. Participants underwent a standard examination and a 3D-EVUS. LA subdivisions of interest included the puboperinealis, puboanalis, pubococcygeus, puborectalis, and ileococcygeus muscles. Each ultrasound (US) volume was scored using a validated scale and assessed by two observers. Defect severity was scored for each muscle from 0 (no defect) to 6 (complete muscle loss). A summed score of the two sides was grouped as normal (0), minor (1-3), or major (4-6). Bias was examined using Bland-Altman plots. Intraclass coefficients were calculated to report agreement of total scores. Spearman's rank correlation was used to evaluate the association between age and LA scores. Eighty nulliparous women were evaluated. Exact agreement for bilateral scoring of each LA subdivision ranged from 82 % to 84 %. Bilateral scoring of the puboperinealis, puborectalis, and ileococcygeus showed moderate to substantial agreement. Bilateral scores of the puboperinealis demonstrated substantial agreement between observers, with an ICC of 0.8 and a mean difference of -0.2 using the Bland-Altman analysis. When women were analyzed by age decade, reader agreement was overall good to excellent. There was no significant correlation between increasing age and total LA muscle scores (r = 0.179, p = 0.113). Interobserver reliability or visualization of the LA muscle in nulliparous women was not affected by a woman's age.

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening between 35–40 Aged Women at Kisecik Region of Hatay Provinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Nazlican

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Cervical cancer is the most frequently seen genital system cancer in women after endometrium adenocarcinoma. Because cervical is an easy reach organ, early diagnosis can be done due to Papanicolau (Pap smear in the cancer cases of this organ and prognosis ameliorates considerably. In this ailment there are two peaks. The first one is around the ages 35-39, the second one is around the ages 60-64. The aim of the study is to scan cervical cancer among the women between the ages of 35-40 in the district of Kisecik health office. METHOD: This study is a definitional, society based sectional study performed among the women between the ages of 35- 40 in the district of Kisecik in Hatay. 187 women between the ages of 35- 40 were enrolled to the study; 10 out of 187 women who were single were not included to the study. The study was completed after enrolling 150 women out of 177. Cervical smear samples were taken from the participants; and these samples were evaluated in a pathology laboratory according to the Bethesda 2001 scale. RESULTS: The avarage age of the participants was 37.55±1.77. After the evaluation of the cervical smears in the pathology laboratory, the results were normal for 73 participants (%48.7. 36 participants (%24.0 had non specific inflamation, 20 participants (%13.3 had bacterial vaginosis, 19 participants (%12.7 had seconder reactive changes to the inflamation and 2 participants (%1.3 was reported to be ASC-US. CONCLUSION: By the help of cheap and easily applied Pap smear test, society based scanning programmes can be performed frequently and thus; servical lesions may be detected in early phases. Furthermore through education, the level of information about cervical cancer should be raised and consciousness should be created. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 471-474

  3. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

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    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  4. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

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    Akter Shamima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (13 years was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30. Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend P for trend = 0.01, but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02. However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions.

  5. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  6. Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p = 0.027), menopausal status (p = 0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p = 0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p = 0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p = 0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p = 0.016) or night cream (p = 0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations. PMID:21179450

  7. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial age in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Mayes

    Full Text Available Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with 'looking young for one's age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25-70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001, fewer household members (p=0.027, menopausal status (p=0.020, frequency of visiting one's doctor (p=0.013, working indoors (p<0.001, spending less time in the sun (p=0.015, moderate levels of physical activity (p=0.004, higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001 and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001; moisturiser (p=0.016 or night cream (p=0.016. Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

  8. Functional abilities in aging women with Rett syndrome - the Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Stahlhut, Michelle; Larsen, Jane Lunding

    2017-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which mainly affects females and results in multiple disabilities. Many clinical descriptions of the symptoms and functional abilities have been made medically, though mainly in children with RTT. Previous reports have established that even...... of aging women with RTT can grab on to things - persons with hand function should be motivated to use this ability in the context of eating Communication is a difficult task especially for the aging RTT women - Communicative signs, their meaning and how to react to them should be written down for every...

  9. Effects of a water aerobics program on the body composition of active middle-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Juan José; Clemente, Christian; Grager, Asunción; Olcina, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe and analyze changes in body composition of middle-aged women after participating in a water aerobics physical activity program and a subsequent detraining period. Materials and Methods: The group analyzed consisted of 17 women from Arroyo de San Serván (Badajoz), who were physically active (had participated in fitness gymnastics programs one to three sessions per week for the past three months), with an average age of 53.6 ± 9.1 years. The program was comprised of sixty mi...

  10. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran

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    Mitra Tadayon Najafabady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orgasmic dysfunction in women is characterized by persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Research has shown that almost two thirds of women have concerns about their sexual relationship. Sexual dysfunction has many problems for couples; some researchers found that up to 67% of divorces related to sexual disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and related factors of anorgasmia among reproductive age Iranian women. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2006-7 in Hesarak, Karaj, Iran. A total of 1200 women were randomly recruited to the study. Sexual satisfaction questions were prepared according to the Enrich Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. Orgasms were assessed according to the relevant questions in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11; Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, was 26.3%. There was a significant difference between the anorgasmic and normal orgasm groups regarding the women's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage and education during puberty (p<0.05. Some psychological factors, e.g. anxiety, fatigue, pain, feeling of guilt, anti-masculine feelings and embarrassment in sexual relationships were higher in the anorgasmic group (p<0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia in Hesarak is high and most of the anorgasmic women were highly unsatisfied with their sexual relationship compared to the normal orgasm group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, is high and some socio-demographic and psychological factors have a strong relationship with anorgasmia.

  11. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  12. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

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    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  13. Dynamics of hormonal status in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

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    Murzabaeva R.Т.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hormonal parameters in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Materials and methods: We have studied the content of cortisol, thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyro-nine (T3, free thyroxin (FT4, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin in blood serum of 62 women with moderate (33 and severe (29 HFRS forms age (17-62. They were divided into 2 groups: the first group (33 patients women with the normal menstrual cycle, the second group (29 women consisted of patients in climacteric period. Results: TTH secretion increase, T3 and FT4 — decrease with their normalization to the recovery period were registered in the thyroid system of the compared groups. Blood cortisol level was high during the illness. Gonadotropic hypophysis function study demonstrated that LH and blood prolactin concentrations were increased since oliguria period; FSH was authentic reduced. The indices of these hormones were restored to the normal level by the reconvalescence period. LH and FSH contents were authentic higher in women of the second group in comparison with the first group. The hyperprolactinemia was observed in both women groups during the whole period of disease. The increased progesterone and testosterone concentrations have been manifested in blood serum. The estradiol concentration had different direction tendencies. Conclusion: Thus, the complex study of hypophysic- thyreoid and gonadotropic hormone state of adrenal system and the sexual hormone levels in women of different age groups in HFRS revealed the hormone status indces changes due to the period and severity of the disease, connected with the virus action, intoxication, the general inflammation reactions and their age.

  14. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  15. The young and the restless? Age as a moderator of the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle Richard; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-01-01

    The authors aimed to assess the degree to which age moderates the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women. The authors combined 4 independent data sets that yielded a total sample of 771 women (M age = 27.76, SD age = 9.64) who had completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women and the Female Sexual Function Index. Desire interacted with age quadratically in predicting personal and relational sexual distress such that desire was more strongly associated with distress for younger women as compared with middle-aged and older women. Age is an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Os 22 anos da Horticultura Brasileira: a revista chega a maioridade Twenty-two years: Horticultura Brasileira reaches the adult age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A gênese e o crescimento de uma revista científica são eventos interessantes para serem observados e estudados. A revista Horticultura Brasileira, veículo de divulgação científica da Sociedade de Olericultura do Brasil (SOB, publicou seu primeiro fascículo em 1983 e, em 2004, completa 22 anos de publicação ininterrupta. A revista sucedeu uma publicação anterior da SOB, a 'Olericultura' (posteriormente renomeada 'Revista de Olericultura', publicada entre 1961 e 1980, que era anual e continha artigos completos e resumos de trabalhos apresentados nas reuniões anuais e congressos da SOB. A Horticultura Brasileira (HB foi criada para publicar artigos de pesquisa originais na área de horticultura por meio do sistema de avaliação de manuscritos por uma comissão editorial e revisores ad hoc (peer review. À época de sua criação, a revista era semestral, com um novo formato (28 x 20,5 cm e com capa colorida diferente para cada fascículo e uma diagramação gráfica moderna. A revista é dividida em seções de modo a abranger todos os segmentos representados pela Sociedade, como produtores, extensionistas, pesquisadores, professores e estudantes. Em seus 22 anos, a revista atingiu um total de 1.083 artigos em 5.207 páginas, sendo 24 cartas ao editor, 37 artigos convidados, 561 artigos na seção 'Pesquisa', 133 na 'Página do Horticultor', 101 em 'Insumos e Cultivares em Teste', 31 em 'Economia e Extensão Rural', 43 em 'Nova Cultivar' e 153 na seção 'Nota', extinta em 1996. O número médio de artigos passou a ser de 34,6 artigos/ano no período 1983-95, aumentou para 47,3 artigos/ano no período 1996-2001 e de 116,3 artigos/ano de 2002-2004. Atualmente, a HB é publicada trimestralmente e conta com 30 editores de diferentes áreas e instituições e se consolidou como o principal periódico em hortaliças no Brasil. Seus desafios atuais são o aumento dos custos de publicação e o aprimoramento constante dos processos.The genesis and growth of a scientific journal are unique events to be observed and studied. Horticultura Brasileira (HB is the official journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, and in 2004 the journal accomplishes 22 years of uninterrupted publishing since the release of its first issue in 1983. The journal succeeded 'Olericultura' (later 'Revista de Olericultura', the previous annual journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, published between 1961 and 1980, which presented abstracts and full papers of the annual meetings. Back to 1983, HB was a semestrally journal, created to publish original research papers of horticultural sciences, with an editorial board of four members and the peer review system, all new for the Society members. HB differed from the previous journal by its new format (28 cm x 20.5 cm, the colorful cover changed at each issue and the modern graphic design. HB was divided in distinct sections to include all segments of the Society, such as vegetable growers, rural extensionists, researchers, professors and students. During the last 22 years, HB published a total of 1,083 papers in 5,207 pages, divided in different sections: 'Letters to the Editor', 24 articles; 'Invited Articles', 37; 'Research', 561; 'Grower's Page', 133; 'Pesticides and Fertilizers in Test', 131; 'Economy and Rural Extension', 31; 'New Cultivar', 43; 'Note', 153 (this last section was abolished in 1996. During the 1983-1995 period, the journal published 34.6 articles/year, 47.3 articles/year during 1996-2001 and 116.3 articles/year from 2002 to 2004. Presently, HB is quarterly issued and has an editorial board of 30 editors of different research areas and institutions. The challenges faced by HB today are the raise of publication costs and the constant improvement of the publishing processes.

  17. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

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    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  18. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  19. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  20. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk of hypertension related to road traffic noise among reproductive-age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Bendokiene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic noise exposure is associated with adverse pathophysiological effects, which may contribute to the progression of hypertension. However, evidence supporting its effect on women is still inconsistent. The aim of the study was to examine the hypertension risk related to road traffic noise in residential settings in an urban community amongst reproductive-aged women. Cross-sectional study data including 3,121 pregnant women, 20-45 years old, and a geographic information system (GIS to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr for every subject at the current residential address were used. Effects on physician-diagnosed hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustments for age, social status, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, ethnic group, parity, body mass index, chronic disease, and exposure duration. The prevalence of hypertension amongst women aged 20-45 years in the lowest exposure category was 13.1% in comparison to 13.6% and 18.1% amongst those exposed to the medium and the highest exposure category, respectively. After making adjustments for the selected variables, no exposure effects [Odds ratio (OR ≈ 1.0] were noted in the medium exposure category [51-60 dB(A]. However, a slight increase was noted in the highest exposure category [≥61 dB(A, OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.86-2.15]. The effect was more pronounced amongst women aged 30-45 years and a positive exposure-response relation was indicated for hypertension: An effect was seen at noise levels 51-60 dB(A (OR = 1.03; 95% CI 0.72-1.49 and at >61 dB(A (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.01-3.72. The present study shows some evidence for an association between the residential road traffic noise and hypertension amongst reproductive-aged women, and an exposure-response relationship.

  2. Knowledge and use of folic acid in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Kelly R S; Fehr, Kelsey D H; Protudjer, Jennifer Lisa Penner

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. As approximately 50% of pregnancies are unintended, women of reproductive age should be aware of the importance of folic acid. We reviewed the existing literature on these women's knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects. Databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, and Health Reference Center Academic. We used terms such as "folic acid knowledge" and "folic acid awareness" to search articles published from 1998 to 2010. Awareness of the benefits of folic acid before conception and during pregnancy was low, although knowledge levels were associated with education and household income. Women who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals, magazines and newspapers, and radio and television as common sources of information. Effective knowledge translation is needed to ensure that women are informed about the benefits of folic acid during the reproductive years. This knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about folic acid consumption. Health care professionals play an influential role in promoting folic acid knowledge among women of childbearing age. Lower levels of knowledge among women with lower levels of education and/or household income must be addressed.

  3. Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition.

  4. Links Between Education and Age at Marriage among Palestinian Women in Israel: Changes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  5. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  6. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests.

  7. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  8. Hypertension in Reproductive-Aged Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Association With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joham, Anju E; Boyle, Jacqueline A; Zoungas, Sophia; Teede, Helena J

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder with metabolic complications, yet the prevalence of hypertension is unclear. We aim to assess hypertension prevalence and the impact of obesity in women reporting PCOS compared to those not reporting PCOS. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a large longitudinal study, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Women from the general community were randomly selected from the national health insurance database. Standardized data collection occurred at 6 survey time points. Data from Survey 4 in 2006 (n = 8,612, age: 28-33 years) were examined for this study. The main outcome measures studied were self-reported PCOS and hypertension. Reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.3%-6.4%). Women with PCOS had higher body mass index (BMI). Hypertension prevalence was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.3-7.7) in women reporting PCOS and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.6-2.3) in women not reporting PCOS (P < 0.001). Hypertension was associated with BMI (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10, P < 0.001) with a trend towards an association with PCOS (P = 0.09). On subgroup analysis, hypertension was not associated with BMI in women reporting PCOS but was associated in those not reporting PCOS. In this large community-based cohort, we note increased prevalence of hypertension and higher BMI in young women reporting PCOS. BMI association with hypertension appeared clear in women not reporting PCOS. Yet in women with PCOS, hypertension appeared to not be associated with BMI, akin to observations on diabetes risk in PCOS, suggesting that metabolic abnormalities in PCOS may be independent of BMI. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Age of smoking initiation and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine the association between time of smoking initiation and both the independent and joint effects of active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women. Methods Data from two large population-based case-control studies conducted among Ontario women aged 25–75 years were combined for analysis (n = 12,768. Results Women who had ever smoked and were exposed to passive smoke had a significant increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01–1.25. A significant increased risk was also observed among women who initiated smoking: at age 26 or older (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.03–1.55; more than five years from menarche (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.12–1.42; and, after their first live birth (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.02–1.52. Conclusion The results suggest that women who initiate smoking at an older age are at an increased risk of breast cancer.

  10. Prevalence of hormone replacement therapy in a sample of middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Jeune, B

    1988-01-01

    A survey based on a postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of Danish women aged 40-59 yr living on the island of Fünen (n = 401, response rate = 79%) revealed that the overall prevalence of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was 16%, the highest rate being in the 50-54 age group (21......%). Among post-menopausal women the rate was 21% and it was highest of all (37%) in those who had undergone an artificial menopause. The median age at the start of treatment was 44.3 yr among the artificial menopause and 48.9 yr among the natural menopause subjects. About half of the women were treated...... with natural oestrogen alone and over a third with cyclic natural oestrogen in combination with progestogens. Almost one-third of the women had consulted their doctor about climacteric complaints and two-thirds of these were current or past users of HRT. The women had ambiguous feelings towards HRT...

  11. Prevention of congenital Chagas disease by Benznidazole treatment in reproductive-age women. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masliak I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  13. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The results increase our knowledge of the factors related to physical activity participation among middle-aged women and

  14. A systematic review of the nutritional status of women of a childbearing age with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Helen; Dhillon, Manpreet; Howard, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of pregnant women with severe mental illness. We therefore carried out a systematic review to investigate whether pregnant women and childbearing aged women with severe mental illness have significantly greater nutritional deficiencies compared with pregnant women and childbearing aged women with no mental illness. We carried out a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from January 1980 to January 2011 for studies on nutritional status of childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Identification of papers and quality rating of papers (using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was carried out by two reviewers independently. We identified and screened 4,130 potentially relevant studies from the electronic databases. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 587 women). There were no studies of pregnant women. There was some evidence of low serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels and elevated homocysteine levels in childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Further research into the nutritional status of childbearing aged women with severe mental illness is needed. Maternal nutrition has a profound impact on foetal outcome, is a modifiable risk factor and therefore needs prioritising in the care of all childbearing aged women with severe mental illness.

  15. Domestic violence among ever married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhik; Mallik, Sarmila; Sanyal, Debasish; Dasgupta, Samir; Pal, Dipak; Mukherjee, Anindya

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence has serious impact on women's health and well-being. A nationwide survey conducted in India observed that 37.2% of women experienced violence after marriage. To assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the ever married women in reproductive age group and to find out the types of domestic violence and factors associated with it. The study was a community based cross-sectional study, conducted in a slum area of Kolkata. Overall prevalence of domestic violence was 54%, of which 41.9% suffered from both current and lifetime physical and psychological violence. Presence of property, higher per capita income and social support were protective factors against domestic violence, whereas alcohol addiction and multiple sex partners were the important contributory factors for it. The study recommended more social support, awareness and income generation for women in the slum areas.

  16. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  17. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  18. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.

  19. Married with children: predictors of mental and physical health in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, E J

    1991-08-01

    The relationship between current mental and physical health and history of education, marriage, child-rearing and employment was studied in 541 women aged 42-50. Participants, recruited from the community for a longitudinal study of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, were all premenopausal and free from major diagnosed physical or mental disorder. Physical health measures included weight, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and current physical symptoms. Self-report psychological measures included depression, anxiety, anger, stress, and coping. Women who were mothers and still in their first marriage ("married with children") were somewhat healthier and happier than others. However, women with only a high school education, even when "married with children," were at a fourfold risk of depression compared with college-educated women, unless they were in paid employment, in which case their risk was not increased. Employment did not affect the risk of depression for college-educated women who were "married with children." Among other women, lack of paid employment more than doubled the risk of depression, whatever the educational level. Among the measures of physical health, the only significant finding was a high rate of smoking among high-school-educated women not in traditional marriages. Possible pathways linking education, marital history and current mental health are discussed.

