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Sample records for twenty-two healthy young

  1. Characteristics of sildenafil erections in healthy young men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onder Yaman; Zafer Tokatli; Murat Akand; Atilla H. Elhan; Kadri Anafarta

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of sildenafil citrate on the nocturnal penile erections (I.e. Time to onset, the duration of erection, and the interval between first and second erections) of healthy young men. Methods: Twenty-two potent men, 23-29 years old, were recruited for the study. All subjects completed three sessions over consecutive nights using the RigiScan monitoring device (Dacomed, Minneapolis, USA). After a first night of adaptation, night 2 records were their baseline values, and on night 3 they received 100 mg of sildenafil citrate. Statistical comparisons were done between the second and third night data. Results: The mean time to onset of the first erection with sildenafil citrate was (34 ± 18) min, whereas it was (74 ± 24) min (P < 0.001) without sildenafil citrate. The number of erections observed during the first 5 h after sildenafil citrate medication was 3.6 ± 0.5 in contrast to 2.4 ± 0.5 with no medication (P = 0.001). The interval between first and second erections was shorter with sildenafil citrate: (52 ± 26) min vs.(85 ± 34) min (P = 0.01). The duration of the last erection was statistically significantly longer with the sildenafil citrate: (64 ± 33) min vs. (42 ± 28) min (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Healthy young men achieved erection within 34 min after sildenafil citrate administration, which is shorter than the 1 h interval proposed by the manufacturer. The interval between the first and second erections was shorter and the duration of the last nocturnal erection was longer.

  2. Pulmonary function studies in young healthy Malaysians of Kelantan, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    ... (64 males, 64 females) non-smoking healthy young subjects were randomly sampled for the study from the Kelantanese students' population of the University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia...

  3. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhart, Denise; Pasma, Jantsje; Pasma, J.H.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull

  4. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  5. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration con

  6. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  7. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  8. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  9. Ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Shanmugam; Rai, Santosh B; Parsons, Helen; Drew, Steve; Smith, Christopher D; Griffin, Damian R

    2014-08-01

    No studies have looked at the rotator cuff dimensions in the young healthy population using ultrasonography. Our aim is to define the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff in the healthy young adult population and explore correlations with other patient characteristics. Thirty male and 30 female healthy volunteers (aged 18-40 years), with no shoulder problems, underwent ultrasound assessment of both shoulders by a musculoskeletal radiologist. The dimensions of the rotator cuff, deltoid, and biceps were measured in a standardized manner. A total of 120 shoulders were scanned. The mean maximum width of the supraspinatus footprint was 14.9 mm in men and 13.5 mm in women (P infraspinatus was 4.9 mm in men and 4.4 mm in women. There was no correlation between height, weight, biceps, or deltoid thickness with any tendon measurements. Apart from supraspinatus tendon thickness, the difference between dominant and nondominant shoulders in the same sex was not significant for any other tendon dimensions. This study has defined the dimensions of the rotator cuff in the young healthy adult, which has not been previously published. This is important for the documentation of normal ultrasound anatomy of the rotator cuff and also demonstrates that the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can and should be used to estimate the expected dimensions. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebellar contributions to neurological soft signs in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Stieltjes, Bram; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in psychiatric disorders of significant neurodevelopmental origin, e.g., in patients with schizophrenia and autism. Yet NSS are also present in healthy individuals suggesting a neurodevelopmental signature of motor function, probably as a continuum between health and disease. So far, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these motor phenomena in healthy persons, and it is even less known whether the cerebellum contributes to NSS expression. Thirty-seven healthy young adults (mean age = 23 years) were studied using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and "resting-state" functional MRI at three Tesla. NSS levels were measured using the "Heidelberg Scale." Cerebellar gray matter volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Cerebellar function was assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local network strength. The relationship between cerebellar structure and function and NSS was analyzed using regression models. There was no significant relationship between cerebellar volume and NSS (p motor coordination" and "hard signs" NSS domains. A negative relationship was found between lobule VI activity and "complex motor task" domain (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). The data indicate that in healthy young adults, distinct NSS domains are related to cerebellar activity, specifically with activity of cerebellar subregions with known cortical somatomotor projections. In contrast, cerebellar volume is not predictive of NSS in healthy persons.

  11. Lesson Twenty-two The early repolarization variant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2007-01-01

    @@ The ST-segment elevation seen in apparently healthy and asymptomatic persons,the so-called early repolarization variant (ERPV)1.Hiss et al reported that 91% of 6014 healthy men in the US Air Force who were between 16 and 58 years old had an ST-segment elevation of 0.1 to 0.3 mV in one or more precordial leads2.The elevation was most common and marked in lead V2.

  12. Six Different Fat Tolerance Tests in Young, Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Winther; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    Background: exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increaseed cardiovascular risk. Meals with different types of fat may effect postprandial responses differently. the aim og is tudy bwas to evaluate the postprandial lipemia in young healthy subjects after six oral fat...... tolerenctes (OFTT) with varying amoun of saturated fat. Methods: With six different types of fatin random order to tomatoes we measured postprandial lipemia, lipoprotein, glucose and insulin increments for eight hours in 14 young lean healthy students, seven of each gender. The area under the curve (AUC......) was dtermined for the postprandial values. Results: The meals with six types of butters had similar postprandial response even if the saturated fat content varied with 50%.Gender significantly affected the TG responses, as time to pesk was 90 minutes in women and 180 min in men. Postprandial AUC was higherwith...

  13. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2007-01-01

    the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...

  14. Pulmonary function studies in young healthy Malaysians of Kelantan, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pulmonary function tests have been evolved as clinical tools in diagnosis, management and follow up of respiratory diseases as it provides objective information about the status of an individual's respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among the male and female young Kelantanese Malaysians of Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and to compare the data with other populations. Methods: A total of 128 (64 males, 64 females) non-smoking healthy y...

  15. Methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer in healthy young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Batistela

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug.

  16. Unusual Perioperative Cardiac Emergency in a Healthy Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Ganjoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious cardiac complications occurring during noncardiac surgery in a young and otherwise normal person can be quite alarming for the anesthesiologist. We report here the case of a young, healthy woman who immediately after an uncomplicated spinal surgery developed a clinical picture suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction (MI with positive relevant investigations. However, she had an abrupt and full clinical recovery and complete normalization of her cardiac investigations within a few days of this event and thereafter continued to lead a normal, symptom-free life unlike the usual course in an MI; her coronary angiography was also normal. A diagnosis of perioperative stress-induced cardiomyopathy or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was subsequently made. This condition is characterized by a rapid, severe, but reversible, cardiac dysfunction triggered by physical or mental stress. Awareness of this entity should help anesthesiologists manage better this infrequent, but potentially life-threatening, perioperative complication.

  17. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes......BACKGROUND: To examine whether time of the day has an effect on the circulating levels of metabolism parameters. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained under standardized conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours. The metabolic markers and melatonin were examined...

  18. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, D; Pasma, J H; Schouten, A C; Aarts, R G K M; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B; van der Kooij, H

    2016-03-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields.

  19. Pramipexole Impairs Stimulus-Response Learning in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Haley; Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic therapy has paradoxical effects on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with some functions worsened and others improved. The dopamine overdose hypothesis is proposed as an explanation for these opposing effects of medication taking into account the varying levels of dopamine within different brain regions in PD. The detrimental effects of medication on cognition have been attributed to exogenous dopamine overdose in brain regions with spared dopamine levels in PD. It has been demonstrated that learning is most commonly worsened by dopaminergic medication. The current study aimed to investigate whether the medication-related learning impairment exhibited in PD patients is due to a main effect of medication by evaluating the dopamine overdose hypothesis in healthy young adults. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40 healthy young undergraduate students completed a stimulus-response learning task. Half of the participants were treated with 0.5 mg of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, whereas the other half were treated with a placebo. We found that stimulus-response learning was significantly impaired in participants on pramipexole relative to placebo controls. These findings are consistent with the dopamine overdose hypothesis and suggest that dopaminergic medication impairs learning independent of PD pathology. Our results have important clinical implications for conditions treated with pramipexole, particularly PD, restless leg syndrome, some forms of dystonia, and potentially depression.

  20. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  1. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  2. Pulmonary function studies in young healthy Malaysians of Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary function tests have been evolved as clinical tools in diagnosis, management and follow up of respiratory diseases as it provides objective information about the status of an individual's respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among the male and female young Kelantanese Malaysians of Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and to compare the data with other populations. A total of 128 (64 males, 64 females) non-smoking healthy young subjects were randomly sampled for the study from the Kelantanese students' population of the University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia. The study population (20-25 yr age group) had similar socio-economic background. Each subject filled up the ATS (1978) questionnaire to record their personal demographic data, health status and consent to participate in the study. Subjects with any history of pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study. The pulmonary function measurements exhibited significantly higher values among males than the females. FEV 1% did not show any significant inter-group variation probably because the parameter expresses FEV 1 as a percentage of FVC. FVC and FEV 1 exhibited significant correlations with body height and body mass among males whereas in the females exhibited significant correlation with body mass, body weight and also with age. FEV 1% exhibited significant correlation with body height and body mass among males and with body height in females. FEF 25-75% did not show any significant correlation except with body height among females. However, PEFR exhibited significant positive correlation with all the physical parameters except with age among the females. On the basis of the existence of significant correlation between different physical parameters and pulmonary function variables, simple and multiple regression norms have been computed. From the present investigation it can be concluded that Kelantanese Malaysian youths have normal range of

  3. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  4. Energy expenditure during sexual activity in young healthy couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Frappier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.

  5. Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Piel, Marcel; Wolf, Oliver T

    2005-03-16

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to modulate memory in animals and humans. One popular model suggests that stress or GC treatment enhances memory consolidation while impairing delayed memory retrieval. Studies in humans have documented that treatment with GCs impairs delayed memory retrieval. Similar alterations after exposure to stress have not been observed thus far. In the present study, 19 young healthy male subjects were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. After both treatments, retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) containing 10 neutral, 10 negative, and 10 positive words was tested. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory retrieval (free recall) was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that negative and positive words (i.e., emotionally arousing words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. The present study thus demonstrates that psychosocial stress impairs memory retrieval in humans and suggests that emotionally arousing material is especially sensitive to this effect.

  6. Influential factors for pressure pulse waveform in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Wang, Ling; Li, Shuyu; Zhi, Guang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and other contributory factors on pulse waveform are still under arguments. In view of different results caused by few considerations of possible influential factors and general agreement of gender relating to pulse waveform, this study aims to address the confounding factors interfering with the association between gender and pulse waveform characteristics. A novel method was proposed to noninvasively detect pressure pulse wave and assess the morphology of pulse wave. Forty healthy young subjects were included in the present research. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured manually and body mass index (BMI), pulse blood pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR) were calculated automatically. Student's t test was used to analyze the gender difference and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effects of intrinsic factors. Univariate regression analysis was performed to assess the main factors on the waveform characteristics. Waveform features were found significantly different between genders. However this study indicates that the main factors for time-related and amplitude-related parameters are HR and SBP respectively. In conclusion, the impact of HR and SBP on pulse waveform features should not be underestimated, especially when analyzing the gender difference.

  7. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  8. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women.......To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women....

  9. The Identification of Constipation Problem in Healthy Young Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Uysal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was descriptively prepared to determine the rate of constipation in healthy young individuals according to Roma II criteria. METHOD: The study population consisted of students (n=284 who studied at Ege University, School of Nursing in the 2006-2007 academic year. Constipation Questionnaire and Bowel Habit Form-The Visual Scale Analog Questionnaire (VSAQ were used in order to collect data. According to the findings of VSAQ form that includes Roma II criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, students fulfilling any two of the criteria, was accepted as being constipated. Chi-Square test, Pearson Correlation and T-Test were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: In the study results, it was determined that 56.7% of all students accepted themselves as being constipated, 87.7% of them fulfilled at least two of the Roma II criteria, the prevalence of constipation was higher in students who stayed in dormitories and ate less fibrous foods (p0.05. The mean scores of straining, not being completely empty, sense of fullness and pain obtained from the VSAQ and the mean score of negative effect on daily life were found to be statistically different between students, who accepted themselves as being constipated and who did not (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Higher rate of students fulfilling at least two of the criteria, the determination of the negative effect of the constipation on daily life, and the drug use for the treatment was considered that constipation is a problem which excessive emphasis should be put on. To relieve constipation, firstly high fibrous food and plentiful fluid consumption are suggested to the students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 127-132

  10. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  11. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  12. Relationship between penile size and somatometric parameters in 2276 healthy young men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Söylemez, H; Atar, M; Sancaktutar, A A; Penbegül, N; Bozkurt, Y; Onem, K

    The aim of this study was to determine the average penile length of a group of healthy, young Turkish men, and to investigate the relationship between penile length and somatometric parameters in the same group...

  13. Effects of motor and cognitive dual-task performance in depressive elderly, healthy older adults, and healthy young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairments in dual-task performance can be observed in healthy older adults when motor and cognitive assignments are applied simultaneously. According to the hypofrontality hypothesis, there may be a reduction in frontal cognitive function during exercise. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance changes on cognitive tests of depressive elderly (n=10, healthy older adults (n=10, and healthy young individuals (n=10 during cycle ergometer exercise. Methods: The groups were submitted to a working memory test, a short memory test and a semantic memory test, before and during a 20-minute cycle ergometer exercise at 80% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Results: Significant differences (p=0.04 were observed in scores on the digit backward test during exercise when young individuals were compared to healthy older adults. This result indicates that young subjects, as expected, had better performance than elderly. No significant differences were found among the groups for the digit forward subtest (p=0.40 or the vocabulary test (p=0.69. Conclusion: Data from this study showed that healthy older adults had impaired performance on higher cognitive tasks when these assignments were applied together with motor tasks.

  14. Healthy Smile for Your Young Child: Tips to Keep Your Child Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and gums is important. Brush your child’s teeth, give your child healthy foods, and take your child to the dentist. If you take ... 7 or 8, you should brush her teeth. Give your child a healthy start! Here are tips to ... gums healthy. Take Care of Your Child’s Mouth m Brush your ...

  15. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  16. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  17. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MInguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination...

  18. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  19. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's healthy eating…

  20. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's healthy eating…

  1. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  2. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  3. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  4. [Primary psoas abscess in a young healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, D.; Galbo, H.; Skovsgaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    A young male saw his general practitioner because of lower back pain, limpness, nightly sweating, subfebrilia, and weight loss. Further diagnostics showed that he had a primary psoas abscess. Psoas abscesses are categorized as primary and secondary. Primary psoas abscess is a rare disease in Europe...

  5. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  6. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  7. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  8. Gender differences in factors affecting rejection of food in healthy young Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, S; Broman, D A; Garvill, J; Nyroos, M

    2004-12-01

    With the objectives to better understand gender-related differences in variables of importance for food intake, and interrelations between these variables, 100 healthy, young women and 100 healthy, young men responded to self-administrated questionnaires about general food rejection, learned illness-associated food aversions, disgust (the Disgust Scale), food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale), nausea and appetite. The results show that food rejection and aversions were more common in women (69 and 38%, respectively) than in men (47 and 18%), and that women are more disgust sensitive than men. However, no differences between women and men were observed regarding reasons for rejecting food (predominantly sensory attributes), prevalence of gastrointestinal illness as an associated aversion symptom (95 vs 89%), type of aversive food due to associated illness (predominantly high protein items), or food neophobia. Based on path analyses, a model is proposed of interrelations between disgust, food neophobia, learned food aversions, nausea, appetite, and general food rejection in healthy young adults.

  9. Spinal epidural abscess with a rapid course in young healthy infantry recruits with multiple skin lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Asaf; Or, Omer; Barzilay, Yair; Fraifeld, Shifra; Pikkel, Yoav Y; Eliahou, Ruth; Cohen, José E; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection among soldiers in the Israeli military, with devastating sequelae in several cases. Emergency department physicians have developed a high level of suspicion for spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in patients presenting known risk factors; however, SEA is a particularly elusive diagnosis in young healthy adults with no history of drug abuse. We review three cases of SEA secondary to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infection in young healthy soldiers without known risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed clinical files of soldiers treated at our Medical Center from 2004-2015 to identify patients diagnosed with SEA. Those aged less than 30years with no history of intravenous drug use, spine surgery or spine trauma were included in the study. Three young army recruits met the inclusion criteria. These young men developed SEA through extension of MSSA infection to proximal skin and soft tissue from impetigo secondary to skin scratches sustained during "basic" training. All presented with mild nuchal rigidity and severe persistent unremitting lancinating radicular pain. Although healthy at baseline, they had a severe, rapidly progressive course. Following urgent surgery, two patients recovered after rehabilitation; one remained with paraparesis at late follow-up. Neurological deficits and systemic evidence of S. aureus infection progressed rapidly in these young healthy SEA patients with no history of drug abuse, emphasizing the critical role of timely MRI, diagnosis, and surgery.

  10. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Valentino M

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in young healthy women is complex. It is influenced by a number of host biological and behavioural factors and virulence of the uropathogen. The infecting uropathogens in community-acquired UTI originate from the fecal flora, E. coli being the most predominant, accounting for 80-90% of these UTIs. Vaginal colonization with uropathogens, a pre-requisite for bladder infection may be facilitated by sexual intercourse, which has been shown to be a strong risk factor and predictor of UTI. While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young healthy married women who had severe UTI following heterosexual anal intercourse and discusses possible association thereof. Understanding the risk factors for UTI and identification of possible predisposing conditions in a particular individual are important in guiding therapeutic approaches and preventive strategies. Cognisant of reportedly high prevalence of various sexual practices including receptive heterosexual anal intercourse and their impact on individuals' health, details on sexual history should always be enquired into in young women presenting with genito-urinary complaints.

  11. Nutrients can modulate the adiponectin concentrations in apparently healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived peptide, has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects, and improves insulin sensitivity. However, little is known about dietary predictors and their interactions with lifestyle on adiponectin concentrations, in apparently healthy young adults. Objective: To evaluate the associations between plasma concentrations of adiponectin with dietary components and lifestyle in apparently healthy young adults. Methods: Anthropometric and body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diet and lifestyle data of 157 healthy young adults, aged 18 and 35, were collected and analyzed. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 12 hours to determine adiponectin concentrations. Dietary and anthropometric indexes were calculated and analyzed. Results: Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher for women compared to men; and there was an indirect and significant correlation between adiponectin concentrations with BMI. There was a significant association between adiponectin concentrations with the healthy eating index, calories, lipids, proteins, fibers, riboflavin, and phosphorus, among others; and a tendency with carbohydrates and niacin. In multiple linear regression analysis, fiber and riboflavin (r² = 0.0928; p = 0.0013 and carbohydrates and phosphorus were associated with the concentrations of adiponectin. The association with carbohydrates and phosphorus suffered interaction with gender (r²= 0.2400; p < 0.0001, as well as the association with phosphorus also suffered interaction with physical activity (r²= 0.1275; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, in healthy young adults, seem to be modulated by components of diet depending on gender and physical activity.

  12. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  13. Polysomnographic correlates of inflammatory complement components in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Ejaz; Golam Sarwar, Abu Hasnath M; Alam, Mohd Shoeb; Noohu, Majumi M; Zannat, Wassilatul; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Manzar, Md Dilshad

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has delineated the predominant role of humoral mediators of inflammation in linking sleep with immunity. Nonetheless, characterization of the relationship between complement components with inflammatory functions and objective sleep measures has not been performed. In this study we investigated the relationships between objective measures of sleep and complement components with inflammatory functions. Thirty-six healthy male university students (age, 23.94±4.23 years; BMI, 23.44±2.67 kg/m(2)) completed the study. An RMS Quest 32 polysomnograph (PSG) was used for sleep recording. Non-fasting blood was collected before subjects went to bed on the second night in the sleep laboratory to estimate complement component 3 (C-3), complement component 4 (C-4), complement factor-H (Factor-H), C1-inhibitor (C1INH), complement factor I (CFI) and other inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and sICAM-1. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between PSG sleep measures and inflammatory mediators. Higher values of C-3 and lower values of sICAM-1, C1INH, and CFI (adjusted model, R2=0.211, ppro-inflammatory complement components and decreased anti-inflammatory complement components.

  14. Hidden prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in healthy nulligravid young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, Hendrikje M. K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) may have a major impact on quality of life. However, not all individuals with urological complaints seek medical advice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of LUTS in young otherwise healthy nulligravid women and

  15. Autonomy at Mealtime: Building Healthy Food Preferences and Eating Behaviors in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogharreban, Catherine; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia

    1996-01-01

    Explores family-style meal service as a means to building autonomy and healthy eating behaviors in young children. Discusses the development of food preferences, age-related developmental responses to food, and the importance of socially mediated exposure to food as a way to increased food acceptance. Presents guidelines for implementing…

  16. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  17. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  18. Reduced hippocampal volume in healthy young ApoE4 carriers: an MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, L.G.; Lamberton, F.; Matura, S.; Tanner, C.; Scheibe, M.; Miller, J.; Rujescu, D.; Prvulovic, D.; Hampel, H.

    2012-01-01

    The E4 allele of the ApoE gene has consistently been shown to be related to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The E4 allele is also associated with functional and structural grey matter (GM) changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess volumes of deep grey m

  19. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...... tidal breathing in young children....

  20. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3±0.9yrs) and 11 old (67.2±1.0yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single fiber ...

  1. Interindividual variation, correlations, and sex-related differences in the salivary biochemistry of young healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Imangaliyev, S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Weijden, F. van der; Crielaard, W.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate interindividual biochemical variation in unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy young students, 18-30 yr of age, with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Salivary flow rate, protein content,

  2. Markedly blunted metabolic effects of fructose in healthy young female subjects compared with male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchepin, Caroline; Lê, Kim-Anne; Bortolotti, Murielle; da Encarnaçao, Joana Amarante; Oboni, Jean-Baptiste; Tran, Christel; Schneiter, Philippe; Tappy, Luc

    2008-06-01

    To compare the metabolic effects of fructose in healthy male and female subjects. Fasting metabolic profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by means of a hyperglycemic clamp in 16 healthy young male and female subjects after a 6-day fructose overfeeding. Fructose overfeeding increased fasting triglyceride concentrations by 71 vs. 16% in male vs. female subjects, respectively (P glucose production was increased by 12%, alanine aminotransferase concentration was increased by 38%, and fasting insulin concentrations were increased by 14% after fructose overfeeding in male subjects (all P fructose in male but not in female subjects. Short-term fructose overfeeding produces hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic insulin resistance in men, but these effects are markedly blunted in healthy young women.

  3. Does proprioceptive system stimulation improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo P; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Lahr, Juliana; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Sit-to-walk performance is linked to proper proprioceptive information processing. Therefore, it is believed that an increase of proprioceptive inflow (using muscle vibration) might improve sit-to-walk performance. However, before testing muscle vibration effects on a frail population, assessment of its effects on healthy young people is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle vibration on sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen young adults performed the sit-to-walk task under three conditions: without vibration, with vibration applied before movement onset, and with vibration applied during the movement. Vibration was applied bilaterally for 30 s to the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and upper trapezius muscles bellies. The vibration parameters were as follows: 120 Hz and 1.2 mm. Kinematics and kinetic data were assessed using a 3D motion capture system and two force plates. The coordinates of reflective markers were used to define the center-of-mass velocities and displacements. In addition, the first step spatiotemporal variables were assessed. [Results] No vibration effect was observed on any dependent variables. [Conclusion] The results show that stimulation of the proprioceptive system with local muscle vibration does not improve sit-to-walk performance in healthy young adults.

  4. Topical melagenine for repigmentation in twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱娥; 尉晓冬

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical melagenine for repigmentation in child patients with vitiligo on the scalp. Methods Twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp were treated with 1.2 mg/ml aqueous melagenine in combination with 20 minutes of infrared exposure twice daily. Results In 4 patients (18.2%), melagenine treatment in combination with infrared exposure led to complete recovery; in 6 patients (27.3%), treatment was shown to be effective; in 8 patients(36.3%), treatment led to improvements in patient condition; and only 4 patients (18.2%) showed no response after 1 -2 treatment sessions. The general effective rate of melagenine-infrared combination treatment was 45. 5% for the children with vitiligo on the scalp, and treatment was accompanied by minimal side effects.Conclusion Melagenine may be efficacious and a safe treatment option for childhood vitiligo affecting the scalp.

  5. Iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status of young healthy overweight and obese women in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Lun Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence suggests obesity-related inflammation alters iron metabolism potentially increasing the risk of iron deficiency. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status in young, healthy overweight and obese women. METHODS: 114 young (18-25 years, healthy comorbidity-free women with a body mass index (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m(2 were recruited. Biochemical data were analysed using mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range and multivariate modelling. Biochemical markers were also stratified according to varying degrees of overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Anaemia (haemoglobin 35.0 kg/m(2. This indicates that obesity alone may not be sufficient to induce clinically significant disturbances to iron metabolism as previously described. This may be attributed to the lack of comorbidity in this cohort.

  6. Iron, Hepcidin and Inflammatory Status of Young Healthy Overweight and Obese Women in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Bryant, Christian E.; Rooney, Kieron B.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.; Griffin, Hayley J.; Petocz, Peter; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Evidence suggests obesity-related inflammation alters iron metabolism potentially increasing the risk of iron deficiency. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status in young, healthy overweight and obese women. Methods 114 young (18–25 years), healthy comorbidity-free women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27.5 kg/m2 were recruited. Biochemical data were analysed using mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) and multivariate modelling. Biochemical markers were also stratified according to varying degrees of overweight and obesity. Results Anaemia (haemoglobin 35.0 kg/m2. This indicates that obesity alone may not be sufficient to induce clinically significant disturbances to iron metabolism as previously described. This may be attributed to the lack of comorbidity in this cohort. PMID:23861932

  7. Recurrent exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity fitness exercise in a healthy young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Premnath Reddy; Gujral, Jeetinder

    2011-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon but life threatening condition that develops due to breakdown of muscle and release of intracellular components into the circulation. A 24-year-old man otherwise healthy was admitted to our hospital because of muscle aches and weakness as well as cola coloured urine developed 3 days after carrying out the low intensity exercise. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made with creatine kinase (CK) levels of 214 356 U/l. He was treated for a similar condition at age 21. A muscle biopsy was done and the findings were normal. Rhabdomyolysis can develop with low intensity exercise; thus, it be considered in healthy young people. Young people with recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity exercise, in the absence of obvious medical and physical causes, should be evaluated further to rule out uncommon metabolic diseases. Our case demonstrates that complications especially renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis do not correspond to CK levels.

  8. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  9. Lognormal Distribution of Some Physiological Responses in Young Healthy Indian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Verma

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of statistical distribution of physiological responses is of fundamental importance for better statistical interpretation of physiological phenomenon. In this paper, statistical distribution of three important physiological responses viz., maximal aerobic power (VO2 max, maximal heart rate (HR max and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV in young healthy Indian males of age ranging from 19 to 22 years have been worked out. It is concluded that these three important physiological responses follow the lognormal distribution.

  10. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  11. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are young arab women eating a healthy diet? A qualitative dietary study among college hostel students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, P; Al-Kunji, A A; Al-Saffar, B M; Al-Abdul Karim, H M; Al-Thawadi, M I

    1999-07-01

    Two recent studies conducted on young College Arab Women showed a trend towards over nutrition. It is well known that good eating habits adopted early in life not only improve health and control obesity in the youthful years but also promote healthy eating behaviours in later life. To investigate the dietary habits of young college women and identify specific areas for nutrition education. A self-administered questionnaire containing 20 items related to qualitative dietary history was distributed to all the college (King Faisal University, Dammam) women residing in the hostel during a one-week period in April 1998. Out of a total of 56 women, 50.7% frequently missed out on breakfast and lunch. To satisfy their state of hunger, frequent snacking with deserts/carbohydrate-rich food items (21.4%) and consumption of regular cola drinks (32.1%) was common. Fast food rich in fat and calories from restaurants was popular among a majority (98.2%) of the students. On the other hand, there was a deficient intake of protective foods and nutrients for repair, maintenance and growth, such as fruits (73.2%), vegetables (85.6%), milk and milk products (66.1%) and protein-rich foods (82.1%). To decrease the risk of malnutrition among young college women, there is a need to target them for nutrition education and adoption of healthy eating practices within the context of a healthy life style.

  13. Anterior Displacement of Lamina Cribrosa during Valsalva Maneuver in Young Healthy Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Woo Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate lamina cribrosa (LC displacement during the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.Forty-eight eyes of 48 young healthy volunteers (age range: 20-34 years underwent intraocular pressure (IOP measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometry as well as Cirrus HD-OCT scans before and during the Valsalva maneuver. The optic nerve head (ONH parameters (average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, rim area, disc area, average C/D ratio, vertical C/D ratio, cup volume, anterior LC depth (LCD, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, and neural canal opening diameter were measured on compensated OCT and compared during Valsalva challenge. The subjects were asked to take a five-minute break after each Valsalva maneuver.During the Valsalva maneuver, the IOP significantly increased, from 12.7 ± 3.0 mmHg to 16.0 ± 3.2 mmHg (P 0.05.The Valsalva maneuver induced anterior displacement of the LC, but did not alter the choroidal thickness or ONH morphology. The data describe the positional characteristics of the LC in response to the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes.

  14. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  15. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  16. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  17. Reduced hippocampal volume in healthy young ApoE4 carriers: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence O'Dwyer

    Full Text Available The E4 allele of the ApoE gene has consistently been shown to be related to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The E4 allele is also associated with functional and structural grey matter (GM changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess volumes of deep grey matter structures of 22 healthy younger ApoE4 carriers and 22 non-carriers (20-38 years. Volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus and brain stem were calculated by FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST algorithm. A significant drop in volume was found in the right hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers (ApoE4+ relative to non-carriers (ApoE4-, while there was a borderline significant decrease in the volume of the left hippocampus of ApoE4 carriers. The volumes of no other structures were found to be significantly affected by genotype. Atrophy has been found to be a sensitive marker of neurodegenerative changes, and our results show that within a healthy young population, the presence of the ApoE4+ carrier gene leads to volume reduction in a structure that is vitally important for memory formation. Our results suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to further degeneration in ApoE4 carriers as they enter middle and old age. Although volume reductions were noted bilaterally in the hippocampus, atrophy was more pronounced in the right hippocampus. This finding relates to previous work which has noted a compensatory increase in right hemisphere activity in ApoE4 carriers in response to preclinical declines in memory function. Possession of the ApoE4 allele may lead to greater predilection for right hemisphere atrophy even in healthy young subjects in their twenties.

  18. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  19. Relationship between penile size and somatometric parameters in 2276 healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söylemez, H; Atar, M; Sancaktutar, A A; Penbegül, N; Bozkurt, Y; Onem, K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the average penile length of a group of healthy, young Turkish men, and to investigate the relationship between penile length and somatometric parameters in the same group. The flaccid and stretched length and circumference of the penis was measured in a group of 2276 physically normal, young men. The correlation between penile length and weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of the participants was determined by Pearson's analysis. The mean age of the participants was 21.1 ± 3.1 (18-39) years. The mean flaccid, fully stretched and circumferential length of the participants' penises were 8.95 ± 1.04, 13.98 ± 1.58 and 8.89 ± 0.86 cm, respectively. There was a significant relationship between all of these variables (Psizes and to make convenient decisions in the counseling and/or treatment of people with short penis concerns. Our study provides mean penile lengths in a large sample of healthy, young Turkish men, and the penile dimensions were found to be weakly correlated with somatometric parameters.

  20. Design and evaluation of a computer game to promote a healthy diet for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei

    2009-03-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of a computer game (RightWay Café) as a special medium to promote a healthy diet for young adults. Structural features of computer games, such as interactive tailoring, role playing, the element of fun, and narrative, were operationalized in the RightWay Café game to afford behavior rehearsal in a safe and entertaining way. Theories such as the health belief model, social cognitive theory, and theory of reasoned action guided the content design of the game to influence mediators of behavior change, including self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and behavior change intention. A randomized controlled evaluation study with pretest, posttest, and follow-up design demonstrated that this game was effective in teaching nutrition and weight management knowledge and increasing people's self-efficacy and perceived benefits of healthy eating, as well as their intention to be on a healthy diet. Limited long-term effects were also found: participants in the game-playing group had greater self-efficacy than participants in the control group after 1 month. This study validates the computer game-based approach to health promotion for young adults. Limitations and implications are also discussed.

  1. Risk Factors for Glaucoma Suspicion in Healthy Young Asian and Caucasian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lauren Doss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence of certain risk factors for glaucoma in a healthy, young population and to compare these risk factors between Asian Americans and Caucasians. Methods. 120 healthy graduate students (mean age 24.8±3.0 years underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, and refraction, comparing glaucoma risk factors in Asians (n=54 and Caucasians (n=41, were performed. Outcome variables included family history, intraocular pressure (IOP, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness (CCT, mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD, and disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters. Results. 61% of subjects were female; the mean spherical equivalent was -3.81±3.2 D; and the mean axial length (AL was 25.1±1.7 mm. Regression analysis showed race affected spherical equivalent (P0.05. In this study, we found Asian Americans, compared to Caucasians, had 2.95±0.64 D greater myopia; greater IOP by 2.74±0.62 mmHg; and larger CDAR by 0.12±0.046. Conclusions. In our study population, young, healthy Asian Americans had greater myopia, IOP, and CDAR as compared to Caucasians, suggesting that racial variations can be important when diagnosing glaucoma.