  20. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  1. Intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health care centre in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilika, Amobi L; Okonkwo, Prosper I; Adogu, Prosper

    2002-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a primary health care (PHC) centre. Over 40% had experienced violence within the last 12 months. Type of marriage and partner's education had effect on violence. Perceived reasons for violence were economic demand (56.1%), reproductive issues (42.5%), alcohol and drugs (61.2%). Forty eight per cent reported to family members. Only 1% reported to the Police. Intimate partner violence is a prevalent public health problem in eastern Nigeria. Health workers and social organisations should recognise the problem and offer necessary support, and women should be empowered to navigate through the problem.

  2. Gestational age-specific reference ranges from different laboratories misclassify pregnant women's thyroid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Boas, Malene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Correct interpretation of thyroid status during pregnancy is vital to secure fetal development. Pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status necessitate the use of gestational age-specific reference ranges. In this study, we investigated between-laboratory reproducibility...... of thyroid reference ranges in pregnant women. DESIGN: Comparison of two longitudinal prospective cohort studies including 255 (cohort 1) and 101 (cohort 2) healthy antibody-negative Danish pregnant women attending prenatal care at Copenhagen University Hospital. METHODS: Different immunoassays were used...... region, the use of gestational-age-specific reference ranges from different laboratories led to misclassification. Up to 100% of maternal FT4 levels fell outside the other cohort's reference range despite similar TSH levels. In clinical practice, thyroid testing of pregnant women without adding method...

  3. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in women aged 20-54 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, J; Rookus, M A; van der Kooy, K; van Leeuwen, F E

    2000-01-19

    Although several studies have suggested that physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, such a decrease has not been found consistently, perhaps because physical activity was assessed in different ways and for restricted periods. Few studies have assessed the risk of breast cancer in relation to lifetime physical activity. We used data from a population-based, case-control study, including 918 case subjects (aged 20-54 years) and 918 age-matched population control subjects, to examine associations between breast cancer risk and physical activity at ages 10-12 years and 13-15 years, lifetime recreational activity, and title of longest held job. Women who were more active than their peers at ages 10-12 years had a lower risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49-0.94). Women who had ever engaged in recreational physical activity had a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with inactive women (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Neither very early recreational activity (before age 20 years) nor recent activity (last 5 years) was associated with a greater reduction in risk than recreational activity in the intermediate period. Furthermore, women who started recreational activities after age 20 years and women who started earlier and continued their activities throughout adult life experienced a similar reduction in risk. Lean women, i.e., women with a body mass index (weight in kg/[height in m](2)) less than 21. 8 kg/m(2), appeared to have a lower risk associated with recreational physical activity than women with a body mass index greater than 24.5 kg/m(2) (OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.40-0.82] and OR = 0. 92 [95% CI = 0.65-1.29], respectively). Our findings support the hypothesis that recreational physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. Physical activity in early or recent life does not appear to be associated with additional beneficial effects.

  4. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  5. Association between triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Huerín, Melina

    2016-01-01

    The triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio, as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, may be associated to presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to explore this association. Women (last menstrual period≥2 years) in primary prevention up to 65 years of age were recruited. Association between the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and presence of carotid plaque, assessed by ultrasonography, was analyzed. ROC analysis was performed, determining the precision of this ratio to detect carotid plaque. A total of 332 women (age 57±5 years) were recruited. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio was 2.35±1.6. Prevalence of carotid plaque was 29%. Women with carotid plaque had higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios (3.33±1.96 vs. 2.1±1.2, P<.001) than women with no carotid plaque. A positive relationship was seen between quintiles of this ratio and prevalence of carotid plaque (p<.001). Regardless of other risk factors, women with higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios were more likely to have carotid plaque (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.20-1.79, P<.001). The area under the curve of the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio to detect carotid plaque was .71 (95% confidence interval .65 to .76), and the optimal cut-off point was 2.04. In postmenopausal women in primary prevention, insulin resistance, estimated from the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, was independently associated to a greater probability of carotid plaque. A value of such ratio greater than 2 may be used for assessing cardiovascular risk in this particular group of women. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of computer technologies in physical education of women of the first mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tomilina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates with use of information technologies. Material & Methods: the experience of development and deployment of computer technologies in the process of physical education of women of mature age was systematized by means of the analysis of scientific and methodical and special literature and the best pedagogical and coach's practices, which is presented in mass media. The ways of application of computer programs were revealed, and the computer program ‘’Pilates’’ was developed by means of programming in the system Visual Basic. Results: the computer program ‘’Pilates’’, which consists of directory, settlement and recreational blocks, is offered for the purpose of improvement of the process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates and increase in their motivation to classes by physical exercises. Conclusions: it is revealed that application of the computer programs has the positive effect in practice of physical education of women of the first mature age. The computer program ‘’Pilates’’ is submitted.

  7. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Baccaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%, colorectal (12.7% and skin (12.7%. In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89. The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  8. Keeping up with the caravan of life: Successful aging strategies for Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Javadi-Pashaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of improving life expectancy in the world in recent times, the focus has shifted to the issue of the quality and nature of life and how to assist successful aging (SA rather than increasing physical survival and lifespan. SA is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore older women's strategies for SA in a specific context. Methods: Following a grounded theory design approach, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 21 women between the ages of 28 and 96 years. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using the grounded theory approach. Results: We identified four categories: prevention of threats, internal self-control against threats, coping with threats, and optimizing the passage of time according to opportunity. These described the strategies for SA when encountering with age-related changes. Utilizing these strategies, the women accompanied the caravan of life in the context of threats and opportunities. Conclusions: The findings suggest that SA is a continuous process in confronting changes related to age. The identified strategies can help to promote SA by familiarizing older women with the threats and opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies.

  9. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....

  10. Association between urogenital symptoms and depression in community-dwelling women aged 20 to 70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Carl Hulbert; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; de Leeuw, J. Rob J.; Heintz, A. Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the association between urogenital symptoms and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. METHODS A random sample of 3200 community-dwelling women, aged 20 to 70 years, was invited to answer a questionnaire. A total of 2042 questionnaires (63.8%) were returned. Urogenital sympto

  11. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  12. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva W; Petersen, Liljan F; Lindenskov, Annika; Weihe, Pál; Mortensen, Jann; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (± SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20). The training groups completed three sessions per week for 15 weeks. DXA scans were performed and resting blood samples were drawn pre- and post-intervention. In SOC, plasma osteocalcin, procollagen type I N propeptide and C-terminal telopeptide increased (P training with sedentary middle-aged women caused marked increases in bone turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.

  13. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  14. Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, T T; Meyer, H E; Willett, W C; Feskanich, D

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we followed postmenopausal women and men aged 50 and above for up to 32 years and found no evidence that higher protein intake increased the risk of hip fracture. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.

  15. Drinking pattern and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Jensen, Majken K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To address the prospective association between alcohol drinking pattern and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study conducted between 1993 and 2003. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 26 909 men and 29 626 women aged 55-65 years. MEASUREMENTS: We obtained risk...

  16. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  17. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  18. Kinetics of myo-inositol loading in women of reproductive age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Merkus, J.M.W.M.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Wevers, R.A.; Janssen, F.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myo-inositol plays a key role in an important intracellular signalling pathway. A deranged myo-inositol metabolism has been associated with neural tube defects. A myo-inositol loading test was performed to investigate the kinetics in healthy women of reproductive age. METHODS: Five healt

  19. Relationship of Selected Factors to Traditional-Age Undergraduate Women's Development of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the independent contribution of interpersonal relationships, parental attachment, and racial/ethnic identity to traditional-age undergraduate women's autonomy development, removing the effect of biographical correlates. Differences by race/ethnicity and by residence status in relationship to factors of autonomy are investigated.…

  20. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  1. Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; North, Rebecca J; Holahan, Carole K; Hayes, Rashelle B; Powers, Daniel A; Ockene, Judith K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of 2 types of social influence--general social support and living with a smoker--on smoking behavior among middle-aged and older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were postmenopausal women who reported smoking at some time in their lives (N=37,027), who were an average age of 63.3 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple logistic regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. In cross-sectional analyses, social support was associated with a lower likelihood and living with a smoker was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker and, among smokers, of being a heavier smoker. Moreover, in prospective analyses among baseline smokers, social support predicted a higher likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation 1-year later. Further, in prospective analyses among former smokers who were not smoking at baseline, social support predicted a lower likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a higher likelihood of smoking relapse 1-year later. Overall, the present results indicate that social influences are important correlates of smoking status, smoking level, smoking cessation, and smoking relapse among middle-aged and older women.

  2. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  3. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  4. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  5. Metabolic syndrome in women of childbearing age and pregnancy: recognition and management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Knopp, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    The obesity pandemic engenders the global threat of metabolic syndrome and its related disorders, including diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome on women of childbearing age, including pregnancy, with a discussion of lipid management. Treatment options will also be presented.

  6. Chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F; Northington, Gina M; Kaye, Elise M; Bogner, Hillary R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. One hundred forty-three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause, and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994, whereas 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among the women with surgical menopause, the women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than the women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years since menopause. Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

  7. Age at marriage is rising for Asian women and men, according to new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, A

    1992-09-01

    The social transformations in Asia are described: delayed age at marriage and the proportions marrying. Policy implications are ascertained. The norm for female age at marriage has risen from 15 years to 17-18 years in south Asia, and from 18 years to 24 years and older in east Asia. Men's marriage age has also risen but not as much. Concurrent changes have occurred with fertility declines and small family sizes and lower population growth, with changing roles for women, and with emergent youth subcultures and increased prevalence of premarital sexual behavior. The number of singles is rising and expected to continue to rise. Examples are given of marriage age changes for Nepal and Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Korea, and regional totals. Southeast Asian countries experienced less dramatic changes, and changes primarily in the 20-24 year old group (from 30% to 74% of single women). Change for men has been less regular and with less magnitude. In Southeast Asia, the rise in marriage age for men has risen only 1-2 years compared with women. East Asia patterns vary by country, i.e., South Korean increases of 6 years, Taiwanese increases of 4 years, and 2 years in Japan. Single males have been common in South and Southeast Asia, while in East Asia married male teens 25 years are rare. Marriage timing for men is not as closely associated as for women with social and cultural change. Downturns for men follow momentous, temporary disruptions such as happen during wars and periods of migration, while women's patterns are more reflective of structural change. The trend for never marrying is on the increase, particularly for men in Japan (1.1% in the 1920s to 18% in the early 1980s for men 50 years). Women not ever marrying are increasing in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hong Kong. Never marrying is common in urban or educated populations, i.e., Singapore, Thailand, and Philippines. The implications are a longer gap between successive generations and a shorter period of

  8. Contraceptive use and the role of contraceptive counseling in reproductive-aged women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Morse, Christopher B; Schanne, Allison; Loren, Alison; Domchek, Susan M; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-07-01

    Few data on contraceptive choices in women with cancer exist. Contraception is challenging for women with cancer, particularly those with breast cancer, who are limited to nonhormonal methods. This study characterized contraceptive use during cancer treatment in a group of reproductive-aged women with a recent cancer diagnosis and assessed the impact of contraceptive counseling on the methods they selected. Cross-sectional, survey study of reproductive-aged women at a large tertiary care health system with a recent cancer diagnosis. A total of 107 women completed the survey. Eighty-two women reported 101 contraceptive choices. Twenty-seven percent (27/101) of all methods selected were Tier I/II, and 35% (35/101) were Tier III/IV. Only 4 used an intrauterine device (IUD). Among women reporting sexual activity after diagnosis, 19 (27%) of 71 reported using Tier I/II methods, 21 (30%) of 71 reported using Tier III/IV methods, 16 (23%) of 71 reported abstinence and 10 (14%) of 71 reported using no method. Factors significantly associated with Tier I/II use in the multivariable model included not having a college degree [odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.92, p=.038], intercourse during treatment (OR 5.92, 95% CI 1.48-23.66, p=.012) and non-breast cancer (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.03-12.64, p=.046). Report of contraceptive counseling was positively associated with Tier I/II contraceptive use during cancer treatment (OR 6.92, 95% CI 1.14-42.11, p=.036). Reproductive-aged women diagnosed with cancer underutilized Tier I/II contraceptive agents, especially IUDs. Contraceptive counseling by physicians increases contraceptive use, particularly methods most effective at preventing pregnancy. The study uniquely described the contraceptive practices of over 100 women with cancer. The study sample commonly reported abstinence and use of contraceptive methods with high failure rates. Our data suggest that contraceptive counseling from a health care provider may

  9. Age at menopause and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyanurak, Pongrak; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Wilawan, Kittisak; Lueanyod, Aksorn; Thongpaeng, Parawee; Chatvong, Duangjai; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Saeloo, Siriporn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith

    2012-07-01

    There are limited data for age at menopause (AM) and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Asian women. We investigated AM and menopause-related symptoms in HIV-infected Thai women. HIV-infected Thai women 40 years or older who did not receive any hormone therapy in the 8-week period preceding the study were enrolled. Participants completed the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life survey for their symptoms in the past 30 days. Menopause was defined as having the last menstrual period more than 1 year ago. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with menopause. Two hundred sixty-eight HIV-infected women were enrolled; their median age was 44.6 (41.8-48.7) years, and the ratio of their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classifications (A:B:C) was 53%:34%:13%; 95% were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count was 575 (437-758) cells/μL, and 93% had HIV-RNA of less than 1.7log10 copies/mL. Among the 55 women who had reached menopause, the mean (SD) AM was 47.3 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) AM in our study was earlier than the previous report of 49.5 (3.6) years in non-HIV-infected Thai women (difference, -2.2 y; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.2, P menopause were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classification B or C (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.03, P = 0.04), and no sexual act in the past month (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0, P = 0.01). No associations of later age of menarche, parity, marital status, educational level, income, body mass index, CD4 count, and HIV-RNA with menopause were found. AM in HIV-infected Thai women was 47.3 years, which is significantly earlier than the findings of a previous AM report on non-HIV-infected women. Postmenopausal HIV-infected women had more vasomotor and sexual symptoms. More studies are needed to investigate the cause and appropriate interventions for

  10. Urodynamics in women from menopause to oldest age: what motive? what diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze age-associated changes as a motive for urodynamics and urodynamic diagnosis in community-dwelling menopausal women and to discuss the role of menopause and ageing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and forty nine consecutive menopausal women referred for urodynamic evaluation of lower urinary tract (LUT symptoms, met the inclusion criteria and were stratified into 3 age groups: 55-64 years (A, 65-74 years (B, and 75-93 years (C. Comprehensive assessment included previous medical history and clinical examination. Studied items were motive for urodynamics, results of uroflows (free flow and intubated flow and cystometry, urethral pressure profilometry, and final urodynamic diagnosis. RESULTS: The main motive was incontinence (66.3% with significant increase of mixed incontinence in group C (p = 0.028. Detrusor function significantly deteriorated in the oldest group, mainly in absence of neurological disease (overactivity p = 0.019; impaired contractility p = 0.028. In the entire population, underactivity predominated in group C (p = 0.0024. A progressive decrease of maximum urethral closure pressure occurred with ageing. In subjects with no detrusor overactivity there was a decrease with age of detrusor pressure at opening and at maximum flow, and of maximum flow while post void residual increased only in the C group. CONCLUSION: In our population of community-dwelling menopausal women, incontinence was the main motive for urodynamics increasing with ageing. A brisk change in LUT function of women older than 75 years underlined deterioration in bladder function with a high incidence of detrusor hyperactivity with or without impaired contractility while change in urethral function was progressive. Effect of ageing appears to be predominant compared to menopause.

  11. Depression and anxiety among middle-aged women: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders constitute a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease and are projected to form the second most common cause of disability by 2020. Objective: To assess the level of depression and anxiety among middle age women and the possible factors behind it. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 women aged 40-60 years were selected by proportionate sampling technique. Age, education, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at marriage, age at menopause, weight and height were noted. Zung-self-rating scales were used for calculating levels of depression and anxiety in these women. The data were analyzed by using statistical software SPSS. Results: The level of syndromal depression and anxiety was found to be 86.7% and 88.9%, respectively. Most of the subjects had the moderate type of depression (49.5% followed by mild (29.4% and severe depression (7.8%. While in case of anxiety, most of the subjects (69.4% had a mild form of anxiety and 17.8% had moderate anxiety level. A significant difference was observed in the level of depression with respect to marital status (P = 0.009 and in the level of anxiety with respect to age (P = 0.021 in the study subjects. On applying logistic regression, none of the factors studied were found to be significant variables for anxiety or depression in the study population. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among the middle-aged women in rural Punjab. Provision of mental health services in this group is essential.

  12. Biomarkers of aging in women and the rate of longitudinal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Linda Massako; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Moritani, Toshio; Nakamura, Eitaro

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to estimate biological age score (BAS) in Japanese healthy women based on the 4-7 years longitudinal data for physiological, hematological and biochemical examinations and (2) to examine the rate of aging changes in adult women based on the estimated BAS. The samples consisted of cross-sectional (n=981) and longitudinal (n=110) groups. Out of 31 variables examined, five variables (forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s, systolic blood pressure, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, glucose, albumin/globulin ratio) that met the following criteria: 1) significant cross-sectional correlation with age; 2) significant longitudinal change in the same direction as the cross-sectional correlation; and (3) assessment of redundancy, were selected as candidate biomarkers of aging. This variable set was then submitted into a principal component analysis, and the first principal component obtained from this analysis was used as an equation for assessing one's BAS. Individual BAS showed a high longitudinal stability of age-related changes, suggesting high predictive validity of our newly developed aging measurement equation. However, changes in the aging rate based on the estimated BAS were not constant. The mean slopes of the regression lines of BAS for the three age groups (agelongitudinal method used for selection of variables to compute the BAS was useful and theoretically valid compared to those obtained from cross-sectional data analysis.

  13. Seeking and processing information for health decisions among elderly Chinese Singaporean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha; Teo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Information behavior includes activities of active information seeking, passive acquisition of information, and information use. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study explored elderly Singaporean women's health information behavior to understand how they sought, evaluated, and used health information in everyday lives. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with elderly Chinese women aged 61 to 79. Qualitative analysis of the interview data yielded three meta-themes: information-seeking patterns, trustworthiness of health information, and peripheral route of decision making. Results revealed that elderly women took both systematic and heuristic approaches to processing information but relied on interpersonal networks to negotiate health choices.

  14. Knowledge on uterine prolapse among married women of reproductive age in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Binjwala Shrestha,1,2 Bhimsen Devkota,3,4 Badri Bahadur Khadka,5 Bishnu Choulagai,1,2 Durga Prasad Pahari,1 Sharad Onta,1 Max Petzold,6 Alexandra Krettek2,7 1Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Development Resource Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal; 4Institute of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 5National Health Education Information and Communication Centre, Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal; 6Akademistatistik – Centre for Applied Biostatistics, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 7Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden Background: Uterine prolapse (UP, which affects about 10% of women of reproductive age in Nepal, is the most frequently reported cause of poor health in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Currently, women's awareness of UP is unknown, and attempts to unravel the UP problem are inadequate. This study aims to assess UP knowledge among married reproductive women, and determine the association between UP knowledge and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression

  15. The experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age: an integrative review

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    Juliane Dias Aldrighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify in the literature how the experiences of women age 35 or above are described in terms of pregnancy. METHOD Integrative review based on MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, with no time period constraint. RESULTS Eighteen studies that dealt with the experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age were selected and analyzed. The studies evidenced four theme categories: the search for information, which pointed to a deficit of information supplied by health care professionals; perceiving the risks, which pointed to women's concerns about their own health and their children's; the ideal moment for motherhood, with different reasons for postponing it; and adjusting to a new routine, showing a concern regarding changes in daily life. CONCLUSION From the results, it was possible to understand that other factors, in addition to those that include risks, are present in the experiences of older pregnant women and point to a need to involve such aspects in nursing care to create comprehensive strategies that are aligned with these women's needs.

  16. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  18. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  19. Clinical and immunological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups

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    Kutdusova A.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and immunological features of the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups. Materials and methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 148 women aged 17 to 65 years old have been investigated. Patients have been divided into two groups: group I included 101 patients with normal menstrual rhythm, group II included 47 female patients with menopause. In 57 women (36 from group I, 21 — from group II the content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ — sub-populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been determined. Results: In compared groups significant differences in structure and frequency of complications of the disease have been revealed. Unidirectional tendency to increase significantly reduced absolute rates of investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in dynamics of the disease has been identified. It also has been stated that by the time of early convalescence in case of severe form of HFRS the indices did not reach the standard level. In an older group of women deeper damage and long-term recovery of immune system have been marked. Conclusion: According to the results of clinical and immunological studies the research work has revealed that in young women the response of the immune system to HFRS has developed faster and stronger than that in patients during the menopause period.

  20. The Influence of Clinical Experience and Photographic Presentation on Age Assessment of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported that a higher perceived age is associated with poor health and higher mortality. However, the method used for the assessment of perceived age differs between studies with regard to age, gender, the number and occupation of assessors as well...... as the presentation of participants. OBJECTIVE: It is not known whether the clinical experience of the assessor or photographic presentation have an influence on the assessment of perceived age, which the present study aimed to investigate. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years, 10...... consultants and 10 residents were asked to estimate the age of each participant using three different photographic presentations: facial photograph, whole-body photograph, and combined facial and whole-body photographs. Data were analyzed by means of summary statistics and linear mixed models. RESULTS...

  1. Effect of women's age on embryo morphology, cleavage rate and competence-A multicenter cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2017-01-01

    .0001) with increasing age. Maternal age had no effect on cleavage parameters or on the morphology of the embryo day 2 post insemination. Interestingly, initial hCG value after single embryo transfer followed by ongoing pregnancy was increased with age in both IVF (p = 0.007) and ICSI (p = 0.001) cycles. For the first...... time, we show that a woman's age does impose a significant footprint on early embryo morphological development (3PN). In addition, the developmentally competent embryos were associated with increased initial hCG values as the age of the women increased. Further studies are needed to elucidate......, if this increase in initial hCG value with advancing maternal age is connected to the embryo or the uterus....

  2. Factors that characterize bone health with aging in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kamimura, Mikio; Nonaka, Kiichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The exponential increase in the incidence of fragility fractures in older people is attributed to attenuation of both bone strength and neuromuscular function. Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) does not entirely explain this increase. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on various parameters related to bone health with aging, and to identify combinations of factors that collectively express the bone metabolic state in healthy postmenopausal women. Height, weight, and grip strength were measured in 135 healthy postmenopausal volunteer women. Hip BMD, biomechanical indices derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat of the proximal thigh, and various biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured. A smaller group of factors explanatory for bone health was identified using factor analysis and each was newly named. As a result, the factors bone mass, bone turnover, bone structure, and muscle strength had the greatest explanatory power for assessing the bone health of healthy postmenopausal women. Whereas dual X-ray absorptiometry parameters only loaded on the factor bone mass, QCT parameters loaded on both the factors bone mass and bone structure. Most bone turnover markers loaded on the factor bone turnover, but deoxypyridinoline loaded on both bone turnover and muscle strength. Age was negatively correlated with bone mass (r = -0.49, p aging is associated as much with muscle weakening as with low BMD. More attention should be paid to the effects of muscle weakening during aging in assessments of bone health.

  3. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  4. Successful Aging and Longevity in Older Old Women: The Role of Depression and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paulson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based in successful aging theory and terminal cognitive drop research, this paper investigates cerebrovascular burden (CVB, depressive symptoms, and cognitive decline as threats to longevity. A subsample of stroke-free women over the age of 80 was identified in the Health and Retirement Survey (years 2000–2008. Mortality at 2, 6, and 8 year intervals was predicted using CVB (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and cognitive decline (decline of 1 standard deviation or more on the 35-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status over 2 years. At most waves (2002, 2004, and 2006 mortality was predicted by CVB, depressive symptoms, and cognitive drop measured 2 years prior. CVB and depressive symptoms at the 2000 wave predicted mortality at 6 and 8 years. Older women with the greatest longevity had low CVB, robust cognitive functioning, and few depression symptoms, supporting successful aging theory and terminal cognitive drop.

  5. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed.

  6. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction.

  7. Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, R; Lawlor, D A; Black, S; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...

  8. Bayesian mapping of HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Niragire

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda.

  9. Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

    2011-10-26

    In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained.

  10. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiery Va

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality.We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009 and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009, two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09. Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13 and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86 in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88 and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54 mortality.Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  11. Association of Occupational & Prediabetes Statuses with Obesity in middle aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranita, A; Balsubramaniyan, B; Phadke, A V; Tambe, D B; Apte, G M; Kharche, J S; Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A R

    2013-07-01

    The association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity is very close. The prediabetes status i.e Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) reflects an intermediate condition between normality and diabetes. The socioeconomic position (SEP) is one of the non traditional determinants of type 2 DM. The occupational status, which is a good indicator of the socioeconomic status, also indicates the level and the type of stress that they are exposed to, as well as the individual lifestyle choices. The present work was planned to study the relationship of the prediabetic status with obesity and the occupational status by estimating the Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) levels. To study the association of the occupational status with the fasting blood glucose levels and obesity in middle aged women. The Fasting Blood Glucose levels and the BMI were estimated in 300 asymptomatic middle aged women who had no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.), who had been divided into the Control (I), the Pre - obese (IIa) and the Obese groups (IIb). The occupational status was broadly divided into the categories of housewives and service women. The results was analysed statistically by using the correlation coefficient and the 'z' test. The mean FBG levels in the pre - obese and the obese groups were higher than those in the control group. We found significant differences in the FBG levels in the normal weight, the pre - obese as well as in the obese groups among the service women, but no significant correlation was found in the pre - obese and the obese groups. Among the housewives, we found significant differences in the FBG levels of the normal weight and the obese groups, but not in the pre - obese group. Also, no significant correlation was found in the pre - obese and obese groups among the service women. The BMI may be good risk predictor for Type 2 D.M. irrespective of the occupational status, especially in middle aged women.

  12. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  13. Risk factors for urinary incontinence in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shao-Tung; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2007-11-01

    To determine risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over, face-to-face interviews with 1,517 women, selected by a multistage random method, were completed. The prevalence of UI in this age group was 29.8%. Factors and their prevalence associated with UI were age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04 per year], diabetes mellitus (39.8%, p = 0.002), hypertension (39.5%, p = 0.001), abdominal gynecological surgery (41.4%, p = 0.001), hysterectomy (42.4%, p = 0.003), history of drug allergy (41.3%, p = 0.001), smoking (45.5%, p = 0.010), hormone replacement therapy (41.5%, p = 0.026), and high body mass index (OR = 1.05 per unit). Alcohol consumption and marriage did not increase the risk of UI. UI is a common and costly problem in elderly women. It diminishes the quality of life of the affected women. Of the associated factors that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable, smoking, prior hysterectomy, and obesity may have the greatest impact on the prevalence of UI.

  14. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  15. Effect of Trospium Chloride on Cognitive Function in Women Aged 50 and Older: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Dumond, Julie B; Bowling, J Michael; Khandelwal, Christine M; Wu, Jennifer M; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel I

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of trospium chloride on cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated for overactive bladder (OAB). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2013 to April 2015. Women aged 50 years or older seeking treatment for OAB were randomized to either trospium chloride XR 60 mg daily or placebo. Baseline cognitive function was assessed via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Mini Mental Status Exam, Mini Mental Status X, Digit Span, Trails A, Trails B, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive function was reassessed at week 1 and week 4. A priori power analysis determined that 21 subjects were needed per group. Although 59 women were enrolled and randomized (28 trospium and 31 placebo), 45 completed assessment (21 trospium and 24 placebo). Mean age was 68 years, 78% were white, and 44% had previously taken OAB medication. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in HVLT-R total score between trospium and placebo groups at week 4 (P = 0.29). There were also no differences based on the other cognitive tests. There was a correlation between age and the following week-4 tests: HVLT-R total score (r = -0.3, P = 0.02), HVLT-R total recall subscale (r = -0.4, P = 0.007), Trails A (r = 0.4, P = 0.002), and Trails B (r = 0.4, P = 0.004). A linear regression model found that HVLT-R total score decreased by 0.372 points for each increased year of age. In women aged 50 years and older, there were no changes in cognitive function between those taking trospium and placebo. Cognitive function was correlated with age.

  16. Physical activity in middle-aged women and hip fracture risk: the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Bucht, G; Björnstig, U; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Pettersson, U

    2011-02-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we demonstrate that middle-aged women who were active with walking or in different physical spare time activities were at lower risk of later sustaining a hip fracture compared to more sedentary women. In middle-aged women participating in the Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study, we investigated whether physical activity is associated with a subsequent decreased risk of sustaining a hip fracture. The UFO study is a nested case-control study investigating associations between bone markers, lifestyle, and osteoporotic fractures. We identified 81 female hip fracture cases that had reported lifestyle data before they sustained their fracture. Each case was compared with two female controls who were identified from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total cohort of 237 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 5.0 years, and mean age at fracture was 65.4 ± 6.4 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, weight, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects who were regularly active with walking or had a moderate or high frequency of physical spare time activities (i.e. berry/mushroom picking and snow shovelling) were at reduced risk of sustaining a hip fracture (OR 0.14; 95% CI; 0.05-0.53 for walking and OR 0.19; 95% CI; 0.08-0.46, OR 0.17, 95% CI; 0.05-0.64 for moderate and high frequency of spare time activities, respectively) compared to more sedentary women. An active lifestyle in middle age seems to reduce the risk of future hip fracture. Possible mechanisms may include improved muscle strength, coordination, and balance resulting in a decreased risk of falling and perhaps also direct skeletal benefits.

  17. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  18. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Jamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32, medium (33-38, and positive (39-48. One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI 26.55. Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02, lubrication (p< 0.0001, orgasm (p= 0.002 and satisfaction (p= 0.002 were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on

  19. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  20. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  1. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.

  2. Validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodskou, Pernille M; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Obel, Erik B;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy.......To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy....

  3. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  4. Age-Specific Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Infertile Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Raeissi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH may indicate a woman’s diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. Results: There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group (fertile women decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone (LH levels were not consistent. Conclusion: We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women.

  5. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  6. Prevalence of insomnia and its relationship to menopausal status in middle-aged Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Lee, Sangyeol; Lee, Taewook; Shin, Kyungrim; Yi, Hyeryeon; Kimm, Kuchan; Cho, Namhan

    2005-08-01

    Although the prevalence of insomnia and the association of insomnia with menopause have been well reported, not much work has been conducted in population-based research on insomnia and menopause in Korea. The purpose of the present report was to determine overall and different prevalence of insomnia by menopausal status, and the relationship between insomnia and menopause in a population-based sample of middle-aged Korean women. A total of 96.1% of 2497 randomly selected middle-aged Korean women participated. Insomnia was defined as occurring three times a week or more in the previous month. Subjects were categorized into three groups: premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause. The overall prevalence of insomnia in middle-aged Korean women was 14.3%. The most common symptom of insomnia was difficulty maintaining sleep (9.7%), followed by difficulty initiating sleep (7.9%), and early morning awakening (7.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that menopause was independently associated with insomnia after adjusting for confounding factors such as age, income, and depression. Perimenopause was significantly associated with a dramatic increase in the risk of insomnia, but there was no significant association for postmenopause. The major finding is that insomnia is significantly associated with the menopausal transition. The prevalence of insomnia increases significantly by the transition from premenopause to perimenopause, but not to postmenopause. A further prospective study is needed to investigate the influence of menopause on insomnia.

  7. Lifestyle and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women: Chiba bone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. Patterns of anger expression among middle-aged Korean women: Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Mi; Kim, Geun Myun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of anger expression in middle-aged Korean women by categorizing their patterns of expression while considering the complexity and multidimensionality of anger, and by investigating the characteristics relative to the patterns. The research design was a descriptive design using Q methodology, which is a method of measuring subjectivity. A convenience sample of 42 participants aged 40-60 years and living in the community in Korea was recruited. The PC-QUANL software program (a factor analysis program for the Q technique) was used to analyze the Q-sort data. Four factors were extracted that described different expressions of anger among middle-aged Korean women; these factors explained 50.1% of the total variance. The frames of reference of the four factors were a) direct diversion, b) silent masking with remaining anger, c) self digestion, and d) controlling anger with objectification. In this study has identified patterns and characteristics of anger expression among middle-aged Korean women were identified, which will aid the development of effective anger-management programs for controlling anger in this population. In future studies, it would be helpful to investigate how the patterns of anger expression established herein are associated with specific health problems such as cardiovascular disorder and cancer.

  9. Functional limitations linked to high body mass index, age and current pain in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers Larsson, U; Mattsson, E

    2001-06-01

    To describe functional limitations in obese women. Comparisons of functional limitations in obese women and in a normal-weight reference group regarding mobility, balance and housework transport. A large room with a corridor and staircase nearby. Fifty-seven consecutively selected obese female outpatients, mean age 44 y, body mass index (BMI) 37 kg.m(-2), and 22 voluntary references, mean age 49 y, BMI 22 kg.m(-2). Pain questionnaire (for background data); a new valid and reliable test protocol measuring activities of daily life (ADL), pain and exertion, heart rate, balance and speed. The patients had problems in performing 13 of 16 actions compared with the references (P-values between 0.05 and 0.001). They moved more slowly and had difficulties and /or pain and exertion in flexibility tasks, balancing, activities at floor level (bending and kneeling), climbing stairs and carrying groceries. BMI (P=0.002), age (P=0.02) and current pain (P=0.02) from the lower body predicted functional limitation. The functional test reflected functional limitations in obese women, revealing difficulties and perceived pain in ADL. The test protocol can be used to evaluate the effects of training or dieting. For clinical use we recommend considering BMI, age and current pain for use when individualizing advice on training.

  10. Oocyte or embryo donation to women of advanced reproductive age: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Advanced reproductive age (ARA) is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. Oocyte donation reverses the age-related decline in implantation and birth rates of women in their 40s and 50s and restores pregnancy potential beyond menopause. However, obstetrical complications in older patients remain high, particularly related to operative delivery and hypertensive and cardiovascular risks. Physicians should perform a thorough medical evaluation designed to assess the physical fitness of a patient for pregnancy before deciding to attempt transfer of embryos to any woman of advanced reproductive age (>45 years). Embryo transfer should be strongly discouraged or denied to women of ARA with underlying conditions that increase or exacerbate obstetrical risks. Because of concerns related to the high-risk nature of pregnancy, as well as longevity, treatment of women over the age of 55 should generally be discouraged. This statement replaces the earlier ASRM Ethics Committee document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:337-40). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 47 to 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disorder having the characteristic features of low bone mass and structural degeneration. There are several factors affecting the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, such as age, age at menarche, duration of menopause, dietary or nutritional intakes, life style and level formal education. In connection with the increasing global prevalence of osteoporotic fractures, the purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and the influencing factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study, involving 203 postmenopausal women aged 47-60 years, was conducted in 4 villages of Mampang Prapatan subdistrict, from February to April 2010. Bone mineral density (BMD of lumbar spine 1-4, femoral neck, and left radius was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX Bravo Nomusa densitometer, GE Medical Systems at Budi Jaya Hospital, Jakarta. The T-score threshold, defined as £ -2.5 was used to identify subjects with osteoporosis The results of the study showed that the highest prevalence of osteopenia of 45.8% was found in the femoral neck, while the highest prevalence of osteoporosis of 30% was found in the distal radius. Age, duration of menopause, and number of pregnancies yielded a significant correlation with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae and the distal radius. Body mass index (BMI was also significantly correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck and distal radius. Effective strategies for the prevention and management of osteopenia and osteoporosis are needed.

  12. Age-related differences in the biological parameters of vertebral cancellous bone from Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Rui; LIU Guo-min; BAI Hao-tian; WANG Tian-bin; WU Han; JIA Yun-yan; LUO Yun-gang

    2013-01-01

    Background With aging,the human fracture risk gradually increase.This is mainly due to the corresponding changes of the biomechanical parameters of human bone presents with aging.We measured the microstructural parameters of lumbar bone from women in several age groups by micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy.We observed changes in lumbar cancellous bone mineral density and in biomechanical parameters with aging to elucidate the relationship between age and risk of fracture.We provide theoretical support for human pathology,fracture risk increased with age and the individualized of each age group.Methods Thirty-two fresh L3 vertebral bodies were donated from 32 women,aged 20-59 years and were divided into four age groups:20 to 29 years (group A); 30 to 39 years (group B); 40 to 49 years (group C); and 50 to 59 years (group D).Conventional lumbar separation was performed by removing soft tissue and subsidiary structures,leaving only the vertebral body.The vertebral body was cut into halves along the median sagittal plane,maintaining the upper and lower end-plates of each half,and used for biomechanical,morphological,and density measurements.Results Comparing group A to B,the rod-like trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) decreased; the trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) increased; the plate-like Tb.Th decreased; bone mineral density,tissue mineral density,bone volume fraction,and bone surface fraction decreased,and the elastic modulus and the ultimate stress decreased (all changes P <0.05).Similar significant (P < 0.05) trends were obtained when comparing group C to D.With aging,the collagen cross-linking capacity declined,the thickness of the collagen fibrils was variable (ranging from almost the same to loose,sparse,or disordered),and the finer collagen fibrils between the thick filaments were disorganized.Conclusions In women aged 20 to 59 years,the rod-like and plate-like Tb.Th of the vertebral body decreased,while Tb.Sp increased

  13. Effects of age on genetic influence on bone loss over 17 years in women: the Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hammond, Christopher J; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Timothy D

    2012-10-01

    The rate of bone loss varies across the aging period via multiple complex mechanisms. Therefore, the role of genetic factors on bone loss may also change similarly. In this study, we investigated the effect of age on the genetic component of bone loss in a large twin-based longitudinal study. During 17 years of follow-up in TwinsUK and Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS), 15,491 hip and lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in 7056 twins. Out of these subjects, 2716 female twins aged >35 years with at least two scans separated for >4 years (mean follow-up 9.7 years) were included in this analysis. We used a mixed-effects random-coefficients regression model to predict hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) values for exact ages of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years, with adjustment for baseline age, weight, height, and duration of hormone replacement therapy. We then estimated heritability of the changes in BMD measures between these age ranges. Heritability estimates for cross-sectional hip and spine BMD were high (ranging between 69% and 88%) at different ages. Heritability of change of BMD was lower and more variable, generally ranging from 0% to 40% for hip and 0% to 70% for spine; between age 40 and 45 years genetic factors explained 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-53%) of variance of BMD loss for total hip, 46.4% (95% CI, 32%-58%) for femoral neck, and 69.5% (95% CI, 59%-77%) for lumbar spine. These estimates decreased with increasing age, and there appeared to be no heritability of BMD changes after the age of 65 years. There was some evidence at the spine for shared genetic effects between cross-sectional and longitudinal BMD. Whereas genetic factors appear to have an important role in bone loss in early postmenopausal women, nongenetic mechanisms become more important determinants of bone loss with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  15. Calcium deficit in diet as risk factor for osteopenic syndrome in pregnant women of young age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Kabylova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study features of bone tissue mineral density and their correlation with bloodlevels of calcium, magnesium and non-organic phosphorus in young pregnantwomen. Clinical and ambulatory examination of 120 pregnant women of ages 16-25 was made. Estimation of bone tissue mineral density and blood levels ofcalcium, phosphorus and magnesium was performed during the pregnancy stageof 12 to 28 weeks. Among young pregnant women during II trimester, rate ofosteopenic syndrome amounts to 17.5%, including osteoporosis of 1.7%.Development of osteopenic syndrome is attributed to general blood calciumdeficiency. Development of osteopenic syndrome in young pregnant women isassociated with decreased dietary consumption of calcium (owing to exclusion ofmilk products. Bone tissue mineral density is directly correlated with bloodplasma levels of calcium.