  2. Approximate time to steady state resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Popp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect calorimetry (IC measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE necessitate a stable measurement period, or steady state (SS. There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2 completed IC measurement for approximately 30-minutes while the volume of oxygen (VO2 and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2 were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV over a period of 5- consecutive minutes. The 30-minute IC measurement was divided into six 5-minute segments, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%, and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3= 8.07 ± 4.4%; S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%; S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%; S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%. The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 minutes. The first 5-minute segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-minute segment.

  3. Healthy or druggy? Self-image, ideal image and smoking behaviour among young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A; Gray, D; Currie, C; Elton, R

    1997-09-01

    Recent research indicates that there is an important, though complex, relationship between the social image of smoking and young people's self- and aspirational images. This study explored how young people see themselves (self-image), how they would like to be (ideal image), and whether these differ according to age, gender and smoking status. Focus groups were used to elicit attributes which young people use to describe smoking and non-smoking images taken from fashion pages in youth magazines. These attributes were incorporated into a self-completion questionnaire which was administered to 897 young people from three age groups (12-13 years, 15-16 years and 18-19 years). The respondents rated their self- and ideal images on each of these attributes. Overall, there were few differences between the rank order of attributes by age, sex or smoking status. However, there were differences in the trait scores, with males and smokers tending to rate themselves more positively. The two traits which most clearly differentiated smokers and non-smokers were druggy/takes drugs (self- and ideal image) and healthy (self-image). It appears that smokers in general, and male smokers in particular, embraced certain dimensions of self- and aspirational image of which druggy, tough and tarty are signifiers. In contrast, the differences between female smokers and non-smokers were less consistent and differed with age. The implications for health promotion are discussed.

  4. Gene expression profiles of colonic mucosa in healthy young adult and senior dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yong Kil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously reported the effects of age and diet on nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and large intestinal fermentation patterns in healthy young adult and senior dogs. However, a genome-wide molecular analysis of colonic mucosa as a function of age and diet has not yet been performed in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonic mucosa samples were collected from six senior (12-year old and six young adult (1-year old female beagles fed one of two diets (animal protein-based vs. plant protein-based for 12 months. Total RNA in colonic mucosa was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Canine Genome Arrays. Results indicated that the majority of gene expression changes were due to age (212 genes rather than diet (66 genes. In particular, the colonic mucosa of senior dogs had increased expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, inflammation, stress response, and cellular metabolism, whereas the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and defensive mechanisms were decreased in senior vs. young adult dogs. No consistent diet-induced alterations in gene expression existed in both age groups, with the effects of diet being more pronounced in senior dogs than in young adult dogs. CONCLUSION: Our results provide molecular insight pertaining to the aged canine colon and its predisposition to dysfunction and disease. Therefore, our data may aid in future research pertaining to age-associated gastrointestinal physiological changes and highlight potential targets for dietary intervention to limit their progression.

  5. Post-traumatic and post-surgical Absidia corymbifera infection in a young, healthy man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, William H C; Ismael, T; McCann, J

    2006-01-01

    Absidia corymbifera infection in a healthy individual is rare. Most of the infection occurs in immunocompromised patients or diabetic patients. Cutaneous and subcutaneous mucormycosis have been increasingly reported in the literature as a result of massive trauma with contaminated wounds. We present a case of cutaneous mucormycosis in a healthy, young patient after surgical amputation for a crush injury of the leg. We also highlight the importance of the high index of clinical suspicion in the diagnosis and treatment of this fungal infection in the hype of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in hospital setting these days. Despite an initial life-saving amputation, it was inadequate to ensure the eradication of A. corymbifera infection. A second amputation was required with parenteral liposomal amphotericin B to achieve a satisfactory cure.

  6. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance.

  7. Effects of kinesthetic haptic feedback on standing stability of young healthy subjects and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Byun, Ha-Young; Oh, Min-Kyun; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-03-13

    Haptic control is a useful therapeutic option in rehabilitation featuring virtual reality interaction. As with visual and vibrotactile biofeedback, kinesthetic haptic feedback may assist in postural control, and can achieve balance control. Kinesthetic haptic feedback in terms of body sway can be delivered via a commercially available haptic device and can enhance the balance stability of both young healthy subjects and stroke patients. Our system features a waist-attached smartphone, software running on a computer (PC), and a dedicated Phantom Omni® device. Young healthy participants performed balance tasks after assumption of each of four distinct postures for 30 s (one foot on the ground; the Tandem Romberg stance; one foot on foam; and the Tandem Romberg stance on foam) with eyes closed. Patient eyes were not closed and assumption of the Romberg stance (only) was tested during a balance task 25 s in duration. An Android application running continuously on the smartphone sent mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) tilt angles to a PC, which generated kinesthetic haptic feedback via Phantom Omni®. A total of 16 subjects, 8 of whom were young healthy and 8 of whom had suffered stroke, participated in the study. Post-experiment data analysis was performed using MATLAB®. Mean Velocity Displacement (MVD), Planar Deviation (PD), Mediolateral Trajectory (MLT) and Anteroposterior Trajectory (APT) parameters were analyzed to measure reduction in body sway. Our kinesthetic haptic feedback system was effective to reduce postural sway in young healthy subjects regardless of posture and the condition of the substrate (the ground) and to improve MVD and PD in stroke patients who assumed the Romberg stance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that kinesthetic haptic feedback significantly reduced body sway in both categories of subjects. Kinesthetic haptic feedback can be implemented using a commercial haptic device and a smartphone. Intuitive balance cues were

  8. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    was to assess and compare gut hormone response and satiety changes after a liquid meal intake in young, healthy T and UT males. Postprandial gut hormone release and subjective feelings of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed before and frequently for the following 3 h after...... concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial...

  9. Prevotella brain abscess in a healthy young patient with a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong Rok; Choi, Chan Young; Kwak, Jae-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Brain abscesses are frequently caused by poly-microbial conditions. Comparatively, brain abscesses caused by Prevotella species are very rare. Right-to-left cardiac shunting due to a patent foramen ovale may predispose patients to infection. We report an isolated Prevotella brain abscess that occurred in a healthy, young, male patient with a patent foramen ovale. The patient did not have a clinically obvious odontogenic source of infection, and no other distant extracranial infectious sources were observed. The patient was successfully treated with stereotactic aspiration and antibiotics.

  10. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  11. Thought-shape fusion in young healthy females appears after vivid imagination of thin ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyssen, Andrea; Coelho, Jennifer S; Wilhelm, Peter; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Munsch, Simone

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that exposure to female thin ideals in media has minimal to moderate direct effects on body image satisfaction (BIS), mood and dysfunctional eating in healthy young women. Evidence has been found for several intervening variables such as social comparison processes. Accordingly it is assumed, that cognitive processing (rather than mere media exposure) is crucial. Consequently, vivid imagination of thin ideals after exposure to a fashion magazine was induced in order to trigger cognitive processes. Changes in mood, BIS and resulting bodyrelated cognitive distortions (Thought-Shape Fusion Body, TSF-B) were assessed. A total of 91 healthy women (mean age 21.9 years, SD = 2.0) were exposed to either a fashion magazine (thin-ideal group) or a nature magazine (control group) in a waiting room design. Afterwards they were instructed to vividly imagine either the thin ideals or landscapes. When exposed to thin ideals, a significant decrease in mood and BIS emerged after vivid imagination, but not after mere magazine exposure. Imagining thin ideals triggered body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B). A higher degree of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology amplified this effect. These findings apply to young healthy females and cannot be generalized to samples with obesity, EDs or males. Internal validity is limited since the intensity of the exposure has not been systematically controlled. Vivid imagination of thin ideals promoted by magazines results in impaired mood and BIS and moreover in body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B) in healthy women, especially, for those with stronger ED symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, J D

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  14. The incretin effect does not differ in trained and untrained, young, healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Dalby, Sina; Hartmann, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    Aim: After both oral and intravenous glucose administration, peripheral insulin concentrations are lower in trained compared with untrained humans. Part of this is explained by an adaptation within the b-cell. The insulin secretion rate is higher after oral compared with intravenous glucose admin...... plasma insulin concentrations found in trained compared with untrained, young, healthy men are most likely explained by lower b-cell sensitivity to glucose and enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in the former group.......Aim: After both oral and intravenous glucose administration, peripheral insulin concentrations are lower in trained compared with untrained humans. Part of this is explained by an adaptation within the b-cell. The insulin secretion rate is higher after oral compared with intravenous glucose...... with untrained humans after oral and intravenous glucose administration. Methods: A 3½-h oral glucose tolerance test was performed in eleven trained and ten untrained, young, healthy men. On a separate day, an isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion was performed matching the individual glucose concentrations...

  15. Advanced oxidation protein products and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in young apparently healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando Sánchez, Diana Carolina; Alvarez Aguilar, Cleto; Gómez García, Anel

    2017-06-12

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are used as a marker to estimate oxidative stress in plasma proteins. Oxidative stress is considered a factor of cardiovascular risk (CVRF) related to increased blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between plasma AOPPs and CVRF in apparently healthy young adults. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 students of the Faculty of Chemical-Pharmacobiology of the UMSNH. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were determined. A blood specimen was also collected to quantify AOPPs, glucose, total cholesterol, lipoproteins (high, low, and very low density), and triglycerides. Differences were observed in the groups with and without CVRF, with significant differences in BMI, waist, body fat (Pfactor, because their deposition in the atherosclerotic plaque favours the atherogenic process, and thus the development of cardiovascular disease. Quantification of AOPPs contributes to the indirect determination of oxidative status in the body. The study of metabolic and oxidative state of apparently healthy young adults is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in later life. More longitudinal studies are required to study its evolution. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Converse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n=28 and control participants (n=44 were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15 weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  17. Relationship between physical fitness and lifestyle behaviour in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlepp, Jan R; Metrikat, Jens; Albrecht, Marlies; Maya-Pelzer, Peter

    2004-06-01

    There is substantial knowledge about the inverse association of physical fitness and CVD risk factors and CVD mortality. However, physical fitness per se might be influenced by lifestyle conditions such as physical training, smoking and drinking habits. We evaluated the relationship between physical fitness, physical activity, endurance training, smoking and drinking habits and blood pressure, lipids and leukocytes as surrogate cardiovascular risk markers in a large-scale cross-sectional study of healthy young men. A total of 6748 healthy young men were selected during their primary flight medical examination for military flying duties. Physical fitness was assessed by achieved physical working capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per min (PWC170) during cycle ergometry. Parameters such as physical activity, endurance sports, smoking of cigarettes and drinking of alcoholic beverages were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured manually. Fasting cholesterol and triglycerides as well as white blood counts were obtained. Physical activity itself was not related to significant differences in the tested variables, whereas good physical fitness showed a significant association with improved blood pressure and blood lipids (Pfitness is associated with improved blood pressure and blood lipids. This effect is independent of participating mainly in endurance or nonendurance sports, of physical activity per se, and it does not depend on smoking and drinking habits. Smoking itself revealed relevant higher inflammation independent of fitness.

  18. Effects of hyperlipidaemia on glucocorticoid metabolism: results of a randomized controlled trial in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, K; Reinecke, F; Andres, J; Bobbert, T; Kraatz, J; Wudy, S A; Hartmann, M F; Maser-Gluth, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J

    2011-05-01

    It is well established that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is altered in obese individuals. Hyperlipidaemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) is also frequently seen in obesity and in the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized, therefore, that hyperlipidaemia may alter the activity of the HPA axis. The effects of hyperlipidaemia, including increased circulating FFAs, on ACTH secretion and cortisol metabolism were analysed in 13 healthy young women during the early follicular phase of two subsequent cycles. We administered a 20% lipid/heparin (LHI) or a saline/heparin infusion (SHI) using a crossover design in random order for 330 min. A detailed characterization of glucocorticoid metabolism was performed by measurement of plasma ACTH, cortisol and urinary excretion rates of adrenal glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid metabolites. We observed that LHI-induced hyperlipidaemia elevated serum cortisol levels compared to SHI. No changes in plasma ACTH levels, daily urinary excretion rates of adrenal glucocorticoids, glucocorticoid precursors/metabolites and the calculated activities of the 5α-reductase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 11-, 17-, 21-hydroxylase and 11β-HSD 1 or 2 were found. Our randomized controlled trial suggests that the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH may be enhanced by LHI-induced hyperlipidaemia in normal-weight healthy young women. This effect might contribute to the disturbances of the HPA axis described in women with abdominal obesity and impaired lipid metabolism. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Interindividual variation, correlations, and sex-related differences in the salivary biochemistry of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodan, Andrei; Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart J F; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate interindividual biochemical variation in unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy young students, 18-30 yr of age, with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Salivary flow rate, protein content, pH, buffering capacity, mucins MUC5B and MUC7, albumin, secretory IgA, cystatin S, lactoferrin, chitinase, amylase, lysozyme, and proteases were measured using ELISAs and enzymatic activity assays. Significant differences were found between male and female subjects. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, protein content, MUC5B, secretory IgA, and chitinase activity were all lower in female subjects compared with male subjects, whereas MUC7 and lysozyme activity were higher in female subjects. There was no significant difference between sexes in salivary flow rate, albumin, cystatin S, amylase, and protease activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and spectral clustering (SC) were used to assess intervariable relationships within the data set and to identify subgroups. Spectral clustering identified two clusters of participants, which were subsequently described. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the distribution and inter-relations of a set of important salivary biochemical variables in a systemically healthy young adult population, free of apparent caries lesions and periodontal disease. It highlights significant gender differences in salivary biochemistry.

  20. EFFECT OF SUKHA PRANAYAMA AND BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Practice of Yoga causes several changes in normal physiology. Meditation has positive short and longterm rewards which include a balance of the parasympathetic and sympathetic functions. Cardiovascular autonomic functions are quantified by changes in the heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP in response to some of the physiological stimuli and different types of Pranayamas is known to alter the autonomic function. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of Sukha Pranayama and Bhastrika Pranayama on cardiovascular autonomic functions in normal healthy medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 male and female young healthy volunteers studying at PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam belonging to age group of 17-22 years were included for the study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre using Biopac Student Lab MP30 device. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip using sphygmomanometer before and after yoga. RESULTS & CONCLUSION The baseline heart rate and blood pressure response to immediate standing showed a tendency to decrease possibly due to increased vagal tone and decreased sympathetic discharge thereby indicating practice of yogasanas and pranayamas would benefit the young population as it would prepare them in overcoming stress by modulating and optimising sympathetic activities in stressful situations.

  1. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  2. Family history of hypertension and arterial elasticity characteristics in healthy young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Sun, Ningling; Liu, Xirong

    2008-05-01

    Family history of hypertension is a primary predictor of high blood pressure (BP). This study attempted to determine whether there is a gradual increase in BP and an early change in arterial elasticity characteristics between young healthy individuals with or without a family history of hypertension and whether or not this increase is apparent in males as well as in females. A total of 270 normotensive healthy individuals (112 men and 158 women, aged 16 to 30 years) with or without a family history of hypertension, participated in conventional BP measurement and completed questionnaires covering basic information and a detailed family history of cardiovascular disease. Large arterial (capacitive) compliance (C1) and small arterial (oscillatory or reflective) compliance (C2) were derived from HDI/PulseWave CR-2000 (Hypertension Diagnostics, Minneapolis, USA). Based on family history information about parents and grandparents, three groups were formed: subjects with at least one hypertensive parent (group A), subjects with only hypertensive grandparents (group B), and subjects with normotensive parents and grandparents (group C). Men in group A had lower C1 and C2 along with higher systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate than men in group C. Those in group B had intermediate C1, C2 and BP levels. C1 had a linear relationship with SBP, DBP, and heart rate. In the logistic regression model of family history of hypertension, C2 was lower in young normotensive males with parental hypertension (B = -0.315, exp B = 0.73, p = 0.03), independently of SBP, DBP, and heart rate. Among females, subjects with parental hypertension had higher systolic, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure (p young non-hypertensive subjects may be a risk factor for hypertension and may contribute to the progression to hypertension later in life.

  3. Sleep Fragmentation Hypersensitizes Healthy Young Women to Deep and Superficial Experimental Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovides, Stella; George, Kezia; Kamerman, Peter; Baker, Fiona C

    2017-07-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation on pain sensitivity has typically been studied using total and partial sleep deprivation protocols. These protocols do not mimic the fragmented pattern of sleep disruption usually observed in individuals with clinical pain conditions. Therefore, we conducted a controlled experiment to investigate the effect of sleep fragmentation on pain perception (deep pain: forearm muscle ischemia, and superficial pain: graded pin pricks applied to the skin) in 11 healthy young women after 2 consecutive nights of sleep fragmentation, compared with a normal night of sleep. Compared with normal sleep, sleep fragmentation resulted in significantly poorer sleep quality, morning vigilance, and global mood. Pin prick threshold decreased significantly (increased sensitivity), as did habituation to ischemic muscle pain (increased sensitivity), over the course of the 2 nights of sleep fragmentation compared with the night of normal sleep. Sleep fragmentation did not increase the maximum pain intensity reported during muscle ischemia (no increase in gain), and nor did it increase the number of spontaneous pains reported by participants. Our data show that sleep fragmentation in healthy, young, pain-free women increases pain sensitivity in superficial and deep tissues, indicating a role for sleep disruption, through sleep fragmentation, in modulating pain perception. Our findings that pain-free, young women develop hyperalgesia to superficial and deep muscle pain after short-term sleep disruption highlight the need for effective sleep management strategies in patients with pain. Findings also suggest the possibility that short-term sleep disruption associated with recurrent acute pain could contribute to increased risk for future chronic pain conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships of electrocardiographic parameters with ambulatory hypertension in young and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Metin, Fatih; Bossard, Matthias; Schoen, Tobias; von Rotz, Mirco; Mettler, Heidi; Abächerli, Roger; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a leading cardiovascular risk factor and a major determinant of left ventricular mass. Te aim of this study was to assess electrocardiographic (ECG) changes associated with hypertension in a large cohort of young and healthy adults. Healthy individuals aged 25–41 years without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a population based cohort study. Resting 12-lead ECG and ambulatory 24-hour BP measurement were obtained using validated devices. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the relationships between ECG parameters and daytime hypertension, defined as systolic daytime BP≥140, diastolic BP≥90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive treatment. Daytime hypertension was present among 430 of 2070 (21%) participants. Significant linear relationships were observed between daytime hypertension with RR interval (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 (0.78; 0.92)), R-wave amplitude in leads I and II (OR (95% CI) 2.04 (1.30; 3.19) and 1.61 (1.15; 2.24), and S-wave amplitudes in leads aVR, V1 and V2 with ORs (95% CI) of 3.28 (1.93; 5.59), 2.15 (1.51; 3.08) and 1.47 (1.18; 1.83), respectively. We also observed linear associations between daytime hypertension and T-wave amplitudes in leads V1 (OR (95% CI) 4.83 (2.35; 9.91)), V2 (2.18 (1.43; 3.32)), V4 (0.48 (0.29; 0.80)) and V5 (0.37 (0.19; 0.72)). Several ECG parameters are independently associated with daytime hypertension among young and healthy adults. This is one of the first studies to show significant relationships between T wave amplitude and hypertension.

  5. EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON WHOLE NIGHT POLYSOMNOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ze-ping; CHEN Xing-shi; WANG Ji-jun; ZHANG Ming-dao; WANG Hong-xing; HU Zhen-yu; LU Ying-zhi; ZHANG Zai-fu; GAN Jing-li; LOU Fei-ying; CHEN Chong; ZHANG Tian-hong; FAN Qing

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on the whole night polysomnography (PSG) in healthy young men.Methods The whole night PSG was recorded by using Neurofax-1518K (Nihon Kohden, Japan) system before and after 38 h of SD among 15 healthy male subjects.Results Compared with PSG before SD, post-SD PSG showed significantly shortened sleep latency (before SD: 19.7±9.3, after SD: 5.6±7.3, P<0.05), decreased stage 1 (S1) non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep [before SD: (9.2±1.9)%, after SD: (4.0±1.4)%, P<0.05], and increased stage 4 (S4) NREM sleep [before SD: (10.3±3.7)%, after SD: (26.2±4.3)%, P<0.01].Conclusion During post-SD sleep, the proportion of S4 NREM sleep was increased as compensation in healthy male. In addition, SD was proved to affect electrophysiological brain activities in normal people.

  6. Rib Cartilage Assessment Relative to the Healthy Ear in Young Children with Microtia Guiding Operative Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shen-Song; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Yi; Jiang, Du-Yin

    2015-08-20

    The optimal age at which to initiate for auricular reconstruction is controversial. Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction. We developed a method to guide the timing of auricular reconstruction in children with microtia ranging in age from 5 to 10 years. Rib cartilage and the healthy ear were assessed using low-dose multi-slice computed tomography. The lengths of the eighth rib cartilage and the helix of the healthy ear (from the helical crus to the joint of the helix and the earlobe) were measured. Surgery was performed when the two lengths were approximately equal. The preoperative eighth rib measurements significantly correlated with the intraoperative measurements (P rib growth was not linear. In 76 (62.8%) of 121 patients, the eighth rib length was approximately equal to the helix length in the healthy ear; satisfactory outcomes were achieved in these patients. In 18 (14.9%) patients, the eighth rib was slightly shorter than the helix, helix fabrication was accomplished by adjusting the length of the helical crus of stent, and satisfactory outcomes were also achieved. Acceptable outcomes were achieved in 17 (14.0%) patients in whom helix fabrication was accomplished by cartilage splicing. In 9 (7.4%) patients with insufficient rib cartilage length, the operation was delayed. In one (0.8%) patient with insufficient rib cartilage length, which left no cartilage for helix splicing, the result was unsatisfactory. Eighth rib cartilage growth is variable. Rib cartilage assessment relative to the healthy ear can guide auricular reconstruction and personalize treatment in young patients with microtia.

  7. Rib Cartilage Assessment Relative to the Healthy Ear in Young Children with Microtia Guiding Operative Timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-Song Kang; Ying Guo; Dong-Yi Zhang; Du-Yin Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background:The optimal age at which to initiate for auricular reconstruction is controversial.Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction.We developed a method to guide the timing of auricular reconstruction in children with microtia ranging in age from 5 to 10 years.Methods:Rib cartilage and the healthy ear were assessed using low-dose multi-slice computed tomography.The lengths of the eighth rib cartilage and the helix of the healthy ear (from the helical crus to the joint of the helix and the earlobe) were measured.Surgery was performed when the two lengths were approximately equal.Results:The preoperative eighth rib measurements significantly correlated with the intraoperative measurements (P < 0.05).From 5 to 10 years of age,eighth rib growth was not linear.In 76 (62.8%) of 121 patients,the eighth rib length was approximately equal to the helix length in the healthy ear;satisfactory outcomes were achieved in these patients.In 18 (14.9%) patients,the eighth rib was slightly shorter than the helix,helix fabrication was accomplished by adjusting the length of the helical crus of stent,and satisfactory outcomes were also achieved.Acceptable outcomes were achieved in 17 (14.0%) patients in whom helix fabrication was accomplished by cartilage splicing.In 9 (7.4%) patients with insufficient rib cartilage length,the operation was delayed.In one (0.8%) patient with insufficient rib cartilage length,which left no cartilage for helix splicing,the result was unsatisfactory.Conclusions:Eighth rib cartilage growth is variable.Rib cartilage assessment relative to the healthy ear can guide auricular reconstruction and personalize treatment in young patients with microtia.

  8. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Collin J; Tisch, Jocelyn J; Sakarcan, Kenan E; Bridges, William C; Jesch, Elliot D

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment.

  9. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  10. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  11. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    : On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized......BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS...... and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. RESULTS: Cuff pressure pain tolerance...

  12. Common epigenetic variation in a European population of mentally healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnik, Annette; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; Egli, Tobias; Freytag, Virginie; Hartmann, Francina; Heck, Angela; Peter, Fabian; Spalek, Klara; Stetak, Attila; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Vukojevic, Vanja

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation represents an important link between structural genetic variation and complex phenotypes. The study of genome-wide CpG methylation and its relation to traits relevant to psychiatry has become increasingly important. Here, we analyzed quality metrics of 394,043 CpG sites in two samples of 568 and 319 mentally healthy young adults. For 25% of all CpGs we observed medium to large common epigenetic variation. These CpGs were overrepresented in open sea and shore regions, as well as in intergenic regions. They also showed a strong enrichment of significant hits in association analyses. Furthermore, a significant proportion of common DNA methylation is at least partially genetically driven and thus may be observed similarly across tissues. These findings could be of particular relevance for studies of complex neuropsychiatric traits, which often rely on proxy tissues.

  13. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    KEY POINT: Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models. Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we...... show, in human skeletal muscle, that treatment with an Epo-stimulating agent (darbepoetin-α) in vivo increases the content of MyoD(+) SCs in healthy young men. Moreover, we report that Epo receptor mRNA is expressed in adult human SCs, suggesting that Epo may directly target SCs through ligand......-term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed...

  14. Exogenous cortisol acutely influences motivated decision making in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Antypa, Niki; Crysovergi, Panagiota; van der Does, Willem A J

    2010-02-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Acute psychological stress increases HPA activity and GC release. In humans, chronic disturbances in HPA activity have been observed in affective disorders and in addictive behaviour. Recent research indicates that acute effects of GCs may be anxiolytic and increase reward sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol acutely influences early cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. In order to extend such findings to more complex emotional-cognitive behaviour, the present study tested acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on motivated decision making in 30 healthy young men. Results showed that cortisol indeed increased risky decision making, as predicted. This effect occurred for decisions where making a risky choice could potentially yield a big reward. These results are discussed with respect to currently proposed mechanisms for cortisol's potential anxiolytic effect and GCs' involvement in reward systems.

  15. Effects of Increased Physiological Arousal on Upper Extremity Positional Awareness in Healthy Young Adults

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    Christopher Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increased physiological arousal on the ability to perceive upper extremity positional awareness in healthy young adults. Approach: Thirty-eight participants were pre- and post-tested for upper extremity positional awareness using a manual kinesthesiometer. Participants in the experimental group underwent a combination of the Stroop color-word task and timed arithmetic problems to produce a state of physiological arousal. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken during data collection to assess levels of physiological arousal. Pre-and post-test absolute error scores for each participant were compared. Results: ANCOVA revealed a significant time effect (pConclusion: The results suggested positional awareness is altered under a state of elevated physiological arousal and that these results may have significant implications for individuals performing various types of motor skills.

  16. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    , potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were......OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates...... fed a weight maintenance diet and 24-h energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation were assessed in a respiratory chamber. RESULTS: No differences in 24-h EE, RQ or substrate oxidation were observed between LBW and controls. Interestingly, the LBW group exhibited lower...

  17. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  18. Composition of microbial oral biofilms during maturation in young healthy adults.

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    Daniela Langfeldt

    Full Text Available In the present study we aimed to analyze the bacterial community structure of oral biofilms at different maturation stages in young healthy adults. Oral biofilms established on membrane filters were collected from 32 human subjects after 5 different maturation intervals (1, 3, 5, 9 and 14 days and the respective phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Our analyses revealed highly diverse entire colonization profiles, spread into 8 phyla/candidate divisions and in 15 different bacterial classes. A large inter-individual difference in the subjects' microbiota was observed, comprising 35% of the total variance, but lacking conspicuous general temporal trends in both alpha and beta diversity. We further obtained strong evidence that subjects can be categorized into three clusters based on three differently occurring and mutually exclusive species clusters.

  19. Biomarkers of mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle of healthy young human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Nielsen, Joachim; Neigaard Nielsen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    closely associated these commonly used biochemical measures are to muscle mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS).Sixteen young healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and muscle......Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content varies extensively between human subjects. Biochemical measures of mitochondrial proteins, enzyme activities and lipids are often used as markers of mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS). The purpose of this study was to determine how...... to muscle oxidative capacity followed by complex II activity.We conclude that cardiolipin content, CS and complex I activity are the biomarkers that exhibit the strongest association to mitochondrial content, while complex IV activity is strongly associated with OXPHOS capacity in human skeletal muscle....

  20. A Healthy Young Woman with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: an unfamiliar face of a familiar disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Fereshte; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Moghaddam, Ahmad Bagheri; Amiri, Bezat

    2016-10-01

    The presented case features a rare manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis in a previously healthy young woman who had acute presentation of tuberculous pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. In developing countries, mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). TB can present as an acute process and should be included in the differential diagnosis of CAP. This case is special in its manifestation from several clinical perspectives, including the lack of an underlying medical condition or immune defect and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in non-miliary and non-disseminated tuberculosis. In conclusion, the diagnosis of TB should be considered in all patients who present with CAP in endemic regions.

  1. Composition of microbial oral biofilms during maturation in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfeldt, Daniela; Neulinger, Sven C; Heuer, Wieland; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Eberhard, Jörg; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to analyze the bacterial community structure of oral biofilms at different maturation stages in young healthy adults. Oral biofilms established on membrane filters were collected from 32 human subjects after 5 different maturation intervals (1, 3, 5, 9 and 14 days) and the respective phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Our analyses revealed highly diverse entire colonization profiles, spread into 8 phyla/candidate divisions and in 15 different bacterial classes. A large inter-individual difference in the subjects' microbiota was observed, comprising 35% of the total variance, but lacking conspicuous general temporal trends in both alpha and beta diversity. We further obtained strong evidence that subjects can be categorized into three clusters based on three differently occurring and mutually exclusive species clusters.

  2. Similar Reference Intervals for Total Testosterone in Healthy Young and Elderly Men. Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, K; Nielsen, Torben Leo;

    2013-01-01

    and 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. MEASUREMENTS: Sex hormones and SHBG were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist......), respectively, in both young and elderly men. CONCLUSION: Reference intervals for TT were comparable in healthy young and elderly men, but reference intervals for FT and BT were lower in elderly men due to higher levels of SHBG. Androgens and SHBG were lower in elderly men with chronic disease and inversely...

  3. Analytes and Metabolites Associated with Muscle Quality in Young, Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori Lyn; Fielding, Roger A

    2015-08-01

    Identification of mechanisms that underlie lower extremity muscle quality (leg press one repetition maximum/total lean mass; LP/Lean) may be important for individuals interested in optimizing fitness and sport performance. The purpose of the current study was to provide observational insight into mechanisms that may underlie muscle quality by characterizing the association between 286 mass spectrometry metabolites and 17 chemistry screen analytes with LP/Lean in young, healthy adults (N = 77 (49 women and 28 men); mean age, 24.4 ± 4.2 yr; BMI, 23.5 ± 2.6 kg·m). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the 286 metabolites into 73 metabolite-containing PCA factors. Sex-adjusted linear regression was used to examine the association between PCA factors and chemistry screen analytes with LP/Lean. Q values were computed to account for multiple comparison testing. Stepwise linear regression and leave-one-out cross validation were used to identify a predictor set representative of LP/Lean and to assess internal validity, respectively. Metabolites or analytes related to dietary protein intake (albumin, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)) and excitation-contraction coupling (calcium and magnesium) were positively associated, whereas metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism (cinnamoylglycine, hydrocinnamate, hippurate, indolepropionate) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) (methylglutarylcarnitine and cinnamoylglycine) activation were negatively associated with LP/Lean. Use of leave-one-out cross validation identified magnesium, sex, and the PCA factors containing BCAAs and methionine and methylglutarylcarnitine to be present in more than 90% of the stepwise regression models, thereby explaining 26.7% of the variance (adjusted R) inherent in muscle quality. Collectively, these data suggest that mechanisms related to dietary protein intake, excitation-contraction coupling, gut microbial metabolism, and PPAR-α activation may

  4. Familiarity-based recognition in the young, healthy elderly, mild cognitive impaired and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, Salvador; Escudero, Joaquín; Mazón, José Francisco; Pitarque, Alfonso; Fuentes, Manuel; Peset, Vicente; Lacruz, Laura

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the possible existence of deficits in familiarity in five samples of participants spanning a broad range of ages and cognitive states. Five groups of 16 participants with a diagnosis of multi-domain cognitive impairment with a slight or no deficit in memory, 16 multi-domain amnestic, and 16 Alzheimer's disease patients were compared in a recognition test with equivalent samples of old and young healthy participants. In one of the tests, participants studied words extracted from a restricted set of letters of the alphabet that were later mixed with new words from a different set. The unconscious use of the fluency produced by the repeated use of the set of letters was compared with a condition in which the same letter set did not play a role. Results indicated that amnestic mild cognitive impaired and Alzheimer's patients were unable to use letter fluency to improve recognition. However, young and old controls did not differ among themselves, whereas the multi-domain sample, whose memory performance was almost at the same level as that of controls showed slight levels of deficit in familiarity in the forced choice test but not in the recognition test. These results contrast sharply with those reported by Westerberg et al. [Westerberg, C. E., Paller, K. E., Holdstock, J. S., Mayes, A. R., & Reber, p. J. (2006). When memory does not fail: Familiarity-based recognition in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 20, 193-205] and Anderson et al. [Anderson, N. D., Ebert, P. L., Jennings, J. M., Grady, C. L., Cabeza, R., & Graham, S. J. (2008). Recollection- and familiarity-based memory in healthy aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 22, 177-187], who concluded that there were no deficits in familiarity in these types of pre-dementia and dementia patients.

  5. TOPICAL ESTROGEN IN WOUND HEALING: A DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL ON YOUNG HEALTHY PEOPLE

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    A ASILIAN

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acceleration of wounf healing is intrested because of decreasing the risk of wound complication and infections as well as reducing the cost of treatment. In animal models, it has been proved that estrogen can accelerate wound healing. It has been also suggested that topical estrogen can eliminate effect of aging on wound healing and can increase the speed of wound healing in old people. Methods: We selected 16 young healthy people who developed symmetrical and ulcers (regarding size and depths after dermabrasion, shave and electrocoagulouzon and CO2 laser. Primary lesions of patients were benign and noninfective. Identical and symmetrical lesions of each patient were randomly divided into two groups (A and B. Topical estrogen with concentration of 0.625 mg/g in the base of silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to A ulcers and silver sulfadiazine cream alone was applied on B ulcers. Ulcers were dressed by Telfa gauzes. The A ulcers of each patients were compared to counterpart B ulcers in regard of redness, size, depth, general appearance of ulcers and wound healing duration at three days intervals by a physician. Results: Average time of healing was 10.8 days and 8.5 days for B (n=29 and A (n=29 ulcers, respectively (P < 0.001. In 78 percent of cases, the A ulcers were judged better than B ulcers by physician (P < 0.01. Discussion: It seems that estrogen not only accelerate healing of acute ulcers but also it is efficient in young healthy people who don"t have any hormonal or wound healing problems.

  6. Visual and quantitative electroencephalographic analysis of healthy young and adult cats under medetomidine sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Marcin; Nicpon, Jozef; Bergamasco, Luciana; Sammartano, Federica; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Jaggy, André

    2009-05-01

    A study was designed to investigate the effect of medetomidine sedation on quantitative electroencephalography (q-EEG) in healthy young and adult cats to determine objective guidelines for diagnostic EEG recordings and interpretation. Preliminary visual examination of EEG recordings revealed high-voltage low-frequency background activity. Spindles, k-complexes and vertex sharp transients characteristic of sleep or sedation were superimposed on a low background activity. Neither paroxysmal activity nor EEG burst-suppression were observed. The spectral analysis of q-EEG included four parameters, namely, relative power (%), and mean, median and peak frequency (Hz) of all four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta). The findings showed a prevalence of slow delta and theta rhythms as opposed to fast alpha and beta rhythms in both young (group A) and adult (group B) cats. A posterior gradient was reported for the theta band and an anterior gradient for the alpha and beta bands in both groups, respectively. The relative power value in group B compared to group A was significantly higher for theta, alpha and beta bands, and lower for the delta band. The mean and median frequency values in group B was significantly higher for delta, theta and beta bands and lower for the alpha band. The study has shown that a medetomidine sedation protocol for feline EEG may offer a method for investigating bio-electrical cortical activity. The use of q-EEG analysis showed a decrease in high frequency bands and increased activity of the low frequency band in healthy cats under medetomidine sedation.

  7. Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Young and Older Adults

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    Daria Antonenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has emerged as a tool to enhance human cognitive processes. Here, we provide a brief summary of the rationale behind tACS-induced effects on task-relevant brain oscillations and associated cognitive functions and review previous studies in young subjects that have applied tACS in cognitive paradigms. Additionally, we present pilot data where we administered theta-tACS (6 Hz over the temporoparietal cortex and a supraorbital reference for 20 min during implicit language learning in healthy young (mean/SD age: 22/2 and older (mean/SD age: 66/4 adults, in a sham-controlled crossover design. Linear mixed models revealed significantly increased retrieval accuracy following tACS-accompanied associative learning, after controlling for session order and learning success. These data provide the first implementation of tACS during cognitive performance in older adults and support recent studies suggesting that tACS in the theta frequency range may serve as a tool to enhance cognition, possibly through direct modulation of task-relevant brain oscillations. So far, studies have been heterogeneous in their designs, leaving a number of issues to be addressed in future research, including the setup of electrodes and optimal stimulation frequencies to be employed, as well as the interaction with age and underlying brain pathologies in specific patient populations.

  8. Determination of breath alcohol value after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Poggia, F; Foglio-Bonda, A; Mantovani, C; Pattarino, F; Giglietta, A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breath alcohol value and blood alcohol concentration after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in a panel of healthy young adults. To determine zeroing time of these values and if subjects' body mass index or gender influenced it. Breathalyzer test is a practice performed to detect alcohol-impaired-drivers that can be penalized. Sometimes Italian judges revoke the penalty justifying that the presence of residual ethanol in the oral cavity can cause false positive values. Our study involved 40 young adult volunteers; the cohort was composed of University students aged between 21 and 30 years. They underwent a medical examination to evaluate BMI. We selected four alcoholic mouthwashes available on the market with a different ethanol amount and an ethanol/ water (10/90) mixture as a reference. Breath alcohol concentration values were collected using a portable breathalyzer immediately after the rinse (T0), after 10 and 20 minutes (T10 and T20). We evaluated blood alcohol concentration 5 minutes after the rinse. All T10 values are lower than 0.5 g/L (Italian BAC driving limit). Differences between average values at T0-T10 are statistically significant (p alcoholic mouthwash before undergoing the breathalyzer test does not realistically influence the result.

  9. Arterial oxygen desaturation response to repeated bouts of sprint exercise in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, Shimpei; Endoh, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Minoru; Endoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The decline in arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin during exercise has been termed exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). We examined whether repeated bouts of sprint exercise (SprE) would induce EIAH in healthy young men and women. Ten men and 11 women (20.4 +/- 0.3 year) performed an anaerobic power test (three bouts of 10 s cycling with 120 s intervals) using a cycle ergometer. Arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin measured by pulse oximeter (SpO(2)), heart rate (HR), rate perceived exertion (RPE), and the blood lactate concentration ([La](b)) were assessed at rest, during, and 5 min after repeated bouts of SprE. Women exhibited a lower maximal anaerobic power (MAnP) compared to men (498 +/- 23 vs. 759 +/- 22 watts, respectively, p women were comparable with those in men throughout the test. However, the only significant decline in SpO(2) after a single bout of SprE (95.5 +/- 0.7%) from the resting value (97.9 +/- 0.2%) was observed in women, and further declines occurred following heavier SprE (women, mild to moderate EIAH developed, whereas only 2 men showed mild EIAH. Thus, these findings suggest that repeated bouts of SprE might induce mild EIAH in young women but not men.

  10. No effect of free fatty acids on adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Knut; Bobbert, Thomas; Kullmann, Volker; Andres, Janin; Bähr, Volker; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Rochlitz, Helmut; Spranger, Jochen; Diederich, Ssven; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2006-08-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) affect anterior pituitary function. However, the effect of FFAs on corticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol in humans is controversial. Thus, we assessed the effect of a pronounced increase in circulating FFA levels induced by infusion of lipid/heparin on ACTH and cortisol secretion in young men. Eight healthy male volunteers who underwent a 10-hour overnight fast were investigated. A 20% lipid/heparin or saline/heparin infusion was given at a rate of 1.5 mL/min for 6 hours. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed in 6 subjects 4 hours after the start of infusion. To assess steroid metabolism, we measured ACTH, cortisol, FFAs, and urinary steroids. Lipid infusion increased FFAs (6.06 +/- 0.52 vs 0.70 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; P < .005) and induced insulin resistance (glucose infusion rate, 4.08 +/- 2.15 vs 6.02 +/- 2.60 mg/kg per minute; P < .005). Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH decreased independent of lipid/heparin or saline/heparin infusion. In addition, we found no effect of hyperinsulinemia on ACTH and cortisol levels. There were no differences in urinary free cortisol, urinary free cortisone, 5beta-tetrahydrocortisol, 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol, and tetrahydrocortisone. In conclusion, FFAs had no effect on basal ACTH and cortisol secretion in normal-weight young men. In addition, no alterations in urinary glucocorticoid metabolites were detected, suggesting unchanged cortisol metabolism during lipid infusion.

  11. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  12. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  13. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults

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    Oliver C. Witard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise, is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS and is a key factor that regulates skeletal muscle mass (SMM. The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective. In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions.

  14. Effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrburg, U; Martin, H; Schulte, H; Walek, T; Assmann, G

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults. Randomized controlled study with three study groups and a parallel design, consisting of two consecutive periods. Outpatient clinical research center in a university clinic. 119 healthy students (60 male, 59 female) who were selected after a screening. All completed the study. Blood samples of three subjects (1 male, 2 female) were excluded from evaluation due to later diagnosed genetic anomalies of lipid metabolism. All subjects consumed 750-1000 ml of caffeinated filtered coffee per day for a 2 week wash-in period. During the 6 week test period one group continued drinking the caffeinated coffee, while the two other groups consumed different kinds of decaffeinated coffee. Consumption of both types of decaffeinated coffee did not lead to any significant changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the reactions between the three groups. The diet did not change during the study. Switch from regular to decaffeinated coffee had no cholesterol-elevating effects, irrespective of the type of coffee.

  15. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Lippelt

    Full Text Available Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  16. 'Thin people … they're healthy': young children's understanding of body weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, S L; Collins, S C; Hill, A J

    2016-10-01

    While research has investigated negative stereotyping of fat body shapes, little has focused on young children's understanding of the mechanisms, motivations and consequences of weight change. To investigate children's understanding of how weight change is achieved, people's motivation for weight change, and the consequences of weight loss or weight gain. One hundred children (mean age 5.2, 38 girls) read a book in which one of the main characters (male/female according to the child's sex) was either healthy weight or overweight. Afterwards, this character was described as gaining or losing weight, and drawings which depicted the child in the story as either healthy weight or overweight were presented to the child and discussed. An audio-recorded semi-structured interview followed and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Nearly all children described the weight/shape change and attributed this to food more frequently than exercise. Weight loss was viewed positively and both motivations and consequences grouped under two master themes (physical and social reasons). No clear gender differences were observed in these responses. Talking with 5-year-olds showed them to be observant and knowledgeable, especially about motivations for and consequences of weight change. For those working to improve children's health literacy, this suggests receptiveness to early and fact-based education. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

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    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  18. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-Term Effects of Isotonic Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Autonomic Reactivity in Healthy Young Adolescents

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    Nileshkumar H Patel, Hasmukh D Shah, Wasim A Shaikh, Sushil K Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Exercise is a potent stimulus for sympathetic nervous system activation. But the compliance of people for routine form of exercise for BP control has not been very encouraging. Objective of the study was to determine the short-term effects of isotonic handgrip exercise on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity in healthy adolescents and to find a user friendly exercise which help in reducing blood pressure. Method and Materials: Present study was conducted on 50 young healthy adolescents in the age group of 17–19 years. Isotonic handgrip exercise was performed for 20 minutes at the rate 12 contractions per minute (2 sec contraction/3 sec relaxation at an intensity of 30%MVC using Ball-Squeeze Dynamometer. Vascular sympathetic reactivity and cardiac parasympathetic reactivity were tested at baseline and during recovery period (Immediate- post-exercise and 1 hour–post-exercise. Result: There were no changes in the parameters (Expiration: Inspiration ratio and Valsalva Ratio measuring parasympathetic reactivity. Sympathetic reactivity as evaluated by diastolic blood pressure responses to isometric handgrip test (HGT and cold pressor test (CPT showed no significant decreases. No significant difference was observed in cardiovascular autonomic reactivity during immediate and 1 hr post-exercise recovery in both boys and girls. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the exercise regime under consideration could not produce any short-term beneficial effects with respect to cardiovascular autonomic reactivity."

  20. The Effect of One-week Glutamine Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Indices in Healthy Young Men

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    Rasool Javanamani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background &objectives: Glutamine has antioxidant properties and can be used to treat some diseases. This study was conducted to assess the effect of one-week glutamine supplementation on oxidative stress indices in young healthy men.   Methods: Nineteen active healthy men volunteered for this study. This study was conducted in biochemistry lab of Ardabil branch of Islamic Azad University in Spring 2014. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled method into two groups: Glutamine (n = 9 and placebo group (n = 10. The participants took supplement (0.15 g/kg glutamine + 15g sweetener + 250ml water or placebo (15g sweetener + 250ml water daily for 7 days before main trial.Fasting blood samples were taken before and after supplementation. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma, reduced glutathione (GHS level of serum, and malondialdehyde (MDA of plasma were measured.   Results: GHS significantly increased after treatment compared with pre-treatment in Glutamine group (p0.05.   Conclusions: These results showed that one-week daily oral supplementation of glutamine has been able to increase GHS probably because of greater glutamine availability .

  1. Propagation Curve and Velocity of Swallowing Pressure in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Keigo; Kumai, Yoshihiko; Samejima, Yasuhiro; Yumoto, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to construct a propagation curve and determine propagation velocities in young healthy adults examined using a 2.64-mm-diameter high-resolution manometry catheter with 36 circumferential sensors; to explore data reproducibility; and to determine whether the swallowing pressure (SP) propagation velocity correlated with bolus volume. Repeated measures with subjects serving as their own controls. Thirty healthy subjects (average age 25.3 years) swallowed saliva and 2, 5, and 10 mL of cold water to determine the maximum SP from the soft palate to the cervical esophagus. The SP propagation curve was obtained by plotting the duration to reach each SP peak. The SP propagation velocity was calculated for each region. These parameters were examined according to bolus size and gender. The intra-class correlation coefficient for estimating the SP propagation curves was >0.61 (i.e., highly consistent). The propagation velocity was maximal at the meso-hypopharynx and minimal at the UES and cervical esophagus. The SP propagation curve was very reproducible within any subject. Neither the water volume (with the exception of 2 and 5 mL) nor gender exerted any apparent effect on velocity in any region. However, the velocity was quite variable at the cervical esophagus.

  2. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process.

  3. The diurnal pattern of salivary IL-1β in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Nur Basirah; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Idris, Adi

    2017-08-01

    Disruption in circadian rhythm affects the production of inflammatory cytokines. Understanding how it behaves in diseased conditions is essential. Despite the role of the interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a potent inflammatory cytokine, in human diseases, little is known about the steady-state circadian rhythm of IL-1β in healthy individuals. This short study investigates the diurnal pattern of salivary IL-1β throughout the day in healthy young adults. Twelve participants provided saliva samples at various times throughout the day. Salivary IL-1β were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Salivary IL-1β levels were highest at 0430 h and lowest at 0000 h and shared a similar diurnal pattern to that of salivary IL-6. Western blot analysis showed that these levels correspond to the mature form of IL-1β. Our findings are important as it established the diurnal pattern of salivary IL-1β is fluctuating normally throughout the day. The findings also open an incredible opportunity for developing research conducted in the field with saliva as the diagnostic tool.

  4. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

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    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  5. Effect of sitting postures and shoulder position on the cervicocephalic kinesthesia in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Information about head orientation, position, and movement with respect to the trunk relies on the visual, vestibular, extensive muscular, and articular proprioceptive system of the neck. Various factors can affect proprioception since it is the function of afferent integration, and tuning of muscular and articular receptors. Pain, muscle fatigue, and joint position have been shown to affect proprioceptive capacity. Thus, it can be speculated that changes in body posture can alter the neck proprioception. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of body posture on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in healthy subjects. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was measured by the kinesthetic sensibility test in healthy young adults while in (a) habitual slouched sitting position with arms hanging by the side (SS), (b) habitual slouched sitting position with arms unloaded (supported) (SS-AS), and (c) upright sitting position with arms hanging by the side (US) during maximum and 30 degree right, left rotations, flexion, and extension. Thirty healthy male adults (mean age 27.83; SD 3.41) volunteered for this study. The least mean error was found for the SS-AS position (0.48; SD 0.24), followed by SS (0.60; SD 0.43) and US (0.96; SD 0.71), respectively. For all test conditions, there was significant difference in mean absolute error while head repositioning from maximum and 30 degree rotation during SS and SS-AS positions (p affect the proprioception function of the neck. Supporting the upper extremities in such a way that their weight is unloaded, which leads to reduction in the tension between the neck and shoulder girdle, can improve cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The findings of this study can be implemented in people who have to do repeated arm and neck movements, by using ergonomically effective chairs with proper arm supports. This might help in prevention and treatment of neck pain.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of iron deficiency in healthy young children in the southwestern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijterschout, Lieke; Vloemans, Janneke; Vos, Rimke; Teunisse, Peter-Paul; Hudig, Cisca; Bubbers, Sally; Verbruggen, Sascha; Veldhorst, Margriet; de Leeuw, Tom; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Brus, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), during the first years of life, are associated with delayed motor and neurological development. Many studies evaluated iron status without an assessment of an acute-phase protein to identify infection. Because most indicators of iron status are influenced by infection, these data may underestimate the ID prevalence. A food consumption survey in the Netherlands showed that the mean iron intake of children ages 2 to 3 years was below the advised adequate intake of 7 mg/day. The aim of the study was to investigate iron status in a well-defined, healthy population of young children in the southwestern region of the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for ID. We conducted a multicenter, observational study in healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years. We defined ID as ferritin Children with elevated C-reactive protein levels (>5 mg/L) or underlying causes for anemia were excluded. Parents filled in a questionnaire to identify risk factors for ID. We included 400 children in the study. ID and IDA were detected in 18.8% and 8.5% of the children, respectively. The present use of formula and the visit of preschool/day care were associated with a lower prevalence of ID, and a high intake of cow's milk was associated with a higher prevalence of ID, after adjustment for age. ID is present in 18.8% of healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years and living in the southwestern region of the Netherlands. The present visit of preschool/day care and the use of formula are associated with a reduced risk of ID, whereas a high intake of cow's milk is associated with an increased risk of ID.

  7. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

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    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  8. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

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    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. METHODS/RESULTS: Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals

  9. The effect of BCMO1 gene variants on macular pigment optical density in young healthy Caucasians

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    Zachary eKyle-Little

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD, hence the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age and environmental factors. In particular gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1 are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula.Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs11645428, rs6420424 and rs6464851 on macular pigment optical density (MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health.Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female with a mean age of 24 ± 4.0 years (range 19-33. The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI, iris colour, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT, diet and MPOD were investigated.Results: MPOD did not significantly vary with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41 = 0.700, p = 0.503, rs6420424 (F2,41 = 0.210, p = 0.801 nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41 = 0,13, p = 0.88, in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41 = 0.07, p = 0.9. There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and central retinal thickness (r = - 0.39, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between BMI, iris colour, gender and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on BCMO1 gene variant

  10. Comparison of mesenchymal stromal cells from young healthy donors and patients with severe chronic coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tina; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Hansen, Susanne Kofoed;

    2011-01-01

    It has been questioned whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with ischemic heart disease are suitable for use in regenerative stem cell therapy. We compared MSCs from patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and MSCs from young healthy donors...

  11. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lum

  12. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  13. Assessment of torque-steadiness reliability at the ankle level in healthy young subjects: implications for cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin Høyer; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2008-01-01

    It was the primary objective of this study to investigate whether quantifying fluctuations in dorsi and plantarflexor torque during submaximal isometric contractions is a reliable measurement in young healthy subjects. A secondary objective was to investigate the reliability of the associated mus...

  14. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  15. The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab;

    2008-01-01

    Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) are thought to have immune-modulating effects, but the specific effects and mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary n-3 LCPUFA could affect ex vivo oxidative burst in healthy young men. The study had...

  16. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  17. Pulmonary Responses in Healthy Young Adults Exposed to Low Concentration of Ozone for 6.6 Hours with Mild Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rational: Recent studies have shown small but significant decreases in lung function following a prolonged exposure (6.6 hour) of healthy young adults to levels of ozone (0.08 ppm) near the current 8 hour standard. It is unclear, however, if such effects may be extended to concen...

  18. Balancing Healthy Meals and Busy Lives: Associations between Work, School, and Family Responsibilities and Perceived Time Constraints among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize associations between perceived time constraints for healthy eating and work, school, and family responsibilities among young adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A large, Midwestern metropolitan region. Participants: A diverse sample of community college (n = 598) and public university (n = 603) students.…

  19. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  20. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

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    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  1. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

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    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  2. Effects of a prolonged submersion on bone strength and metabolism in young healthy submariners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Tal; Matsliah, Yinnon; Adir, Yochai; Josephy, Noam; Moran, Daniel S; Evans, Rachel K; Abramovich, Amir; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Submariners taking part in prolonged missions are exposed to environmental factors that may adversely affect bone health. Among these, relatively high levels of CO(2), lack of sunlight exposure affecting vitamin D metabolism, limited physical activity, and altered dietary habits. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of a prolonged submersion (30 days) on changes in bone strength using quantitative bone speed of sound and in markers of bone metabolism that include bone turnover (BAP, PINP, TRAP5b, and CTx) and endocrine regulators (serum calcium, PTH, and 25[OH]D) in a group of 32 young healthy male submariners. The prolonged submersion led to increases in body weight and BMI and to a decrease in fitness level. There was a significant decrease in bone strength following the submersion. Speed of sound exhibited continued decline at 4 weeks after return to shore and returned to baseline levels at the 6-month follow-up. There was a significant increase in circulating calcium level. PTH and 25(OH)D levels decreased significantly. Significant decreases were observed in both TRAP5b and CTx levels, markers of bone resorption, as well as in N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), a bone formation marker. Prolonged submersion led to a significant decrease in bone strength, accompanied by an overall decrease in bone metabolism. Bone strength was regained only 6 months after return to shore. Prevention and/or rehabilitation programs should be developed following periods of relative disuse even for young submariners. The effects of repeated prolonged submersions on bone health are yet to be determined.

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Anupi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.

  4. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Central Nervous Insulin Administration before Nocturnal Sleep Decreases Breakfast Intake in Healthy Young and Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, João C. P.; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral insulin acts on the brain to regulate metabolic functions, in particular decreasing food intake and body weight. This concept has been supported by studies in humans relying on the intranasal route of administration, a method that permits the direct permeation of insulin into the CNS without substantial absorption into the blood stream. We investigated if intranasal insulin administration before nocturnal sleep, a period of reduced metabolic activity and largely absent external stimulation, affects food intake and energy turnover on the subsequent morning. Healthy participants who were either young (16 men and 16 women; mean age ± SEM, 23.68 ± 0.40 years, mean BMI ± SEM, 22.83 ± 0.33 kg/m2) or elderly (10 men, 9 women; 70.79 ± 0.81 years, 25.27 ± 0.60 kg/m2) were intranasally administered intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo before a night of regular sleep that was polysomnographically recorded. Blood was repeatedly sampled for the determination of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin and total ghrelin. In the morning, energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry and subjects were offered a large standardized breakfast buffet from which they could eat ad libitum. Insulin compared to placebo reduced breakfast size by around 110 kcal (1,054.43 ± 50.91 vs. 1,162.36 ± 64.69 kcal, p = 0.0095), in particular decreasing carbohydrate intake (502.70 ± 25.97 vs. 589.82 ± 35.03 kcal, p = 0.0080). This effect was not dependent on sex or age (all p > 0.11). Sleep architecture, blood glucose and hormonal parameters as well as energy expenditure were not or only marginally affected. Results show that intranasal insulin administered to healthy young and elderly humans before sleep exerts a delayed inhibitory effect on energy intake that is not compensated for by changes in energy expenditure. While the exact underlying mechanisms cannot be derived from our data, findings indicate a long-lasting catabolic effect of central nervous insulin delivery

  6. Echocardiographic Assessment of Right Atrium Deformation Indices in Healthy Young Subjects

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    Zahra Ojaghi Haghighi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, assessment of the atrial motion and deformation indices obtained via Doppler myocardial imaging (DMI has been proposed as a new method of exploring the atrial function.Objective: Our aim was to assess the right atrial (RA regional function using myocardial velocities, strain, and strain rate imaging (SRI and compare it with the function of the inter-atrial septum (IAS and left atrial (LA lateral wall in healthy young adults.Patients and Methods: A total of 75 healthy young individuals (35 women and 40 men underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography and DMI at rest. Myocardial velocities, strain, and SRI profiles from the RA free wall, IAS, and LA lateral wall were calculated throughout the three cardiac cycles. Peak systolic, diastolic and time to peak were derived, and the average of the three cardiac cycles was taken into account for analysis in this study.Results: The RA peak systolic, peak of early, and late diastolic velocities were 9.2 ± 1.6 cm/s, -9.5 ± 1.8 cm/s, and -8.3 ± 2.1 cm/s, respectively. The RA peak systolic strain was 152% ± 51%. The RA systolic strain was significantly higher than that of the IAS (87% ± 21%, P = 0.001 and the LA lateral wall (89% ± 15%, P = 0.001. The RA peak systolic, peak early and late diastolic SR were 6.3 ± 3.0 s-1, -5.4 ± 1.7 s-1, and -4.5 ± 2.2 s-1, respectively.Conclusions: DMI proved to be a feasible and reproducible method for the assessment of the RA function in healthy young subjects. Study of myocardial properties showed that the RA free wall myocardial motion and deformation were significantly higher than those of the IAS and the LA lateral wall, but the rate of the RA free wall deformation was not significantly higher than that of the IAS and the LA lateral wall.Keywords: Right Atrium; Normal Values; Velocity; Strain; Strain Rate1. BackgroundThe right atrium (RA is a dynamic structure with complex mechanics. William Harvey was the first to identify the atrium

  7. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

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    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA.

  8. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

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    Cosima Rhein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R. Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01, whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01. Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively. The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex

  9. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

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    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  10. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia and the mechanics of breathing in healthy young women.

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    Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2013-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), pulmonary gas exchange and respiratory mechanics during exercise, in young healthy women. We defined EIAH as a >10 mmHg decrease in arterial oxygen tension ( ) during exercise compared to rest. We used a heliox inspirate to test the hypothesis that mechanical constraints contribute to EIAH. Subjects with a spectrum of aerobic capacities (n = 30; maximal oxygen consumption ( ) = 49 ± 1, range 28-62 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a stepwise treadmill test and a subset (n = 18 with EIAH) completed a constant load test (~85% ) with heliox gas. Throughout exercise arterial blood gases, oxyhaemoglobin saturation ( ), the work of breathing (WOB) and expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were assessed. Twenty of the 30 women developed EIAH with a nadir and ranging from 58 to 88 mmHg and 87 to 96%, respectively. At maximal exercise, was inversely related to (r = -0.57, P fitness levels demonstrated EIAH. Subjects with EIAH had a greater (51 ± 1 vs. 43 ± 2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), lower end-exercise (93.2 ± 0.5 vs. 96.1 ± 0.3%) and a greater maximal energetic WOB (324 ± 19 vs. 247 ± 23 J min(-1)), but had similar resting pulmonary function compared to those without EIAH. Most subjects developed EIAH at submaximal exercise intensities, with distinct patterns of hypoxaemia. In some subjects with varying aerobic fitness levels, mechanical ventilatory constraints (i.e. EFL) were the primary mechanism associated with the hypoxaemia during the maximal test. Mechanical ventilatory constraints also prevented adequate compensatory alveolar hyperventilation in most EIAH subjects. Minimizing mechanical ventilatory constraints with heliox inspiration partially reversed EIAH in subjects who developed EFL. In conclusion, healthy women of all aerobic fitness levels can develop EIAH and begin to do so at submaximal intensities. Mechanical ventilatory constraints are a primary mechanism for EIAH in some

  11. Effects of exercises on knee cartilage volume in young healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Liangyu; Wang Yubin

    2014-01-01

    weeks of regular physical exercises (i.e.,running and cycling) decrease the total knee cartilage volume.Swimming and powerstriding are recommended for the healthy youth.This finding suggests that articular cartilage has the functional adaptation for exercises,and some sports could be the risk factors for the initiation of osteoarthritis (OA) in young healthy adults.

  12. Modulation of spatial and stimulus-response learning strategies by exogenous cortisol in healthy young women.

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    Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S; Richter, Steffen; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2009-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to influence learning and memory processes. While most studies focus on the effects of GCs on the performance within a single memory system, we asked whether GCs modulate also the transition between hippocampus-dependent spatial and caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response memory systems. Eighty-four young healthy women received a placebo, 5 or 30 mg hydrocortisone orally. One hour later, participants were asked to locate a win-card in a 3D model of a room. The card could be located via two strategies: spatial (multiple distal cues) and stimulus-response (a single proximal cue). Relocation of the proximal cue after 12 trials revealed the strategy, number of trials to learning criterion the performance. As expected, more trials were needed to acquire the task with hydrocortisone. Remarkably, hydrocortisone switched the use of learning strategies towards more spatial learning (dose-dependently: placebo 4% learning curves of spatial and stimulus-response learners were comparable. Our results demonstrate that exogenous GCs prior to learning affect the performance within a memory system and also coordinate the use of multiple memory systems. Taking into account this dual action of GCs will contribute to a better understanding of stress (hormone) effects on learning and memory.

  13. Attentionally modulated effects of cortisol and mood on memory for emotional faces in healthy young males.

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    Van Honk, J; Kessels, R P C; Putman, P; Jager, G; Koppeschaar, H P F; Postma, A

    2003-10-01

    Heightened cortisol levels due to stress or acute administration seem to enhance memory for emotional material, independently of emotional valence. An arousal-driven neurobiological mechanism involving the amygdala has been proposed. The relation between pre-task salivary measures of cortisol (by convention named 'basal levels') and emotionally modulated memory has not been investigated yet. Given the association between higher basal levels of cortisol and indices of low mood, valence-specific effects on emotionally modulated memory could be expected (e.g. mood-congruent or stimulus-specific forms of processing). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between basal levels of salivary cortisol, self-reported mood and spatial memory for neutral, happy and angry facial expressions in healthy young volunteers (N=31). Memory performance was indexed using a modified version of a computerized object-relocation task, using emotional facial expressions as stimuli. Results showed a significant relation between cortisol and depressive mood. More importantly, both the levels of cortisol and depressive mood were inversely related to the memory performance for the happy facial expressions, while a similar relationship between cortisol and memory performance on angry faces neared significance. An explanation in terms of the down-regulation of social behavior by elevated basal cortisol levels is postulated.

  14. Endocrine correlates of personality traits: a comparison between emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy young men.

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    Adler, L; Wedekind, D; Pilz, J; Weniger, G; Huether, G

    1997-01-01

    An initial sample of 120 healthy young men was screened by a personality questionnaire and 15 subjects each with highest and lowest scores respectively on emotionality (emotionally labile, EL subjects and emotionally stable, ES subjects) were recruited for a study on the relationship between the degree of emotionality and the basal secretion of stress-sensitive hormones during night-time. The nocturnal urinary excretion of cortisol, testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin was measured over a period of 5 consecutive nights. The average amounts of each hormone excreted per night were not different between the two extreme groups. The variability of the excretion during the 5 nights of cortisol and testosterone, but not of adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin, was significantly higher in EL compared to ES subjects. The larger fluctuations in the nocturnal secretion of these two (and no other) hormones in EL subjects indicate that emotional lability is associated with a more labile regulation of cortisol and testosterone secretion. The observed intraindividual variability of basal stress hormone secretion may contribute to the vast interindividual variability noticed in psychoneuroendocrine stress research, especially in emotionally labile subjects.

  15. Delayed effects of coffee, tea and sucrose on postprandial glycemia in lean, young, healthy adults.

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    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Atkinson, Fiona; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2008-01-01

    In observational studies, habitual coffee consumption has been linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We hy-pothesized that the mechanism may be related to delayed effects on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this study is to investigate the glycemic and insulinemic effects of consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, sweetened and unsweetened, tea and sucrose, 1 h prior to a high carbohydrate meal. On separate occasions in random order, lean young healthy subjects (n = 8) consumed a potato-based meal 1 hour after consumption of 250 mL of black coffee (COF), black coffee sweetened with 10 g of sucrose (COF+SUC), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), black tea (TEA), 10 g sucrose (SUC) or hot water (CON). Fingerprick blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 2 h and the glucose and insulin responses quantified as area under the curve. Compared to CON, COF caused a 28% increase in postprandial glycemia (p = 0.022). In contrast, COF+SUC decreased glycemia compared with either COF (-38%, pconcentration at the start of the meal (pcoffee significantly reduces postprandial glycemia. This observation may explain the paradoxical findings of observational and clinical studies relating coffee drinking to diabetes risk.

  16. Dose-response investigation into glucose facilitation of memory performance and mood in healthy young adults.

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    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.

  17. Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Risk in Young Healthy Men Treated with Injectable Testosterone

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    Robert S. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the association between testosterone therapy and new myocardial infarction (MI and stroke events in a series of patients treated at Low T Centers across the United States, consisting of mainly young (mean age = 46, otherwise, healthy men. Electronic medical records were queried between the years 2009 and 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with hypogonadism, MI, and stroke, as indicated by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of MI and stroke events was compared to community-based registries. 39,936 patients recruited from 40 Low T Centers across the United States were treated and 19,968 met eligibility criteria for receiving testosterone treatment. The incidence rate ratio (IRR for MI in testosterone- (T- treated versus nontreated patients was 0.14 (C.I. = 0.08 to 0.18, P<0.0001 whereas the IRR for stroke for T-treated versus nontreated patients was 0.11 (C.I. = 0.02 to 0.13, P<0.0001. There was no evidence of worsening preexisting MI or stroke in patients treated with testosterone. The experience in Low T Centers shows that, in an injectable testosterone patient registry, testosterone is generally safe for younger men who do not have significant risk factors. Of patients that developed MI with testosterone, there was no association with testosterone or hematocrit levels.