  16. Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-02-28

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

  17. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  18. The utility of metformin therapy in reproductive-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nisha; Sullivan, Shannon D

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug commonly used to treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects at least 5-10% of reproductive- age women. With very little risk associated with its use, metformin provides many important benefits to women with PCOS, including regulating menstrual cycles, improving clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, ameliorating metabolic syndrome, inducing ovulation, improving pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes, preventing gestational diabetes, and preventing progression to T2DM. Here, we review the indications for metformin in women with PCOS, with a focus on the use of metformin during pre-conception and pregnancy.

  19. Immune activation in HIV-infected aging women on antiretrovirals--implications for age-associated comorbidities: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Alcaide

    Full Text Available Persistent immune activation and microbial translocation associated with HIV infection likely place HIV-infected aging women at high risk of developing chronic age-related diseases. We investigated immune activation and microbial translocation in HIV-infected aging women in the post-menopausal ages.Twenty-seven post-menopausal women with HIV infection receiving antiretroviral treatment with documented viral suppression and 15 HIV-negative age-matched controls were enrolled. Levels of immune activation markers (T cell immune phenotype, sCD25, sCD14, sCD163, microbial translocation (LPS and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and impaired cognitive function (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and CXCL10 were evaluated.T cell activation and exhaustion, monocyte/macrophage activation, and microbial translocation were significantly higher in HIV-infected women when compared to uninfected controls. Microbial translocation correlated with T cell and monocyte/macrophage activation. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and impaired cognition were elevated in women with HIV infection and correlated with immune activation.HIV-infected antiretroviral-treated aging women who achieved viral suppression are in a generalized status of immune activation and therefore are at an increased risk of age-associated end-organ diseases compared to uninfected age-matched controls.

  20. Age-dependent Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer: Mastectomy and Reconstructive Trends at an Urban Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Robinson, Emilie; Danielson, Kirstie K; Quinn, Karina P; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is an important aspect of treatment after breast cancer. Postmastectomy reconstruction bears a significant impact on a woman's postsurgical confidence, sexuality, and overall well-being. Previous studies have inferred that women under age 40 years have unique characteristics that distinguish them from an older cohort. Identifying age-dependent trends will assist with counseling women on mastectomy and reconstruction. To identify age-dependent trends, 100 consecutive women were sampled from a prospectively maintained breast reconstruction database at an urban academic institution from June 2010 through June 2013. Women were placed into two cohorts breast cancer. Younger women typically present with more aggressive features requiring oncologic treatment including chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy and reconstructive choices also demonstrate age-dependent characteristics. Women in younger age groups are more likely to pursue risk-reduction procedures and implant-based strategies, whereas older women had a higher propensity for abdominal-based autologous reconstruction. In addition, preferential reconstructive strategies correlate with age-dependent archetypical features of the breast (higher profile implants in younger patients; autologous reconstruction on affected side mimicking natural ptosis, and contralateral mastopexy in older patients). These trends seem to be consistent with each increasing year of age. Age-related preferences and expectations, age-dependent body habitus and breast shape, and lifetime risk play a role in the choices pursued for mastectomy and reconstruction.

  1. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

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    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity.

  2. Stress as a major determinant of migraine in women aged 25-65 years

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    Woro Riyadina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a primary headache causing substantial disability in patients. The prevalence of migraine in women is still high. Menarche, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, and the use of hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement treatment may influence migraine occurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the major determinants of migraine in adult women aged 25-65 years. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,747 women from the baseline study “Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases”. The dependent variable was migraine based on the diagnosis of health providers or symptoms. Independent variables were demographic (age, marital status, education and behavioral (smoking, diet, and stress characteristics, metabolic disorders (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hormonal factors (contraception and hormone therapy. Data were collected through interviews (characteristics, health and hormonal status, diet, measurement (anthropometrics, blood pressure, and health examination (blood specimens, neurology. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results Migraine in adult women was found in 710 cases (25.8% with symptoms of worsening with activity (15%, nausea and vomiting (13%, and photophobia/phonophobia (4.1%. The main determinant of migraine in adult women was stress with a 2.47-fold risk [95% CI = 2.07 to 2.95] as compared with no stress, after controlling for smoking, menstruation and hormonal drug consumption. Conclusion Stress is a major determinant of migraine in adult women, therefore health programs should be instituted through health promotion, prevention and education to control stress.

  3. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

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    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  4. Age and body mass related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Macut Đuro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is considered a metabolic disorder closely related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperinsulinemia and unfavorable lipid profile, all increasing the risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess age and body mass index (BMI related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in 90 women with PCOS. The cut-off age point was 30 years and for BMI 27.8 kg/m2. In all patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, metabolic parameters comprising values of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and basal lipid values were determined. Significant increase in blood pressure (BP indices, basal insulin values and insulin resistance (IR assessed by HOMA model were observed with aging and the increase of BMI, while the parameters of glucose metabolism, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated only with aging. However, the correlation between the indices of arterial blood pressure, and lipid and glucose metabolism parameters occurred only in patients over 30 years of age, pointing to the causative relation and the consequent deterioration of IR and lipid profile with aging, influencing cardiovascular function in women with PCOS.

  5. Justification for experimental methods for circuit training aerobics classes first mature age women

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    Martyniuk O.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop and validate a methodology for circuit training aerobics. Methodology focused on improving physical health first mature age women. Material : a study was conducted with 81 women (age 21 - 35 years. Results : justified the means and methods of circuit training, the duration of the structural components, the rational parameters of physical activity, pulse modes. Depending on the physical health of women developed a set of circuit training for the main part of the session. Complex circuit training consists of 2 series, active rest interval between 3 minutes. Duration of employment in one series of 23 minutes. Exercises are performed at 5 locations: 3 - aerobic (3x5 min, 2 - power (2x4 min. The total duration of training - 49 minutes. The intensity of the training load is regulated by the level of physical health and the maximum test results. Conclusions : The positive changes morphofunctional indicators show an increase in the body's bioenergy and women transition to a higher level of physical health.

  6. The Relationship Between Body Image and Sexual Function in Middle-Aged Women.

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    Afshari, Poorandokht; Houshyar, Zeinab; Javadifar, Nahid; Pourmotahari, Fatemeh; Jorfi, Maryam

    2016-11-01

    An individual's social and marital function, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life may, sometimes be affected by negative body image. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between body image and sexual function in middle-aged women. In this cross-sectional study, 437 middle-aged women, who were referred to various public healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014-2015, were selected. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were used for data collection. Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation test, and logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Approximately 58% of the participants expressed satisfaction with their body image, 35% were mildly dissatisfied, and 7% were moderately dissatisfied with their body image. Body image had a significant negative relationship with sexual satisfaction and sexual function (p=0.005). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between body image and sexual desire (p=0.022), pain (p=0.001), sexual arousal (pbody image is an important aspect of sexual health. In this study, women with a positive body image had higher sexual function valuation, compared to women with a negative body image. Also, body shape satisfaction was a predictor of sexual function.

  7. Clinicopathological and imaging features of breast cancer in Korean Women under 40 years of age

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    Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Mi Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Eun Kyu; Kang, Eun Young; Park, So Yeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in Korean women under 40 years of age according to molecular subtypes. We included 183 breast cancers in 176 consecutive women under 40 years old who had been diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and November 2014. The patients' clinical and pathologic records were available as electronic medical records. A retrospective review of the pre-operative imaging studies was performed with 177 mammographies, 183 ultrasonographies, and 178 MRIs. Eighty-six percent (158/183) of lesions were symptomatic, with masses (147/183) as the most common presentation. Eighty percent (22/25) of the asymptomatic lesions were diagnosed via screening ultrasonography. The luminal A subtype was the most common (n = 79, 43%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched subtype showed indistinct margins on mammography (p = 0.006), the triple negative subtype depicted a posterior enhancement on ultrasonography (p < 0.001) and rim enhancement on MRI (p < 0.001). Breast cancers in Korean women under 40 years of age are commonly presented with a palpable mass, and luminal A is the most common molecular subtype. In our study, the imaging and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer in younger women were similar to those previously reported for older patients.

  8. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. © 2016 APJPH.

  9. Prevalence of anemia and correlated factors in the reproductive age women in rural areas of tabas.

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    Majid Sadeghian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.

  10. Influence of depressive mood on quality of life ratings of women with epilepsy of childbearing age.

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    Todorova, Koraliya S; Kaprelyan, Ara G

    2013-01-01

    Depressive disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. Depressive mood affects negatively quality of life (QOL) ratings, sometimes having greater impact than seizure-related variables. Women with epilepsy are a specific subgroup at risk of comorbid depression in consequence of certain biopsychosocial demands. The AIM of this study was to assess the relative contribution of mood, seizure-related and demographic variables on QOL scores in women with epilepsy of childbearing age. A psychiatric assessment was carried out of 65 women with epilepsy (aged 18-55, mean 37.23 +/- 11.83 yrs). Comorbid depressive disorder was diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. Its severity was evaluated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17). A questionnaire for demographic and seizure-related variables was completed. Two self-assessment questionnaires were administered: the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31). The data were analysed using SPSS for Windows (version 17.0). Univariate correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed to explore the association between possible prognostic variables (independent variables) and QOLIE-31 overall and subscale scores (dependent variables). Analysis showed that demographic factors: employment and education; seizure-related factors: seizure severity, seizure frequency, antiepileptic drug therapy and comorbid depressive disorder were the variables significantly associated with QOLIE-31 overall score (p Paying attention to the psychological needs of women with epilepsy will have a positive effect on their QOL.

  11. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3 ± 17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women. PMID:22988834

  12. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

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    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. [Anemia in women of reproductive age. The results of a national probability survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, H; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition which is clinically known as anemia. Functional consequences of anemia include impairment of cardiovascular performance, limitation in productivity, higher incidence of low birth weight and premature delivery, and increased maternal mortality. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of anemia in women of reproductive age in Mexico. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health through a National Nutrition Survey in 1988, which draw a representative sample from four regions: North, Center, South and Federal District. Anemia was more prevalent in pregnant (18.17%) than in non-pregnant women (15.38%). Those women living in predominantly indigenous communities had higher prevalence of anemia (24.02%) than non-indigenous women (14.67%). Anemia was more prevalent in urban areas (15.54%) than in rural (13.56%). Mean +/- standard deviation values for hemoglobin were lower in pregnant women (12.5 +/- 1.6 g/dL) than in non-pregnant ones (13.7 +/- 1.6 g/dL). Consistently, the Northern and Southern regions were worse off than the Center and the Federal District. These data indicate that anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. The functional consequences of this deficiency justify interventions to treat and prevent it.

  14. Trajectories of Body Mass Index from Young Adulthood to Middle Age among Canadian Men and Women

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    Meng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of BMI trajectories is limited for the Canadian population. Using latent class growth modelling, four distinct BMI trajectories of individuals from young adulthood to middle age were identified for both women and men from the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey. The associations between BMI trajectories and the individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics and behavioural factors were also examined. Aboriginal women were found more likely to be in the long-term overweight or obese groups. It reveals that increased years of smoking, drinking, and being physically active were associated with lowering the BMI trajectory in all groups for both women and men, with some exceptions in the long-term normal weight group for men. Increased years of rural living, being employed, and living with low income were associated with raising the BMI trajectory in all groups for women and in some groups for men. Food insecurity was associated with raising the BMI trajectory in each group for both women and men.

  15. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of childbearing age

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    Mariza Martins Avelino

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Determine the risk factors involved in toxoplasmosis transmission and determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for toxoplasmosis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study carried out on 2,242 women at childbearing age. An indirect immunofluorescence reaction was used to identify immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Previous gestations were also analyzed as a possible risk factor. The results were analyzed by chi2 and OR tests, and by variance analysis. The sample was statistically balanced according to social-economic risk factors. RESULTS: Previously pregnant women were 1.74 times more frequently infected with toxoplasmosis, regardless of environmental conditions. Pregnant women living under unfavorable environmental conditions had an approximately two times increased risk of being infected for each risk factor (contact with host animals, presence of vehicles of oocyst transmission. Previous pregnancy was the risk factor that had the strongest influence on acquiring toxoplasmosis (variance analysis and statistical balancing. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of this zoonosis is high in Goiânia-GO, Brazil (65.8%. Inadequate environmental sanitation was not significantly correlated with toxoplasmosis infection, except when associated with previous pregnancy, showing that the fundamental cause for infection is not environmental. CONCLUSION: The finding that pregnancy makes women more vulnerable to this protozoan, makes it important to implement prophylactic control of at-risk pregnant women.

  16. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  17. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices.

  18. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

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    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  19. Age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by grade of cervical cytology in Tibetan women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qiong; SHEN Keng; LI Hui; ZHOU Xian-rong; HUANG Hui-fang; LENG Jin-hua

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is believed to be the most common sexually transmitted infection. However,little is known about the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the distribution of HPV types as well as risks for abnormal cervical cytology in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed involving a sample of 3036 women. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Logistic regression model.Results In this population, 3.66% (111/3036) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS),1.45% (44/3036) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 1.09% (33/3036) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Tibetan women (5.74%, 137/2387) exhibited lower abnormal cytology rates than non-Tibetan women (8.01%, 52/649, P=0.03). The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 9.19% (279/3036). We failed to identify any differences in HPV prevalence by age. In the groups with normal, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, the overall HPV prevalences were 7.41% (211/2847), 24.32% (27/111), 56.82% (25/44) and 45.45% (15/33), respectively. HPV 16 (1.52%,46/3036) was the most common type, and was also the most prevalent in women with ASCUS (8.11%, 9/111) and HSIL (15.15%, 5/33). The most common HPV type for Tibetan women was HPV 16 (1.42%, 34/2387), whereas for non-Tibetan individuals it was HPV 33 (2.31%, 15/649). Of the 279 HPV-infected women, 40 individuals (14.34%) presented with multiple HPV positivity. Women who had two pregnancies were more likely to have abnormal cytology smear (OR=1.67;95% CI: 1.07-2.61).Conclusions A low prevalence of HPV positivity was observed in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. The prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and HPV type distributions were

  20. Factors Influencing Pap Screening Use Among African Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, Adebola; Hatcher, Jennifer

    2016-07-28

    Papanicolau (Pap) screenings disparities exist for immigrant women in the United States. This study sought to have an understanding of factors influencing Pap screening among sub-Saharan African immigrant women. This is a qualitative descriptive study. Women were recruited from the community and by word of mouth following institutional review board approval. Data were gathered through in-depth focus group and demographic questionnaires. Interview sessions were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Twenty-two women aged 24 to 65 years were interviewed. Barriers to screening included low knowledge of screening, cost, cultural beliefs, fear and communication issues. Motivators to improve Pap use include provider's recommendations, enlightenment, and family support. Interventions addressing the barriers peculiar to this population may alleviate these barriers and improve Pap screening use in this population. Providers have the opportunity to influence screening attitudes of African-born women by providing awareness and patient-targeted interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women [Corrigendum

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    Milanović Z

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Milanović Z, Pantelić S, Trajković N, et al. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:549–556.On page 551, Table 1, the Note should have read:Notes: *P<0.05. Descriptive parameters for women reproduced from Facta UniversitatisSeries: Physical Education and Sport, Vol. 10, No 4, Special Issue, 2012, 289–296.Read the original article

  2. Physical Functioning Trends among US Women and Men Age 45?64 by Education Level

    OpenAIRE

    Zajacova, Anna; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2017-01-01

    Functional limitations and disability declined in the US during the 1980s and 1990s, but reports of early 21st century trends are mixed. Whether educational inequalities in functioning increased or decreased is also poorly understood. Given the importance of disability for productivity, independent living, and health care costs, these trends are critical to US social and health policies. We examine recent trends in functional limitations and disability among women and men aged 45?64. Using 20...

  3. In vivo measurements of uterine cavities in 795 women of fertile age

    OpenAIRE

    Haspels, A A; Tadesse, E; Kurz, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The uterine sound length, the functional length of the cervix including the zone of internal cervical os and the fundus transversal were determined in 795 fertile women in vivo using a measuring device, the Cavimeter. The functional cavity length was calculated by subtracting the functional length of the cervix from the uterine sound length. With growing parity, the uterine length and width increase, but with advance in age, the uterine cavity changes are not so distinct. The wide ranges foun...

  4. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simulta...

  5. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Baheiraei Azam; Mirghafourvand Mojgan; Mohammadi Eesa; Charandabi Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Nedjat Saharnaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 w...