  18. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  19. Cortisol administration acutely reduces threat-selective spatial attention in healthy young men.

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    Putman, Peter; Hermans, Erno J; van Honk, Jack

    2010-03-03

    There is mounting evidence that single administrations of glucocorticoids may acutely reduce human fear. We previously reported that administration of cortisol acutely reduced non-spatial selective attention to fearful faces and likewise reduced preferential processing of fearful faces in a spatial working memory task. Here we report the acute effects of 40 mg cortisol (administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design) on a different experimental task for measuring threat-selective attention. Twenty healthy young males had to localize a target which was presented in a peripheral location that was either gazed at or not by a preceding dynamic happy or fearful face. This reliable method has been used repeatedly to demonstrate fear-driven selective attention. Present results showed that after placebo, as usual, the fearful gaze cues caused stronger orienting of attention than happy faces. Cortisol abolished this typical anxious response pattern, but only in low anxious participants. These data provide evidence that cortisol acutely influences also spatial threat-selective attention. Possible neuroendocrine mechanisms are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults.

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    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C; Wagenaar, Robert C; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory.

  1. Effect of lead use on back and shoulder postural muscle activity in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel D; Kirkpatrick, Anne E; Ashton-Miller, James A; Shih, Albert J

    2011-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that wearing the 3.7 kg vest portion of a radiological shielding garment (a "lead") significantly increases lower back and shoulder muscle activity in quasistatic erect and forward-flexed postures. Secondarily, the authors examined the effects of gender and forward-flexed posture as well as their interactions with lead use. The use of a lead is mandatory for interventionalists during surgical procedures. Because the vest portion of a lead weighs considerably more than normal clothing, there is concern that its use increases the risk of developing back and shoulder pain. In a repeated-measures study design, 19 young healthy male and female adults assumed standardized erect or forward-flexed postures, both with and without wearing the vest portion of a lead. Shoulder and lower back muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography, normalized by maximum voluntary contraction values. Data were analyzed using general linear models and repeated-measures ANOVA (significant for p back or shoulders, despite perceived increases in effort and discomfort. Posture proved to be the most significant secondary factor affecting activity in the lower back, and participant gender proved insignificant. Short-term use of the lead does not appear to contribute to the incidence of back pain or injury in interventionalists. Avoiding flexed postures could more directly reduce the likelihood of pain or injury. Potential applications include assessing and improving operating room ergonomics for physicians.

  2. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  3. Distribution of delta activity across nonrapid eye movement sleep episodes in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preud'homme, X A; Lanquart, J P; Mendlewicz, J; Linkowski, P

    1997-04-01

    The distribution of delta activity across successive nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes and its night-to-night stability across three consecutive nights were investigated by studying delta power with spectral analysis in 31 healthy young men. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with polynomial contrast was applied to grouped data of absolute delta power and three indexes: (1) the rate of delta power per NREM episode to its duration, 2) the standardized rate for the last NREM episode, and 3) the logarithm of the standardized rate. A significant linear decrease across NREM episodes was observed for each variable in each successive night. In addition, using night as a second within-subjects factor, no night effect was observed. Yet, the subsequent analysis of the logarithmic data yielded greater F values in all three nights' data as well as a linear function that accounted for a greater proportion of total variance than the analysis of the nonlogarithmic data. Since a linear decline for the logarithm of a variable implies an exponential distribution for that variable, we conclude that delta activity is distributed exponentially across NREM episodes, and this finding shows a remarkable night-to-night stability.

  4. An outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy young Japanese women after traveling to Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hideaki; Ogata, Yoshiko; Suguro, Hajime; Yokota, Soichiro; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Ishida-Okawara, Akiko; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Horino, Atsuko; Yamane, Kunikazu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nagata, Noriyo; Hasegawa, Hideki; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Sata, Tetsutaro; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, is an endemic mycosis in many countries of the world except for Japan. Outbreaks of histoplasmosis among Japanese people are very rare and are mainly imported by travelers. We report an outbreak of histoplasmosis among healthy Japanese people who traveled to a resort area in Southeast Asia. Three young Japanese women traveled to Langkawi island, Malaysia and stayed on the island for five days without visiting caves, a known reservoir of H. capsulatum. All three individuals developed flu-like symptoms with multiple nodule shadows on chest X rays or chest CT scans at around ten days after their return to Japan. Serum samples obtained from the three subjects were positive for anti-Histoplasma antibody and specific PCR for H. capsulatum on lung biopsy specimens and the serum from one patient was positive. The clinical course of all three patients improved without the use of anti-fungal agents and no recurrence has been confirmed. Clinical attendants should consider histoplasmosis when they see patients with flu-like symptoms with abnormal chest X-rays after visiting H. capsulatum endemic areas, especially Southeast Asia.

  5. Interaction between resistance training and flexibility training in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Antonio C L; Paula, Karla C; Carvalho, Ana Cristina G

    2005-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that increases in muscle strength and flexibility are developed by specific training programs, 43 healthy young adults were tested before and after 4 different interventions conducted twice a week for 12 weeks: (a) resistance training only (n = 13); (b) flexibility training only (n = 11); (c) resistance and flexibility training (n = 9); and (d) no intervention (n = 10). There was no change in either strength or flexibility in the control group (p > 0.05). Resistance training improved muscle strength either alone (+14%; effect size = 0.53; p flexibility training (+16%; effect size = 0.66; p = 0.032), but did not change flexibility (p = 0.610). Flexibility increased with specific training alone (+33%; p training (+18%; p training alone did not increase flexibility, but resistance training did not interfere with the increase in joint range of motion during flexibility training. These results support the concept that specific training should be employed in order to increase either muscle strength or flexibility.

  6. Risk of Anaemia in Population of Healthy Young People Inhabiting a Region in Central Europe

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    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite unbelievable but significant percentage of young healthy women is at risk of anaemia despite proper nutritional state. In this study we decided to determine the lack or excess of which nutrients in a diet can lead to any effects. The major cause of anaemia is not, as in many studies on nutritional status, the deficiency in iron in a diet. Iron intake in women with anaemia exceeded AI (Adequate Intake level. 120 people took part in the study. Average HGB concentration in female group amounted to 12.45 g/dL and in male group to 14.35 g/dL. Anaemia was determined in 29% women and 4.2% men. In group of women with anaemia a statistically higher intake of SFA, cholesterol, and sucrose and lower intake of pyridoxine, folacin, niacin, and vitamin E, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mg were determined. In a group of men with low haemoglobin concentration a statistically higher intake of sucrose but lower intake of fat, especially SFA and MUFA, vitamin C and zinc were observed. Therefore, together with anaemia in the group of women there are coexisting deficiencies in other nutrients, as compared to the group of men. Prevention in both groups should include various supplements.

  7. Constraining eye movement when redirecting walking trajectories alters turning control in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Ambati, V N; Murray, Nicholas G; Saucedo, Fabricio; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Humans use a specific steering synergy, where the eyes and head lead rotation to the new direction, when executing a turn or change in direction. Increasing evidence suggests that eye movement is critical for turning control and that when the eyes are constrained, or participants have difficulties making eye movements, steering control is disrupted. The purpose of the current study was to extend previous research regarding eye movements and steering control to a functional walking and turning task. This study investigated eye, head, trunk, and pelvis kinematics of healthy young adults during a 90° redirection of walking trajectory under two visual conditions: Free Gaze (the eyes were allowed to move naturally in the environment), and Fixed Gaze (participants were required to fixate the eyes on a target in front). Results revealed significant differences in eye, head, and trunk coordination between Free Gaze and Fixed Gaze conditions (p segments moved together with no significant differences between segment onset times. In addition, the sequence of segment rotation during Fixed Gaze suggested a bottom-up postural perturbation control strategy in place of top-down steering control seen in Free Gaze. The results of this study support the hypothesis that eye movement is critical for the release of the steering synergy for turning control.

  8. Cognitive behavior evaluation based on physiological parameters among young healthy subjects with yoga as intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, H; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, S

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of yoga practice on cognitive skills, autonomic nervous system, and heart rate variability by analyzing physiological parameters. The study was conducted on 30 normal young healthy engineering students. They were randomly selected into two groups: yoga group and control group. The yoga group practiced yoga one and half hour per day for six days in a week, for a period of five months. The yoga practising group showed increased α, β, and δ EEG band powers and significant reduction in θ and γ band powers. The increased α and β power can represent enhanced cognitive functions such as memory and concentration, and that of δ signifies synchronization of brain activity. The heart rate index θ/α decreased, neural activity β/θ increased, attention resource index β/(α + θ) increased, executive load index (δ + θ)/α decreased, and the ratio (δ + θ)/(α + β) decreased. The yoga practice group showed improvement in heart rate variability, increased SDNN/RMSSD, and reduction in LF/HF ratio. Yoga practising group showed significant improvement in various cognitive functions, such as performance enhancement, neural activity, attention, and executive function. It also resulted in increase in the heart rate variability, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and balanced autonomic nervous system reactivity.

  9. Cognitive Behavior Evaluation Based on Physiological Parameters among Young Healthy Subjects with Yoga as Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of yoga practice on cognitive skills, autonomic nervous system, and heart rate variability by analyzing physiological parameters. Methods. The study was conducted on 30 normal young healthy engineering students. They were randomly selected into two groups: yoga group and control group. The yoga group practiced yoga one and half hour per day for six days in a week, for a period of five months. Results. The yoga practising group showed increased α, β, and δ EEG band powers and significant reduction in θ and γ band powers. The increased α and β power can represent enhanced cognitive functions such as memory and concentration, and that of δ signifies synchronization of brain activity. The heart rate index θ/α decreased, neural activity β/θ increased, attention resource index β/(α+θ increased, executive load index (δ+θ/α decreased, and the ratio (δ+θ/(α+β decreased. The yoga practice group showed improvement in heart rate variability, increased SDNN/RMSSD, and reduction in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion. Yoga practising group showed significant improvement in various cognitive functions, such as performance enhancement, neural activity, attention, and executive function. It also resulted in increase in the heart rate variability, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and balanced autonomic nervous system reactivity.

  10. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Methods glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%, fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%; bilberries (BFOMD or rose hip (RFOMD respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47% was tested (BBFOMD. As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD was served. Results in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65 (P Conclusion a fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base.

  11. Estimation of arterial PCO2 from a lung model during ramp exercise in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent; Costes, Frédéric; Busso, Thierry

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to propose a new approach to estimate non-invasively arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(a)CO2) approach was based on the reconstruction of alveolar gas composition over each breath from a tidally ventilated lung model (P(M)(CO2)). Eight healthy young subjects were studied during a ramp exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial samples were drawn at rest and every minute during the exercise test for determination of P(a)CO2 . P(a)CO2 was compared with indirect estimates of P(CO2) : P(M)(CO2), end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET)(CO2)) and an empirical equation involving P(ET)(CO2) and tidal volume (P(J)(CO2)). The difference between estimated and measured P(a)CO2 on the whole ramp exercise was -0.3+/-1.9mmHg for P(M)(CO2), 1.0+/-2.2mmHg for P(ET)(CO2) and -1.7+/-1.7mmHg for P(J)(CO2) . P(ET)(CO2) and P(J)(CO2) were significantly different from actual P(a)CO2 (P<0.001). It is concluded that, on the basis of the bias, the breathing lung model gave better estimates of P(a)CO2 than the two other indirect methods during ramp exercise.

  12. Texting and walking: effect of environmental setting and task prioritization on dual-task interference in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Prudence; Apple, Sarah; Dowd, Colleen; Keith, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that young adults significantly reduce their gait speed and weave more when texting while walking. Previous research has not examined the simultaneous dual-task effects on texting performance, therefore, the attention prioritization strategy used by young adults while texting and walking is not currently known. Moreover, it is not known whether laboratory-based studies accurately reflect texting and walking performance in the real world. This study compared dual-task interference during texting and walking between laboratory and real-world settings, and examined the ability of young adults to flexibly prioritize their attention between the two tasks in each environment. Texting and walking were assessed in single-task and three dual-task conditions (no-priority, gait-priority, texting-priority) in the lab and a University Student Center, in 32 healthy young adults. Dual-task effects on gait speed, texting speed, and texting accuracy were significant, but did not significantly differ between the two environments. Young adults were able to flexibly prioritize their attention between texting and walking, according to specific instruction, and this ability was not influenced by environmental setting. In the absence of instructions, young adults prioritized the texting task in the low-distraction environment, but displayed more equal focus between tasks in the real world. The finding that young adults do not significantly modify their texting and walking behavior in high-distraction environments lends weight to growing concerns about cell phone use and pedestrian safety.

  13. Chapter Twenty Two

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    As a matter of fact, the act of writing novel in English language in Africa began ... advent of European colonial masters and the myths with which they have been ..... According to Odili, the surrogate author: “A common saying, in the country after.

  14. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  15. Steps to Growing Up Healthy: a pediatric primary care based obesity prevention program for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Wiley, James; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hernandez, Dominica; Grant, Autherene; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2014-01-23

    Leading medical organizations have called on primary care pediatricians to take a central role in the prevention of childhood obesity. Weight counseling typically has not been incorporated into routine pediatric practice due to time and training constraints. Brief interventions with simple behavior change messages are needed to reach high-risk children, particularly Latino and Black children who are disproportionately affected by obesity and related comorbidities. Steps to Growing Up Healthy (Added Value) is a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of brief motivational counseling (BMC) delivered by primary care clinicians and the added value of supplementing BMC with monthly contact by community health workers (CHW) in the prevention/reversal of obesity in Latino and Black children ages 2-4 years old. Mother-child dyads (targeted n = 150) are recruited for this 12-month randomized trial at an inner-city pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to: 1) BMC delivered by clinicians and nurses at well, sick, and WIC visits with the goal of reducing obesogenic behaviors (BMC); 2) BMC plus monthly phone calls by a CHW (BMC + Phone); or 3) BMC plus monthly home visits by a CHW (BMC + Home). During BMC, the medical team facilitates the selection of a specific goal (i.e., reduce sugar sweetened beverage consumption) that is meaningful to the mother and teaches the mother simple behavioral strategies. Monthly contacts with CHWs are designed to identify and overcome barriers to goal progress. Dyads are assessed at baseline and 12 months and the primary outcome is change in the child's BMI percentile. We hypothesize that BMC + Phone and BMC + Home will produce greater reductions in BMI percentiles than BMC alone and that BMC + Home will produce greater reductions in BMI percentiles than BMC + Phone. Steps to Growing Up Healthy will provide important information about whether a brief primary care-based intervention that utilizes a

  16. Association between Yogurt Consumption and Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Young Adults Differs by Host Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Ikeda, Keiichi; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Sachio; Sawaki, Keisuke; Asahara, Takashi; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nomoto, Koji; Nagpal, Ravinder; Wang, Chongxin; Nagata, Satoru; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6%) by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013) and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046) count and fecal pH (P = 0.007) and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030), succinic acid (P = 0.007) and formic acid (P = 0.046) as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L. casei subgroup

  17. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  18. Association between Yogurt Consumption and Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Young Adults Differs by Host Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6% by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013 and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046 count and fecal pH (P = 0.007 and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030, succinic acid (P = 0.007 and formic acid (P = 0.046 as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L

  19. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  20. Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in a healthy young woman in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kou, Tadayuki; Kato, Haru; Watanabe, Masaki; Uno, Shoichi; Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Fukuda, Tadashi; Hata, Atsuko; Yazumi, Shujiro

    2014-11-01

    In the past two decades, Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027 strain has rapidly emerged as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated colitis in North America and Europe; however, it has been reported only occasionally in Japan. We report a case of fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by this strain in a healthy young woman in Japan without any previous medical history. The strain isolated from our patient was susceptible to both gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, thus representing a historic strain. The acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance was reported as the important key genetic event linked to the virulence of this strain. It is noteworthy that the fluoroquinolone-susceptible 027 strain caused fulminant colitis in a healthy young woman in a non-endemic area. Our experience suggests that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 has the potential virulence factors that are not associated with a fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation.

  1. Vital capacity in trained and untrained healthy young adults in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biersteker, M W; Biersteker, P A

    1985-01-01

    Slow inspiratory vital capacity was measured in 226 healthy young adults, aged from 17 to 35 years. The group included 119 men and 107 women, 87 trained subjects, 71 untrained subjects who intended to take part in a training program for competitive rowing, and 68 untrained subjects who never took part in any competitive sport. The vital capacity increased with height, weight, fat-free mass, height X fat-free mass, and height-independent fat-free mass, with men having significantly higher vital capacities than women of the same height or weight. In both males and females vital capacity showed the best relation with height X fat-free mass (correlation coefficients are 0.78 and 0.57 respectively). Multiple regression on vital capacity with height, weight, fat-free mass, height X fat-free mass, height-independent fat-free mass, percentage body fat, and age increased the correlation coefficient only slightly (0.80 and 0.59 respectively). The subjects had vital capacities that were much higher than those predicted for them by equations originating from the USA. There was no difference between the observed vital capacities and those predicted by equations originating from Europe. There is a difference in vital capacity between the European subjects studied and subjects of similar height studied in the USA. This implies that equations derived from subjects in the USA cannot be applied to European subjects. From our results we conclude that vital capacity is not increased by physical activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  3. Preconception Screening for Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Thrombophilia and Hyperhomocysteinemia Risk in Healthy Young Women

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    Elena Yu. Glotova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency characteristics of the gene polymorphisms (FVL G1691A, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G associated with thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia risk and different perinatal or pregnancy complications were studied. This examination was conducted among 130 planned-pregnancy healthy young women aged between 19 and 29 years. A gene mutation analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR. Factor V Leiden (FVL G1691A and prothrombin gene (FII G20210A mutations were not identified in the women surveyed. The frequency of the occurrence of the heterozygous FVL 1691G/A genotype associated with the risk of thrombosis during pregnancy was very low in these women (0.8%. The frequency of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C/С mutant genotype was 11.5%, MTHFR 677T/Т – 5.4%, and MTRR (methionine synthase reductase 66G/G – 31.5%. A combination of the MTHFR 677TT/1298CC and MTHFR 677TТ/MTRR 66GG mutant genotypes, which significantly increased the risk of pregnancy loss and neural tube defects, were found to occur in 0.8% of the cases.We concluded that selective thrombophilia screening (FVL G1691A and FII G20210A based on prior personal and/or family history of venous thromboembolism was more cost-effective than a universal preconception screening in all planning pregnancy women. However, in order to decrease the risk of congenital anomalies and pregnancy complications associated with folate dependent homocysteine metabolism, preconception care should include folate supplementation

  4. Hallucinations and aberrant perceptions are prevalent among the young healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ptacek, S; García Azorín, D; Sanchez Salmador, R; Cuadrado, M L; Porta-Etessam, J

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinations are frequent in clinical practice, with an incidence of up to 38.7% in the general population. We aim to determine the prevalence of hallucinations among healthy young adults in our environment. We designed an observational study, using as subjects 3rd to 6th year medical students at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid who complete clinical rotations in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos. After a screening questionnaire, an individual interview was conducted via telephone or e-mail to those students who reported hallucinations. We obtained clinical and epidemiological data through a semi-structured clinical interview performed by a third year neurology resident. N=134 (average age was 22.1 years; 77.6% were women). 74 respondents answered affirmatively to one or more screening questions, and 54 completed the follow-up interview. 22.2% described visual phenomena and 64.8%, auditory. The majority reported sleep-related experiences and auditory perceptions related to hyper vigilance, such as hearing the telephone or the doorbell ring when in fact it had not (38.8%). All subjects had good insight into their experiences and none had psychotic symptoms. Two cases were associated with substance abuse. Hallucinations are frequent among the general population. Traditionally, auditory phenomena have been associated with psychotic pathology, and other studies show a low population incidence (0.6%). However, in our sample, short auditory perceptions with immediate analysis were frequent and not pathological. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of topical adrenergic and anticholinergic agents on the choroidal thickness of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Beata P; Collins, Michael J; Read, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    The human choroid is capable of rapidly changing its thickness in response to a variety of stimuli. However little is known about the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the thickness of the choroid. Therefore, we investigated the effect of topical parasympatholytic and sympathomimetic agents upon the choroidal thickness and ocular biometrics of young healthy adult subjects. Fourteen subjects (mean age 27.9 ± 4 years) participated in this randomized, single-masked, placebo-controlled study. Each subject had measurements of choroidal thickness (ChT) and ocular biometrics of their right eye taken before, and then 30 and 60 min following the administration of topical pharmacological agents. Three different drugs: 2% homatropine hydrobromide, 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride and a placebo (0.3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) were tested in all subjects; each on different days (at the same time of the day) in randomized order. Participants were masked to the pharmacological agent being used at each testing session. The instillation of 2% homatropine resulted in a small but significant increase in subfoveal ChT at 30 and 60 min after drug instillation (mean change 7 ± 3 μm and 14 ± 2 μm respectively; both p choroid also exhibited a similar magnitude, significant increase in thickness with time after 2% homatropine (p thickness (LT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) (p choroidal thickness, or ocular biometrics were found after 2.5% phenylephrine or placebo at any examination points (p > 0.05). In human subjects, significant increases in subfoveal and parafoveal choroidal thickness occurred after administration of 2% homatropine and this implies an involvement of the parasympathetic system in the control of choroidal thickness in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional intervertebral kinematics in the healthy young adult cervical spine during dynamic functional loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, William J; Donaldson, William F; Lee, Joon Y; Kang, James D

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the intervertebral kinematics of the young, healthy cervical spine during dynamic, three-dimensional, functional loading. Intervertebral motion was characterized by the range of motion (ROM) and the helical axis of motion (HAM). Biplane radiographs of the cervical spine were collected at 30 images/s as 29 participants (20-35 yr) performed dynamic flexion\\extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Vertebral motion (C1-T1 in flexion\\extension, C3-T1 in lateral bending and axial rotation) was tracked with sub-millimeter accuracy using a validated volumetric model-based tracking process that matched subject-specific CT-based bone models to the radiographs. Flexion\\extension ROM was smallest at the C2-C3 motion segment (12.7±2.6°) and largest at the C5-C6 motion segment (19.7±3.7°). During head lateral bending and axial rotation, the intervertebral bending ROM was greater than the rotation ROM at every motion segment. The HAM demonstrated differences among motion segments and among movements. During flexion\\extension, the helical axis of motion was directed nearly perpendicular to the sagittal plane for the C2-C3 through C7-T1 motion segments. During lateral bending, the angle between the HAM and the transverse plane progressively increased from the C6-C7 motion segment (approximately ±22°) to the C3-C4 motion segment (approximately ±40°). During axial rotation, the angle between the transverse plane and the HAM was approximately ±42° at the C3-C4 through C5-C6 motion segments, and approximately ±32° at the C6-C7 motion segment. This study provides valuable reference data for evaluating the effects of age, degeneration, and surgical procedures on cervical spine kinematics during three-dimensional dynamic functional loading.

  7. Dietary intervention with Okinawan vegetables increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Rieko; Ishida, Akio; Ohya, Yusuke; Todoriki, Hidemi; Takishita, Shuichi

    2009-06-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in maintaining the integrity of vascular vessels. The number of EPCs inversely correlates with the number of atherosclerotic risk factors. Although nonpharmacological treatment represents the first approach to the primary prevention of atherosclerotic diseases, little is known about the effects of diet on EPCs. We investigated the effect of a dietary intervention with vegetables that are commonly eaten in Okinawa on the number of EPCs. Forty-five healthy young women were employed and randomized to a dietary intervention group (n=24) or a control group (n=21). Subjects in the intervention group received typical Okinawan vegetables through home-parcel delivery for 2 weeks. After the dietary intervention, urinary potassium and magnesium excretion increased only in the intervention group and changes were greater than in the control group (p=0.007, 0.010, respectively). The consumption of total vegetables correlated with changes in both urinary potassium and magnesium excretion. Serum folic acid increased and plasma homocysteine decreased in both groups but the change was significant only in the intervention group. The EPCs number significantly increased in the intervention group but did not in the control group. An inverse correlation was observed between EPC number and plasma homocysteine level (r=-0.272, p=0.016). Changes in the EPC number inversely correlated with changes in both serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (r=-0.555, p=0.0002; r=-0.626, p<0.0001, respectively). The consumption of vegetables increased the number of circulating EPCs; this change might be associated with a homocysteine-lowering effect.

  8. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk.

  9. Acute effects of modafinil on brain resting state networks in young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Esposito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing debate on the use of drugs that promote cognitive enhancement. Amphetamine-like drugs have been employed as cognitive enhancers, but they show important side effects and induce addiction. In this study, we investigated the use of modafinil which appears to have less side effects compared to other amphetamine-like drugs. We analyzed effects on cognitive performances and brain resting state network activity of 26 healthy young subjects. METHODOLOGY: A single dose (100 mg of modafinil was administered in a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Both groups were tested for neuropsychological performances with the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices II set (APM before and three hours after administration of drug or placebo. Resting state functional magnetic resonance (rs-FMRI was also used, before and after three hours, to investigate changes in the activity of resting state brain networks. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI was employed to evaluate differences in structural connectivity between the two groups. Protocol ID: Modrest_2011; NCT01684306; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results indicate that a single dose of modafinil improves cognitive performance as assessed by APM. Rs-fMRI showed that the drug produces a statistically significant increased activation of Frontal Parietal Control (FPC; p<0.04 and Dorsal Attention (DAN; p<0.04 networks. No modifications in structural connectivity were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our findings support the notion that modafinil has cognitive enhancing properties and provide functional connectivity data to support these effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306.

  10. Oropharyngeal Colonization With Neisseria lactamica, Other Nonpathogenic Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis Among Young Healthy Children in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhi, Raheleh; Amin, Mansour; Rostami, Soodabeh; Shoja, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neisseria lactamica as one of the main commensal in oropharynx during the childhood is related to the induction of a natural immunity against meningococcal meningitis. Also Moraxella catarrhalis in oropharynx of children is a predisposing factor for otitis media infection. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the frequency of the N. lactamica, other nonpathogenic Neisseria spp. and M. catarrhalis in the oropharynx of young healthy children in Ahvaz, Iran by the two p...

  11. Risk factors for low bone mass in healthy young adults from North India: studies on BMD and bone turnover markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Fotedar Verma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite availability of adequate sunshine, Indian population has the highest prevalence of low bone mass and Bone Mineral Content (BMC. Risk factors for osteoporosis have been extensively studied in the west but poorly investigated in India. We studied BMD and Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs among healthy young adults. Methods: Fifty one healthy young adults (28 Males, 23 Females in the age group of 20-35 years were studied. Morphometric, biochemical parameters and BMD (whole body, spine, hip and wrist were recorded. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, BMI and Waist/Hip Ratio (WHR. BTMs studied included - serum Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (sBAP, serum Collagen cross-linked C-Terminal telopeptide (sCTx, serum Osteocalcin (OC and human intact parathyroid hormone (hPTH using standard ELISA kits. Results: Of 51 healthy volunteers 21.57% had normal BMD, 13.73% were frankly osteoporotic and 64.70% were osteopenic. Age, weight and BMI were the best predictors of total BMD and BMC at all sites. sCTX positively correlated with Total Bone Area (TBA, BMD at Hip and Forearm. Using multiple regressions - age, weight, and BMI were significant predictors of BMD in young adults. Percentage body fat had inverse correlation with BMC, BMD and TBA. Weight and height positively correlated with BMD at femoral neck, inter-trochanter and Ward's triangle. Body weight was best predictor of BMD at femoral neck, Ward's triangle, forearm UD, forearm MID and forearm1/3. Conclusion: Majority of healthy young Indians have poor bone health as evidenced by bone markers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 933-939

  12. Heart rate variability analysis during immediate recovery from exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M; Kirmani, Azra; Labban, Ezaz

    2017-05-01

    Data on heart rate variability (HRV) changes during immediate recovery period after exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate recovery (HRR), and arterial blood pressure immediately after cessation of exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females. This study was carried out in the laboratory of the Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. Fifty-five female students were classified into normal weight group and overweight/obese group. HRV, HRR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were estimated at resting condition and immediately after cessation of exercise. During recovery, heart rate was significantly increased in overweight/obese group along with significant decrease in rMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals) and HF (high-frequency power) compared with normal group. The recovery of heart rate, normalized HF, and normalized sympathovagal balance to their baseline values were significantly lowered in overweight/obese group. Both SBP and DBP were significantly lowered from their baseline values during recovery in normal group but unchanged in overweight/obese group. This study provides evidence that overweight/obesity are associated with decreased HRR and delayed vagal reactivation, in addition to impaired postexercise hypotension early in the recovery period after exercise in healthy young adult females. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  14. A micronutrient-fortified young-child formula improves the iron and vitamin D status of healthy young European children: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, Marjolijn D; Eussen, Simone Rbm; van der Horst-Graat, Judith M; van Elburg, Ruurd M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Brus, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are common among young European children because of low dietary intakes and low compliance to vitamin D supplementation policies. Milk is a common drink for young European children. Studies evaluating the effect of milk fortification on iron and vitamin D status in these children are scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of a micronutrient-fortified young-child formula (YCF) on the iron and vitamin D status of young European children. In this randomized, double-blind controlled trial, healthy German, Dutch, and English children aged 1-3 y were allocated to receive either YCF (1.2 mg Fe/100 mL; 1.7 μg vitamin D/100 mL) or nonfortified cow milk (CM) (0.02 mg Fe/100 mL; no vitamin D) for 20 wk. Blood samples were taken before and after the intervention. The primary and secondary outcomes were change from baseline in serum ferritin (SF) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], respectively. ID was defined as SF children. The difference in the SF and 25(OH)D change between the treatment groups was 6.6 μg/L (95% CI: 1.4, 11.7 μg/L; P = 0.013) and 16.4 nmol/L (95% CI: 9.5, 21.4 nmol/L; P iron status and improves vitamin D status in healthy young children in Western Europe. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR3609. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Differences in resting state functional connectivity between young adult endurance athletes and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Raichlen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running. Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n=11; age=21.3±2.5 and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n=11; age=20.6±1.1, to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the Default Mode Network (DMN, the Fronto-Parietal Network (FPN, and the Motor Network (MN. We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex, suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area, somatosensory functions (postcentral region, and visual association abilities (occipital cortex. DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between

  16. Differences in Resting State Functional Connectivity between Young Adult Endurance Athletes and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A.; Bharadwaj, Pradyumna K.; Fitzhugh, Megan C.; Haws, Kari A.; Torre, Gabrielle-Ann; Trouard, Theodore P.; Alexander, Gene E.

    2016-01-01

    Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the motor network (MN). We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex), suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area), somatosensory functions (post-central region), and visual association abilities (occipital cortex). DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between

  17. Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Non-Obese and Clinically Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jamille Oliveira; Vásquez, Cecília M Passos; Santana, Gleiciane de Jesus; Silva, Natanael de Jesus; Braz, Juciene de Matos; Jesus, Amélia M Ribeiro de; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Cunha, Luana Celina Seraphim; Barbosa, Kiriaque Barra Ferreira

    2017-07-10

    The oxidative biomarkers play an important role in the genesis of cardiometabolic risk-related processes. To investigate the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and its association with cardiometabolic risk in non-obese and clinically healthy young adults. University students of the state of Sergipe, Brazil, aged between 18 and 25 years, were recruited for this study from May of 2013 and October of 2014. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed using protocols which were previously standardized and described in the literature. The measurement of plasma total antioxidant capacity was based on the ability that all the antioxidants present in the sample (plasma) have to inhibit the oxidation of the oxidizable substrate ABTS (2,2`- Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) to ABTS•+ by metmyoglobin. Approximately 25% of the sample presented more than one component of cardiometabolic risk. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent component. Compared to absence of components, the subjects with at least one component presented greater body weight and waist circumference, higher levels of diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose, greater total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, and lower levels of HDL-c (p literatura. A medida da capacidade antioxidante total do plasma baseou-se na capacidade de todos os antioxidantes presentes na amostra (plasma) em inibir a oxidação do substrato oxidável ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato) a ABTS•+ pela metamioglobina. Aproximadamente 25% da amostra apresentaram mais de um componente do risco cardiometabólico. Valores baixos de HDL foram o componente mais prevalente. Em comparação à ausência de componentes, os indivíduos com pelo menos um componente apresentou valores mais altos de peso corporal, circunferência da cintura, pressão sanguínea diastólica, glicemia de jejum e razão colesterol total/HDL-c, e valores mais baixos de HDL-c (p < 0,05). A glicemia de jejum

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of “High-Order” Functional Connectivity in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity (FC has become a leading method for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI analysis. However, the majority of the previous studies utilized pairwise, temporal synchronization-based FC. Recently, high-order FC (HOFC methods were proposed with the idea of computing “correlation of correlations” to capture high-level, more complex associations among the brain regions. There are two types of HOFC. The first type is topographical profile similarity-based HOFC (tHOFC and its variant, associated HOFC (aHOFC, for capturing different levels of HOFC. Instead of measuring the similarity of the original rs-fMRI signals with the traditional FC (low-order FC, or LOFC, tHOFC measures the similarity of LOFC profiles (i.e., a set of LOFC values between a region and all other regions between each pair of brain regions. The second type is dynamics-based HOFC (dHOFC which defines the quadruple relationship among every four brain regions by first calculating two pairwise dynamic LOFC “time series” and then measuring their temporal synchronization (i.e., temporal correlation of the LOFC fluctuations, not the BOLD fluctuations. Applications have shown the superiority of HOFC in both disease biomarker detection and individualized diagnosis than LOFC. However, no study has been carried out for the assessment of test-retest reliability of different HOFC metrics. In this paper, we systematically evaluate the reliability of the two types of HOFC methods using test-retest rs-fMRI data from 25 (12 females, age 24.48 ± 2.55 years young healthy adults with seven repeated scans (with interval = 3–8 days. We found that all HOFC metrics have satisfactory reliability, specifically (1 fair-to-good for tHOFC and aHOFC, and (2 fair-to-moderate for dHOFC with relatively strong connectivity strength. We further give an in-depth analysis of the biological meanings of each HOFC metric and highlight their differences compared to the

  19. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, S.; Mendes, T.; Maroco, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Schmand, B.A.; de Mendonca, A.; Guerreiro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. Objective: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective M

  20. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  1. A Case of Influenza A (H3N2) Complicated by Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Death in a Young Healthy Adult during the 2013–2014 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren F.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2017-01-01

    With multiple available vaccines and antivirals, seasonal influenza A is typically a self-limited acutely debilitating illness in young healthy adults. Here, we illustrate unexpected morbidity and mortality in a relatively young and healthy patient seen at a large tertiary care academic medical center for seasonal influenza A (H3N2) complicated by community-acquired pneumonia, hypoxic respiratory failure, septic shock, and death.

  2. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  3. Central Arterial Hemodynamic Effects of Dark Chocolate Ingestion in Young Healthy People: A Randomized and Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, T.; Maldonado, J.; Laranjeiro, M.; Coutinho, R.; Cardoso, E.; Andrade, I.; Conde, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the vascular benefits of dark chocolate in healthy and young individuals. Methods. A randomized and controlled trial was carried out involving 60 healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups: control group (CG; n = 30) and intervention group (IG; n = 30). The IG ingested a daily dosage of 10 g of dark chocolate (>75% cocoa) for a month. Blood pressure (BP), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), arterial stiffness index (ASI), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), and pulse wave analysis (PWA) were assessed at baseline and one week after the one-month intervention period. Results. Arterial function improved after intervention in the IG, with PWV decreasing from 6.13 ± 0.41 m/s to 5.83 ± 0.53 m/s (P = 0.02), with no significant differences observed in the CG. A significant decrease in ASI (0.16 ± 0.01 to 0.13 ± 0.01; P 75% cocoa) during a month significantly improves vascular function in young and healthy individuals. PMID:24982813

  4. Immunological profiling of haemodialysis patients and young healthy individuals with implications for clinical regulatory T cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, M; Joly, A-L; Seiron, P; Isringhausen, S; Modig, E; Fellström, B; Andersson, J; Berglund, D

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing interest in clinical trials with regulatory T cells (Tregs), immunological profiling of prospective target groups and standardized procedures for Treg isolation are needed. In this study, flow cytometry was used to assess peripheral blood lymphocyte profiles of young healthy individuals and patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment. Tregs obtained from the former may be used in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and Tregs from the latter in the prevention of kidney transplant rejection. FOXP3 mRNA expression with accompanying isoform distribution was also assessed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Flow-cytometric gating strategies were systematically analysed to optimize the isolation of Tregs. Our findings showed an overall similar immunological profile of both cohorts in spite of great differences in both age and health. Analysis of flow-cytometric gating techniques highlighted the importance of gating for both CD25high and CD127low expression in the isolation of FOXP3-positive cells. This study provides additional insight into the immunological profile of young healthy individuals and uraemic patients as well as in-depth analysis of flow-cytometric gating strategies for Treg isolation, supporting the development of Treg therapy using cells from healthy donors and uraemic patients.

  5. A new treatment strategy for severe arthrofibrosis of the knee. A review of twenty-two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Zhong; He, Yao-Hua

    2006-06-01

    To reduce the morbidity of traditional quadricepsplasty for the treatment of severe arthrofibrosis of the knee, we instituted a treatment regimen consisting of an initial extra-articular mini-invasive quadricepsplasty and subsequent intra-articular arthroscopic lysis of adhesions during the same anesthesia session. The purpose of the present study was to determine the results of this technique. From 1998 to 2001, twenty-two patients with severely arthrofibrotic knees were managed with this operative technique. The mean age of the patients at the time of the operation was thirty-seven years. After a mean duration of follow-up of forty-four months (minimum, twenty-four months), all patients were evaluated according to the criteria of Judet and The Hospital for Special Surgery knee-rating system. The average maximum degree of flexion increased from 27 degrees preoperatively to 115 degrees at the time of the most recent follow-up (p < 0.001). According to the criteria of Judet, the result was excellent for sixteen knees, good for five, and fair for one. The average Hospital for Special Surgery knee score improved from 74 points preoperatively to 94 points at the time of the most recent follow-up (p < 0.001). A superficial wound infection occurred in one patient. Only one patient had a persistent 15 degrees extension lag. This mini-invasive operation for the severely arthrofibrotic knee can be used to increase the range of motion and enhance functional outcome.

  6. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    Study Question Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? Summary Answer Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. What......, at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined...... with a 9% (3%; 15%) reduction in free testosterone and a 16% (2%; 31%) increase in FSH, after adjustment for confounders. Limitations, Reason for Caution Our study was cross-sectional and reverse causality cannot be ruled out. In addition, we cannot rule out the possibility that the men with late puberty...

  7. Caught in a 'spiral'. Barriers to healthy eating and dietary health promotion needs from the perspective of unemployed young people and their service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Jenny; Share, Michelle; Hennessy, Marita; Knox, Barbara Stewart

    2015-02-01

    The number of young people in Europe who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) is increasing. Given that young people from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to have diets of poor nutritional quality, this exploratory study sought to understand barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and dietary health promotion needs of unemployed young people aged 16-20 years. Three focus group discussions were held with young people (n = 14). Six individual interviews and one paired interview with service providers (n = 7). Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically content analysed. Themes were then fitted to social cognitive theory (SCT). Despite understanding of the principles of healthy eating, a 'spiral' of interrelated social, economic and associated psychological problems was perceived to render food and health of little value and low priority for the young people. The story related by the young people and corroborated by the service providers was of a lack of personal and vicarious experience with food. The proliferation and proximity of fast food outlets and the high perceived cost of 'healthy' compared to 'junk' food rendered the young people low in self-efficacy and perceived control to make healthier food choices. Agency was instead expressed through consumption of junk food and drugs. Both the young people and service providers agreed that for dietary health promotion efforts to succeed, social problems needed to be addressed and agency encouraged through (individual and collective) active engagement of the young people themselves.

  8. Balancing healthy meals and busy lives: associations between work, school, and family responsibilities and perceived time constraints among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N

    2012-01-01

    To characterize associations between perceived time constraints for healthy eating and work, school, and family responsibilities among young adults. Cross-sectional survey. A large, Midwestern metropolitan region. A diverse sample of community college (n = 598) and public university (n = 603) students. Time constraints in general, as well as those specific to meal preparation/structure, and perceptions of a healthy life balance. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression (α = .005). Women, 4-year students, and students with lower socioeconomic status perceived more time constraints (P students with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to have a healthy balance (P ≤ .003). Having a heavy course load and working longer hours were important predictors of time constraints among men (P nutrition-related messaging to achieve healthy diets on a low time budget may be more successful if tailored to the factors that contribute to time constraints separately among men and women. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does nutritional labeling increase healthy eating fallacy? An exploration into young Indian’s purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young consumers’ responses towards nutritional labeling, it’s information content and the importance of the functional characteristics of these labels as perceived by young consumers in making informed purchase decisions through personal interviews of 220 respondents using a structured questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to identify the underlying dimensions among a set of nutritional labeling parameters using principal component analysis. Based on factor analysis, ten factors emerged. Regression analysis and t test indicated that, out the ten factors, only three factors namely ‘Nutritional Belief’, ‘Storage instruction & Information overload’, and ‘Exercise & Nutrition’ were significant. These factors were mainly inclined outside the purview of nutritional labeling purchase influence .It was thus concluded that nutritional labeling had less influence in purchase decisions as far as young consumers were considered. Findings of the study give practical insights on food labeling issues for the food processors and policy makers.

  10. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Gupta; Muthuvel Arumugam; Raj Vardhan Azad; Rohit Saxena; Supriyo Ghose; Nihar Ranjan Biswas; Thirumurthy Velpandian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India.Methods:Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups.Results:In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursacrumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization.Conclusions:The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  11. Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Daily Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent daily JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and global networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of daily coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for daily positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the daily coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical daily RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and global stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.

  12. The Healthy Young Men's Study: Sampling Methods to Recruit a Random Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Wesley L; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna

    2009-10-01

    Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.In this paper the authors describe a venue-based sampling methodology used to recruit a large and diverse cohort of YMSM from public venues in Los Angeles County. Venue-based sampling is a multi-stage, probability sampling design that uses standard outreach techniques and standard survey methods to systematically enumerate, sample, and survey hard-to-reach populations. The study design allowed the authors to estimate individual, familial and interpersonal psychosocial factors associated with HIV risk and health seeking behaviors for a cohort of YMSM with known properties. Study participants completed an extensive baseline survey and over a two year period will complete four follow-up surveys at six-month intervals. The baseline survey was administered in both English and Spanish.

  13. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  14. Hypovitaminosis-D and EBV: no interdependence between two MS risk factors in a healthy young UK autumn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Caren; Pachnio, Annette; Sisay, Sofia; Begum, Jusnara; Leese, Alison; Disanto, Giulio; Kuhle, Jens; Giovannoni, Gavin; Rickinson, Alan; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Moss, Paul; Meier, Ute-Christiane

    2014-05-01

    Late Epstein-Barr virus infection and hypovitaminosis-D as environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis are gaining great interest. We, therefore, tested for in-vivo interdependence between Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-status and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) -level in healthy young individuals from a United Kingdom (UK) autumn cohort. EBV-load was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 25(OH)D3 levels by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This young, healthy UK autumn cohort showed surprisingly low levels of 25(OH)D3 (mean value: 40.5 nmol/L ± 5.02). Furthermore, we found that low 25(OH)D3 levels did not impact on EBV load and anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) titers. However, we observed a correlation between EBV load and EBNA-1 titers. These observations should be of value in the study of the potential relationship between hypovitaminosis-D and EBV-status in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis.

  15. Medial temporal lobe BOLD activity at rest predicts individual differences in memory ability in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S.; Grafton, Scott T.; Demos, Kathryn E.; Wolford, George L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Kelley, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Human beings differ in their ability to form and retrieve lasting long-term memories. To explore the source of these individual differences, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in healthy young adults (n = 50) during periods of resting fixation that were interleaved with periods of simple cognitive tasks. We report that medial temporal lobe BOLD activity during periods of rest predicts individual differences in memory ability. Specifically, individuals who exhibited greater magnitudes of task-induced deactivations in medial temporal lobe BOLD signal (as compared to periods of rest) demonstrated superior memory during offline testing. This relationship was independent of differences in general cognitive function and persisted across different control tasks (i.e., number judgment versus checkerboard detection) and experimental designs (i.e., blocked versus event-related). These results offer a neurophysiological basis for the variability in mnemonic ability that is present amongst healthy young adults and may help to guide strategies aimed at early detection and intervention of neurological and mnemonic impairment. PMID:19001272

  16. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  17. Anxious/Depressed Symptoms are Linked to Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Maturation in Healthy Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Almli, C. Robert; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Pike, G. Bruce; Collins, D. Louis; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant “CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age” interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15–22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18–22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain. PMID:23749874

  18. Effect of Resveratrol as Caloric Restriction Mimetic and Environmental Enrichment on Neurobehavioural Responses in Young Healthy Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Shehu Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction and environmental enrichment have been separately reported to possess health benefits such as improvement in motor and cognitive functions. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been reported to be caloric restriction mimetic. This study therefore aims to investigate the potential benefit of the combination of resveratrol as CR and EE on learning and memory, motor coordination, and motor endurance in young healthy mice. Fifty mice of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups of 10 animals each: group I animals received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC orally per kg/day (control, group II animals were maintained on every other day feeding, group III animals received resveratrol 50 mg/kg, suspended in 10 g/L of (CMC orally per kg/day, group IV animals received CMC and were kept in an enriched environment, and group V animals received resveratrol 50 mg/kg and were kept in EE. The treatment lasted for four weeks. On days 26, 27, and 28 of the study period, the animals were subjected to neurobehavioural evaluation. The results obtained showed that there was no significant change (P>0.05 in neurobehavioural responses in all the groups when compared to the control which indicates that 50 mg/kg of resveratrol administration and EE have no significant effects on neurobehavioural responses in young healthy mice over a period of four weeks.

  19. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component.

  20. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  1. Predictors of Memory Deficits in Adolescents and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Compared to Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Pike

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease [CHD] show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. Method: 156 adolescents and young adults [80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years] were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition – general memory index (GMI score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to assess group differences, and logistic regression to identify predictors of memory deficits. Results: CHD subjects consisted of 58% males, median age 17 years, 41% Hispanic, and medians of 2 previous heart surgeries and 14 years since last surgery. Memory deficits [GMI < 85] were identified in 50% CHD compared to 4% healthy controls [median GMI 85 vs. 108, p <0.001]. Of GMI subscale medians, CHD subjects had significantly worse memory performance vs. healthy controls [verbal 88 vs. 105, p <0.001; attention 88 vs. 109, p<0.001; working memory 86 vs. 108, p <0.001]. No significant differences appeared between groups for visual memory. Multiple clinical and psychosocial factors were identified which were statistically different on bivariate analyses between the subjects with and without memory deficits. By multivariate analysis, male gender, number of surgeries, anxiety, and self-efficacy emerged as independent predictors of memory deficits. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with CHD, more than a decade since their last surgery, show significant verbal, attention and working memory deficits over controls. To enhance

  2. Fresh and healthy?: Well-being, health and performance of young employees with intermediate education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Koppes, L.L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the well-being, health and performance of young intermediate educated employees. First, employees with low education (9 years or less), intermediate education (10-14 years of education), and high education (15 years or more) are compar

  3. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengmei; Huo, Yajun; Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Jiang; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Huafu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  4. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  5. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O2 uptake (VO2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO2; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV1, FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum Immune System Biomarkers Neopterin and Interleukin-10 Are Strongly Related to Tryptophan Metabolism in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, Oana M; Mills, James L; Gardiner, Clair M; Shane, Barry; Quinn, Louise; Midttun, Øivind; McCann, Adrian; Meyer, Klaus; Ueland, Per M; Fan, Ruzong; Lu, Zhaohui; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M

    2016-09-01

    Changes in tryptophan metabolism through the vitamin B-6-dependent kynurenine pathway have been linked to activation of the immune system. We hypothesized that blood concentrations of tryptophan and its catabolites were associated with biomarkers relevant to inflammatory processes in healthy noninflamed subjects. Healthy young adults (n = 737) aged 18-28 y without any known diseases or clinical evidence of inflammation provided blood samples for analysis of serum tryptophan/kynurenine metabolites, neopterin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) with LC-tandem mass spectrometry methodologies. A panel of cytokines was measured in serum by using high-sensitivity ELISA assays. Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis to determine the effect of measured serum cytokine concentrations as predictors of tryptophan metabolites was performed on inverse normal-rank transformations of the data, adjusted for sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and contraceptive use in women. Median serum CRP and neopterin concentrations were well below established clinical cutoffs for inflammation. We observed significant positive associations between serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) and serum kynurenine (P = 0.0002), the kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR) (P = 0.003), 3-hydroxykynurenine (P = 0.01), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (P = 0.04). Serum neopterin was positively associated with kynurenine, the KTR (both P < 0.0001), and anthranilic acid (P = 0.004), and was negatively associated with serum tryptophan (P = 0.01) and PLP (P < 0.0001). Serum tumor necrosis factor α was also negatively associated with tryptophan (P < 0.001). In healthy young adults with no apparent inflammatory conditions, serum tryptophan metabolites are significantly associated with key immune system biomarkers. The observed association between IL-10 and kynurenine is unexpected and suggests that kynurenine

  7. PERIORBITAL NECROTIZING FASCIITIS DUE TO CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS IN A HEALTHY-YOUNG MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOORENBOSBOT, ACC; HOOYMANS, JMM; BLANKSMA, LJ

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented of a healthy 25-year-old man who developed a periorbital necrotising fasciitis after a trivial trauma with a wooden splinter. Necrotising fasciitis of the eyelids occurs rarely. Cryptococcus neoformans is not described as a causative factor of necrotizing fasciitis.

  8. Immediate and prolonged effects of cortisol, but not propranolol, on memory retrieval in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: While acute cortisol administration has been found to impair retrieval of emotional memories in healthy subjects, the duration of this memory impairment is still unknown. Propranolol, on the other hand, may impair the reconsolidation of emotional memories during reactivation, although hu

  9. T Lymphocyte Maturation Is Impaired in Healthy Young Individuals Carrying Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzarotti, Laura; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelletti, Eleonora; Boldrighini, Benedetta; Piacentini, Luca; Duca, Piergiorgio; Beretta, Silvia; Pacei, Michela; Caprio, Cristiana; Vigano, Alessandra; di Natale, Berardo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is…

  10. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  11. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  12. PERIORBITAL NECROTIZING FASCIITIS DUE TO CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS IN A HEALTHY-YOUNG MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOORENBOSBOT, ACC; HOOYMANS, JMM; BLANKSMA, LJ

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented of a healthy 25-year-old man who developed a periorbital necrotising fasciitis after a trivial trauma with a wooden splinter. Necrotising fasciitis of the eyelids occurs rarely. Cryptococcus neoformans is not described as a causative factor of necrotizing fasciitis. Crypto

  13. T Lymphocyte Maturation Is Impaired in Healthy Young Individuals Carrying Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzarotti, Laura; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelletti, Eleonora; Boldrighini, Benedetta; Piacentini, Luca; Duca, Piergiorgio; Beretta, Silvia; Pacei, Michela; Caprio, Cristiana; Vigano, Alessandra; di Natale, Berardo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is…

  14. A phylo-functional core of gut microbiota in healthy young Chinese cohorts across lifestyles, geography and ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Guoyang; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Hongfang; Xu, Haiyan; Lv, Qiang; Zhong, Zhi; Chen, Yongfu; Qimuge, Sudu; Menghe, Bilige; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-09-01

    Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural and urban cohorts from 7 ethnic groups living in 9 provinces throughout China. Canonical analysis of unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates clustered the subjects mainly by their ethnicities/geography and less so by lifestyles. Nine predominant genera, all of which are known to contain short-chain fatty acid producers, co-occurred in all individuals and collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences. Interestingly, species-level compositional profiles within these nine genera still discriminated the subjects according to their ethnicities/geography and lifestyles. Therefore, a phylogenetically diverse core of gut microbiota at the genus level may be commonly shared by distinctive healthy populations as functionally indispensable ecosystem service providers for the hosts.

  15. Healthy urban environments for children and young people: A systematic review of intervention studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review collates, and presents as a narrative synthesis, evidence from interventions which included changes to the urban environment and reported at least one health behaviour or outcome for children and young people. Following a comprehensive search of six databases, 33 primary studies relating to 27 urban environment interventions were included. The majority of interventions related to active travel. Others included park and playground renovations, road traffic safety, and multi-component community-based initiatives. Public health evidence for effectiveness of such interventions is often weak because study designs tend to be opportunistic, non-randomised, use subjective outcome measures, and do not incorporate follow-up of study participants. However, there is some evidence of potential health benefits to children and young people from urban environment interventions relating to road safety and active travel, with evidence of promise for a multi-component obesity prevention initiative. Future research requires more robust study designs incorporating objective outcome measures. PMID:26457624

  16. Using behavioral economics to promote healthy behavior toward sun exposure in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stretching training affects erythrocyte rheological properties and anaerobic performance in healthy young males

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Emine Kılıç; Koçak, Fatma Ünver; Erken, Gülten; Küçükatay, Melek Bor

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stretching exercise training is used to improve flexibility and performance. This study aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of stretching exercise on flexibility, performance, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation. METHODS: 7 young male subjects (mean age 20.71±0.52 years) participated to the study. Stretching protocol consisted of 3 repetitions for 60 seconds, 3 days/week, 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after the stretc...

  18. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  19. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pieniak, Z; Żakowska-Biemans, S; Kostyra, E.; Raats, MM

    2016-01-01

    Background Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. Methods/design This study protocol that aims to investi...

  20. The effect of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion on sleep architecture: an exploratory risk study in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, N; Tuomilehto, H; Gauthier, C; Papadakis, A; Remise, C; Lavigne, F; Lavigne, G J; Huynh, N

    2013-11-01

    Maxillary transverse deficiencies (MTD) cause malocclusions. Rapid maxillary expansion treatment is commonly used treatment for correcting such deficiencies and has been found to be effective in improving respiration and sleep architecture in children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, thus far, the effect of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) treatment on sleep architecture and breathing of normal subjects has not been assessed. We hypothesised that sleep quality will improve after maxillary expansion treatment. The objective of this study is to access the effect of maxillary expansion treatment on sleep structure and respiratory functions in healthy young adults with severe MTD. This is a prospective and exploratory clinical study. Twenty-eight consecutive young adult patients (15 males and 13 females, mean age 20·6 ± 5·8 years) presenting with severe MTD at the orthodontic examination were recruited into the study. All the participants underwent a standardised SARME procedure (mean expansion 6·5 ± 1·8 and 8·2 ± 1·8 mm, intercanine and intermolar distance, respectively) to correct malocclusion caused by MTD. An overnight in-laboratory polysomnography, before and after the treatment, was performed. The mean follow-up time was 9 months. The main outcome parameters were the changes in sleep architecture, including sleep stages, arousals, slow-wave activity (SWA) and respiratory variables. Before surgery, young adult patients with MTD presented no evidence of sleep breathing problems. At baseline sleep recording, 7 of 28 (25%) had apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 5 events per hour. No negative effect of the SARME was observed in questionnaires or sleep laboratory parameters. In the patients with a higher baseline AHI (AHI ≥ 5 h of sleep), we observed a reduction in AHI after surgical treatment (P = 0·028). SARME did not have a negative effect on any sleep or respiration parameters in healthy young individuals

  1. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  2. Nelfinavir monotherapy increases naïve T-cell numbers in HIV-negative healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stacey R; Tangalos, Eric G; McClees, Mark D; Strausbauch, Michael A; Targonski, Paul V; McKean, David J; Wettstein, Peter J; Badley, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Although patients treated with HIV protease inhibitor (PI) containing regimens manifest increases in naïve T cell number, it is unclear whether this is due to reduction in viral replication or a direct drug effect. We questioned whether Nelfinavir monotherapy directly impacted naïve T-cell number in HIV-negative individuals. HIV-negative volunteers received Nelfinavir, 1250 mg orally, BID for 3 weeks, and T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TREC) content in peripheral blood were assessed. Whereas TREC copies did not change over 3 weeks in untreated controls, TREC copies/copies CCR5 increased following Nelfinavir monotherapy in 8 patients (p negative patients, monotherapy with the HIV PI Nelfinavir for 21 days increases TREC-positive naïve T cell number, particularly in individuals who are healthy and young.

  3. Six different fat tolerance tests in young, healthy subjects –gender dependent postprandial lipemia and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Winther; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    tolerenctes (OFTT) with varying amoun of saturated fat. Methods: With six different types of fatin random order to tomatoes we measured postprandial lipemia, lipoprotein, glucose and insulin increments for eight hours in 14 young lean healthy students, seven of each gender. The area under the curve (AUC......) was dtermined for the postprandial values. Results: The meals with six types of butters had similar postprandial response even if the saturated fat content varied with 50%.Gender significantly affected the TG responses, as time to pesk was 90 minutes in women and 180 min in men. Postprandial AUC was higherwith...... responses and postprandial lipemia was gender-specific. Replacement of saturated fat by mono- or polyunsaturated fat did not alter postprandial lipemia during single OFTT...

  4. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular...... function in humans, twelve young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined...... %) and to 12 watts of active exercise (by 9 ± 1 %), indicating impaired vascular function. Reduced flow response to passive and active exercise was paralleled by a significant upregulation of Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and the Rho...

  5. Elevated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived superoxide production in healthy young black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.

  6. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea L Deschamps

    Full Text Available Homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X in the ACTN3 "sprinter" gene is common in humans despite the fact that it reduces muscle size, strength and power. Because of the close relationship between skeletal muscle function and cardiometabolic health we examined the influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism over cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young adults (n = 98 males, n = 102 females; 23 ± 4.2 years from our Assessing Inherent Markers for Metabolic syndrome in the Young (AIMMY study. Both males and females with the RR vs XX genotype achieved higher mean VO2 peak scores (47.8 ± 1.5 vs 43.2 ±1.8 ml/O2/min, p = 0.002 and exhibited higher resting systolic (115 ± 2 vs 105 ± mmHg, p = 0.027 and diastolic (69 ± 3 vs 59 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.005 blood pressure suggesting a role for ACTN3 in the maintenance of vascular tone. We subsequently identified the expression of alpha-actinin 3 protein in pulmonary artery smooth muscle, which may explain the genotype-specific differences in cardiovascular adaptation to acute exercise. In addition, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics to distinguish between RR and XX genotypes, suggesting an additional role for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in human metabolism. Taken together, these results identify significant cardiometabolic effects associated with possessing one or more functional copies of the ACTN3 gene.

  7. Attentional demands of cued walking in healthy young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, C Lieke E; Oorthuizen, Jolanda K; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2012-07-01

    Acoustic and visual cues are frequently used in gait rehabilitation. Attuning the steps to the cues is attentionally demanding. We examined the attentional demands of walking to two types of cues using a probe reaction time (RT) task. The steps were cued by either metronome beeps or visual stepping stones projected on a treadmill. The coupling between gait and these cues was assessed using a perturbation paradigm. In view of age-related changes in attentional demands of motor control, both elderly and young adults were tested. RTs were determined for walking to the two types of cues, as well as for three control conditions, viz. uncued walking, standing, and sitting. For all conditions, RTs were higher for elderly adults. However, the difference between elderly and young adults did not vary over conditions. Uncued walking required more attention than did standing and sitting. The attentional demands were further elevated during cued walking, with larger RTs for walking to visual stepping stones than to metronome beeps. Because the coupling to the cues was superior in the stepping stones condition, this type of cues seems to aid cued walking by allocating higher levels of attention to task-relevant information (viz. future footfall positions). Hence, the observed differences between the two cueing types may be associated with the natural dependence of gait on visual information.

  8. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Chelsea L; Connors, Kimberly E; Klein, Matthias S; Johnsen, Virginia L; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Many, Gina M; Barfield, Whitney; Hoffman, Eric P; Kraus, William E; Hittel, Dustin S

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X) in the ACTN3 "sprinter" gene is common in humans despite the fact that it reduces muscle size, strength and power. Because of the close relationship between skeletal muscle function and cardiometabolic health we examined the influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism over cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young adults (n = 98 males, n = 102 females; 23 ± 4.2 years) from our Assessing Inherent Markers for Metabolic syndrome in the Young (AIMMY) study. Both males and females with the RR vs XX genotype achieved higher mean VO2 peak scores (47.8 ± 1.5 vs 43.2 ±1.8 ml/O2/min, p = 0.002) and exhibited higher resting systolic (115 ± 2 vs 105 ± mmHg, p = 0.027) and diastolic (69 ± 3 vs 59 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.005) blood pressure suggesting a role for ACTN3 in the maintenance of vascular tone. We subsequently identified the expression of alpha-actinin 3 protein in pulmonary artery smooth muscle, which may explain the genotype-specific differences in cardiovascular adaptation to acute exercise. In addition, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics to distinguish between RR and XX genotypes, suggesting an additional role for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in human metabolism. Taken together, these results identify significant cardiometabolic effects associated with possessing one or more functional copies of the ACTN3 gene.

  9. Absence of sex differences in systolic blood pressure and heart rate responses to exercise in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruf, F A; Ogochukwu, U N; Dim, P A; Alada, A Ra

    2012-06-07

    The influence of sex on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) responses associated with cardiovascular morbidity, in healthy young adults was determined in ninety healthy young adults (47 females and 43 males) exercised using Bruce protocol. SBP and HR were measured pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery. SBPresponse (peak minus pre-exercise SBP), %SBPresponse [(peak minus pre-exercise SBP)÷pre-exercise SBP]x100, SBP3 (SBP 3 minutes into recovery), SBP4 (SBP 4 minutes into recovery), SBP3:peak (SBP3÷peak SBP), %SBPd3 [(peak SBP minus SBP 3 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]x100, %SBPd4 [(peak SBP minus SBP 4 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]X100, HRresponse (Peak HR minus pre-exercise HR), %HRresponse [(peak HR minus pre-exercise HR)÷pre-exercise HR]x 100, HR3 (HR 3 minutes into recovery), HR4 (HR 4 minutes into recovery), %HRd3 [(peak HR minus HR 3 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]x100, %HRd4 [(peak HR minus HR 4 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]X100, and HR50-70 (HR between 50th and 70th seconds into recovery) were derived from SBP and HR measurements. SBPpeak, HRresponse and %HRresponse were higher in males than in females whereas, SBPresponse, %SBPresponse and HRpeak were not different. There were no significant differences in the post-exercise SBP and HR responses of males and females except for SBP3, SBP4, HR3 and HR4. After adjusting for exercise duration, body mass index (BMI), and resting SBP and HR, these variables became similar. Sex differences in some SBP and HR responses to exercise, become nonexistent after adjusting for BMI, exercise duration, and resting SBP and HR.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood Is Independently Associated with Visceral Fat Accumulation in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Yon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Visceral obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases and it is important to identify the underlying mechanisms. There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic disturbances related to visceral obesity. In addition, maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number is important for preserving mitochondrial function. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between mtDNA copy number and visceral fat in healthy young adults. Methods. A total of 94 healthy young subjects were studied. Biomarkers of metabolic risk factors were assessed along with body composition by computed tomography. mtDNA copy number was measured in peripheral leukocytes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Results. The mtDNA copy number correlated with BMI (r=-0.22, P=0.04, waist circumference (r=-0.23, P=0.03, visceral fat area (r=-0.28, P=-0.01, HDL-cholesterol levels (r=0.25, P=0.02, and hs-CRP (r=0.32, P=0.02 after adjusting for age and sex. Both stepwise and nonstepwise multiple regression analyses confirmed that visceral fat area was independently associated with mtDNA copy number (β=-0.33, P<0.01, β=0.32, and P=0.03, resp.. Conclusions. An independent association between mtDNA content and visceral adiposity was identified. These data suggest that mtDNA copy number is a potential predictive marker for metabolic disturbances. Further studies are required to understand the causality and clinical significance of our findings.

  11. A high-fat meal increases cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakulj, Fabijana; Zernicke, Kristin; Bacon, Simon L; van Wielingen, Laura E; Key, Brenda L; West, Sheila G; Campbell, Tavis S

    2007-04-01

    The consumption of high levels of saturated fat over the course of several weeks may lead to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. The consumption of a single high-fat meal has been associated with a transient impairment of vascular function. In a randomized, repeated measures, crossover study we tested whether the consumption of a single high-fat meal by healthy, normotensive participants would affect cardiovascular reactivity when compared with an isocaloric, low-fat meal. Thirty healthy participants ate a high-fat (42 g) and a low-fat (1 g) meal on 2 separate occasions, and their cardiovascular response to 2 standard laboratory stressors was measured. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance were greater in participants following the consumption of the high-fat meal relative to the low-fat meal. The findings of the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that even a single high-fat meal may be associated with heightened cardiovascular reactivity to stress and offer insight into the pathways through which a high-fat diet may affect cardiovascular function.

  12. Influence of short-term changes in sex hormones on serum concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules in young healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Begić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine if short-term changes in sex hormones (such as cyclic changes within the menstrual cycle can influence the serumconcentration of soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs.Methods Sixteen healthy young women with normal cycles participated in this study. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were determined in three different phases of the menstrual cycle: a early follicular (EF phase, b ovulatory (O phase and c midluteal (ML phase, by standardized ELISA-based kits. To confirm the exact assessment of menstrual cycle phases, serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH were measured. Results There were significant oscillations in serum female sex hormones concentration over the cycle duration, as expected the level of estrogen (E2 and progesterone (PROG was the lowest in EF phase, the highest E2 appeared in O phase, and both E2 and PROG were present in high concentrations during ML phase. There was a significant positive correlation between E2 and serum soluble ICAM -1 concentrations (p=0,041, correlation coefficient 0,306. However, there was no significant change in other soluble CAMs concentration during the menstrual cycle. Conclusion Results of our study suggest that short-term changes in female sex hormone levels could modulate expression of soluble ICAM-1, but not VCAM -1 or E-selectin in extent that would affect a young woman’s health.