  6. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

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    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  7. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  8. Sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women is associated with severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Fica, Juan; Chedraui, Peter; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Zuñiga, María C; Witis, Silvina; Vallejo, María S; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Sánchez, Hugo; Onatra, William; Ojeda, Eliana; Mostajo, Desireé; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Lima, Selva; Martino, Mabel; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Gómez, Gustavo; Espinoza, María T; Flores, Daniel; Calle, Andrés; Bravo, Luz M; Benítez, Zully; Bencosme, Ascanio; Barón, Germán; Aedo, Sócrates

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sedentary lifestyle and the severity of menopausal symptoms and obesity in middle-aged women. The Menopause Rating Scale, the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Athens Insomnia Scale were administered to 6,079 Latin American women aged 40 to 59 years. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as fewer than three weekly, 30-minute periods of physical activity. Sedentary women had more severe menopausal symptoms (total Menopause Rating Scale score: 9.57 ± 6.71 vs 8.01 ± 6.27 points, P sedentary lifestyle. Having a stable partner (OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96), using hormone therapy (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87) and having a higher educational level (OR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60-0.74) were negatively related to sedentary lifestyle. There was a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in this middle-aged Latin American female sample which was associated with more severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

  9. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  10. Relationship between exercise heart rate and age in men vs women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydó, Nóra; Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Merkely, Béla; Gulati, Martha; Allison, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    To analyze a large cohort of patients who underwent exercise testing and also report sex differences in other exercise heart rate (HR) parameters to determine whether separate sex-based equations to predict peak HR are indicated. Patients aged 40 to 89 years who performed treadmill exercise tests (Bruce protocol) from September 21, 1993, to December 20, 2010, were included. Patients with cardiovascular disease or taking HR-attenuating drugs were excluded. After analyses on preliminary cohort, peak HR-modifying factors were eliminated to obtain a pure data set. Analysis of variance was used to test difference in HR responses by sex with age adjustment. A total of 37,010 patients (67.3% men) were included in the preliminary cohort. Men had higher peak HR (166±17 vs 163±16 beats/min [bpm]; Pexercise capacity, current smoking, diabetes, and obesity had significant peak HR-lowering effects (all Pexercise are different in men and women. The HR response of men was close to that obtained with the traditional formula, but peak HR in women had a lower intercept and decreased more slowly with age. A separate formula for peak HR in women appears to be appropriate. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac autonomic changes in middle-aged women: identification based on principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizani, Gabriela A; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo R; Silva, Lilian P; Nadal, Jurandir

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the principal component analysis (PCA) technique on power spectral density function (PSD) of consecutive normal RR intervals (iRR) aiming at assessing its ability to discriminate healthy women according to age groups: young group (20-25 year-old) and middle-aged group (40-60 year-old). Thirty healthy and non-smoking female volunteers were investigated (13 young [mean ± SD (median): 22·8 ± 0·9 years (23·0)] and 17 Middle-aged [51·7 ± 5·3 years (50·0)]). The iRR sequence was collected during ten minutes, breathing spontaneously, in supine position and in the morning, using a heart rate monitor. After selecting an iRR segment (5 min) with the smallest variance, an auto regressive model was used to estimate the PSD. Five principal component coefficients, extracted from PSD signals, were retained for analysis according to the Mahalanobis distance classifier. A threshold established by logistic regression allowed the separation of the groups with 100% specificity, 83·2% sensitivity and 93·3% total accuracy. The PCA appropriately classified two groups of women in relation to age (young and Middle-aged) based on PSD analysis of consecutive normal RR intervals.

  12. Amount of cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube in women of different age groups

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    S.V. Shadlinskaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the amount of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube in women of different age. The transverse sections of one-third of each part of uterine tube from 116 women (from newborn to senile age were studied. The sections were colored by gematoksilin-eosin, by van Gizon, by Brashe, azur-2-eosine, by Qrimelius. The amount of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube increased till the age of 16-20 and remained at high level further on till the age of 35. The quantity of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube changed according to the age and localization throughout the organ. The presence of diffused lymphoid tissue of uterine tube depended on the state of reproductive function of female organism. In the phase of desquamation there was minimal quantity of lymphoid tissue and in the phase of secretion there was maximal quantity of lymphoid tissue

  13. Longitudinal Predictors of Attitudes toward Aging among Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tracie; Blozis, Shelley; Stuifbergen, Alexa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of change in functional limitation (FL), controlling for social support (SS), on attitudes toward aging using longitudinal survey data collected over a 7-year period. The 503 women with MS (age, M=57 years, SD= 10.25) were mostly Anglo (93%) and married (69%). First, growth models were specified to identify a suitable model for change in FL. A quadratic growth model best described change. Next, SS was considered a time-varying covariate of FL to assess both within- and between-individual effects of SS on FL over time. Within individuals, higher FL levels were associated with lower SS levels. Between individuals, level of but not change in FL was associated with average SS level. Finally, average SS and response level and change in FL were studied as predictors of attitudes toward aging, accounting for 38% of the variance. Women with higher FL and lower SS scores had more negative views of aging. Negative views of aging may have long-term consequences for health outcomes as well as the quality of their later years. PMID:19140653

  14. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-13

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  15. Distribution of serum measles-neutralizing antibodies according to age in women of childbearing age in France in 2005-2006: impact of routine immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquier, Didier; Gagneur, Arnaud; Aubert, Marie; Brissaud, Olivier; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; Hau-Rainsard, Isabelle; Picherot, Georges; De Pontual, Loïc; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Reinert, Philippe

    2007-08-01

    Measles antibody titers were measured in 210 French women. Ninety-four percent had protective values (>120 mIU/mL). Geometric mean titers were significantly different (P < 0.001) between women born before and after 1983, when measles vaccination was recommended (731 and 1358 mIU/mL, respectively). geometric mean titers in 4 age cohorts decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing birth year. These data may help identify the appropriate age for infant vaccination.

  16. From 'the thing to do' to 'defying the ravages of age': older women reflect on the use of lipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bundon, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 36 women, aged 71 to 93, this manuscript examines older women's use of lipstick. The most ubiquitously used cosmetic by the women we interviewed, lipstick was a taken-for-granted practice in the women's performance of gender. In the women's youth, the performance of gender through lipstick usage was related to rebellion and peer acceptance. In contrast, the use of lipstick in later life was related to the maintenance of an attractive and respectable appearance. We discuss our findings in light of interpretative feminist theorizing concerning beauty work, doing gender, and the presentation of self.

  17. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  18. The effect of an aerobic training period on mental health and depression in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saremi A; Kazemi M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is among the common endocrine women disorders that can create manifestations such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of aerobic training on mental health and depression among Iranian women suffering from PCOS has been examined. Methods: This semi experimental study was carried out based on pre-test and post-test on experiment and control groups in Arak, Iran. Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (aged 27.82 ±5.23 y...

  19. Prevention of neural tube defects by folic acid - awareness among women of childbearing age in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, F; Sabova, L; Pinterova, E; Hornova, J; Trnka, J

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency plays a central role in the aetiology of many congenital anomalies including neural tube defects. Protective effect of folic acid on embryo may be acquired only if taken periconceptionally. The aim of the study was to investigate the awareness about folic acid among women of childbearing age in Bratislava, Slovakia. There were 130 respondents involved in the research (106 pregnant women, 24 female students of medical faculty). Using questionnaire we acquired following data: pregnancy details, interest in diet before and during pregnancy, recommendations regarding nutrition and supplementation pre- and post-conception, knowledge about folic and other acid in 2004 and 2009. More than half of the respondents knew the sources of folic acid. The interest in the nutrition facts of the food dropped from 91 % to 58.5 %. The number of pregnant women advised about correct nutrition and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy increased from 16 % to 37 %. Planning the next gravidity with folic acid supplementation became greater than 21 % (38 % in 2009). Nevertheless, only 46 % of these women believed that proper food content with folic acid may prevent congenital anomalies. In a group of students planning to take folic acid periconceptionally the number raised up to 62.5 %. The results revealed low knowledge about the effect of folic acid on developing embryo among women of childbearing age. Effective intervention programs are needed with the aim to improve periconceptional intake of folic acid in 2004 and 2009. The results in both periods show low knowledge about this essential vitamin (Tab. 1, Fig. 8, Ref. 31).

  20. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  1. Aging Images as a Motivational Trigger for Smoking Cessation in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zemp Stutz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting adolescents into smoking cessation programs has been challenging, and there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions for this age group. We aimed to assess whether the approach of using aging images can be used to recruit young, female smokers for a smoking cessation course. In this study, 853 14- to 18-year-old subjects were photographed (2006–2007. After software-aided aging, the images evoked strong emotions, especially in subjects with an advanced motivational stage to quit. Twenty-four percent of current smokers reported that the aging images increased their motivation to quit smoking (pre-contemplation: 8%; contemplation: 32%; and preparation: 71%. In multivariate analyses, the aged images had a high motivational impact to quit smoking that was associated with an increased readiness to stop smoking and the individual’s assessment of the aging images as shocking, but not with the number of previous attempts to quit and the assessment of the pictures as realistic. However, it was not possible to recruit the study population for a smoking cessation course. We concluded that aging images are a promising intervention for reaching young women and increasing their motivation to stop smoking. However, smoking cessation courses may not be appropriate for this age group: none of the recruits agreed to take a cessation course.

  2. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals.

  3. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

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    Yingli Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420 and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921 and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957. Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812 and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959 were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125 and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016 were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274 but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855. Results showed that (1 Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2 menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China.

  4. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68% women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80 g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL was present in 40% (390 women. Mean (±SD for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17 fL, 26.37 (±6.21 pg, 32.36 (±4.91 g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76 and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05 were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97 was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Behavioral adjustment and self-esteem of school-age children of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsden, G C; Lewis, F M

    1994-01-01

    To describe children's psychosocial adjustment to their mother's breast cancer and to compare their level of adjustment with normative data and with the level of adjustment of children of women with fibrocystic breast disease or diabetes. Hypotheses tested were (a) children of women with breast cancer would be most negatively affected and (b) families of mothers with fibrocystic breast disease would require less family adaptation than families of women with breast cancer or diabetes. One component of a larger longitudinal survey. University-based physician clinic in a metropolitan area in the Northwestern United States. Mothers, predominantly Caucasian, with medically controlled diabetes mellitus (n = 18), nonmetastatic breast cancer (n = 13), or biopsy-proven fibrocystic breast disease (n = 17) and their children (N = 48), who ranged in age from 6 to 12. Five in-home interviews conducted at four-month intervals. Behavioral adjustment using the Louisville Behavior Checklist (maternal report) and the Zeitlin Coping Inventory (nurse-observer report) and self-esteem using the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children (children's self-report). Children of women with breast cancer scored better than average on behavioral adjustment (mothers' ratings) and were judged by nurse observers to be better behaviorally adjusted than children in the noncancer illness groups. Children of women with breast cancer and of women with diabetes tended to score significantly lower on self-esteem than the comparative sample. Measures of childhood adjustment to chronic medical illness in mothers need to distinguish between behavioral adjustment and self-esteem. Discrepancies between child ratings and mother and nurse-observer ratings suggest that differences exist. Findings are preliminary in nature, and other explanations for findings must be ruled out. However, if a child's self-appraisal is affected negatively by the mother's illness, it would be appropriate to identify ways to increase

  6. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  7. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans among Brazilian Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula; Ferreira, Lana Cristina Evangelista Sá; Da Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are no studies assessing the simultaneous occurrence of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) in the primary health care in Brazil. Despite different conditions to establishment of each one, the co-detection of both has been reported by some authors in previous studies from other regions. Aim To compare the prevalence of T. vaginalis and C. albicans in correlation with associated variables. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in a family health clinic in the Federal District of Brazil, between November 2014 and March 2015. Vaginal swabs were collected from 201 women of the reproductive age selected from women registered at the family health clinic. Minors and pregnant women were excluded. The rates of T. vaginalis and Candida albicans prevalence were evaluated with vaginal pH, the whiff test, sexual practices and other social and demographic variables. Difference between proportions was assessed by Z-Test. Results C. albicans was present in 20% of the women, while 16% of them had T. vaginalis. The simultaneous occurrence of the agents was found in 1.5%. Significant differences were found between prevalence rates for the variables race/skin colour, practice of anilingus and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusion The prevalence of T. vaginalis exceeds C.albicans among women with higher numbers of sexual partners. The prevalence of C. albicans was higher than T. vaginalis among white women and those who practice active and receptive anilingus. The simultaneous occurrence of the two microorganisms was uncommon. PMID:28050410

  8. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  9. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Aedo, Sócrates; Fica, Juan; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Laribezcoa, Fiorella; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstatinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases during female mid-life and although many factors have been identified, data from Latin America is lacking. To assess factors related to obesity among middle-aged women and determine the association with depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle and other factors. A total of 6079 women aged 40-59 years of 11 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a general questionnaire containing personal socio-demographic data, anthropometric measures and lifestyle information. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Obesity was observed in 18.5% and sedentary lifestyle in 63.9%. A 55.5% presented vasomotor symptoms, 12.2% had severe menopausal symptoms and 13.2% used hormone therapy for the menopause. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.5% and anxiety 59.7%. Our logistic regression model found that significant factors associated to obesity included: arterial hypertension (OR: 1.87), depressive symptoms (OR: 1.57), sedentary lifestyle (OR: 1.50) diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.34), higher number of individuals living at home (OR: 1.31), sleep problems (OR:1.22), anxiety (OR: 1.21), having a stable partner (OR: 1.20), parity (OR: 1.16) and vasomotor symptoms (OR:1.14). A lower risk for obesity was found among women using hormonal contraceptives (OR: 0.69). Obesity in middle-aged women is the consequence of the interaction of multiple factors. It was associated to hypertension, depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle, climacteric symptoms and other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Iron deficiency, an independent risk factor for isolated hypothyroxinemia in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Liu, Aihua; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    Isolated hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy may irreversibly damage the neurodevelopment of offspring. However, the causes are not well clarified. To explore the association of iron deficiency (ID) with hypothyroid function of women in early pregnancy and nonpregnant women. A total of 7953 pregnant women of ≤ 12 weeks gestation and 2000 childbearing-aged women were recruited. A subpopulation including 3340 pregnant women and 1052 nonpregnant women with sufficient iodine intake and negative thyroid peroxidase antibody were studied. Mild and severe cases of hypothyroxinemia were defined as free T4 levels below the 10th percentile and the 5th percentile, respectively, with normal TSH. Total body iron, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor were used as indicators for iron nutrition. Serum free T4 levels were significantly lower in both pregnant and nonpregnant women with ID compared with the corresponding groups without ID (both P women with ID than those without, in both pregnant and nonpregnant women (all P pregnant and nonpregnant childbearing-aged women, independent of the effects of iodine and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that ID may be a pathogenic factor for hypothyroxinemia, even in pregnant women during the first trimester.

  11. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Fusilli, S. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Pathology; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Division of Endocrinology

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm{sup 3} per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  12. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  13. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  14. Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008

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    Lamminpää Reeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N = 15,437 compared with those 35 and over (N = 2,387 who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks, low Apgar score (5 min., small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4% than younger women (6.4%. They had more prior terminations (25 ( Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

  15. Wellness in women after 40 years of age: the role of sex hormones and pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, W B; Genovese-Stone, E

    1998-09-01

    In the past twenty years hundreds of peer-reviewed studies have provided a significant body of information to guide the health care of women in the second halves of their lives. The harmonic nature of the fertile reproductive system forms the background against which hormonal replacement therapy can be understood to best serve women. In addition, the 1986 discovery of human pheromones and the subsequent 1998 confirmation of their existence increases certain sexual options for maturing women. Not all hormonal replacement therapies and wellness regimens serve women well. Some regimens have the potential to produce disease, especially over-the-counter remedies like dehydroepiandrosterone and the formulas that contain estrogen. Some regimens profoundly improve the quality of life of many women; some women do not need or want such regimens. All sex hormones affect physiologic systems including the cardiovascular system, bone metabolism, cognitive function, sexual response, and sexual attractiveness. The 7 years before menopause have recently been revealed to be an extremely complex era. During this period, some women increase their estrogen levels to new lifetime highs; others start an unequivocal decline, and still others vary from month to month. Coupled to this variability in estrogen is an equally variable set of changes in progesterone secretion by the ovary as androgen secretion patterns also change. Many women show increases in circulating androgens while many others show deficiencies. Both the adrenal and the ovarian sources of these hormones show age-related changes that alter a woman's capacity to attract sexual attention through both her physical appearance (and condition) and her pheromonal excretions. The complex contributions to the overall health of a woman may not always be understood. Often a hysterectomy can exacerbate--rather than ameliorate--the conditions that led to the surgery. One in 2 American women is offered a hysterectomy, a rate 5 times

  16. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

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    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  17. Elevated Triglyceride Level Is Independently Associated With Increased All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Established Coronary Heart Disease: Twenty-Two-Year Follow-Up of the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study and Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempfner, Robert; Erez, Aharon; Sagit, Ben-Zekry; Goldenberg, Ilan; Fisman, Enrique; Kopel, Eran; Shlomo, Nir; Israel, Ariel; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The independent association between elevated triglycerides and all-cause mortality among patients with established coronary heart disease is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large cohort of patients with proven coronary heart disease. The study cohort comprised 15 355 patients who were screened for the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) trial. Twenty-two-year mortality data were obtained from the national registry. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to strata of fasting serum triglycerides: (1) low-normal triglycerides (triglycerides (100-149 mg/dL); (3) borderline hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (150-199 mg/dL); (4) moderate hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (200-499 mg/dL); (5) severe hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (≥500 mg/dL). Age- and sex-adjusted survival was 41% in the low-normal triglycerides group than 37%, 36%, 35%, and 25% in groups with progressively higher triglycerides (Ptriglycerides elevation was associated with a corresponding 6% (P=0.016) increased risk of 22-year all-cause mortality. The 22-year mortality risk for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia was increased by 68% when compared with patients with low-normal triglycerides (Pdisease, higher triglycerides levels are independently associated with increased 22-year mortality. Even in patients with triglycerides of 100 to 149 mg/dL, the elevated risk for death could be detected than in patients with lower triglycerides levels, whereas severe hypertriglyceridemia denotes a population with particularly increased mortality risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Women's work, worry and fear: the portrayal of sexuality and sexual health in US magazines for teenage and middle-aged women, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory content analysis of the portrayal of sexuality, sexual health and disease in select magazines designed for two groups of women: teenagers and women in the 40-50-year-old age category in the USA. The analysis found that magazine portrayal was both similar for the two groups of women and distinctly different. Neither group of magazines focused on women's sexual desire. Both kinds of magazines emphasized that it was women's work and worry to control sexual expression. Teenagers were described as responsible for avoiding sex in order to prevent pregnancy, fearsomely described STIs and untrustworthy male sexual partners. Abstinence was presented as the only viable option for young women. Women in the 40-50-year-old age group were portrayed as responsible for the emotion work and sexual relations linked to their responsibility for maintaining their marriages and fulfilling their tasks of motherhood, especially through the monitoring of the sexuality of their female children. Sex was characterized in terms akin to women's work within the home. Possible explanations for, and consequences of, these presentations of sexuality are discussed.