  13. Strategies for successful recruitment of young adults to healthy lifestyle programmes for the prevention of weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Recruiting healthy young adults, aged 18-35, to lifestyle programmes for prevention of weight gain is challenging but important given their increasing rates of obesity. This review aimed to examine the success of different recruitment strategies. A systematic literature search identified 26 separate studies using 10 electronic databases. Participant characteristics and efficacy of interventions were well reported in all studies, but reporting of recruitment procedures, costs, times and effectiveness was minimal. Of those reporting recruitment, both active (e.g. face-to-face) and passive (e.g. print-media and mass-mailings) approaches were identified with the latter most frequently employed. Novel strategies such as social media and marketing approaches were identified. Television and radio have potentially high reach but low efficiency with high cost compared with mass-mailings which yield high numbers of participants. Marketing campaigns appeared to be a promising approach. Incentives demonstrated enhanced recruitment. The use of formative research to guide recruitment strategies for interventions is recommended. Reporting of success, cost and timelines for recruitment should be included in reporting of future trials. This first synthesis of recruitment information can be used to inform recruitment frameworks for lifestyle programmes seeking to attract young adults. © 2015 World Obesity.

  14. Exaggerated natriuresis during clamping of systemic NO supply in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jane Angel; Rasmussen, Mona S; Vach, Werner

    2012-01-01

    NO (nitric oxide) may be involved in fluid homoeostasis. We hypothesized that increases in NO synthesis contribute to acute, saline-induced natriuresis, which, therefore, should be blunted when NO availability is stabilized. Young men were studied during simultaneous infusions of L-NAME [NG......-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; bolus of 750 μg·kg-1 of body weight and 8.3 μg·min-1·kg-1 of body weight] and SNP (sodium nitroprusside), the latter at a rate preventing L-NAME from increasing total peripheral resistance ('NO-clamping'). Slow volume expansion (saline, 20 μmol of NaCl·min-1·kg-1 of body weight for 3 h...

  15. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  16. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  17. Vitamin D Status Is Not Associated with Outcomes of Experimentally-Induced Muscle Weakness and Pain in Young, Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Ring

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle; and symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include muscle weakness and pain. Moreover, increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations have been associated with improved muscle function. To further clarify the importance of vitamin D to muscle, we examined the association between vitamin D status and exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness in healthy people. Muscle damage to the elbow flexors was induced with eccentric exercise (EE in 48 individuals (22.5 ± 3.2 yrs. Muscle pain ratings following unloaded movement and peak isometric force (IF were collected before EE and for 4 days post-EE. Linear regression was used to determine if serum 25(OHD was a predictor of any outcome. In males, R2-values from 0.48 to 1.00. R2 for IF ranged from 0 to 0.02 and P-values from 0.48 to 1.00. In females, R2 for pain ratings ranged from 0.01 to 0.11 and P-values from 0.14 to 0.59. R2 for IF ranged from 0 to 0.04 and P-values from 0.41 to 0.90. In conclusion, vitamin D status did not predict muscle pain or strength after EE-induced muscle damage in young healthy men and women.

  18. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Fuke, Tomoya; Ugi, Satoshi; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-06-30

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and researchers have recently reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can increase the serum adiponectin concentration, suggesting that dietary factors, such as fish intake, may have an influence on the serum adiponectin concentration. In general, Japanese subjects consume twice as much fish as people in other countries. We hypothesized that incremental change in serum omega-3 PUFA levels by fish intake is an important regulator of serum adiponectin even in Japanese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among fish consumption, serum omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), levels, and serum adiponectin levels. We recruited 17 healthy Japanese volunteers (seven men and 10 women) for an 8-week fish-diet intervention (omega-3 PUFA 3.0 g/day) without affecting total energy intake, and measured serum adiponectin concentration and fatty acid profiles. Fish-diet intervention significantly increased the serum adiponectin concentration in women (from 13.5+/-4.6 to 15.8+/-5.2 microg/mL, p diet intervention (57.3+/-86.6 vs 150.9+/-46.7 microg/mL, p=0.011), suggesting that changes in omega-3 PUFA concentration may explain the different response between sexes. A fish-based diet intervention increased the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese female subjects. The increment in serum omega-3 PUFA may regulate the serum adiponectin concentration.

  19. The Effect of Various Standing Positions in Muscles Activity between Healthy Young Men and those with Genu Varum

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    Persian Abstract Amir Hossein Barati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Genu varum is considered a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. Being aware of the changes in muscles activity in various standing positions among genu varum patients, can provide insight for preventing osteoarthritis in this population. This study is undertaken to compare muscles activity in various standing positions between young healthy and genu varum male individuals. Methods: 80 healthy male university students, 40 normal and 40 subjects with genu varum deformity, participated in this study. Deformity of genu varum was assessed with caliper and Goniometer. Each subject stood in five different positions and muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and SPSS software were employed and Mixed variance analysis test (Mixed ANOVA was run to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for muscles activity of the tensor fasia latae (at single leg with closed eye position, tertius fibulae and gluteus medius muscles (at single leg with closed eye and upward head postions( p≤0.05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be suggested that frontal knee angle may affect muscles activity. Perhaps one of the reasons for higher injury risk and knee osteoarthritis in genu varum population is the increase in muscles activity. Therefor, It is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises can reduce these risks.

  20. Physical Demand but Not Dexterity Is Associated with Motor Flexibility during Rapid Reaching in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Christian; Hortobàgyi, Tibor; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy humans are able to place light and heavy objects in small and large target locations with remarkable accuracy. Here we examine how dexterity demand and physical demand affect flexibility in joint coordination and end-effector kinematics when healthy young adults perform an upper extremity reaching task. We manipulated dexterity demand by changing target size and physical demand by increasing external resistance to reaching. Uncontrolled manifold analysis was used to decompose variability in joint coordination patterns into variability stabilizing the end-effector and variability de-stabilizing the end-effector during reaching. Our results demonstrate a proportional increase in stabilizing and de-stabilizing variability without a change in the ratio of the two variability components as physical demands increase. We interpret this finding in the context of previous studies showing that sensorimotor noise increases with increasing physical demands. We propose that the larger de-stabilizing variability as a function of physical demand originated from larger sensorimotor noise in the neuromuscular system. The larger stabilizing variability with larger physical demands is a strategy employed by the neuromuscular system to counter the de-stabilizing variability so that performance stability is maintained. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of movement therapy in a wide range of patient groups, maintaining upper extremity function in old adults, and for maximizing athletic performance. PMID:25970465

  1. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

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    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  2. Muscle activation and knee biomechanics during squatting and lunging after lower extremity fatigue in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Heather S; Acker, Stacey M; Maly, Monica R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle activations and knee joint loads were compared during squatting and lunging before and after lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue. Electromyographic activations of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, and the external knee adduction and flexion moments were collected on 25 healthy women (mean age 23.5 years, BMI of 23.7 kg/m(2)) during squatting and lunging. Participants were fatigued through sets of 50 isotonic knee extensions and flexions, with resistance set at 50% of the peak torque achieved during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Fatigue was defined as a decrease in peak isometric knee extension or flexion torque ≥25% from baseline. Co-activation indices were calculated between rectus femoris and biceps femoris; and between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. Fatigue decreased peak isometric extension and flexion torques (pknee adduction and flexion moments during lunging (p<0.05). Quadriceps activations were greater during lunging than squatting (p<0.05). Thus, fatigue altered the recruitment strategy of the quadriceps during squatting and lunging. Lunging challenges quadriceps activation more than squatting in healthy, young women.

  3. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation and both alter the gut microbiota of healthy, young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Pimentel, Grégory; Bütikofer, Ueli; von Ah, Ueli; Voirol, Marie-Jeanne; Croxatto, Antony; Aeby, Sébastien; Drai, Jocelyne; McTernan, Philip G; Greub, Gilbert; Pralong, François P; Vergères, Guy; Vionnet, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in 'low-grade' inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (Pmicrobiota taxa, including decreased abundance of Bilophila wadsworthia after acidified milk (log 2-fold-change (FC)=-1·5, P adj=0·05) and probiotic yogurt intake (FC=-1·3, P adj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, P adj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, P adjmicrobiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target 'low-grade' inflammation.

  4. Quantitative molecular detection of 19 major pathogens in the interdental biofilm of periodontally healthy young adults

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    Florence eCarrouel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18-35 yrs old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as F. nucleatum. The red complex (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were A. viscosus, P. gingivalis and A. actino. a. The genome counts for E. corrodens, C. concisus, C. rectus, T. denticola and T. forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis, the green complex (E. corrodens, C. gracilis, C. ochracea, C. sputigena, A. actino a, the purple complex (V. parvula, A. ondotolitycus and the blue complex (A. viscosus are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important pathogen in adult periodontal disease, represents 8.08% of the 19 bacteria analyzed. P. gingivalis was detected in 19% of healthy subjects and represents 0.02% of the

  5. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p soup.

  6. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

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    Jarste Morgenthaler

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived. Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  7. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  8. Mechanical compression during repeated sustained isometric muscle contractions and hyperemic recovery in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osada, Takuya; Mortensen, Stefan P; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated intramuscular pressure during a single forearm isometric muscle contraction may restrict muscle hyperemia. However, during repeated isometric exercise, it is unclear to what extent mechanical compression and muscle vasodilatation contribute to the magnitude and time course...... of beat-to-beat limb hemodynamics, due to alterations in leg vascular conductance (LVC). METHODS: In eight healthy male subjects, the time course of both beat-to-beat leg blood flow (LBF) and LVC in the femoral artery was determined between repeated 10-s isometric thigh muscle contractions and 10-s muscle...... (%). RESULTS: The exercise protocol was performed completely by all subjects (≤50 % MVC), seven subjects (≤70 % MVC), and two subjects (≤90 % MVC). During a 10-s isometric muscle contraction, the time course in both beat-to-beat LBF and LVC displayed a fitting curve with an exponential increase (P 

  9. Have sperm counts deteriorated over the past 20 years in healthy, young Japanese men? Results from the Sapporo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, N; Kayama, F; Tatsuki, T J; Tsukamoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Changes in semen quality of healthy men is a controversial issue throughout the world. It is suspected that many chemical endocrine disrupters may affect the quality of semen. Although exposure to them may be extensive in Japan, no evidence of changes in semen quality has been reported. In this study, changes in semen volume and sperm counts were analyzed over 20 years in the Sapporo area of Japan. Semen volume and sperm counts were measured in 254 and 457 normal, healthy volunteers who lived in the Sapporo area in 1975-1980 and 1998, respectively. Posters and handbills were used to recruit participants in both studies. Semen samples were collected by masturbation after 3 days or more of abstinence. There was no change in semen volume between 1975-1980 and 1998. Mean sperm counts were 70.9 +/- 47.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1975-1980 and 79.6 +/- 49.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1998. Sperm counts did not decline over about 20 years. No significant correlation between age and sperm counts was recognized in either study. The rates of subjects with oligozoospermia and azoospermia were the same in both studies. In the 1975-1980 study, 34 of 254 (13.4%) participants had a child, and in the 1998 study, 51 of 457 (11.2%) participants had a child. Mean sperm count was significantly (P Sapporo area of Japan over 20 years. However, selection bias in the recruitment of volunteers and the issue of variable abstinence might have affected the results of these studies. Therefore, well-designed prospective studies should be performed in several different regions to extrapolate our results on sperm counts to healthy, young Japanese men in general. Key words: Fertility, endocrine disruptors, seminalysis.

  10. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a healthy young female: A case report and literature review

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    Ahmed Dirweesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM is an uncommon finding in young adults presenting usually without any comorbidities or an underlying pathology. It is most commonly due to alveolar rupture in the setting of an inciting event such an underlying asthma, barotrauma, valsalva maneuver, or esophageal rupture. Individuals can have varying presentations, from chest pain, dyspnea and dysphagia, to anxiety, weakness, or facial and neck swelling. The majority of patients have subcutaneous emphysema on examination and can have abnormal laboratory findings such as an elevated C-reactive proteins and leukocytosis. Diagnostic modalities used include chest x-ray, CT scan, ultrasound and barium swallow or esophagram. Majority of individuals and treated conservatively with rest, analgesia and oxygen administration. The prognosis of SPM is usually good with resolution within several days in most cases and the recurrence rate is very low. We report the case of a 22-year-old female presented with SPM diagnosed by chest x-ray and chest CT scan who was treated conservatively with subsequent spontaneous resolution.

  11. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  12. Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Rissanen, A; Kangas, A J; Soininen, P; Rose, R J; Ala-Korpela, M; Kaprio, J

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young adults. Complete dietary data (food-frequency questionnaire) and lipoprotein subclass profile (via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were available for 663 subjects from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (57% women, age: 21-25 y). The serum docosahexaenoic to total fatty acid ratio was used as a biomarker of habitual fish consumption. Factor analysis identified 5 dietary patterns: "Fruit and vegetables", "Meat", "Sweets and desserts", "Junk food" and "Fish". After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake, the "Junk food" pattern was positively related to serum triglycerides (r = 0.12, P = 0.002), a shift in the subclass distribution of VLDL toward larger particles (r = 0.12 for VLDL size, P junk food intake is associated with unfavorable alterations in the distribution of all lipoprotein subclasses independent of adiposity and other lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Externalizing personality traits, empathy, and gray matter volume in healthy young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Judith; Dzemidzic, Mario; West, John; Oberlin, Brandon G; Eiler, William J A; Saykin, Andrew J; Kareken, David A

    2016-02-28

    Externalizing psychopathology has been linked to prefrontal abnormalities. While clinically diagnosed subjects show altered frontal gray matter, it is unknown if similar deficits relate to externalizing traits in non-clinical populations. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to retrospectively analyze the cerebral gray matter volume of 176 young adult social to heavy drinkers (mean age=24.0±2.9, male=83.5%) from studies of alcoholism risk. We hypothesized that prefrontal gray matter volume and externalizing traits would be correlated. Externalizing personality trait components-Boredom Susceptibility-Impulsivity (BS/IMP) and Empathy/Low Antisocial Behaviors (EMP/LASB)-were tested for correlations with gray matter partial volume estimates (gmPVE). Significantly large clusters (pFWEyoung adults, antisocial behavior/low empathy corresponded with reduced prefrontal and occipital gray matter, while impulsivity correlated with increased inferior frontal and anterior insula cortical volume. These findings add to a literature indicating that externalizing personality features involve altered frontal architecture.

  14. Kinematic Analysis of the Neck and Upper Extremities During Walking in Healthy Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwon Son; Junghong Park; Seonghun Park

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify the local stabilities of the neck and upper extremities (right/left shoulders and right/left elbows), and investigate differences between linear and nonlinear measurements of the associated joint motions and differences in the local stability between the upper and lower extremities. This attempt involves the calculation of a nonlinear parameter, Lyapunov Exponent (LE), and a linear parameter, Range of Motion (ROM), during treadmill walking in conjunction with a large population of healthy subjects. Joint motions of subjects were captured using a three-dimensional motion-capture system. Then mathematical chaos theory and the Rosenstein algorithm were employed to calculate LE of joints as the extent of logarithmic divergence between the neighboring state-space trajectories of flexion-extension angles. LEs computed over twenty males and twenty females were 0.037±0.023 for the neck, 0.043±0.021 for the right shoulder, 0.045±0.030 for the left shoulder, 0.032±0.021 for the right elbow, and 0.034±0.026 for the left elbow. Although statistically significant difference in the ROM was observed between all pairs of the neck and upper extremity joints, differences in the LE between all pairs of the joints as well as between males and females were not statistically significant. Between the upper and lower extremities, LEs of the neck, shoulder, and elbow were significantly smaller than those of the hip (~0.064) and the knee (~0.062). These results indicate that a statistical difference in the local stability between the upper extremity joints is not significant. However, the different result between the ROM and LE gives a strong rationale for applying both linear and nonlinear tools together to the evaluation of joint movement. The LEs of the joints calculated from a large population of healthy subjects could provide normative values for the associated joints and can be used to evaluate the recovery progress of patients with

  15. Cardiac safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for vaccination against smallpox in a young, healthy study population.

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    Eva-Maria Zitzmann-Roth

    Full Text Available Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial.Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI were monitored after each injection.A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis. The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions.Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524.

  16. Neckties and Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Males: A Pilot Randomised Crossover Trial

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    Mark Rafferty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A necktie may elevate intracranial pressure through compression of venous return. We hypothesised that a tight necktie would deleteriously alter cerebrovascular reactivity. Materials and Methods. A necktie was simulated using bespoke apparatus comprising pneumatic inner-tube with aneroid pressure-gauge. Using a randomised crossover design, cerebrovascular reactivity was measured with the “pseudo-tie” worn inflated or deflated for 5 minutes (simulating tight/loose necktie resp.. Reactivity was calculated using breath hold index (BHI and paired “t” testing used for comparative analysis. Results. We enrolled 40 healthy male volunteers. There was a reduction in cerebrovascular reactivity of 0.23 units with “tight” pseudotie (BHI loose 1.44 (SD 0.48; BHI tight 1.21 (SD 0.38 P<.001. Conclusion. Impairment in cerebrovascular reactivity was found with inflated pseudo-tie. However, mean BHI is still within a range of considered normal. The situation may differ in patients with vascular risk factors, and confirmatory work is recommended.

  17. HOW HEALTHY IS THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG ATHLETES? A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSES

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    Katharina Diehl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I² ranged from 93.2% to 100%. Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes

  18. Dark adaptation in relation to choroidal thickness in healthy young subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Altuntas, Cigdem; Li, Xiao Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dark adaptation is an energy-requiring process in the outer retina nourished by the profusely perfused choroid. We hypothesized that variations in choroidal thickness might affect the rate of dark adaptation. Method: Cross-sectional, observational study of 42 healthy university students...... a sensitivity of 5.0 × 10-3 cd/m2 (time to rod intercept) and the slope (rod adaptation rate). The choroid was imaged using enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Results: The time to the rod intercept was 7.3 ± 0.94 (range 5.1 - 10.2) min. Choroidal thickness 2.5° above...... the fovea was 348 ± 104 (range 153-534) μm. There was no significant correlation between any of the two measures of rod-mediated dark adaptation and choroidal thickness (time to rod intercept versus choroidal thickness 0.072 (CI95 -0.23 to 0.38) min/100 μm, P = 0.64, adjusted for age and sex...

  19. Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices

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    Banchaun Benjasuwantep

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively. The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of meal-times, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed.

  20. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    NO concentration and 95% CI was 3.9 (3.5-4.2) parts per billion (p.p.b.) for on-line measurements and 3.0 (2.7-3.3) p.p.b. for off-line measurements. Exhaled NO was independent of gender, age, height and weight. The 95% reference intervals (RI) for on-line and off-line measurements were 1.2-8.2 and 1.3-7.1 p......The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask.......p.b. respectively. Twenty-three children completed measurements of within-day and day-to-day variations, none of which showed significant variation. In conclusion, the established reference values and data on variability within and between days may facilitate the clinical application for measurement of eNO during...

  1. Helplessness and perceived pain intensity: relations to cortisol concentrations after electrocutaneous stimulation in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Matthias J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncontrollable aversive events are associated with feelings of helplessness and cortisol elevation and are suitable as a model of depression. The high comorbidity of depression and pain symptoms and the importance of controllability in both conditions are clinically well-known but empirical studies are scarce. The study investigated the relationship of pain experience, helplessness, and cortisol secretion after controllable vs. uncontrollable electric skin stimulation in healthy male individuals. Methods Sixty-four male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive 30 controllable (self-administered or uncontrollable (experimenter-administered painful electric skin stimuli. Perceived pain intensity (PPI, subjective helplessness ratings, and salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed. PPI was assessed after stress exposure. For salivary cortisol concentrations and subjective helplessness ratings, areas under the response curve (AUC were calculated. Results After uncontrollable vs. controllable stress exposure significantly higher PPI ratings (P = 0.023, higher subjective helplessness AUC (P Conclusions The results confirm the impact of uncontrollability on stress responses in humans; the relationship of PPI with subjective helplessness and salivary cortisol suggests a cognitive-affective sensitization of pain perception, particularly under uncontrollable conditions.

  2. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

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    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  3. Mapping the structure of perceptual and visual-motor abilities in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Krasich, Kristina; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Hughes, Lauren; Mitroff, Stephen R; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2015-05-01

    The ability to quickly detect and respond to visual stimuli in the environment is critical to many human activities. While such perceptual and visual-motor skills are important in a myriad of contexts, considerable variability exists between individuals in these abilities. To better understand the sources of this variability, we assessed perceptual and visual-motor skills in a large sample of 230 healthy individuals via the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, and compared variability in their behavioral performance to demographic, state, sleep and consumption characteristics. Dimension reduction and regression analyses indicated three underlying factors: Visual-Motor Control, Visual Sensitivity, and Eye Quickness, which accounted for roughly half of the overall population variance in performance on this battery. Inter-individual variability in Visual-Motor Control was correlated with gender and circadian patters such that performance on this factor was better for males and for those who had been awake for a longer period of time before assessment. The current findings indicate that abilities involving coordinated hand movements in response to stimuli are subject to greater individual variability, while visual sensitivity and occulomotor control are largely stable across individuals.

  4. The effects of sustained cognitive task performance on subsequent resting state functional connectivity in healthy young and middle-aged male schoolteachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, E.A.T.; Klaassen, E.B.; Rombouts, S.A.; Backes, W.H.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that functional connectivity (FC) within resting state (RS) networks is modulated by previous experience. In this study the effects of sustained cognitive performance on subsequent RS FC were investigated in healthy young (25-30 years; n=15) and middle-aged (50-60 years; n=14

  5. Rapidly fatal bacteremic pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae with K1 hypermucoviscosity phenotype in a previously healthy young man receiving levofloxacin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chou-Jui; Chi, Chun-Lin; Liu, An-Yu; Lee, Shih-Wei; Lin, T L; Wang, Jin-Town; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2009-10-01

    Fatal bacteremic Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia is commonly encountered in alcoholic and diabetic patients. This report describes a previously healthy young man with rapidly fatal bacteremic pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae serotype K1, complicated by septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction.

  6. Changes in insulin sensitivity precede changes in body composition during 14 days of step reduction combined with overfeeding in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Pedersen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A lifestyle characterized by inactivity and a high-calorie diet is a known risk factor for impaired insulin sensitivity and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate possible links, nine young healthy men (24 ± 3 yr; body mass index of 21.6 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) completed 14 days of step...

  7. The relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength in young healthy adults from sunny climate countries currently living in the northeast of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N A; Gray, S R; Fraser, W D; Fielding, S; Macdonald, H M

    2017-04-01

    The current study examined the relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength in young healthy adults: residents (>6 months) and newcomers (0-3 months), originally from sunny climate countries but currently living in the northeast of Scotland. Our longitudinal data found a positive, albeit small, relationship between vitamin D status and knee extensor isometric strength.

  8. Dose-response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL-341 in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.; Kaestel, P.

    2006-01-01

    was analyzed in the 10(10) CFU/day probiotic and placebo group. Design: The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel dose-response study. Subjects: Healthy young adults (18 - 40 years) were recruited by advertising in local newspapers. Of the 75 persons enrolled, 71 ( 46...

  9. White matter differences between healthy young ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers identified with tractography and support vector machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, L.G.; Lamberton, F.; Matura, S.; Scheibe, M.; Miller, J.; Rujescu, D.; Prvulovic, D.; Hampel, H.

    2012-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous work has shown that this allele is associated with functional (fMRI) changes as well structural grey matter (GM) changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess the diffusion

  10. Interindividual and intraindividual variability in plasma fibrinogen, TPA antigen, PAI activity, and CRP in healthy, young volunteers and patients with angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Bart, A.C.W. de; Hennis, B.C.; Meijer, P.; Havelaar, A.C.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    We compared intraindividual and interindividual variability in the plasma levels of fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA) antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 20 healthy, young individuals and 26 patients with stable angina pectoris (

  11. Downhill walking to improve lower limb strength in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodio, Angelo; Fattorini, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Walking is the most natural physical activity to maintain and improve fitness and health. Walking downhill is usefully adopted to plan training programmes to improve the strength, particularly in older adults. The present research was aimed to evaluate the influence of downhill walking on leg strength in young adult. A total of 32 females (age 26 ± 4 years; height 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass 57.6 ± 5.6 kg) were divided into four groups and they carried out an exercise intervention consisting of three sessions per week for 6 weeks, each lasting 30 minutes. Groups were defined at several workloads characterised by treadmill inclination (%) and walking speed (m · s(-1)): Level Walking at treadmill inclination 0% and walking speed 1.0; Uphill Walking at +20%, 0.75; Downhill Walking (DW) at -20%, 1.36; and Mixed Walking at +20%, 0.75 and -20%, 1.36 each lasting 15 minutes. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) developed by the Quadriceps Femoris and Endurance Time at 60% MVC were evaluated before and after experimental period. At the end of each session, Borg's scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were adopted in order to evaluate perception of rate exertion and pain. Statistical analysis showed significant only in MVC for DW in both right and left legs. Borg's scale and VAS described light activity free of pain. Present findings showed how an eccentric exercise, short lasting and at a low workload, can be useful in inducing improvements in leg strength.

  12. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema: an alarming complication of general anaesthesia in a young healthy male

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    Luis M. Afonso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary oedema is a rare but potentially harmful event[1,3]. The mechanisms of this pulmonary injury are not totally understood. It is believed that airway obstruction, as caused by laryngospasm after extubation, combined with the attempt of a forced inspiring effort, produce a negative intrathoracic pressure, increasing the venous return with a consequent rise of the hydrostatic pressure, ultimately leading to a leakage of fluid to the extracellular compartment. Nevertheless, it is possible that other factors may contribute to this condition, including hypoxia, cardiogenic and neurogenic mechanisms[2]. We present the case of a healthy 20-years-old male, who underwent a deferred left clavicle osteosynthesis. Immediately after surgery, the patient developed irritative cough and marked dyspnoea. There were no auscultatory anomalies and the plain chest radiograph was normal. He did not show clinical improvement after increasing oxygen supply and bronchodilators, and was then transferred to our hospital for further evaluation. A thoracic Computed Tomography (CT scan was performed (figure 1, revealing multiple areas of ground glass aspect and alveolar filling with centrilobular distribution, suggesting alveolar haemorrhage. The patient remained under observation for 48 hours, with clear signs of clinical improvement and no further complications, with no need for positive pressure ventilation. He was discharged being asymptomatic and with no signs of respiratory distress, after a control CT scan showing radiologic improvement. This case highlights the need to be aware of this diagnosis, that is usually self-limited but can be life-threatening and require specific treatment.

  13. Effects of electrical stimulation on VO2 kinetics and delta efficiency in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Lucia, A; Santalla, A; Chicharro, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics and delta efficiency (DE) during gradual exercise. The hypothesis was that ES would attenuate the VO2-workload relation and improve DE. Methods: Fifteen healthy, untrained men (mean (SD) age 22 (5) years) were selected. Ten were electrostimulated on both quadriceps muscles with a frequency of 45–60 Hz, with 12 seconds of stimulation followed by eight seconds recovery for a total of 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. The remaining five subjects were assigned to a control group. A standardised exercise test on a cycle ergometer (ramp protocol, workload increases of 20 W/min) was performed by each subject before and after the experimental period. The slope of the VO2-power output (W) relation (ΔVO2/ΔW) and DE were calculated in each subject at moderate to high intensities (above the ventilatory threshold—that is, from 50–60% to 100% VO2max). Results: The mean (SEM) values for ΔVO2/ΔW and DE had significantly decreased and increased respectively after the six week ES programme (p<0.05; 9.8 (0.2) v 8.6 (0.5) ml O2/W/min respectively and 27.7 (0.9) v 31.5 (1.4)% respectively). Conclusions: ES could be used as a supplementary tool to improve two of the main determinants of endurance capacity, namely VO2 kinetics and work efficiency. PMID:12663356

  14. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,068 healthy young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine....... MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The response rate was 29%. Of the 1068 men who then participated, 652 answered the questions about penile growth and pubic hair development and were therefore included in the analysis. Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with a 25% reduction in sperm...

  15. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

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    Jörg Eberhard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. METHODS: 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. RESULTS: The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001. This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038, IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002 and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124 in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050 at day 21 of gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL

  16. Comparative immediate effect of different yoga asanas on heart rate and blood pressure in healthy young volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Ramanathan, Meena; Balaji, R; Pushpa, D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study planned to compare immediate cardiovascular effects of different yoga asanas in healthy young volunteers. Materials and Methods: Heart rate (HR), systolic pressure (SP), and diastolic pressure (DP), blood pressure (BP), were recorded using the non invasive blood pressure (NIBP) apparatus in 22 healthy young subjects, before and after the performance of Dhanurasana (DA), Vakrasana (VA) (both sides), Janusirasasana (JSA) (both sides), Matsyasana and Shavasana for 30 s. HR and BP were further recorded during supine recovery at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min. A repeated measure of ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were significant changes in HR and BP both immediately after the Asanas as well as during the recovery period. Overall comparisons of ∆% changes immediately after the performance of the Asanas revealed significant differences with regard to HR that increased significantly after DA. In the recovery phase, there were significant intergroup differences from 2 min onward in both SP and DP. The decrease of SP after VA (right side) (VA-R) was significantly greater than Shavasana (4th, 6th, and 8th min) and JSA (left side) (JSA-L) at 6th and 8th min. DP decreased significantly after performing JSA-L compared to VA-R at the 6th and 8th min. Discussion: The cardiovascular changes immediately after the Asanas and during the recovery phase reveal inherent differences between the selected postures. The rise of HR in DA may be attributed to increased sympathetic response due to the relative difficulty of the posture as well as abdominal compression occurring in it. The effect of supine relaxation is more pronounced after the performance of the Asanas as compared to mere relaxation in Shavasana. This may be attributed to a normalization and resultant homeostatic effect occurring due to a greater, healthier de-activation of the autonomic nervous system occurring towing to the presence of prior activation. There were also subtle

  17. Species-level core oral bacteriome identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in a healthy young Arab population

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    Nezar Noor Al-hebshi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports on the composition of oral bacteriome in Arabs are lacking. In addition, the majority of previous studies on other ethnic groups have been limited by low-resolution taxonomic assignment of next-generation sequencing reads. Furthermore, there has been a conflict about the existence of a ‘core’ bacteriome. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the healthy core oral bacteriome in a young Arab population at the species level. Methods: Oral rinse DNA samples obtained from 12 stringently selected healthy young subjects of Arab origin were pyrosequenced (454's FLX chemistry for the bacterial 16S V1–V3 hypervariable region at an average depth of 11,500 reads. High-quality, non-chimeric reads ≥380 bp were classified to the species level using the recently described, prioritized, multistage assignment algorithm. A core bacteriome was defined as taxa present in at least 11 samples. The Chao2, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE, and Shannon indices were computed to assess species richness and diversity. Results: Overall, 557 species-level taxa (211±42 per subject were identified, representing 122 genera and 13 phyla. The core bacteriome comprised 55 species-level taxa belonging to 30 genera and 7 phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Saccharibacteria, and SR1. The core species constituted between 67 and 87% of the individual bacteriomes. However, the abundances differed by up to three orders of magnitude among the study subjects. On average, Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria flavescence/subflava group, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Veillonella parvula group were the most abundant. Streptococcus sp. C300, a taxon never reported in the oral cavity, was identified as a core species. Species richness was estimated at 586 (Chao2 and 614 (ACE species, whereas diversity (Shannon index averaged at 3.99. Conclusions

  18. Dark adaptation in relation to choroidal thickness in healthy young subjects: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Altuntas, Cigdem; Li, Xiao Qiang; Jackson, Gregory R; Klefter, Oliver Niels; Larsen, Michael

    2016-07-11

    Dark adaptation is an energy-requiring process in the outer retina nourished by the profusely perfused choroid. We hypothesized that variations in choroidal thickness might affect the rate of dark adaptation. Cross-sectional, observational study of 42 healthy university students (mean age 25 ± 2.0 years, 29 % men) who were examined using an abbreviated automated dark adaptometry protocol with a 2° diameter stimulus centered 5° above the point of fixation. The early, linear part of the rod-mediated dark adaptation curve was analyzed to extract the time required to reach a sensitivity of 5.0 × 10(-3) cd/m2 (time to rod intercept) and the slope (rod adaptation rate). The choroid was imaged using enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). The time to the rod intercept was 7.3 ± 0.94 (range 5.1 - 10.2) min. Choroidal thickness 2.5° above the fovea was 348 ± 104 (range 153-534) μm. There was no significant correlation between any of the two measures of rod-mediated dark adaptation and choroidal thickness (time to rod intercept versus choroidal thickness 0.072 (CI95 -0.23 to 0.38) min/100 μm, P = 0.64, adjusted for age and sex). There was no association between the time-to-rod-intercept or the dark adaptation rate and axial length, refraction, gender or age. Choroidal thickness, refraction and ocular axial length had no detectable effect on rod-mediated dark adaptation in healthy young subjects. Our results do not support that variations in dark adaptation can be attributed to variations in choroidal thickness.