  19. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in women under 50 years of age in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina da Silva Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have reported an increase in breast cancer incidence in young women. The current study's objective was to explore breast cancer distribution in women less than 50 years of age in Brazil. A descriptive study on breast cancer incidence (selected cities and mortality (Brazil and selected cities in 2002-2004 was carried out, and the results were compared with those from other countries. The study also analyzed the trend in hospital morbidity and incidence rates for breast cancer. Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul State showed the highest incidence rates (17.9 and 165.5/100,000 in the 15-39 and 40-49-year age strata, respectively. Regarding mortality, Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State showed the highest rate in the 15-39-year group and Porto Alegre in the 40-49-year group (2.8 and 25.5/100,000. Hospital admissions and incidence rates for breast cancer suggest a change in epidemiological distribution. The results reveal an epidemiological pattern of breast cancer in young Brazilian women with regional distribution characteristics.

  20. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p deficiency was iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia.

  1. Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).

  2. Is it a baby? Perceived age affects brain processing of faces differently in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Zani, Alberto; Martin, Eleonora

    2011-11-01

    It is known that infant faces stimulate visual and anterior brain regions belonging to the mesocortical limbic system (orbito-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens) as well as the fusiform gyrus during face coding, suggesting a preferential response to baby schema. In the present investigation, faces of infants, children, and adults were presented to 40 male and female right-handed university students with technological objects (and inanimate scenarios to serve as targets) in a randomly mixed fashion. EEG was recorded from 128 scalp sites. In both sexes, the N1 response to infant faces was larger than the response to adult faces; however, the baby-specific N1 response was much larger in women than in men across the left hemisphere. The anterior N2 response to infants was greater than the response to children only in women, whereas the response to children of any age was larger than the response to adults in men. LORETA identified the intracranial sources of N2 response to infants in the left fusiform gyrus (FG), as well as the uncus, cingulate, and orbito-frontal cortices. The FG, the limbic, and especially the orbito-frontal sources were much larger in women than in men. The data suggest a sex difference in the brain response to faces of different ages and in the preferential response to infants, especially with regard to activation of the mesocorticolimbic system.

  3. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome.

  4. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  5. Diabetes type 2, hypertension and cognitive dysfunction in middle age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Marina; Prokopenko, Semen; Pronina, Elena; Mozheyko, Elena

    2010-12-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two widely spread diseases among the adults that are known to be risk factors for vascular disease. They are highly related such that comorbidity is common. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the comorbid effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension on cognitive decline. One hundred and thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes (women, age 56±7.4 years, diabetes duration 8±6.7 years, hypertension duration 13.4±7.7 years) were assessed for cognitive impairment (CI) in comparison with 27 diabetes patients without hypertension (women, age 53±7.45 years, diabetes duration 4.4±5.6 years), all non-demented at baseline. Patients were screened for cognitive dysfunction with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), a clock-drawing test (CDT) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). We assessed history of DM and hypertension by interview. 87% of women with diabetes and hypertension and 70% of normotensive diabetic patients had cognitive impairment (p=0.0282), of mild and subtle degree. The frequency of alterations in the FAB was higher in subjects with diabetes and hypertension (48%) compared to normotensive diabetic patients (26%) p=0.0402. Our results show that people with diabetes type 2 and hypertension demonstrate greater cognitive changes as compared to normotensive diabetic patients.

  6. Lessons on aging: Hopes and concerns of Japanese women at midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Melissa K

    2016-01-01

    Japan is leading the global trend of decreasing birth rates and the graying of society. In this study we examine women's changing gender and intergenerational relationships and how these affect their concerns and hopes for their futures. Many of the 121 midlife women (aged 45-55) interviewed viewed themselves as sandwiched between their mothers-in-law and actual or potential daughters-in-law, at the nadir of intergenerational status within their families, in large part due to changing social patterns in marriage and birth rates. Doubts about the marriageability of their sons arising from role expectations for brides to care for parents-in-law cause concern for many and highlight the gendered and intergenerational nature of aging concerns. Yet, midlife in the 21st century, with changing gender and intergenerational roles, appears to create opportunities for many Japanese women to reflect on the meaning of the next stage of their lives. Changing gender and intergenerational relationships may contribute to their hopes to live a life of self-actualization and to be true to one's self (jibun rashiku ikiru).

  7. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter.

  8. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, G S; Stunkard, A J; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the habit of eating at night, and the 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight changes in a middle-aged population, with particular focus on the obese. DESIGN: Prospective study with initial examination of the cohort in 1982-83, re-examination in 1987......-88 and a third examination in 1992-93. SUBJECTS: The Danish MONICA cohort includes an age- and sex-stratified random sample of the population from the Western part of the Copenhagen County. Out of 2,987 subjects participating in 1987-88, a total of 1,050 women and 1,061 men had been examined in 1982-83, and 1993......-94 too. Subjects working night shifts were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Night eating in 1987-88, 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight change. RESULTS: In total, 9.0% women and 7.4% men reported 'getting up at night to eat'. Obese women with night eating experienced an average 6-y weight gain of 5.2 kg (P=0...

  9. Investigation of Hepatitis E Virus IgG Seroprevalence in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Özbek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection can cause fa­tal hepatitis particularly in pregnant women. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the rate of anti HEV IgG se­roprevalence in women of childbearing age and whether there are differences in seroprevalence among people liv­ing in urban and rural areas or not. Methods: A total of 158 women volunteers aged 15-49 years living in rural or urban areas were included in this study. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were performed with en­zyme immunoassay method. The obtained data were presented as numbers and percentages and statistically analyzed. Results: Anti-HAV IgG was detected positive in 41 of the 158 volunteers (25.9%. Anti-HEV IgG was found positive in 25 of the 92 volunteers living in urban areas (27.2% and in 16 of the 66 volunteers in rural areas (24.2%. Conclusion: In our city, HEV seroprevalence is above the average in Turkey. We think that epidemiological fac­tors should be investigated and that screening HEV serol­ogy can be useful in pregnancy monitoring. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 69-72

  10. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with folate status among non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yipu; De Groh, Margaret; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2014-05-09

    Mandatory folic acid fortification was implemented in Canada in 1998 to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Our objective was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and folate status in non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age. Data on demographic factors, lifestyle factors, physical measures and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration were collected from 1,008 non-supplement-consuming women aged 15-49 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). RBC folate ³906 nmol/L was used as a cut-off for optimal folate status for protection from NTD. Approximately 75% of non-supplement consuming women had an RBC folate concentration ³906 nmol/L. Young age (15-19 years), White ethnicity, less than secondary education, lowest income adequacy, smoking and high body mass index were associated with a higher prevalence of lower folate status. After adjustment, only young age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99-95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.18) was associated with lower folate status. Less than secondary education (adjusted OR 5.66, 95% CI: 1.10-29.04) and lowest income adequacy (adjusted OR 4.77, 95% CI: 1.06-21.49) were associated with lower folate status in women aged 15-24 and 25-49 years, respectively. Many risk factors for lower folate status identified before food fortification was implemented were not associated with folate status in our representative sample of non-supplement-consuming Canadian women. However, younger women, women aged 15-24 with less than secondary education and women aged 25-49 with low income adequacy remain at risk of lower folate status, supporting the continued promotion of folic acid supplement use to women of childbearing age.

  11. Social inequalities in self-rated health by age: Cross-sectional study of 22 457 middle-aged men and women

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    Wareham Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the association between occupational social class and self-rated health (SRH at different ages in men and women. Methods Cross sectional population study of 22 457 men and women aged 39–79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993–1997. The relationship between self-rated health and social class was examined using logistic regression, with a poor or moderate rating as the outcome. Results The prevalence of poor or moderate (lower self-rated health increased with increasing age in both men and women. There was a strong social class gradient: in manual classes, men and women under 50 years of age had a prevalence of lower self-rated health similar to that seen in men and women in non-manual social classes over 70 years old. Even after adjustment for age, educational status, and lifestyle factors (body mass index (BMI, smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption there was still strong evidence of a social gradient in self-rated health, with unskilled men and women approximately twice as likely to report lower self-rated health as professionals (ORmen = 2.44 (95%CI 1.69, 3.50; ORwomen = 1.97 (95%CI 1.45, 2.68. Conclusion There was a strong gradient of decreased SRH with age in both men and women. We found a strong cross-sectional association between SRH and social class, which was independent of education and major health related behaviors. The social class differential in SRH was similar with age. Prospective studies to confirm this association should explore social and emotional as well as physical pathways to inequalities in self reported health.

  12. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

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    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  13. Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada

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    Kolahdooz Fariba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal Canadians is higher than non-Aboriginal Canadians, a behavior that also tends to alter dietary patterns. Compared with the general Canadian population, maternal smoking rates are almost twice as high. The aim of this study was to compare dietary adequacy of Inuvialuit women of childbearing age comparing smokers versus non-smokers. Research methods & procedures A cross-sectional study, where participants completed a culturally specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy and differences in nutrient density among smokers and non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for key nutrients inadequacy and smoking status. Data was collected from three communities in the Beaufort Delta region of the Northwest Territories, Canada from randomly selected Inuvialuit women of childbearing age (19-44 years. Results Of 92 participants, 75% reported being smokers. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, marital status, education, number of people in household working and/or number of self employed, and physical activity between smokers and non-smokers. Non-parametric analysis showed no differences in nutrient intake between smokers and non-smokers. Logistic regression however revealed there was a positive association between smoking and inadequacies of vitamin C (OR = 2.91, 95% CI, 1.17-5.25, iron (OR = 3.16, 95% CI, 1.27-5.90, and zinc (OR = 2.78, 95% CI, 1.12-4.94. A high percentage of women (>60%, regardless of smoking status, did not meet the dietary recommendations for fiber, vitamin D, E and potassium. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of childbearing age regardless of smoking behavior.

  14. Menopausal symptoms among healthy, middle-aged Omani women as assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shafie, Kawther; Al Farsi, Yahya; Al Zadjali, Najat; Al Adawi, Samir; Al Busaidi, Zakiya; Al Shafaee, Mohammed

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and severity of climacteric symptoms and associated risk factors among a cohort of healthy, middle-aged Omani women. In this cross-sectional study, 472 healthy Omani women between 40 and 60 years old from the representative regions of Omani society were surveyed using the Menopause Rating Scale. The scores obtained were plotted against their demographic data and menopausal stage. Overall, 39.6% of the participants were premenopausal, 15.2% were perimenopausal, and 43.6% were postmenopausal. The Menopause Rating Scale scoring showed that somatic and psychological symptoms occurred more frequently than did urogenital symptoms in all three stages. Muscle and joint pain was the most common symptom (73.3%), followed by mental and physical exhaustion (47.2%) and anxiety (46.6%). An increase in the mean scores for both somatic and psychological symptoms and their severity was observed when the following factors were present: progression of menopausal stage (mean ± SD, 22.5 ± 2.6, 3.6 ± 2.9, 4.5 ± 3.2), old age (4.2 ± 3.2) versus young age (2.9 ± 2.6), single (4.3 ± 3.3) versus married (3.3 ± 2.9), illiterate (3.9 ± 3.1) versus educated (2.7 ± 2.6), and sexually inactive (4.4 ± 3.4) versus sexually active (3.1 ± 2.7). Omani women were found to exhibit highly atypical symptoms of menopause. Increased severity of symptoms was found to be related to age, advanced stage of menopause, and lower educational level.

  15. Barriers Non-Traditional Age Freshmen Women Encounter as They Seek Entrance to Four-Year Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wanda Young Cadman

    Barriers faced by 42 nontraditional age women (age 35 or above) enrolled as freshman in four state institutions in Oregon were studied, based on a demographic survey and interviews. The following types of barriers were identified: (1) social barriers, constraints brought about through economics, age, family or community attitudes, or sex-role…

  16. Sexual assault prevention with college-aged women: a bibliotherapy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Naugle, Amy E; O'Donohue, William; Bradley, April R

    2004-10-01

    The present research evaluated the efficacy of a skills-based bibliotherapy approach to sexual assault prevention for college-aged women. One hundred and ten participants were followed prospectively for 16 weeks. A self-help book, written by the authors, was compared to a wait-list control on several self-report measures. Results revealed significant differences between groups, with bibliotherapy participants reporting decreased participation in risky dating behaviors and improvement in sexual communication strategies across a variety of dating situations. However, results suggested that the self-help book was no more effective than the wait-list control in reducing rates of sexual victimization. Limitations of the study and directions for future sexual assault prevention research with women are discussed.

  17. Social class differences in physical functions in middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen; Christensen, Ulla; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Molbo, Drude; Lund, Rikke; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women. This study used traditionally used physical performance tests and we added several tests of vigorous physical functioning (trunk muscle strength and power and sagittal flexibility). We measured reaction time, one-legged balance, sagittal flexibility, jump height, chair rise ability, trunk muscle- and handgrip strength in 5,412 participants aged 50 to 60 years (68.5% men). We found gender differences and social class gradients for all physical performance tests. We did not find an interaction between social class and gender, indicating that the social gradient in physical functions did not differ between men and women. Including measures of vigorous physical functioning may add to the existing knowledge on development of functional limitation and poorer functional health later in life.

  18. Transitions among Health States Using 12 Measures of Successful Aging in Men and Women: Results from the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thielke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Successful aging has many dimensions, which may manifest differently in men and women at different ages. Methods. We characterized one-year transitions among health states in 12 measures of successful aging among adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The measures included self-rated health, ADLs, IADLs, depression, cognition, timed walk, number of days spent in bed, number of blocks walked, extremity strength, recent hospitalizations, feelings about life as a whole, and life satisfaction. We dichotomized variables into “healthy” or “sick,” states, and estimated the prevalence of the healthy state and the probability of transitioning from one state to another, or dying, during yearly intervals. We compared men and women and three age groups (65–74, 75–84, and 85–94. Findings. Measures of successful aging showed similar results by gender. Most participants remained healthy even into advanced ages, although health declined for all measures. Recuperation, although less common with age, still occurred frequently. Men had a higher death rate than women regardless of health status, and were also more likely to remain in the healthy state. Discussion. The results suggest a qualitatively different experience of successful aging between men and women. Men did not simply “age faster” than women.

  19. Life course socioeconomic adversity and age at natural menopause in women from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Maria P; Alvarado, Beatriz; Lord, Catherine; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between life course socioeconomic adversity and age at menopause in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data from 4,056 women aged 60 to 79 years randomly selected from seven cities in Latin America and the Caribbean were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the probability of age at menopause by indicators of life course socioeconomic adversity. Median age at menopause was 50 years. The following life course socioeonomic indicators were associated with earlier age at menopause: low education (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26) and manual occupation/housewives (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20). Other factors associated with earlier age at menopause were current smoking (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27), nulliparity (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28), and multiparity (five children or more; HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24). There was a cumulative effect of socioeconomic adversities across the life course. The median age at menopause was lower for women with six indicators of life course socioeconomic adversity compared with women with no adversities (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77). Median age at menopause occurs several years earlier in women from Latin America and the Caribbean compared with women from high-income countries. The results support the association between life course socioeconomic adversity and age at menopause.

  20. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  1. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  2. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  3. Clinical significance of benign endometrial cells found in papanicolaou tests of Turkish women aged 40 years and older

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    Gozde Kir

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: According to our study, reporting BEC for women aged between 40 and 50 years has minor clinical significance but is significant for women older than 50 years, regardless of menopausal status. Larger sample size would be appropriate to confirm the results of the current study.

  4. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

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    Malini M Bhattathiry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  5. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25-35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands' literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (pvaginitis. In addition, significant relationships between health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial to improvement in lifestyle dimensions associated with

  6. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. Methods In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25–35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands’ literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (plifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Conclusion Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial to improvement in lifestyle dimensions associated with vagina health could be

  7. Analysis of Twenty-Two Performance Properties of Diesel, Gasoline, and Jet Fuels Using a Field-Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Carl; Smith, Wayne; Shende, Chetan; Gladding, Zack; Farquharson, Stuart; Morris, Robert E; Cramer, Jeffrey A; Schmitigal, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The change in custody of fuel shipments at depots, pipelines, and ports could benefit from an analyzer that could rapidly verify that properties are within specifications. To meet this need, the design requirements for a fuel analyzer based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, such as spectral region and resolution, were examined. It was found that the 1000 to 1600 nm region, containing the second CH overtone and combination vibrational modes of hydrocarbons, provided the best near-infrared to fuel property correlations when path length was taken into account, whereas 4 cm(-1) resolution provided only a modest improvement compared to 16 cm(-1) resolution when four or more latent variables were used. Based on these results, a field-portable near-infrared fuel analyzer was built that employed an incandescent light source, sample compartment optics to hold 2 mL glass sample vials with ∼1 cm path length, a transmission grating, and a 256 channel InGaAs detector that measured the above stated wavelength range with 5-6 nm (∼32 cm(-1)) resolution. The analyzer produced high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of samples in 5 s. Twenty-two property correlation models were developed for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels with root mean squared error of correlation - cross-validated values that compared favorably to corresponding ASTM reproducibility values. The standard deviations of predicted properties for repeat measurements at 4, 24, and 38℃ were often better than ASTM documented repeatability values. The analyzer and diesel property models were tested by measuring seven diesel samples at a local ASTM certification laboratory. The standard deviations between the analyzer determined values and the ASTM measured values for these samples were generally better than the model root mean squared error of correlation-cross-validated values for each property.

  8. Detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria in children using a twenty-two target reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Chelsey; Misir, Amita; Hui, Charles; Jabbour, Mona; Barrowman, Nicholas; Langill, Jonathan; Bowes, Jennifer; Slinger, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rapid detection of the wide range of viruses and bacteria that cause respiratory infection in children is important for patient care and antibiotic stewardship. We therefore designed and evaluated a ready-to-use 22 target respiratory infection reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) panel to determine if this would improve detection of these agents at our pediatric hospital. RT-qPCR assays for twenty-two target organisms were dried-down in individual wells of 96 well plates and saved at room temperature. Targets included 18 respiratory viruses and 4 bacteria. After automated nucleic acid extraction of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples, rapid qPCR was performed. RT-qPCR results were compared with those obtained by the testing methods used at our hospital laboratories. One hundred fifty-nine pediatric NPA samples were tested with the RT-qPCR panel. One or more respiratory pathogens were detected in 132/159 (83%) samples. This was significantly higher than the detection rate of standard methods (94/159, 59%) (Pviruses, bocavirus, and coronaviruses. The panel internal control assay performance remained stable at room temperature storage over a two-month testing period. The RT-qPCR panel was able to identify pathogens in a high proportion of respiratory samples. The panel detected more positive specimens than the methods in use at our hospital. The pre-made panel format was easy to use and rapid, with results available in approximately 90 minutes. We now plan to determine if use of this panel improves patient care and antibiotic stewardship.