  19. Right coronary MR angiography at 7 T: a direct quantitative and qualitative comparison with 3 T in young healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elderen, Saskia G C; Versluis, Maarten J; Westenberg, Jos J M; Agarwal, Harsh; Smith, Nadine B; Stuber, Matthias; de Roos, Albert; Webb, Andrew G

    2010-10-01

    To objectively compare quantitative parameters related to image quality attained at coronary magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the right coronary artery (RCA) performed at 7 T and 3 T. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and volunteers provided signed informed consent. Ten healthy adult volunteers (mean age ± standard deviation, 25 years ± 4; seven men, three women) underwent navigator-gated three-dimensional MR angiography of the RCA at 7 T and 3 T. For 7 T, a custom-built quadrature radiofrequency transmit-receive surface coil was used. At 3 T, a commercial body radiofrequency transmit coil and a cardiac coil array for signal reception were used. Segmented k-space gradient-echo imaging with spectrally selective adiabatic fat suppression was performed, and imaging parameters were similar at both field strengths. Contrast-to-noise ratio between blood and epicardial fat; signal-to-noise ratio of the blood pool; RCA vessel sharpness, diameter, and length; and navigator efficiency were quantified at both field strengths and compared by using a Mann-Whitney U test. The contrast-to-noise ratio between blood and epicardial fat was significantly improved at 7 T when compared with that at 3 T (87 ± 34 versus 52 ± 13; P = .01). Signal-to-noise ratio of the blood pool was increased at 7 T (109 ± 47 versus 67 ± 19; P = .02). Vessel sharpness obtained at 7 T was also higher (58% ± 9 versus 50% ± 5; P = .04). At the same time, RCA vessel diameter and length and navigator efficiency showed no significant field strength-dependent difference. In our quantitative and qualitative study comparing in vivo human imaging of the RCA at 7 T and 3 T in young healthy volunteers, parameters related to image quality attained at 7 T equal or surpass those from 3 T.

  20. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

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    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  1. A dose-response evaluation of inactivated influenza vaccine given intranasally and intramuscularly to healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Cate, Thomas R; Munoz, Flor M; Ruben, Fred; Couch, Robert B

    2007-07-20

    Epidemic influenza occurs annually throughout the world and is accompanied by excess morbidity and mortality. Increasing the antigen content and topical administration of vaccine are two strategies being explored to improve the immune responses to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of intramuscular (IM), intranasal (IN), or combined IM and IN administration of a contemporary US vaccine formulation at escalating dosage levels in young healthy adults. Two hundred forty three healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 45 years received 15, 30, or 60mcg of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine by either IN, IM or both routes, 120mcg of vaccine IM, or placebo IN and IM. All dosages and routes of vaccine administration were well-tolerated. A bad taste and mild nasal discomfort were more likely to be reported when influenza vaccine was administered IN, while arm tenderness was more common after IM administration. Significant increases in geometric mean serum antibody titers in both HAI and Nt assays were seen in all of the groups receiving influenza vaccine for all test antigens (Por=32 were higher following delivery of the study vaccines by an IM route than by the IN route, but significant increases in serum antibody were seen after IN vaccination. Nasal IgA antibody responses were more common when vaccine was administered IN; and, when the IN dosage was increased, the primary benefit from IN vaccine over IM vaccine appeared to be greater induction of nasal secretory antibody.

  2. Twenty two cases of canine neural angiostronglyosis in eastern Australia (2002-2005 and a review of the literature

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    Lunn Julian A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cases of canine neural angiostrongylosis (NA with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF evaluations in the peer-reviewed literature were tabulated. All cases were from Australia. A retrospective cohort of 59 dogs was contrasted with a series of 22 new cases where NA was diagnosed by the presence of both eosinophilic pleocytosis and anti-Angiostrongylus cantonensis immunloglobulins (IgG in CSF, determined by ELISA or Western blot. Both cohorts were drawn from south east Queensland and Sydney. The retrospective cohort comprised mostly pups presented for hind limb weakness with hyperaesthesia, a mixture of upper motor neurone (UMN and lower motor neurone (LMN signs in the hind limbs and urinary incontinence. Signs were attributed to larval migration through peripheral nerves, nerve roots, spinal cord and brain associated with an ascending eosinophilic meningo-encephomyelitis. The contemporary cohort consisted of a mixture of pups, young adult and mature dogs, with a wider range of signs including (i paraparesis/proprioceptive ataxia (ii lumbar and tail base hyperaesthesia, (iii multi-focal central nervous system dysfunction, or (iv focal disease with neck pain, cranial neuropathy and altered mentation. Cases were seen throughout the year, most between April and July (inclusive. There was a preponderance of large breeds. Often littermates, or multiple animals from the same kennel, were affected simultaneously or sequentially. A presumptive diagnosis was based on consistent signs, proximity to rats, ingestion/chewing of slugs or snails and eosinophilic pleocytosis. NA was diagnosed by demonstrating anti-A. cantonensis IgG in CSF. Detecting anti-A. cantonensis IgG in serum was unhelpful because many normal dogs (20/21 lb dogs; 8/22 of a hospital population had such antibodies, often at substantial titres. Most NA cases in the contemporary series (19/22 and many pups (16/38 in the retrospective cohort were managed successfully using high doses of

  3. Bone health and risk factors of cardiovascular disease--a cross-sectional study in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD are diseases that comprise a growing medical and economic burden in ageing populations. They share many risk factors, including ageing, low physical activity, and possibly overweight. We aimed to study associations between individual risk factors for CVD and bone mineral density (BMD and turnover markers (BTMs in apparently healthy cohort. DESIGN: A cross-sectional assessment of 155 healthy 32-year-old adults (74 males was performed for skeletal status, CVD risk factors and lifestyle factors. METHODS: We analysed serum osteocalcin, procollagen I aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP, collagen I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP and urine collagen I aminoterminal telopeptide (U-NTX, as well as serum insulin, plasma glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. BMD, fat and lean mass were assessed using DXA scanning. Associations were tested with partial correlations in crude and adjusted models. Bone status was compared between men with or without metabolic syndrome (defined according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Osteocalcin and P1NP correlated inversely with insulin (R = -0.243, P = 0.003 and R = -0.187, P = 0.021 and glucose (R = -0.213, P = 0.009 and R = -0.190, P = 0.019, but after controlling for fat mass and lifestyle factors, the associations attenuated with insulin (R = -0.162, P = 0.053 and R = -0.093, P = 0.266 and with glucose (R = -0.099, P = 0.240 and R = -0.133, P = 0.110, respectively. Whole body BMD associated inversely only with triglycerides in fully adjusted model. In men with metabolic syndrome, whole body BMD, osteocalcin and P1NP were lower compared to healthy men, but these findings disappeared in fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: In young adults, inverse associations between BTM/BMD and risk factors of CVD appeared in crude models, but after adjusting for fat mass

  4. Suppression of cardiocirculatory responses to orthostatic stress by passive walking-like leg movement in healthy young men

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    Ogata Hisayoshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although passive walking-like leg movement in the standing posture (PWM has been used in the clinical field, the safety of PWM has not been fully determined despite the risks of orthostatic intolerance due to standing posture. The aim of the present study was to examine cardiocirculatory response during PWM in healthy young men. Methods The subjects (n = 13 spent 5 min in a sitting position and then 5 min in a quiet standing position to determine baseline levels. Thereafter, they underwent 25-min rhythmic PWM at 1 Hz while standing. In another bout, subjects experienced the same protocol except that they underwent 25-min quiet standing (QS instead of 25-min PWM. Two subjects dropped out of the 25-min QS due to feeling of discomfort. Thus, data obtained in the remaining eleven subjects are presented. Results In the PWM trial, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP decreased from 112 ± 8 mmHg during the sitting baseline period to 107 ± 8 mmHg during the standing baseline period (p Conclusions The results suggest that PWM is effective for suppressing cardiocirculatory responses to orthostatic stress.

  5. A connectivity-based test-retest dataset of multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qixiang; Dai, Zhengjia; Xia, Mingrui; Han, Zaizhu; Huang, Ruiwang; Gong, Gaolang; Liu, Chao; Bi, Yanchao; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to investigate the structures and functions of the human brain in health and disease in vivo. However, there are growing concerns about the test-retest reliability of structural and functional measurements derived from MRI data. Here, we present a test-retest dataset of multi-modal MRI including structural MRI (S-MRI), diffusion MRI (D-MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI). Fifty-seven healthy young adults (age range: 19-30 years) were recruited and completed two multi-modal MRI scan sessions at an interval of approximately 6 weeks. Each scan session included R-fMRI, S-MRI and D-MRI data. Additionally, there were two separated R-fMRI scans at the beginning and at the end of the first session (approximately 20 min apart). This multi-modal MRI dataset not only provides excellent opportunities to investigate the short- and long-term test-retest reliability of the brain's structural and functional measurements at the regional, connectional and network levels, but also allows probing the test-retest reliability of structural-functional couplings in the human brain.

  6. Neural correlates of psychological resilience and their relation to life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Hu, Siyuan; Liu, Jia

    2015-12-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the ability to thrive in the face of risk and adversity, which is crucial for individuals' mental and physical health. However, its precise neural correlates are still largely unknown. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to identify the brain regions underlying this construct by correlating individuals' psychological resilience scores with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and then examined how these resilience-related regions predicted life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults. We found that the ReHo in the bilateral insula, right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right rostral ACC (rACC) negatively predicted individual differences in psychological resilience, revealing the critical role of the salience network (SN) in psychological resilience. Crucially, the ReHo in the dACC within the SN mediated the effects of psychological resilience on life satisfaction. In summary, these findings suggest that spontaneous activity of the human brain reflect the efficiency of psychological resilience and highlight the dACC within the SN as a neural substrate linking psychological resilience and life satisfaction.

  7. Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M

    2014-02-07

    Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals.

  8. An increase in salivary interleukin-6 level following acute psychosocial stress and its biological correlates in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Kimura, Kenta; Ogawa, Namiko; Yamada, Kosuke C; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Mikami, Ikuyo; Hirata, Kanako; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nomura, Shinobu

    2013-10-01

    Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been investigated frequently in stress research, knowledge regarding the biological processes of IL-6 in association with psychosocial stress remains incomplete. This study focused on salivary IL-6 and reports its temporal variation and biological correlates following acute psychosocial stress. Fifty healthy young adults (39 male and 11 female students) were subjected to the psychosocial stress test 'Trier Social Stress Test' (TSST), wherein the participants were asked to deliver a speech and perform a mental arithmetic task in front of 2 audiences. Collection of saliva samples, measurement of heart rate, and assessment of negative moods by visual analogue scales were conducted before, during, and after TSST. Salivary IL-6 levels increased by approximately 50% in response to the TSST and remained elevated for 20 min after the stress tasks were completed. Cluster analyses revealed that individuals with sustained elevation of IL-6 levels following the TSST exhibited a lower cortisol response compared to individuals with lower IL-6 levels. In the correlation analyses, a greater IL-6 response was associated with a higher heart rate during the mental arithmetic task (r=.351, ppsychosocial stress, and suggests that sympathetic activity and cortisol secretion are involved in elevation of salivary IL-6 levels.

  9. Delay discounting and frontostriatal fiber tracts: a combined DTI and MTR study on impulsive choices in healthy young adults.

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    Peper, Jiska S; Mandl, René C W; Braams, Barbara R; de Water, Erik; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-07-01

    Delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, has been associated with decreased control of the prefrontal cortex over striatum responses. The anatomical connectivity between both brain regions in delaying gratification remains unknown. Here, we investigate whether the quality of frontostriatal (FS) white matter tracts can predict individual differences in delay-discounting behavior. We use tract-based diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging to measure the microstructural properties of FS fiber tracts in 40 healthy young adults (from 18 to 25 years). We additionally explored whether internal sex hormone levels affect the integrity of FS tracts, based on the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate axonal density within prefrontal dopaminergic circuits. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity, radial diffusivity (RD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a putative measure of myelination, for the FS tract. Results showed that lower integrity within the FS tract (higher MD and RD and lower FA), predicts faster discounting in both sexes. MTR was unrelated to delay-discounting performance. In addition, testosterone levels in males were associated with a lower integrity (higher RD) within the FS tract. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that enhanced structural integrity of white matter fiber bundles between prefrontal and striatal brain areas is associated with better impulse control.

  10. Effect of heat exposure and exercise on food intake regulation: A randomized crossover study in young healthy men.

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    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of physical activity on food intake regulation may be moderated by environmental temperature. The aim of the study was to determine the single and combined effects of metabolic activity and temperature on energy intake and its hormonal regulation. A randomized crossover study was conducted in the laboratory. Ten healthy and physically active young Afro-Caribbean men participated in four experimental sessions (rest at 22°C and 31°C and cycling at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake at 22°C and 31°C, all for 40 min). Each test period was followed by a 30-min recovery period and then an ad libitum meal. The main outcome measures were energy balance, subjective appetite, and plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) and ghrelin concentrations. Relative energy intake was significantly decreased whereas plasma PP was increased in the exercise conditions (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). Postprandial levels of CCK were elevated only in the rest conditions. Exposure to heat induced a decrease in plasma ghrelin (p=0.031). Exercise induced a short-term energy deficit. However, modifications in the hormonal regulation of food intake in response to short-term heat or heat and exercise exposure seem to be minor and did not induce changes in energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157233. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Free cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels during a six-hour-water immersion in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, N.; Wirth, D.; Fraßl, W.; Kowoll, R.; Schlemmer, M.; Vogler, S.; Kirsch, K. A.; Kirschbaum, C.; Gunga, H.-C.

    2005-08-01

    Limited data are available on the response of stress systems to microgravity. Increased activity of stress systems is reported during space flight, but unchanged or decreased activity during simulated microgravity. We here investigated the impact of head-out water immersion on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system.Eight healthy young men were exposed to a six-hour water immersion in a thermo neutral bath and a control condition. Saliva samples were taken before, during, and after interventions to assess cortisol as an index for HPA axis activity, and salivary α-amylase as an index for SAM system activity.Cortisol levels uniformly decreased during both conditions. Amylase levels increased during both conditions, but were significantly lower during the first half of water immersion compared to the control condition.In conclusion, the HPA axis is not influenced by simulated microgravity, while SAM system activity shows initial decreases during water immersion.

  12. LTP-like plasticity in the visual system and in the motor system appear related in young and healthy subjects

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    Stefan eKlöppel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available LTP-like plasticity measured by visual evoked potentials (VEP can be induced in the intact human brain by presenting checkerboard reversals. Also associated with LTP-like plasticity, around two third of participants respond to transcranial magnetic stimulation with a paired-associate stimulation (PAS protocol with a potentiation of their motor evoked potentials. LTP-like processes are also required for verbal and motor learning tasks. We compared effect sizes, responder rates and intercorrelations as well as the potential influence of attention between these four assessments in a group of 37 young and healthy volunteers. We observed a potentiation effect of the N75 and P100 VEP component which positively correlated with plasticity induced by PAS. Subjects with a better subjective alertness were more likely to show PAS and VEP potentiation. No correlation was found between the other assessments. Effect sizes and responder rates of VEP potentiation were higher compared to PAS. Our results indicate a high variability of LTP-like effects and no evidence for a system-specific nature. As a consequence, studies wishing to assess individual levels of LTP-like plasticity should employ a combination of multiple assessments.

  13. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men.

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    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Juichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Dietary and Genetic Predictors of Blood Folate Levels in Healthy Young Adults

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    Daniel Cummings

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the U.S. has mandated folic acid (FA fortification of certain grain products to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Folate intake and red blood cell (RBC folate concentrations increased substantially post-intervention, although recent studies raise concerns about the level of ongoing benefit. This study investigated blood folate level determinants in healthy young adults, including intake of naturally occurring food folate, synthetic FA, and the interaction of naturally occurring food folate with a common missense variant in the FOLH1 gene thought to affect absorption. Participants (n = 265 completed the Diet History Questionnaire II, RBC folate testing, and were genotyped for the 484T>C FOLH1 variant. Men reported significantly greater intake of all folate sources except for supplemental FA, but RBC folate levels did not significantly differ by sex. Synthetic FA was a stronger predictor of RBC folate than naturally occurring food folate. In the largest racial group, synthetic FA and the interaction of FOLH1 genotype with naturally occurring food folate significantly predicted RBC folate, with the overall model accounting for 13.8% of the variance in RBC folate levels. Blood folate levels rely on a complex interaction of natural and synthetic folate intake as well as FOLH1 genotype.

  15. Planar covariance of upper and lower limb elevation angles during hand-foot crawling in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, M J; Catavitello, G; Ivanenko, Y P; Lacquaniti, F

    2017-08-11

    Habitual quadrupeds have been shown to display a planar covariance of segment elevation angle waveforms in the fore and hind limbs during many forms of locomotion. The purpose of the current study was to determine if humans generate similar patterns in the upper and lower limbs during hand-foot crawling. Nine healthy young adults performed hand-foot crawling on a treadmill at speeds of 1, 2, and 3 km/h. A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the segment elevation angle waveforms for the upper (upper arm, lower arm, and hand) and lower (thigh, shank, and foot) limbs separately. The planarity of the elevation angle waveforms was determined using the sum of the variance explained by the first two PCs and the orientation of the covariance plane was quantified using the direction cosines of the eigenvector orthogonal to the plane, projected upon each of the segmental semi-axes. Results showed that planarity of segment elevation angles was maintained in the upper and lower limbs (explained variance >97%), although a slight decrease was present in the upper limb when crawling at 3 km/h. The orientation of the covariance plane was highly limb-specific, consistent with animal studies and possibly related to the functional neural control differences between the upper and lower limbs. These results may suggest that the motor patterns stored in the central nervous system for quadrupedal locomotion may be retained through evolution and may still be exploited when humans perform such tasks.

  16. Hippocampal structure, metabolism, and inflammatory response after a 6-week intense aerobic exercise in healthy young adults: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Brünner, Franziska; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Gussew, Alexander; Puta, Christian; Smesny, Stefan; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Interventional studies suggest that changes in physical fitness affect brain function and structure. We studied the influence of high intensity physical exercise on hippocampal volume and metabolism in 17 young healthy male adults during a 6-week exercise program compared with matched controls. We further aimed to relate these changes to hypothesized changes in exercised-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We show profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects and a positive correlation between the degree of fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels. We unexpectedly observed an average volume decrease of about 2%, which was restricted to right hippocampal subfields CA2/3, subiculum, and dentate gyrus and which correlated with fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels negatively. This result indicates that mainly those subjects who did not benefit from the exercise program show decreased hippocampal volume, reduced BDNF levels, and increased TNF-α concentrations. While spectroscopy results do not indicate any neuronal loss (unchanged N-acetylaspartate levels) decreased glutamate-glutamine levels were observed in the right anterior hippocampus in the exercise group only. Responder characteristics need to be studied in more detail. Our results point to an important role of the inflammatory response after exercise on changes in hippocampal structure.

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION AND RECIPROCAL INHIBITION MANUEVERS ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

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    Agrawal Sonal S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Variations in the application of muscle energy technique (MET for increasing the extensibility of muscles have been advocated, but little evidence exists to support the relative merit of a particular approach. This study investigated two types of muscle energy techniques that have been advocated in the osteopathic literature that differ primarily in the muscle group targeted. Aim: To compare the efficacy of Post Isometric Relaxation (PIR and Reciprocal Inhibition (RI on hamstring length in young healthy adults Methodology: Randomized clinical trial 100 college students aged between 18-25 years were included. The subjects were randomly assigned to PIR and RI group. Each group consisted of 50 subjects (25 male, 25 female. Knee extension limitation was measured by using active knee extension test (AKET pre & post-intervention, i.e. after 3 weeks of stretching regimen, with the help of universal full circle goniometer. Results: There was significant improvement in hamstrings flexibility (p=0.000 in both PIR and RI groups. Statistical comparison of the results of both the technique showed that PIR group had greater improvement than the RI group (p=0.000 Conclusion: PIR and RI were both found to be effective in improving hamstring flexibility but, PIR is more effective therapeutic maneuver.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of colistin and colistimethate sodium after a single 80-mg intravenous dose of CMS in young healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, W; Grégoire, N; Gobin, P; Saulnier, P J; Frasca, D; Marchand, S; Mimoz, O

    2011-06-01

    Colistin pharmacokinetics (PK) was investigated in young healthy volunteers after a 1-h infusion of 80 mg (1 million international units (MIU)) of the prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). Concentration levels of CMS and colistin were determined in plasma and urine using a new chromatographic assay and analyzed simultaneously with a population approach after correcting the urine-related data for postexcretion hydrolysis of CMS into colistin. CMS and colistin have low volumes of distribution (14.0 and 12.4 liters, respectively), consistent with distribution being restricted to extracellular fluid. CMS is mainly excreted unchanged in urine (70% on average), with a typical renal clearance estimated at 103 ml/min-close to the glomerular filtration rate. Colistin elimination is essentially extrarenal, given that its renal clearance is 1.9 ml/min, consistent with extensive reabsorption. Colistin elimination is not limited by the formation rate because its half-life (3 h) is longer than that of CMS. The values of these pharmacokinetic parameters will serve as reference points for future comparisons with patients' data.

  19. Modified dexamethasone suppression-corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test: A pilot study of young healthy volunteers and implications for alcoholism research in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2006-01-01

    The key neuroendocrine component of a response to stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Abnormalities in the HPA system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcoholism and suicide. The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is the most frequently used test to assess HPA-system function in psychiatric disorders. This neuroendocrine test consists of the administration of a low dose of dexamethasone at 11 pm and the measurement of cortisol levels at one or more time points on the following day. After corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) became available for clinical studies, the DST was combined with CRH administration. In this test, patients are pretreated with a single dose of dexamethasone at 11 pm and receive human CRH intravenously at 3 pm the following day. The resulting DST-CRH test proved to be much more sensitive in detecting HPA system alterations than the DST. We have modified the DST-CRH test and used ovine CRH instead of human CRH in a pilot study of a group of young healthy volunteers. Results indicated that it produces results similar to the results obtained with human CRH. This suggests that ovine CRH can be used in psychiatric research. Alcoholism is associated with abnormalities in HPA function. Nonalcoholic subjects with a family history of alcoholism exhibit lower plasma ACTH and beta-endorphin as well as lower ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin responses to psychological stress and CRH stimulation. This suggests that in children of alcoholics, alterations in the mechanisms that regulate HPA axis activity predate the development of alcohol dependence and may be considered inherited traits. Therefore, studies of the HPA system in persons at risk for alcoholism may help understand the neurobiological mechanisms of predisposition to alcoholism.

  20. Effect of yoga on autonomic functions and psychological status during both phases of menstrual cycle in young healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Sarita; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Gandhi, Asha; Kapoor, Raj; Kukreja, Ajay; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Premenstrual stress affects 75% of women of childbearing age and yoga has been found to be beneficial in many psycho-somatic disorders. To investigate the effect of integrated yoga on autonomic parameters and psychological well-being during both pre and post phases of menstrual cycle in healthy young female subjects. Present study is a randomized control trial and was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India. Fifty apparently healthy females in the age group of 18-20 years were randomized into two groups: Group I (n=25) consisted of subjects who practiced yoga 35-40 minutes per day, six times per week for the duration of three menstrual cycles. Training was given by qualified yoga instructor. Group II (n=25) subjects acted as controls. Following parameters were recorded at the beginning and after completion of three menstrual cycles in all the subjects: Height, weight (BW), Resting Heart Rate (HR), Resting Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), parasympathetic reactivity tests including Expiration-Inspiration Ratio (E: I ratio) and 30:15 ratio, sympathetic reactivity tests including BP changes due to Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) exercise, and Cold Pressor Test (CPT). Assessment of psychological status was done by administering DIPAS (Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences) inventories of Anger self report scale, Trait Anxiety, Sense of well-being and Depression scale. Intra-group comparison of physiological parameters was done by using paired 't' test, whereas intra-group comparison of non-parameteric data such as scores of anxiety, depression, anger and sense of well-being was done by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-group comparison of parameters was done by Students 't' test for parametric tests and Mann-Whitney 'U' test for non-parameteric tests. There was significantly higher BW, resting SBP, DBP, sympathetic activity and blunting of parasympathetic reactivity and also, significantly

  1. Intensive Group Learning and On-Site Services to Improve Sexual and Reproductive Health Among Young Adults in Liberia: A Randomized Evaluation of HealthyActions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Rebecca; Moorsmith, Reid; James, Simon; Urey, Marilyn; Greifinger, Rena; Lloyd, Danielle; Hartenberger-Toby, Lisa; Gausman, Jewel; Sanoe, Musa

    2016-09-28

    Young Liberians, particularly undereducated young adults, face substantial sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges, with low uptake of contraceptive methods, high rates of unintended pregnancy, and low levels of knowledge about HIV status. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-day intensive group learning intervention combined with on-site SRH services (called HealthyActions) among out-of-school young adults, implemented through an existing alternative education program, on uptake of contraception and HIV testing and counseling (HTC). The intervention was implemented among young women and men ages 15-35 who were enrolled in alternative basic education learning sites in 5 counties of Liberia. We conducted a randomized evaluation to assess program impact. Baseline data were collected in January-March 2014, and endline data in June-July 2014. Key outcomes of condom use, contraceptive use, and HTC were estimated with difference-in-difference models using fixed effects. All analyses were conducted in Stata 13. We assessed outcomes for 1,157 learners at baseline and 1,052 learners at endline, across 29 treatment and 26 control sites. After adjusting for potential confounders, learners in the HealthyActions intervention group were 12% less likely to report never using a condom with a regular partner over the last month compared with the control group (P = .02). Female learners who received HealthyActions were 13% more likely to use any form of modern contraception compared with learners in control sites (P<.001), with the greatest increase in the use of contraceptive implants. Learners in HealthyActions sites were 45% more likely to have received HTC (P<.001). Providing intensive group learning in a supportive environment coupled with on-site health services improved SRH outcomes among participating learners. The focus of HealthyActions on participatory learning for low-literacy populations presents an adaptable solution for health

  2. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Young Healthy Women in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe A.; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; DelVecchio, Corey; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John; Solomon, Diane; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anal cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), yet little is known about anal HPV infection among healthy young women. Methods. A total of 2017 sexually active women in the control arm of an HPV-16/18 vaccine trial had a single anal specimen collected by a clinician at the 4-year study visit. Samples were tested for HPV by SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25, version 1. Results. A total of 4% of women had HPV-16, 22% had oncogenic HPV, and 31% had any HPV detected in an anal specimen. The prevalence of anal HPV was higher among women who reported anal intercourse, compared with those who did not (43.4% vs 28.4%; P anal intercourse, cervical HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.4–8.2]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.1–4.6] for ≥4 partners), and number of anal intercourse partners (aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1–3.3] for ≥2 partners) were independent risk factors for anal HPV detection. Among women who reported no anal intercourse, cervical HPV (aOR, 4.7 [95% CI, 3.7–5.9]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.7–3.4] for ≥4 partners), and report of anal fissures (aOR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1–4.8]) were associated with an increased odds of anal HPV detection. Conclusion. Anal HPV is common among young women, even those who report no anal sex, and was associated with cervical HPV infection. Anal fissures in women who report never having had anal intercourse may facilitate HPV exposure. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128661. PMID:22850119

  3. DIFFERENTIAL KINETICS IN ALTERATION AND RECOVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES FROM A CHRONIC SLEEP RESTRICTION IN YOUNG HEALTHY MEN.

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    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  4. Validity and Reproducibility of an Incremental Sit-To-Stand Exercise Test for Evaluating Anaerobic Threshold in Young, Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakamura, Masayoshi Ohira, Yoshiharu Yokokawa, Yuya Nagasawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand exercise (STS is a common activity of daily living. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to assess the validity of aerobic fitness measurements based on anaerobic thresholds (ATs, during incremental sit-to-stand exercise (ISTS with and without arm support compared with an incremental cycle-ergometer (CE test; and 2 to examine the reproducibility of the AT measured during the ISTSs. Twenty-six healthy individuals randomly performed the ISTS and CE test. Oxygen uptakes at the AT (AT-VO2 and heart rate at the AT (AT-HR were determined during the ISTSs and CE test, and repeated-measures analyses of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to evaluate the differences between these variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationship between AT-VO2 and AT-HR during the ISTSs and CE test. Data analysis yielded the following correlations: AT-VO2 during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.77 (p < 0.05; AT-VO2 during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.70 (p < 0.05; AT-HR during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.80 (p < 0.05; and AT-HR during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.66 (p < 0.05. The AT-VO2 values during the ISTS with arm support (18.5 ± 1.9 mL·min-1·kg-1 and the CE test (18.4 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1 were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (16.6 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1; p < 0.05. The AT-HR values during the ISTS with arm support (126 ± 10 bpm and the CE test (126 ± 13 bpm were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (119 ± 9 bpm; p < 0.05. The ISTS with arm support may provide a cardiopulmonary function load equivalent to the CE test; therefore, it is a potentially valid test for evaluating AT-VO2 and AT-HR in healthy, young adults.

  5. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741).

  6. Pelvic step: the contribution of horizontal pelvis rotation to step length in young healthy adults walking on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo Wei; Wu, Wen Hua; Meijer, Onno G; Lin, Jian Hua; Lv, Go Rong; Lin, Xiao Cong; Prins, Maarten R; Hu, Hai; van Dieën, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-01-01

    Transverse plane pelvis rotations during walking may be regarded as the "first determinant of gait". This would assume that pelvis rotations increase step length, and thereby reduce the vertical movements of the centre of mass-"the pelvic step". We analysed the pelvic step using 20 healthy young male subjects, walking on a treadmill at 1-5 km/h, with normal or big steps. Step length, pelvis rotation amplitude, leg-pelvis relative phase, and the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length were calculated. When speed increased in normal walking, pelvis rotation changed from more out-of-phase to in-phase with the upper leg. Consequently, the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length was negative at lower speeds, switching to positive at 3 km/h. With big steps, leg and pelvis were more in-phase, and the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length was always positive, and relatively large. Still, the overall contribution of pelvis rotations to step length was small, less than 3%. Regression analysis revealed that leg-pelvis relative phase predicted about 60% of the variance of this contribution. The results of the present study suggest that, during normal slow walking, pelvis rotations increase, rather than decrease, the vertical movements of the centre of mass. With large steps, this does not happen, because leg and pelvis are in-phase at all speeds. Finally, it has been suggested that patients with hip flexion limitation may use larger pelvis rotations to increase step length. This, however, may only work as long as the pelvis rotates in-phase with the leg.

  7. The influence of occlusion on jaw and neck muscle activity: a surface EMG study in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Tartaglia, G M; Galletta, A; Grassi, G P; Sforza, C

    2006-05-01

    The electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of masseter, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles during maximum voluntary teeth clench were assessed in 27 male and 35 female healthy young adults. Subjects were divided into two groups: (i) 'complete' Angle Class I (bilateral, symmetric canine and molar Class I relationships), and (ii) 'partial' Angle Class I (one to three canine/molar Class I relationships, the remaining relationships were Class II or Class III). On average, standardized muscular symmetry ranged 80.7-87.9%. During maximum voluntary teeth clench, average co-contraction of SCM muscle was 13.7-23.5% of its maximum contraction. On average, all torque coefficients (potential lateral displacing component) were >90%, while all antero-posterior coefficients (relative activities of masseter and temporalis muscles) were >85%. The average integrated areas of the masseter and temporalis EMG potentials over time ranged 87.4-106.8 muV/muV s%. Standardized contractile muscular activities did not differ between 'complete' and 'partial' Angle Class I, and between sexes (two-way analysis of variance). A trend toward a larger intragroup variability in EMG indices was observed in the subjects with 'partial' Angle Class I than in those with 'complete' Angle Class I (significant difference for the temporalis muscle symmetry, P = 0.013, analysis of variance). In conclusion, the presence of a complete or partial Angle occlusal Class I did not seem to influence the standardized contractile activities of masseter, temporalis and SCM muscles during a maximum voluntary clench. Subjects with a 'complete' Angle Class I were somewhat a more homogenous group than subjects with 'partial' Angle Class I.

  8. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  9. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Ewelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6 and males (AM, N=16 with samples from 28 relatively sedentary agematched peers, including female (SF, N=9 and male (SM, N=19 individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial healthpromoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities.

  10. Comparison of the static and dynamic balance performance in young, middle-aged, and elderly healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chen, Chia-Ling; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lau, Yiu-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Body sway increases with age. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data and the characteristics of balance performance in different age groups for balance strategy management. Healthy individuals (n = 107) were divided into young, middle-aged, and elderly groups, and assessed by computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) on a Smart Balance Master. The 6 subtests in the sensory organization tests (SOT) for the CDP were as follows: subtest 1, eyes open, fixed support platform; subtest 2, eyes closed, fixed platform; subtest 3, eyes open, fixed platform; subtest 4, eyes open, swaying platform; subtest 5, eyes closed, swaying platform; subtest 6, swaying visual surround, swaying platform. Motor balance control tests included the limit of stability (LOS) test at 75% of LOS in 8 directions and the left/right and forward/backward rhythmic weight shift (RWS) test. In the SOT, the elderly group demonstrated significantly lower average stability and maximal stability scores in subtests 4-6. This group also demonstrated a relatively lower average percentage of ankle strategy in subtests 4-6. In the motor control tests, the elderly group demonstrated a significantly higher overall reactive time and lower overall directional control in the LOS test, lower on-axis velocity during the forward/backward and left/right motor control test and a lower average percentage of forward/backward directional control in the RWS test. The elderly had a higher degree of postural imbalance and used hip strategy to a greater extent to maintain their balance, especially when standing on a swaying support surface in the absence of visual surround or with conflicted visual surround. The elderly required a longer reaction time and demonstrated lower directional control in balance performance.