  9. Awareness and use of folic acid among reproductive age and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köken, Gülengül N; Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Erol, Onur; Saygın, Nimet; Ayık, Hülya; Karaca, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation during the pre-conception period and first trimester of pregnancy reduces the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). In this study, our aim is to investigate knowledge and use of folic acid among women attending our clinic. Between January 2012 and June 2012, 817 participants, consisting of 345 pregnant and 472 non-pregnant women, were enrolled in this survey. A questionnaire including socio-demographic information, knowledge and use of folic acid was applied. 48.2% of participants were aware of folic acid for the prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge and use of folic acid increase with socio-economic status and educational level. Participants who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals as common sources of information. Although 88.2% of the pregnancies were planned among the currently pregnant women, only 14.2% of them stated that they had used folic acid in the pre-conception period. The use of folic acid during the first trimester among pregnant women was 48.6%. Furthermore, 18.4% of participants had not used folic acid and 29.3% of them had not remembered whether they had or not. Even though 94.4% of health care professionals had heard about folic acid, 28.3% reported that they had used folic acid before pregnancy. It is thought that there is a relatively high incidence of NTD in Turkey, which is due to inadequate information about NTDs and the use of folic acid. Primarily health care professionals such as midwives, nurses and family physicians should aim to inform all reproductive age women about folic acid for the prevention of NTDs, who should be encouraged to take the supplement when planning pregnancy.

  10. Moderate physical activity level as a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Huei; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Yates, Patsy; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Hung, Yi-Jen; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether physical activity is a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors contribute to metabolic syndrome. To minimise the risk of metabolic syndrome, several global guidelines recommend increasing physical activity level. However, only limited research has investigated the relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors. Cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 326 middle-aged and older women was recruited. Metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and physical activity levels were measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sample had a mean age of 60·9 years, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 43·3%. Postmenopausal women and women with low socioeconomic status (low-education background, without personal income and currently unemployed) had a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for significant socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, the women with moderate or high physical activity levels had a significantly lower (OR = 0·10; OR = 0·11, p socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, physical activity level was a significant protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Higher physical activity levels (moderate or high physical activity level) reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Appropriate strategies should be developed to encourage middle-aged and older women across different socio-demographic backgrounds to engage in moderate or high levels of physical activity to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15–44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women. PMID:19443827

  12. The influence of age at menarche on the fertility of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Sherry L; Poston, Dudley L

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of age at menarche on children ever born (CEB). We use data from the 1997 Sample Survey of Population and Reproductive Health conducted by the China Population Information and Research Center and the State Family Planning Commission. Poisson regression models are estimated for 10,919 ever married Chinese Han women. The influence of a woman's age at menarche on her CEB is examined while controlling for the social effects of rural/urban residency, education, her number of fecund years, whether her first birth occurred before or after the initiation of China's one child policy, and her age at first marriage. The results support our hypothesized positive association between age at menarche and CEB. That is, the later a woman's age at menarche, the greater her number of children ever born. Holding the other five independent variables constant, we show that for every additional month in age at menarche, a Chinese Han woman's mean number of children ever born increases by 0.5 percent. Some of the implications of these results are explored.

  13. Lifecourse adversity and physical performance across countries among men and women aged 65-74.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque Sousa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. METHODS: We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada, Natal (Brazil, Manizales (Colombia and Tirana (Albania. The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB. Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. RESULTS: A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life.

  14. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P

    2012-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15...... and biochemical hyperandrogenism, whereas older patients are more obese with more severe hirsutism and more cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors....

  15. Association between food insecurity and anemia among women of reproductive age

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    Bishwajit Ghose

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity and hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiency affect about two billion people globally. Household food insecurity (HFI has been shown to be associated with one or multiple micronutrient (MMN deficiencies among women and children. Chronic food insecurity leads to various deficiency disorders, among which anemia stands out as the most prevalent one. As a high malnutrition prevalent country, Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of anemia among all Asian countries. In this study, we wanted to investigate for any association exists between HFI and anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Methodology: Information about demographics, socioeconomic and anemia status on 5,666 married women ageing between 13 and 40 years were collected from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011. Food security was measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Capillary hemoglobin concentration (Hb measured by HemoCue® was used as the biomarker of anemia. Data were analysed using cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression methods. Results: Anemia prevalence was 41.7%. Logistic regression showed statistically significant association with anemia and type of residency (p = 0.459; OR = 0.953, 95%CI = 0.840–1.082, wealth status (Poorest: p < 0.001; OR = 1.369, 95%CI = 1.176–1.594; and average: p = 0.030; 95%CI = 1.017–1.398, educational attainment (p < 0.001; OR = 1.276, 95%CI = 1.132–1.439 and household food insecurity (p < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.348–1.830. Women who reported food insecurity were about 1.6 times more likely to suffer from anemia compared to their food secure counterparts. Conclusion: HFI is a significant predictor of anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Programs targeting HFI could prove beneficial for anemia reduction strategies. Gender aspects of food and nutrition insecurity should be taken

  16. An epidemiological study on vaginitis in 6,150 women of reproductive age in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Zhonghua; Wu, Zhaoxia; Qi, Xulin; Lin, Dongfang

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vaginitis, the proportion of pathogens, and cognition of reproductive age patients on the harmful effects of vaginitis, its risk factors, and treatment. This retrospective study enrolled 6,150 patients admitted to the Shanghai Jinshan Central Hospital from 2011 to 2015 with a chief complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge. A questionnaire was designed to survey the cognition of patients on the harmful effects of vaginitis. Routine gynecological examinations and laboratory tests were performed and the risk factors for contracting vaginitis were analyzed by multifactor logistic regression analysis. The positive pathogen rate was 65.63% (4,036/6,150). Trichomonas infections were diagnosed in 1,416 (35.08%) cases including 761 (18.86%) cases of single trichomonas infections, which was significantly higher than the proportion of any other single pathogen infection (Pvaginal infections as well as the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility, and on how to prevent vaginal infections. Logistic multifactor regression analysis revealed that advanced age, a low educational level, farmers, childbearing history and a low income were the risk factors for vaginitis. Women of reproductive age showed a high rate of vaginal infections and more attention should be paid to women with a low education level and income to reduce the incidence of vaginal infections in this population.

  17. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

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    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  18. Do women ⩾50 years of age need as much screening as women <50 years after they have had negative screening results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, P; Gallo, F; Bellomi, A; Ciatto, S; Consonni, D; Davi, D; Giorgi-Rossi, P; Iossa, A; Mancini, E; Naldoni, C; Polla, E; Ronco, G; Serafini, M; Vergini, V; Zanier, L; Zappa, M; Segnan, N

    2008-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of a routine screening to identify cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN2+) in women over 50 years of age, a retrospective cohort was set in six Italian organised population-based screening programmes. In all, 287 330 women (1 714 550 person-years of observation, 1110 cases) screened at age 25–64, with at least two cytological screening tests, the first negative, were followed from their first negative smear until a biopsy proven CIN2+ lesion or their last negative smear. For women aged 25–49 and 50–64 years, crude and age-standardised detection rate (DR), cumulative risk (CR), adjusted hazard risk for number of previous negative screens, probability of false-positive CIN2+ after two or more smear tests were calculated. Detection rate is significantly lower over 50 years of age. Multivariable analysis shows a significant protective effect from four screening episodes (DR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.51–0.97); the effect of age ⩾50 is 0.29 (95% CI: 0.24–0.35). The CR of CIN2+ is at least eightfold higher in women <50 (CR=2.06, 95% CI: 1.88–2.23) after one previous negative test than in women ⩾50 years with four screens (CR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.00–0.46). Over 50 years of age, after four tests at least three false-positive cases are diagnosed for every true positive. Benefits arising from cytological screening is uncertain in well-screened older women. PMID:18594534

  19. Self-perception of sexual life and associated factors: a population study conducted in women aged 50 or more years

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares,Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Machado,Vanessa de Souza Santos; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Osis, Maria José; Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto,Aarão Mendes

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of women aged 50 years or more who are sexually active and their self-perception with respect to their sexual lives. Associated factors were also assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based, self-reported household survey involving 622 Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors were evaluated. The sexual life self-perception was classified as very good, good, fair, poor, or very poor. Data were analy...

  20. A SHORT-TERM CIRCUIT RESISTANCE PROGRAMME REDUCED EPICARDIAL FAT IN OBESE AGED WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosety, Miguel Angel; Pery, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Pareja, Maria Antonia; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety, Jesus; Garcia, Natalia; Brenes-Martin, Francisco; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Toro, Rocío; Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Rosety, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    this study was conducted to ascertain the effects of resistance circuit training on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in obese aged women. A secondary objective was to assess muscle damage induced by supervised resistance training to confirm the intervention program was effective and safe. in the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Two experienced observers assessed EAT by transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using one-step sandwich assays for creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin (MB) concentration. as was hypothesized, resistance training significantly reduced EAT thickness (8.4 ± 1.0 vs. 7.3 ± 1.3 mm; p = 0.014; d = 0.76) in the experimental group. Resistance training induced no significant changes in markers of muscle damage such as CK (181.6 ± 36.9 vs. 194.2 ± 37.8 U/l; p = 0.31) and MB (62.4 ± 7.1 vs. 67.3 ± 7.7 ng/ml; p = 0.26). No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. resistance training reduced EAT in aged obese women. A secondary finding was that the training program was effective and safe. While current results are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

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    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women

  2. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  3. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid thickness in postmenopausal women and reproductive-age women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Göktaş, Altan; Arifoğlu, Hasan Basri; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-03-01

    Menopause is a physiological life period that potentially affects various organs and systems. Therefore, a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms of eyes may be clinically observed in the postmenopausal period. To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in postmenopausal women and compare with healthy reproductive-age women controls. The study population included a healthy reproductive-age control group (n = 72) and postmenopausal study group (n = 72). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. Peripapillary RNFL thickness parameters, macular thickness and choroidal thickness were evaluated. Superior inner macula, temporal inner macula, inferior inner macula, nasal inner macula, inferior outer macula and choroid thickness were significantly thinner in the postmenopausal study group than the healthy reproductive-age control group (p = 0.007, p = 0.037, p = 0.027, p = 0.006, p = 0.016, p choroid thickness was significantly thinner in the postmenopausal study group than controls (p (†) = 0.005). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured by SD-OCT was significantly thinner in postmenopausal women than healthy reproductive-age women. We can speculate that the decrease in choroidal thickness in postmenopausal women may indicate a reduced estrogen-dependent vasodilatory effect in ophthalmic artery secondary to menopausal estrogen deficiency.

  4. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped.

  5. The role of aging, body mass index and estrogen on symptomatic lumbar osteoarthritis in post-menopausal women

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    I Ketut Suyasa

    2016-05-01

    Results: From 196 samples showed that the estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women have a correlation with the symptomatic lumbar OA (r=0.252, p = 0.000. While age and the body mass index in postmenopausal women has a correlation with symptomatic lumbar OA (r = 0.150 and 0.198, p = 0.000 and 0.013. Conclusions: The aging process, body mass index and estrogen deficiency correlated with the symptomatic OA lumbar in post-menopausal women. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1325-1328

  6. Dietary diversification for prevention of anaemia among women of childbearing age from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Smita; Bhide, Pradnya; Puranik, Bhairavi; Asawari, Kanade

    2014-04-01

    To assess the impact of an intervention modifying dietary habits for the prevention of anaemia in rural India. Intervention study with data on anthropometric (weight, height) measurements, Hb and diet pattern. As per the cut-off for Hb in the government programme, women with Hb 11 g/dl formed the non-supplemented group. Settings Three villages near Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Rural non-pregnant women (n 317) of childbearing age (15-35 years). After 1 year of intervention, mean Hb increased (from 10.94 (sd 1.22) g/dl to 11.59 (sd 1.11) g/dl) significantly (P 50% of the meetings or repeating >50% of the recipes at home (0.45 g/dl) in the non-supplemented group and was smaller than that observed in the supplemented group. Consumption of green leafy vegetables more than twice weekly increased substantially from 44.7% to 60.6%, as did consumption of seasonal fruits. Logistic regression showed that women with lower participation in the intervention had three times higher risk (OR = 3.08; 95% CI 1.04, 9.13; P = 0.04) for no gain in Hb compared with those having high participation. Developing action programmes for improving nutritional awareness to enhance the consumption of Fe-rich foods has great potential for preventing anaemia in rural India.

  7. Physical Functioning Trends among US Women and Men Age 45-64 by Education Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacova, Anna; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2017-01-01

    Functional limitations and disability declined in the US during the 1980s and 1990s, but reports of early 21st century trends are mixed. Whether educational inequalities in functioning increased or decreased is also poorly understood. Given the importance of disability for productivity, independent living, and health care costs, these trends are critical to US social and health policies. We examine recent trends in functional limitations and disability among women and men aged 45-64. Using 2000-2015 National Health Interview Surveys data on over 155,000 respondents, semiparametric and logistic regression models visualize and test functioning trends by education. Among women and men with at least a college degree, there was no change in disability and mild increase in limitations over time. All other education levels experienced significant increases in functioning problems ranging from 18% higher odds of functional limitations in 2015 compared to 2000 among men with some college to about 80% increase in the odds of disability among women and men with less than high school education. The similar trends for both genders suggest common underlying causes, possibly including the worsening economic well-being of middle- and working-class families. The pervasive growth of functioning problems is a cause for concern that necessitates further scholarly investigation.

  8. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

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    Anuradha Narayankhedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was detected by Nugent’s scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9% women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%, vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%, malodor 5 (4.5%, pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%, and dysuria 1 (0.9%. The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30% cases, of which 18 (54.5% were C. albicans and 15 (45.5% non-albicans Candida (NAC infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n=10, C. tropicalis (n=3, and C. krusei (n=2. BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3% and 2 (1.8% cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p=0.001 and vulval itching/irritation (p=0.007 was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management.

  9. Dioxin-like compounds and endometriosis: a study on Italian and Belgian women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felip, Elena; Porpora, Maria Grazia; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Cardelli, Massimo; Cosmi, Ermelando V; Donnez, Jacques

    2004-04-21

    Compounds with dioxin-like toxicity are suspected to adversely affect human reproduction even at current background exposures. Endometriosis, a gynecological disorder often associated with infertility, has been hypothesized to be linked to dioxins and similar chemicals, a hypothesis supported by the outcome of experimental studies on animal models. Endometriosis severity and incidence in Belgium is one of the highest of the world: in this country, the general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds has been, on average, higher than in most industrialized countries. Here we show the results of a pilot case-control study carried out on 22 Italian and 18 Belgian women of reproductive age, with and without endometriosis. No significant differences were found in dioxin-like compound body burdens between cases and controls on a country basis, whereas the body burdens of the Italian women resulted to be significantly lower than that of the Belgian. In particular, total TEQs in Italian and Belgian women without endometriosis were respectively 18 and 45 pg WHO-TE/g lb.

  10. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATION OF BREAST MILK IN RELATION WITH AGE AND PARITY OF NURSING WOMEN

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    Zofia Goc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determination of the concentration of calcium and magnesium in human milk (n=150 taken from nursing women who lived permanently in Malopolska district (South Poland. Milk samples were classified into groups taking into account women’ age and parity. According to the various age of the women milk samples were segregated into three groups: 20-25 years old, 26-31 years old and 32-37 years old. Included parity milk samples were spitted into two groups: the first group consisted of women who were primiparous (1 baby, the second group included women who were multiparous (≥2 babies. Milk samples were taken between the 7th and 14th day of the postpartum in each age group. The samples were taken by manual expression every morning. The analyses of metals were done by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS, after all samples had been collected. The mean concentration of cooper in milk taken from women of first age group (20-25 years old was 209.44±15.10 mg/L, in second group (26-31 years old was 238.65±13.34 mg/L and in the oldest group (32-37 years old was 261.44±17.16 mg/L. The mean concentration of magnesium in the same group of age was 42.12±3.793 mg/L, 47.51±2.728 mg/L and 45.43±3.840 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration of calcium in milk taken from primiparous was 223.17±10.50mg/L, in multiparous was 266.37±16.20 mg/L. Whereas, the mean concentration of magnesium in transitional milk taken from the same group was 44.12±2.58 mg/L and 47.412±3.16 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that there were statistically significant differences between calcium level in milk taken from the youngest group and the concentration of this metal in milk from the oldest group (p=0.032. Also, when comparing women’s parity, significant differences were found in the concentration of calcium (p=0.022. However, the differences in magnesium levels between tested groups were no statistically significant

  11. The experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrighi, Juliane Dias; Wall, Marilene Loewen; Souza, Silvana Regina Rossi Kissula; Cancela, Franciane Zabloski Vieira

    2016-01-01

    To identify in the literature how the experiences of women age 35 or above are described in terms of pregnancy. Integrative review based on MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, with no time period constraint. Eighteen studies that dealt with the experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age were selected and analyzed. The studies evidenced four theme categories: the search for information, which pointed to a deficit of information supplied by health care professionals; perceiving the risks, which pointed to women's concerns about their own health and their children's; the ideal moment for motherhood, with different reasons for postponing it; and adjusting to a new routine, showing a concern regarding changes in daily life. From the results, it was possible to understand that other factors, in addition to those that include risks, are present in the experiences of older pregnant women and point to a need to involve such aspects in nursing care to create comprehensive strategies that are aligned with these women's needs. Identificar na literatura como são descritas as experiências das mulheres com idade igual ou superior a 35 anos na gestação. Revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS e SciELO, sem restrição de período. Foram selecionados e analisados 18 estudos que tratavam das experiências das mulheres na gestação em idade avançada. Os estudos evidenciaram quatro categorias temáticas: A busca por informações, que mostrou aspectos como deficit de informações fornecidas pelos profissionais da saúde;Percebendo os riscos, que apontou uma preocupação da mulher com a própria saúde e a do filho;Momento ideal para a maternidade, com diferentes motivos para o adiamento; e Adaptação à nova rotina, com a preocupação em relação às mudanças no cotidiano. A partir dos resultados, foi possível compreender que outros fatores, além dos que incluem os riscos, permeiam as experi

  12. The prevalence, age distribution and comorbidity of personality disorders in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid

  13. Prediction of Age at Menopause in Women of Suburban Areas in Chennai Using A Model of Fsh Over Age - A Pilot Study

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    SM Priyadharshini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The human ovary is characterized by early senescence and the end stage of ovarian activity is termed menopause. The age at which menopause occur is between 45 and 55 years world wide. The objective of this pilot study is to determine the age at menopause by using a model of FSH over age in women of sub urban region around Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: The subjects include 500 patients of age between 30 and 36 yrs with BMI ranging from 24-28.After recording their general profile and history, blood samples were obtained by venipuncture and hormone FSH was estimated on the day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Based on functional dependence of FSH in the form of exponential relation with age, a model was proposed. Using least square approximation the beta values were calculated. Results: With the help of beta values and using the cut off value of 40 IU/ml for FSH, this predicted model determined the age of menopause as 44.6yrs in women of sub urban region around Chennai. Conclusion: The age of menopause is different in various region worlds wide. According to this pilot study the suburban women of Chennai, attain menopause at an age of 44.6 years. Further exploration should be done to alleviate the role of diet, life style and ethnic variation on menopausal age and the impact of chronic disease like osteoporosis during the period of menopause.

  14. Interactive effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype and age on sources of cortical rhythms in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Nina V; Belousova, Ludmila V; Knyazev, Gennady G; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-11-01

    This study was aimed to localize the effects of 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) on the age differences of spontaneous EEG activity in women using neuroimaging analysis sLORETA (Standardized Low Resolution brain Electromagnetic Tomography). DNA samples extracted from cheek swabs and resting-state EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from young (YW, N=86, 18-35years) and older (OW, N=45; 55-80years) healthy women. We have shown that advanced age was associated with increased posterior EEG desynchronization in S'/S'. S' (LG allele was grouped with S alleles owing to its functional equivalence and this group was labeled as S') genotype carriers denoted by decrease of delta - beta1 current source density, and to a lesser extent in L/L homozygotes denoted by decrease in delta activity. In heterozygotes OW, as compared with heterozygotes YW, higher source density estimates of beta1 in frontal and temporal cortex were observed. Age differences were more pronounced in the right hemisphere in S'/S' and L/L carriers and in the left hemisphere in heterozygotes. We also found that in OW, current source density estimates of theta, alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 and beta1 sources in the right occipital lobe were higher in S'/L than in S'/S' carriers. These results may have implications for understanding 5-HTT-dependent variation in the effect of aging on brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Age as a predictive factor of mammographic breast density in Jamaican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Deanne; Reid, Marvin; James, Michael

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We sought to determine the relationship between age, and other clinical characteristics such as parity, oestrogen use, dietary factors and menstrual history on breast density in Jamaican women. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was done of 891 patients who attended the breast imaging unit. The clinical characteristics were extracted from the patient records. Mammograms were assessed independently by two radiologists who were blinded to the patient clinical characteristics. Breast densities were assigned using the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification. RESULTS: The concordance between the ACR classification of breast density between the two independent radiologists was 92% with k = 0.76 (SE = 0.02, P < 0.001). Women with low breast density were heavier (81.3 {+-} 15.5 kg vs 68.4 {+-} 14.3 kg,P < 0.0001, mean {+-} standard deviation (SD)) and more obese (body mass index (BMI), 30.3 {+-} 5.8 kg m{sup -2} vs 26.0 {+-} 5.2 kg m{sup -2}, P < 0.0001). Mammographic breast density decreased with age. The age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for predictors significantly related to high breast density were parity, OR = 0.79 (95%CI:0.71, 0.88), weight, OR = 0.92 (95% CI:0.91, 0.95), BMI, OR = 0.83 (95% CI:0.78, 0.89), menopause, OR = 0.51 (95% CI:0.36, 0.74) and a history of previous breast surgery, OR 1.6 (95% CI:1.1, 2.3). CONCLUSION: The rate decline of breast density with age in our population was influenced by parity and body composition. Soares, D. et al. (2002)

  16. Calidad del hueso en mujeres de edad mediana Bone quality in women of mean age

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    Daysi A. Navarro Despaigne

    2007-04-01

    quality in postmenopausal Cuban women. To determine frequency of a poor bone quality in women of mean age, and to determine some associated factors, a transversal and drescriptive suty was made from January 2003 to December 2004, in a group composed by women aged between 40 and 59 from “Heroes del Moncada” Polyclinic (n= 252, and another 70 assisting consecutevely to Climateric and Osteoporosis Clinic (ClimOs. In each woman present age was determined, skin color, smoking, and present climateric stage, and those presenting with diabetes mellitus we also assessed disease evolution time, which treatment hypoglucemic is prescribed, as well as level of glycosilated hemoglobin. Assessment of bone quality was performed by heel ultrasound (US. As result, it was possible to achieve a rate of poor quality bone among primary care women of 5/1000 women. Among persons present to ClimOs, 34,5 % has a poor bone quality with a greater frequency (p, 0.05 among diabetic ones, and age between 50 and 59 years and postmenospausal perior, were the more frequent factors associated with a poor quality bone, although influence of diabetes mellitus wasn't determined.

  17. Effect of daily supplementation with iron and zinc on iron status of childbearing age women.

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    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation with 30 mg of iron (Fe) plus 30 mg of zinc (Zn) for 3 months on Fe status of women of childbearing age. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-one women (18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either a daily single dose of 30 mg of Fe (group 1; n = 28) and 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn (group 2; n = 26) or placebo (n = 27) for 3 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, serum Fe, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte Zn protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), total body Fe, serum Zn, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. At baseline, 3.7, 28.4, and 3.7 % of women had iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), Fe deficiency without anemia, and depleted Fe stores, respectively. No significant differences on Fe status were found between groups before supplementation. After supplementation, group 2 showed a significant increase of Hb and total body Fe and a significant decrease of TfR compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Moreover, serum Zn increased significantly in group 2 compared with group 1 (p < 0.01) and placebo (p < 0.01). In conclusion, daily supplementation with 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn for 3 months improved significantly the Fe and Zn status of women, compared with those who received placebo. The positive effect of Fe supplementation on Fe status is enhanced by combined Zn supplementation.

  18. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age.

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    Andreas Lundin

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics.Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434, and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI per decrease in stanine intelligence.In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07-1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09 and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09-1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.14 during 1986 to 2009.Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course.

  19. Evaluating GWAS-identified SNPs for age at natural menopause among chinese women.

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    Chong Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age at natural menopause (ANM is a complex trait with high heritability and is associated with several major hormonal-related diseases. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS, conducted exclusively among women of European ancestry, have discovered dozens of genetic loci influencing ANM. No study has been conducted to evaluate whether these findings can be generalized to Chinese women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 19 GWAS-identified genetic susceptibility loci for ANM among 3,533 Chinese women who had natural menopause. We also investigated 3 additional SNPs which were in LD with the index SNP in European-ancestry but not in Asian-ancestry populations. Two genetic risk scores (GRS were calculated to summarize SNPs across multiple loci one for all SNPs tested (GRSall, and one for SNPs which showed association in our study (GRSsel. All 22 SNPs showed the same association direction as previously reported. Eight SNPs were nominally statistically significant with P≤0.05: rs4246511 (RHBDL2, rs12461110 (NLRP11, rs2307449 (POLG, rs12611091 (BRSK1, rs1172822 (BRSK1, rs365132 (UIMC1, rs2720044 (ASH2L, and rs7246479 (TMEM150B. Especially, SNPs rs4246511, rs365132, rs1172822, and rs7246479 remained significant even after Bonferroni correction. Significant associations were observed for GRS. Women in the highest quartile began menopause 0.7 years (P = 3.24×10(-9 and 0.9 years (P = 4.61×10(-11 later than those in the lowest quartile for GRSsel and GRSall, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among the 22 investigated SNPs, eight showed associations with ANM (P<0.05 in our Chinese population. Results from this study extend some recent GWAS findings to the Asian-ancestry population and may guide future efforts to identify genetic determination of menopause.

  20. Visual impairment at baseline is associated with future poor physical functioning among middle-aged women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Michigan Site.

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    Chandrasekaran, Navasuja; Harlow, Sioban; Moroi, Sayoko; Musch, David; Peng, Qing; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence rates of poor functioning and of disability are increasing among middle-aged individuals. Visual impairment is associated with poor functioning among older adults but little is known about the impact of vision on functioning during midlife. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of visual impairment on future physical functioning among middle-aged women. In this longitudinal study, the sample consisted of 483 women aged 42 to 56 years, from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. At baseline, distance and near vision were measured using a Titmus vision screener. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity worse than 20/40. Physical functioning was measured up to 10 years later using performance-based measures, including a 40-foot timed walk, timed stair climb and forward reach. Women with impaired distance vision at baseline had 2.81 centimeters less forward reach distance (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.19, -1.42) and 4.26s longer stair climb time (95% CI: 2.73, 5.79) at follow-up than women without impaired distance vision. Women with impaired near vision also had less forward reach distance (2.26 centimeters, 95% CI: -3.30, -1.21) than those without impaired near vision. Among middle-aged women, visual impairment is a marker of poor physical functioning. Routine eye testing and vision correction may help improve physical functioning among midlife individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma in young white women, age 18 to 44 years.

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    Patel, Sagar C; Carpenter, William R; Tyree, Seth; Couch, Marion Everett; Weissler, Mark; Hackman, Trevor; Hayes, D Neil; Shores, Carol; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2011-04-10

    To evaluate the incidence of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) in young white women, age 18 to 44 years. We analyzed incidence and survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute from 1975 to 2007 for OCSCC and OTSCC. Three cohorts were examined: all ages, age 18 to 44 years (ie, "young"), and age > 44 years. Individuals were stratified by sex and/or race. Percentage change (PC) and annual percentage change (APC) were calculated. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to examine trend differences. Overall, incidence of OCSCC was decreasing for all ages. However, incidence was increasing for young white women (PC, 34.8; APC, 2.2; P < .05). Incidence of OTSCC was decreasing for all ages except in the age 18 to 44 years group (PC, 28.8; APC, 1.8; P < .05). Young white individuals had increasing incidence trends of OTSCC (white women: PC, 111.3; APC, 4; P < .05; young white men: PC, 43.7; APC, 1.6; P < .05). The APC of OTSCC was significantly greater in young white women compared with that in young white men (P = .007). Furthermore, incidence of SCC in all other subsites of the oral cavity was decreasing. Nonwhites had a decreasing incidence of OCSCC and OTSCC. Cause-specific survival was similar among whites age 18 to 44 and individuals older than age 44 years. OTSCC is increasing among young white individuals age 18 to 44 years, particularly among white women. Young white women may be a new, emerging head and neck cancer patient population.

  2. Age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women investigated with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET - a preliminary study

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    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Tateishi, Ukihide; Yoneyama, Tomohiro; Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between age and regional skeletal uptake at sites consisting of either predominantly trabecular or cortical bone using {sup 18}F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) in pre- and postmenopausal women. Thirty-two women (40.6 {+-} 12.3 years; age range 25-72 years) were assigned to one of two groups: group 1 comprised 22 premenopausal women (33 {+-} 6.5 years; age range 25-48 years) and group 2 comprised 10 postmenopausal women (56 {+-} 6.7 years; age range 49-72 years). The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was determined from the lumbar spine and the humeral shaft. Student's t-test for each unpaired dataset was used to evaluate statistical differences between the two groups. The SUVmax values for the humeral shaft and the lumbar spine were compared with aging. The SUVmax (mean {+-} SD) was 1.2 {+-} 0.5 in the humeral shaft and 4.7 {+-} 1.0 in the lumbar spine. The SUVmax in the humeral shaft correlated significantly with advancing age (r = 0.67, P < 0.01). The SUVmax in the lumbar spine declined significantly with advancing age (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The humeral shaft of women in group 1 exhibited a significantly lower SUVmax compared to that in group 2 (1.1 {+-} 0.4 versus 1.6 {+-} 0.6; P < 0.05). On the other hand, the lumbar spine of women in group 1 exhibited a significantly higher SUVmax compared to that in group 2 (5.1 {+-} 0.7 versus 4.0 {+-} 1.1; P < 0.05). The mean SUVmax in the lumbar spine was 2.5 times greater than that in the humeral shaft in group 2. Semiquantitative analysis with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET might be a useful tool for analyzing age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women. (orig.)

  3. Status of serum vitamin D and calcium levels in women of reproductive age in national capital territory of India

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    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem, associated with lack of sunlight exposure in spite of abundant sunshine usually accompanied by reduced dietary intake. In women of reproductive age, Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Aims: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the levels of serum Vitamin D 25(OH D and calcium in women of reproductive age from India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried on a total of 224 healthy nonpregnant and nonlactating women in the reproductive age group of 20–49 years. Materials and Methods: Demographic, socioeconomic class, and biochemical parameters for the estimation of serum 25(OHD and calcium levels in women of reproductive age were studied. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was utilized for conducting the statistical analysis of the data. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml was present in 88% of women. Women from middle socioeconomic class had the lowest mean serum 25(OH D levels (9.6 ± 6 ng/ml as compared to women from upper middle (11.4 ± 8 ng/ml, lower (11.2 ± 8 ng/ml, and upper (10 ± 8.6 ng/ml socioeconomic class. Serum calcium levels were found in the normal range of 8.5–10.5 mg/dl for all the study subjects. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among women of reproductive age. These women may possibly have a higher risk of development of osteoporosis and pregnancy-related complications in future life.

  4. Age and education influence the performance of elderly women on the dual-task Timed Up and Go test

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    Gisele de Cássia Gomes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait variability is related to functional decline in the elderly. The dual-task Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-DT reflects the performance in daily activities. Objective To evaluate the differences in time to perform the TUG with and without DT in elderly women with different ages and levels of education and physical activity. Method Ninety-two elderly women perfomed the TUG at usual and fast speeds, with and without motor and cognitive DT. Results Increases in the time to perform the TUG-DT were observed at older ages and lower educational levels, but not at different levels of physical activity. More educated women performed the test faster with and without DT at both speeds. When age was considered, significant differences were found only for the TUG-DT at both speeds. Conclusion Younger women with higher education levels demonstrated better performances on the TUG-DT.

  5. Age and education influence the performance of elderly women on the dual-task Timed Up and Go test.

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    Gomes, Gisele de Cássia; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Fonseca, Bruna Espeschit; Freitas, Flávia Alexandra Silveira de; Fonseca, Maria Luísa Morais; Pacheco, Bruna Débora; Gonçalves, Marisa Rocha; Caramelli, Paulo

    2015-03-01

    Gait variability is related to functional decline in the elderly. The dual-task Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-DT) reflects the performance in daily activities. Objective To evaluate the differences in time to perform the TUG with and without DT in elderly women with different ages and levels of education and physical activity. Method Ninety-two elderly women perfomed the TUG at usual and fast speeds, with and without motor and cognitive DT. Results Increases in the time to perform the TUG-DT were observed at older ages and lower educational levels, but not at different levels of physical activity. More educated women performed the test faster with and without DT at both speeds. When age was considered, significant differences were found only for the TUG-DT at both speeds. Conclusion Younger women with higher education levels demonstrated better performances on the TUG-DT.

  6. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

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    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels.

  7. Conditions of life and climacteric in middle aged women in a health area of Sancti Spiritus.

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    Silvia Esther de la Torre Cárdenas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric is one of the difficult steps in women life in which a particular attention is needed by the doctor and a big comprehension from the social point of view. A retrospective descriptive study was made in the South Area Polyclinic of Sancti Spiritus Municipality, period january – april 2007, with a female population having between 45 -59 years of age from 8 family medical clinics, 4 belonging to the urban area and 4 to the rural one (191 in total, including all which referred to present any disorder with the menstrual cycle due to excess or defect in the 6 months previous to interview (165 in total with the objective to evaluate the relation between conditions of life and the frequency; criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome. Life conditions, kind of work, kind of activity carried out and associated pathologies are the factors that according to the study influence in frequency, criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome in middle aged women and the overhead given by the conditioning of gender, favored the appearance of symptoms such as hot, depression, anxiety, tachycardia and vaginal dryness.

  8. Pregnancy-specific stress, preterm birth, and gestational age among high-risk young women.

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    Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Kershaw, Trace S; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; Lin, Haiqun; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that pregnancy-specific stress is associated with preterm birth. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between change in pregnancy-specific stress over the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) in an understudied but vulnerable group using a theoretically derived model. Multivariate linear and logistic regression techniques were used to examine the association between pregnancy-specific stress (measured in second and third trimester) and length of gestation (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) among a sample of 920 Black and/or Latina adolescent and young women. Second trimester pregnancy-specific stress was not associated with preterm birth or gestational age. Third trimester pregnancy-specific stress was associated with preterm birth but not with gestational age. Change in pregnancy-specific stress between second and third trimester was significantly associated with increased likelihood of preterm delivery and shortened gestational age, even after controlling for important biological, behavioral, psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural risk factors. Findings emphasize the importance of measuring pregnancy-specific stress across pregnancy, as the longitudinal change from second to third trimester was significantly associated with length of gestation measured both as a dichotomous variable (preterm birth) and a continuous variable (gestational age). Furthermore, this is the first study to observe the association of pregnancy-specific stress with length of gestation in this understudied population-unique in age, race, and ethnicity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Attitude of Reproductive Age Women towards Factors Affecting Induced Abortion in Hamedan, Iran

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    Seyede Zahra Masoumi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Abortion is the third leading cause of maternal mortality. The attitude of women towards abortion is one of the most important factors involved in this issue. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of women of reproductive age towards induced abortion. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 450 women of reproductive age in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamedan, Iran in 2014. Data was collected using abortion attitude scale consisting of five sections: socioeconomic status, family status, maternal and fetal health status, psycho -cultural background, and fertility status. Mean score less than three in each domain was considered as negative attitude, while scores higher or equal to three indicated positive attitude towards induced abortion. To analyze the data, logistic regression analysis, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed using SPSS version 21. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, induced abortion had no significant relationship with family status, maternal and fetal health, and fertility domains (82.1%, 77.3%, and 64.4%, respectively. A relationship was observed between induced abortion and socioeconomic and psycho-cultural domains (61.8% and 56%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of induced abortion were the attitude towards the effect of abortion on the health of mother and fetus (P= 0.01, as well as the psychocultural status of the mothers (P= 0.02. Conclusion: Evaluation of the results indicated a strong belief in the majority of the participants in psychocultural and socioeconomic domains as the most significant predictive factors for induced abortion. Since it is difficult to alter the socioeconomic and psychocultural domains of individuals, changes are recommended in predominant attitudes towards induced abortion.

  10. Epidemiology of Kienböck's disease in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women.

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    Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Maeda, Junichiro; Abe, Yasuyo; Arima, Kazuhiko; Tomita, Masato; Koseki, Hironobu; Kaida, Eiji; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been done on the prevalence of Kienböck's disease, and there is no consensus on the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Kienböck's disease in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women and to clarify the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. The authors analyzed plain radiographs of both hands in women 40 years and older residing in the community to investigate the prevalence of Kienböck's disease and the relationship between Kienböck's disease and negative ulnar variance. Kienböck's disease was seen in 7 of the 572 participants. In the group with Kienböck's disease, ulnar variance did not differ significantly between affected (0.3 mm; SD, 1.5) and unaffected (0.3 mm; SD, 1.0; P=.285) sides. No significant difference was seen in ulnar variance values between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease and the normal group (P=.118). The number or proportion of participants with negative ulnar variance did not differ significantly between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease (3 of 7) and the unaffected side in the group with Kienböck's disease (1 of 7; P=.237) and between the affected side in the group with Kienböck's disease and the normal group (111 of 504; P=.189) by chi-square test. The prevalence of Kienböck's disease was 1.2% in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. Negative ulnar variance is not a contributing factor to Kienböck's disease.

  11. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania

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    Exavery Amon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single women. Majority of the women (73.4% reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41. This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  12. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

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    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  13. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

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    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85