  11. "Testing is Healthy" TimePlay campaign: Evaluation of sexual health promotion gamification intervention targeting young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinya; Huhn, Kim J; Tan, Andy; Douglas, Rachel E; Li, Helen Guiyun; Murti, Michelle; Lee, Victoria

    2017-04-20

    The objectives of the study were to 1) describe the implementation of the "Testing is Healthy" campaign in four locations in British Columbia (BC) and 2) report process evaluation indicators for the campaign. Young adults ages 20-29 years, the age group with the highest reported rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea in BC. Movie theatres located in Langley, Burnaby, Coquitlam and Surrey, which are communities served by the Fraser Health Authority (FHA) in BC. The FHA launched the campaign in 2014 and 2015 to bring down the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV in the region. The campaign used the Cineplex TimePlay platform to engage moviegoers in answering STI/HIV-related questions, and to connect them to a clinic finder on the BC Centre for Disease Control Sex Smart Resource (SSR) website. TimePlay includes elements of gaming, is technology-based, and has been a successful advertisement platform for consumer products and services. However, this is the first time it has been used for sexual health promotion. The campaign was evaluated for 1) reach, based on theatre attendance and TimePlay participation, and 2) the effectiveness of connecting people to sexual health information using SSR web analytics. In total, the campaign received 548 410 views and 77 149 plays. SSR web analytics showed a significant increase in unique page views of the Clinic Finder page between the first and the second campaign. The campaign reached a large population at a low cost and was correlated with spikes in the unique page views for the Clinic Finder page.

  12. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozheredov, V. A.; Chibisov, S. M.; Blagonravov, M. L.; Khodorovich, N. A.; Demurov, E. A.; Goryachev, V. A.; Kharlitskaya, E. V.; Eremina, I. S.; Meladze, Z. A.

    2017-05-01

    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  13. Diagnostics and training of affordance perception in healthy young adults – implications for post-stroke neurorehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eRanderath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordance perception is critical to adaptive behavior. It comprises the ability to evaluate whether the environment and the actor’s capabilities enable particular actions. It remains unclear how brain damage and its behavioral sequela impact this ability. Two affordance based judgment tasks were applied in healthy young adults that were adapted for prospective diagnostic purposes in patients. In addition to the commonly analyzed error-rate we included response times and accuracy measures based on a detection theory approach. Moreover, a manipulation was added intended to determine the effectiveness of feedback-based learning. We further applied control tasks that consider whether errors in affordance perception can be explained by errors in perception. Participants responded yes or no to decide prospectively if a given setting would afford a particular action. In study1, 27 participants judged whether their hand would fit through a given aperture [adapted from Ishak, Adolph, & Lin (2008]. In study2, 19 participants judged whether objects are reachable [adapted from Gabbard, Ammar, & Rodrigues (2005]. For both studies two sessions were administered. In the first session all participants solved the judgment-task without executing the action. In the second session (feedback manipulation, half of the participants were allowed to first judge and then perform the task for each trial (reach forward and touch the object, or fitting the hand into the aperture.Judgments were slowest and errors most frequent for openings or distances close to the individual’s actual physical limits. With more extreme settings accuracy increased and responses became faster. Importantly, we found an advantageous effect of feedback on performance in both tasks suggesting that affordance perception is rapidly trainable. Further, the aperture task demonstrated that feedback experienced with one hand can transfer to the other. This may have important implications for

  14. Skin indentation firmness and tissue dielectric constant assessed in face, neck, and arm skin of young healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Corbitt, Kelly; Grammenos, Alexandra; Abello, Allen; Mammino, Jason

    2017-02-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that skin firmness correlates with skin hydration. Dermal water was assessed by tissue dielectric constant (TDC) at 0.5 mm (TDC0.5 ) and 2.5 mm (TDC2.5 ) depths on four face sites and two arm sites of 35 women (25.0 ± 1.6 years). Firmness was determined by force (mN) to indent skin to 0.3 mm (F0.3 ) and 1.3 mm (F1.3 ). F0.3 was similar among face sites (avg = 16.2 ± 7.2 mN) but F1.3 varied (avg = 32.5 ± 4.1 mN). TDC2.5 was similar among face sites (avg = 37.7 ± 4.2) but TDC0.5 varied (avg = 36.2 ± 4.8). F1.3 of arm sites was similar (avg = 60.2 ± 18.6 mN) and both greater than F1.3 of neck (28.3 ± 7.1 mN) and face. Regression analysis showed a near-zero correlation between forces and TDC at all sites. The near-zero correlation may be due to low skin interstitial hydraulic resistance to mobile water movement in healthy young skin. If true, then conditions in which dermal hydraulic conductance is reduced as in lymphedematous, diabetic, or aged skin are more likely show the hypothesized relationship. Our findings provide normalized reference values and suggest that such persons are an important population to study to test for a possible skin water-indentation force relationship and its utilization for early diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozheredov, V. A.; Chibisov, S. M.; Blagonravov, M. L.; Khodorovich, N. A.; Demurov, E. A.; Goryachev, V. A.; Kharlitskaya, E. V.; Eremina, I. S.; Meladze, Z. A.

    2016-11-01

    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  16. Force plate targeting has no effect on spatiotemporal gait measures and their variability in young and healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniba, Dmitry; Vergara, Martin E; Gage, William H

    2015-02-01

    Force plate targeting has been referenced as a confounding factor in gait research, but the literature is sparse. Asking participants to target force plates is a convenient strategy to increase the number of acceptable trials, but may inadvertently alter the motor control of gait and limit external validity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of visual targeting on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic measures of gait and their variability. Young healthy participants were asked to traverse a walkway with three embedded hidden force plates. Starting from a participant-specific initial position and leading with the same foot each time, participants performed series of natural walking trials (no targeting and unaware of the hidden force plates), followed by targeting walking trials. For the targeting trials, participants were asked to step completely within the bounds of a tape outline (∼50cm×45cm), which coincided with the position of the last hidden force plate. The results demonstrated evidence of targeting during targeting trials; compared to natural walking trials, mean heel-target distance variability for targeting trials decreased progressively for the steps approaching the targeting step, reaching significance (ptarget (41%), and post-target steps (39%). Despite visual targeting, no significant differences between targeting and natural trials were detected in spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait measures, or the variability of the measures. When the experimental set-up was tailored to the individual participant's gait variables (step/stride length), visual targeting of the force plates appeared to have no effect on the magnitude or variability of any gait measures.

  17. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in ...

  18. Randomized phase I: safety, immunogenicity and mucosal antiviral activity in young healthy women vaccinated with HIV-1 Gp41 P1 peptide on virosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Leroux-Roels; Cathy Maes; Frédéric Clement; Frank van Engelenburg; Marieke van den Dobbelsteen; Michael Adler; Mario Amacker; Lucia Lopalco; Morgane Bomsel; Anick Chalifour; Sylvain Fleury

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Mucosal antibodies harboring various antiviral activities may best protect mucosal surfaces against early HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites and they should be ideally induced by prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines for optimal prevention of sexually transmitted HIV-1. A phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in twenty-four healthy HIV-uninfected young women. The study objectives were to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of virosomes harboring ...

  19. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...

  20. Myopericarditis during a primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in an otherwise healthy young adult. An unusual and insidious complication. Case report and a 60-year literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Manfredi, Roberto; Ortolani, Paolo; Trapani, Fabio Filippo; Viale, Pierluigi

    2012-06-01

    An otherwise healthy young man had infectious mononucleosis detected after an atypical clinical onset, including myocarditis and pericarditis. Our patient slowly but completely recovered from his cardiac complications after the course of his primary Epstein-Barr infection, as shown by periodical electrocardiographic and ultrasonographic studies, and a simple treatment with aspirin alone. Our case report is briefly reported, and discussed with regard to the existing literature, which has recorded such complications since the mid 1940s.

  1. Vascular and inflammatory high fat meal responses in young healthy men; a discriminative role of IL-8 observed in a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High fat meal challenges are known to induce postprandial low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. This assumption is largely based on studies performed in older populations or in populations with a progressed disease state and an appropriate control meal is often lacking. Young healthy individuals might be more resilient to such challenges. We therefore aimed to characterize the vascular and inflammatory response after a high fat meal in young healthy individuals. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized cross-over intervention study, we used a comprehensive phenotyping approach to determine the vascular and inflammatory response after consumption of a high fat shake and after an average breakfast shake in 20 young healthy subjects. Both interventions were performed three times. RESULTS: Many features of the vascular postprandial response, such as FMD, arterial stiffness and micro-vascular skin blood flow were not different between shakes. High fat/high energy shake consumption was associated with a more pronounced increase in blood pressure, heart rate, plasma concentrations of IL-8 and PBMCs gene expression of IL-8 and CD54 (ICAM-1, whereas plasma concentrations of sVCAM1 were decreased compared to an average breakfast. CONCLUSION: Whereas no difference in postprandial response were observed on classical markers of endothelial function, we did observe differences between consumption of a HF/HE and an average breakfast meal on blood pressure and IL-8 in young healthy volunteers. IL-8 might play an important role in dealing with high fat challenges and might be an early marker for endothelial stress, a stage preceding endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy young men and elderly men with normal serum folate concentration is not associated with poor vascular reactivity or oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Sandra; Ronco, Ana María; Vasquez, Marcela; de la Maza, María Pía; Garrido, Argelia; Barrera, Gladys; Gattas, Vivien; Glasinovic, Andrea; Leiva, Laura; Bunout, Daniel

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism by which homocysteine (Hcy) causes endothelial dysfunction is probably mediated by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on endothelial function in young and elderly hyperhomocysteinemic (HHcy) men. A total of 35 HHcy (Hcy > 15 micro mol/L), young (n = 15; 20-40 y) and elderly men (n = 20; > 65 y) and 33 normohomocysteinemic (NHcy; controls) young (n = 14) and elderly (n = 19) men (Hcy < 13 micro mol/L), without classic cardiovascular risk factors were recruited. Serum Hcy, folate, and vitamin B-12, whole-blood glutathione, plasma total antioxidants status, TBARS, and 8-F(2alpha) isoprostanes were determined. Noninvasive ultrasound measurements of endothelium-dependent (EDVR) and -independent dilatation (EIVR) were performed. EDVR, EIVR, and markers of oxidative stress did not differ among the groups. Folate concentrations were higher in elderly than in young men (P < 0.001), independent of Hcy concentrations. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were lower in HHcy than in NHcy elderly men (P < 0.045). EDVR was correlated with folate concentrations in young men (r = 0.40, P = 0.04) and negatively with BMI in elderly men (r = -0.52, P = 0.002). In the present study, HHcy with normal serum folate concentrations was not associated with poor EDVR or oxidative stress in healthy young and elderly men.

  3. Salmonella osteomyelitis of the distal radius in a healthy young adult patient: Report of a rare case and literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Hamada, Yoshitaka; Hibino, Naohito; Sato, Ryosuke; Henmi, Tatsuhiko; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius in a healthy individual is very rare. We present such a case involving the distal radius of a healthy 23-year-old man without underlying disease or possible episode...

  4. Effects of DHEA administration on episodic memory, cortisol and mood in healthy young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaj, Hamid A; Massey, Anna E; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2006-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to enhance cognition in rodents, although there are inconsistent findings in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHEA administration in healthy young men on episodic memory and its neural correlates utilising an event-related potential (ERP) technique. Twenty-four healthy young men were treated with a 7-day course of oral DHEA (150 mg b.d.) or placebo in a double blind, random, crossover and balanced order design. Subjective mood and memory were measured using visual analogue scales (VASs). Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples. ERPs were recorded during retrieval in an episodic memory test. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to identify brain regions involved in the cognitive task. DHEA administration led to a reduction in evening cortisol concentrations and improved VAS mood and memory. Recollection accuracy in the episodic memory test was significantly improved following DHEA administration. LORETA revealed significant hippocampal activation associated with successful episodic memory retrieval following placebo. DHEA modified ERPs associated with retrieval and led to a trend towards an early differential activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). DHEA treatment improved memory recollection and mood and decreased trough cortisol levels. The effect of DHEA appears to be via neuronal recruitment of the steroid sensitive ACC that may be involved in pre-hippocampal memory processing. These findings are distinctive, being the first to show such beneficial effects of DHEA on memory in healthy young men.

  5. Arterial stiffness and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in young healthy volunteers: the early vascular ageing Aristotle University Thessaloniki Study (EVA-ARIS Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Karafillis, Ioannis; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Miyakis, Spiros; Goulopoulou, Sofia; Parati, Gianfranco; Nilsson, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, Parterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of metabolic equivalents during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise in healthy young subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuso, S; Bergamin, M; Jimenez, A; Pugliese, G; D'Errico, V; Nicolucci, A; Ermolao, A; Balducci, S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the metabolic equivalents (METs) of resistance exercise in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and healthy young subjects and to evaluate whether there were differences between sessions executed at low- versus high-intensity resistance exercise. Twenty obese patients with T2DM (62.9±6.1 years) and 22 young subjects (22.6±1.9 years) performed two training sessions: one at vigorous intensity (80% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and one at moderate intensity (60% of 1RM). Both groups carried out three strength exercises with a 2-day recovery between sessions. Oxygen consumption was continuously measured 15 min before, during and after each training session. Obese T2DM patients showed lower METs values compared with young healthy participants at the baseline phase (F= 2043.86; P<0.01), during training (F=1140.59; P<0.01) and in the post-exercise phase (F=1012.71; P<0.01). No effects were detected in the group x intensity analysis of covariance. In this study, at both light-moderate and vigorous resistance exercise intensities, the METs value that best represented both sessions was 3 METs for the obese elderly T2DM patients and 5 METs for young subjects.

  7. Determination of metabolic equivalents during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise in healthy young subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zanuso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the metabolic equivalents (METs of resistance exercise in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM and healthy young subjects and to evaluate whether there were differences between sessions executed at low- versus high-intensity resistance exercise. Twenty obese patients with T2DM (62.9±6.1 years and 22 young subjects (22.6±1.9 years performed two training sessions: one at vigorous intensity (80% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM and one at moderate intensity (60% of 1RM. Both groups carried out three strength exercises with a 2-day recovery between sessions. Oxygen consumption was continuously measured 15 min before, during and after each training session. Obese T2DM patients showed lower METs values compared with young healthy participants at the baseline phase (F= 2043.86; P<0.01, during training (F=1140.59; P<0.01 and in the post-exercise phase (F=1012.71; P<0.01. No effects were detected in the group x intensity analysis of covariance. In this study, at both light-moderate and vigorous resistance exercise intensities, the METs value that best represented both sessions was 3 METs for the obese elderly T2DM patients and 5 METs for young subjects.

  8. Hemodynamic and autonomic nervous system responses to mixed meal ingestion in healthy young and old subjects and dysautonomic patients with postprandial hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, L. A.; Ryan, S. M.; Parker, J. A.; Freeman, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although postprandial hypotension is a common cause of falls and syncope in elderly persons and in patients with autonomic insufficiency, the pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS. We examined the hemodynamic, splanchnic blood pool, plasma norepinephrine (NE), and heart rate (HR) power spectra responses to a standardized 400-kcal mixed meal in 11 healthy young (age, 26 +/- 5 years) and nine healthy elderly (age, 80 +/- 5 years) subjects and 10 dysautonomic patients with symptomatic postprandial hypotension (age, 65 +/- 16 years). Cardiac and splanchnic blood pools were determined noninvasively by radionuclide scans, and forearm vascular resistance was determined using venous occlusion plethysmography. In healthy young and old subjects, splanchnic blood volume increased, but supine blood pressure remained unchanged after the meal. In both groups, HR increased and systemic vascular resistance remained stable. Forearm vascular resistance and cardiac index increased after the meal in elderly subjects, whereas these responses were highly variable and of smaller magnitude in the young. Young subjects demonstrated postprandial increases in low-frequency HR spectral power, representing cardiac sympatho-excitation, but plasma NE remained unchanged. In elderly subjects, plasma NE increased after the meal but without changes in the HR power spectrum. Patients with dysautonomia had a large postprandial decline in blood pressure associated with no change in forearm vascular resistance, a fall in systemic vascular resistance, and reduction in left ventricular end diastolic volume index. HR increased in these patients but without changes in plasma NE or the HR power spectrum. CONCLUSIONS. 1) In healthy elderly subjects, the maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis after food ingestion is associated with an increase in HR, forearm vascular resistance, cardiac index, and plasma NE. In both young and old, systemic vascular resistance is

  9. White matter differences between healthy young ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers identified with tractography and support vector machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence O'Dwyer

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4 is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous work has shown that this allele is associated with functional (fMRI changes as well structural grey matter (GM changes in healthy young, middle-aged and older subjects. Here, we assess the diffusion characteristics and the white matter (WM tracts of healthy young (20-38 years ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers. No significant differences in diffusion indices were found between young carriers (ApoE4+ and non-carriers (ApoE4-. There were also no significant differences between the groups in terms of normalised GM or WM volume. A feature selection algorithm (ReliefF was used to select the most salient voxels from the diffusion data for subsequent classification with support vector machines (SVMs. SVMs were capable of classifying ApoE4 carrier and non-carrier groups with an extremely high level of accuracy. The top 500 voxels selected by ReliefF were then used as seeds for tractography which identified a WM network that included regions of the parietal lobe, the cingulum bundle and the dorsolateral frontal lobe. There was a non-significant decrease in volume of this WM network in the ApoE4 carrier group. Our results indicate that there are subtle WM differences between healthy young ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers and that the WM network identified may be particularly vulnerable to further degeneration in ApoE4 carriers as they enter middle and old age.

  10. Suppression of cardiocirculatory responses to orthostatic stress by passive walking-like leg movement in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Fujimaru, Ikuyo; Yamada, Keiko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2012-09-12

    Although passive walking-like leg movement in the standing posture (PWM) has been used in the clinical field, the safety of PWM has not been fully determined despite the risks of orthostatic intolerance due to standing posture. The aim of the present study was to examine cardiocirculatory response during PWM in healthy young men. The subjects (n = 13) spent 5 min in a sitting position and then 5 min in a quiet standing position to determine baseline levels. Thereafter, they underwent 25-min rhythmic PWM at 1 Hz while standing. In another bout, subjects experienced the same protocol except that they underwent 25-min quiet standing (QS) instead of 25-min PWM. Two subjects dropped out of the 25-min QS due to feeling of discomfort. Thus, data obtained in the remaining eleven subjects are presented. In the PWM trial, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) decreased from 112 ± 8 mmHg during the sitting baseline period to 107 ± 8 mmHg during the standing baseline period (p <0.05), while heart rate (HR) increased from 73 ± 9 bpm during the sitting baseline period to 84 ± 10 bpm during the standing baseline period (p <0.001). After the imposition of PWM, SAP increased from 107 ± 8 mmHg in the standing baseline period to 120 ± 6 mmHg (p <0.001), while HR decreased from 84 ± 10 bpm in the standing baseline period to 76 ± 9 bpm (p <0.05). In the QS trial, SAP, which had decreased during the standing baseline period compared to that during the sitting baseline period, remained lowered during the 25-min QS period, while HR, which had increased during the standing baseline period compared to that during the sitting baseline period, remained elevated during the 25-min QS period. In both bouts, HR showed almost mirror-image changes in the high-frequency component of HR variability, suggesting that the changes in HR were due to change in parasympathetic activation. Double product (HR × SAP), as a predictor of myocardial oxygen

  11. Effect of parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation on spatial working memory in healthy elderly persons--comparison of near infrared spectroscopy for young and elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yamanaka

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we succeeded in improving the spatial working memory (WM performance in healthy young persons by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the parietal cortex and simultaneously measuring the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb level using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Since an improvement in WM was observed when TMS was applied to the right parietal cortex, the oxy-Hb distribution seemed to support a model of hemispheric asymmetry (HA. In the present study, we used the same study design to evaluate healthy elderly persons and investigated the effect of TMS on WM performance in the elderly, comparing the results with those previously obtained from young persons. The application of TMS did not affect WM performance (both reaction time and accuracy of 38 elderly participants (mean age = 72.5 years old. To investigate the reason for this result, we conducted a three-way ANOVA examining oxy-Hb in both young and elderly participants. For the right parietal TMS site in the elderly, TMS significantly decreased the oxy-Hb level during WM performance; this result was the opposite of that observed in young participants. An additional three-way ANOVA was conducted for each of the 52 channels, and a P value distribution map was created. The P value maps for the young participants showed a clearly localized TMS effect for both the WM and control task, whereas the P map for the elderly participants showed less significant channels and localization. Further analysis following the time course revealed that right-side parietal TMS had almost no effect on the frontal cortex in the elderly participants. This result can most likely be explained by age-related differences in HA arising from the over-recruitment of oxy-Hb, differentiation in the parietal cortex, and age-related alterations of the frontal-parietal networks.

  12. Integration of visual and haptic informations in the perception of the vertical in young and old healthy adults and right brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, B; Honoré, J; Rousseaux, M; Saj, A; Coello, Y

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal perception raises the issue of sensory integration. The aim of this study is to assess whether the visuo-haptic subjective vertical could be predicted from the visual and haptic unimodal performances, according to a Bayesian model, which optimizes the reliability of the multimodal estimate. The limits of the model were assessed by evaluating the impact of aging, cerebral damage and spatial deficits. Young and older healthy participants, as well as patients with a right hemisphere lesion, suffering from spatial neglect or not, had to align a rod with the gravitational vertical in the visual, haptic and visuo-haptic modalities. Visuo-haptic subjective vertical was correctly predicted by the model in healthy participants, as well as in patients in spite of different performances. An anticlockwise deviation of the subjective vertical was observed in the neglect group whatever the experimental conditions. By contrast, no deviation was observed in both non-neglect and healthy groups, for the visual and the visuo-haptic modalities. Nevertheless, the haptic subjective vertical was deviated, anticlockwise in the non-neglect patients and older healthy adults, and clockwise in the young healthy adults. Moreover, the variance was the smallest in the bimodal condition. The integration of visual and haptic signals appeared to obey a Bayesian model optimizing the reliability of the multimodal estimate. This holds true despite of aging, brain damage or visuospatial disorders. Regarding the perception of the vertical, multisensory integration does not seem thus to depend only on right posterior cortical areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

  14. Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  15. Myosin content of single muscle fibers following short-term disuse and active recovery in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Brocca, Lorenza; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations...... in young, it is unknown whether similar relationships exist in old. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 14days lower limb disuse followed by 28days of active recovery on single muscle fiber myosin content in old (68yrs) and young (24yrs) recreationally physically active...... contractile capacity of MHC 2a fibers. In conclusion, adaptive changes in myofiber myosin content appear to occur rapidly following brief periods of disuse (2wks) and after subsequent active recovery (4wks) in young and old, which contribute to alterations in contractile function at the single muscle fiber...

  16. A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-Départ Santé cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, Stéphanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne

    2016-04-12

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern for public health. Given a majority of children in many countries spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centers, this environment represents a promising setting for implementing strategies to foster healthy behaviours for preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Healthy Start-Départ Santé was designed to promote physical activity, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers. The objectives of this study are to assess the effectiveness of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in improving physical activity levels, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers attending early childcare centers. This study follows a cluster randomized controlled trial design in which the childcare centers are randomly assigned to receive the intervention or serve as usual care controls. The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention is comprised of interlinked components aiming to enable families and educators to integrate physical activity and healthy eating in the daily lives of young children by influencing factors at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, physical environment and policy levels. The intervention period, spanning 6-8 months, is preceded and followed by data collections. Participants are recruited from 61 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan. Centers eligible for this study have to prepare and provide meals for lunch and have at least 20 children between the ages of 3 and 5. Centers are excluded if they have previously received a physical activity or nutrition promoting intervention. Eligible centers are stratified by province, geographical location (urban or rural) and language (English or French), then recruited and randomized using a one to one protocol for each stratum. Data collection is ongoing. The primary study outcomes are assessed using accelerometers (physical activity levels), the Test of Gross Motor

  17. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram Nv; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, M L; Reddy, Yogesh Nv

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft-Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m(2), 18.5-24.99 kg/m(2), 25-29.99 kg/m(2), and ≥30 kg/m(2) were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of healthy young adults regarding advance care planning: a focus group study of university students in Pittsburgh, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalieratos, Dio; Ernecoff, Natalie C; Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Degenholtz, Howard B

    2015-02-27

    To date, research and promotion regarding advance care planning (ACP) has targeted those with serious illness or the elderly, thereby ignoring healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore young adults' knowledge, attitudes, and preferences regarding advance care planning (ACP) and medical decision-making. Further, we aimed to understand the potential role of public health to encourage population-based promotion of ACP. Between February 2007 and April 2007, we conducted six focus groups comprising 56 young adults ages 18-30. Topics explored included (1) baseline knowledge regarding ACP, (2) preferences for ACP, (3) characteristics of preferred surrogates, and (4) barriers and facilitators to completing ACP specific to age and individuation. We used a qualitative thematic approach to analyze transcripts. All participants desired more information regarding ACP. In addition, participants expressed (1) heterogeneous attitudes regarding triggers to perform ACP, (2) the opinion that ACP is a marker of individuation, (3) the belief that prior exposure to illness plays a role in prompting ACP, and (4) an appreciation that ACP is flexible to changes in preferences and circumstances throughout the life-course. Young adults perceive ACP as a worthwhile health behavior and view a lack of information as a major barrier to discussion and adoption. Our data emphasize the need for strategies to increase ACP knowledge, while encouraging population-level, patient-centered, healthcare decision-making.

  19. Food culture in the home environment: family meal practices and values can support healthy eating and self-regulation in young people in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, John B F; Stok, F Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J; de Ridder, Denise D T; de Vet, Emely; Gaspar, Tania; Johnson, Fiona; Nureeva, Lyliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  20. Global fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity together with segmented brain volumes assemble a predictive discriminant model for young and elderly healthy brains: a pilot study at 3T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Becerra-Laparra, Ivonne; Cortez-Conradis, David; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Several parameters of brain integrity can be derived from diffusion tensor imaging. These include fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Combination of these variables using multivariate analysis might result in a predictive model able to detect the structural changes of human brain aging. Our aim was to discriminate between young and older healthy brains by combining structural and volumetric variables from brain MRI: FA, MD, and white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 young (mean age, 25.71±3.04 years; range, 21–34 years) and 10 elderly (mean age, 70.20±4.02 years; range, 66–80 years) healthy volunteers. Multivariate discriminant analysis, with age as the dependent variable and WM, GM and CSF volumes, global FA and MD, and gender as the independent variables, was used to assemble a predictive model. The resulting model was able to differentiate between young and older brains: Wilks’ λ = 0.235, χ2 (6) = 37.603, p = .000001. Only global FA, WM volume and CSF volume significantly discriminated between groups. The total accuracy was 93.5%; the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 91.30%, 100%, 100% and 80%, respectively. Global FA, WM volume and CSF volume are parameters that, when combined, reliably discriminate between young and older brains. A decrease in FA is the strongest predictor of membership of the older brain group, followed by an increase in WM and CSF volumes. Brain assessment using a predictive model might allow the follow-up of selected cases that deviate from normal aging. PMID:27027893

  1. Differential Nongenetic Impact of Birth Weight Versus Third-Trimester Growth Velocity on Glucose Metabolism and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abdominal Obesity in Young Healthy Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Kasper; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Grunnet, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Context: Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes, which to some extent may be mediated via abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. Fetal growth velocity is high during the third trimester, constituting a potential critical window for organ programming. Intra-pair differences among......-pair differences in young healthy twins.Methods: Fifty-eight healthy twins (42 monozygotic/16 dizygotic) aged 18-24 yr participated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Whole-body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, whereas abdominal visceral and sc fat...... growth velocity during third trimester was not associated with adult visceral or sc fat accumulation. Interestingly, third-trimester growth was associated with insulin action in a paradoxical inverse manner.Conclusions: Abdominal adiposity including accumulation of both sc and visceral fat may constitute...

  2. Pupil-sparing complete third nerve palsy from cryptogenic midbrain stroke in an otherwise-healthy young adult with patent foramen ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif O Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pupil-sparing in acute unilateral complete third nerve palsy is often a sign of ischemic nerve injury, it is not specific for injury outside of the midbrain. This report documents acute pupil-sparing complete third nerve palsy in an otherwise healthy young adult with patent foramen ovale and associated atrial dilatation who suffered cryptogenic focal midbrain stroke, presumably from a paradoxical embolism. The patent foramen ovale was surgically closed. Over the next several months neurological recovery was complete except for diplopia and relatively comitant hypotropia, which responded well to conventional strabismus surgery.

  3. The Effect of Training Intensity on VO2max in Young Healthy Adults: A Meta-Regression and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SCRIBBANS, TRISHA D.; VECSEY, STEPHAN; Hankinson, Paul B.; Foster, William S.; Brendon J Gurd

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training at a variety of intensities increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the strongest predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The purpose of the present study was to perform a systematic review, meta-regression and meta-analysis of available literature to determine if a dose-response relationship exists between exercise intensity and training-induced increases in VO2max in young healthy adults. Twenty-eight studies involving human participants (Mean age: 23±1 yr; ...

  4. Are hepatic and soleus lipid content, assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, associated with low birth weight or insulin resistance in a rural Indian population of healthy young men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, R. S.; Grunnet, L. G.; Thomas, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess young healthy men from rural India, who had normal or low birth weights, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the potential differences in ectopic fat storage between birth weight groups, and to determine if ectopic fat storage was associated with insulin resistance...... weight were not observed to have ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscle, and the amount of liver and muscle fat was unrelated to insulin resistance. Older age and/or an urban affluent lifestyle may be required to show a potential role of ectopic fat storage on insulin resistance in Indian people...

  5. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther;

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management.......There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  6. Kinesio taping in young healthy subjects does not affect postural reflex reactions and anticipatory postural adjustments of the trunk: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-09-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 0.64, η2 0.07, η(2) Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population.Earlier anticipatory postural adjustments were observed under both Kinesio Taping and placebo conditions.There were no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo condition.

  7. Study on the short-term effects of increased alcohol and cigarette consumption in healthy young men’s seminal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Cruz, Daniel; Gomes, Mariana; Correia, Bárbara Regadas; Freitas, Maria João; Sousa, Luís; Silva, Vladimiro; Fardilha, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have reported a negative impact of lifestyle factors on testicular function, spermatozoa parameters and pituitary-gonadal axis. However, conclusions are difficult to draw, since studies in the general population are rare. In this study we intended to address the early and late short-term impact of acute lifestyle alterations on young men’s reproductive function. Thirty-six healthy male students, who attended the Portuguese academic festivities, provided semen samples and answered questionnaires at three time-points. The consumption of alcohol and cigarette increased more than 8 and 2 times, respectively, during the academic festivities and resulted in deleterious effects on semen quality: one week after the festivities, a decrease on semen volume, spermatozoa motility and normal morphology was observed, in parallel with an increase on immotile spermatozoa, head and midpiece defects and spermatozoa oxidative stress. Additionally, three months after the academic festivities, besides the detrimental effect on volume, motility and morphology, a negative impact on spermatozoa concentration was observed, along with a decrease on epididymal, seminal vesicles and prostate function. This study contributed to understanding the pathophysiology underlying semen quality degradation induced by acute lifestyle alterations, suggesting that high alcohol and cigarette consumption are associated with decreased semen quality in healthy young men. PMID:28367956

  8. Comparison of Wearable Activity Tracker with Actigraphy for Sleep Evaluation and Circadian Rest-Activity Rhythm Measurement in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Moon, Joung-Ho; Lee, Taek; Kim, Min-Gwan; In, Hoh

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of data obtained from a wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) to medical research. This was performed by comparing the wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) with actigraphy (Actiwatch 2) for sleep evaluation and circadian rest-activity rhythm measurement. Methods Sixteen healthy young adults (female participants, 62.5%; mean age, 22.8 years) wore the Fitbit Charge HR and the Actiwatch 2 on the same wrist; a sleep log was recorded over a 14-day period. We compared the sleep variables and circadian rest-activity rhythm measures with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and Spearman's correlations. Results The periods and acrophases of the circadian rest-activity rhythms and the sleep start times did not differ and correlated significantly between the Fitbit Charge HR and the Actiwatch 2. The Fitbit Charge HR tended to overestimate the sleep durations compared with the Actiwatch 2. However, the sleep durations showed high correlation between the two devices for all days. Conclusion We found that the Fitbit Charge HR showed high accuracy in sleep evaluation and circadian rest-activity rhythm measurement when compared with actigraphy for healthy young adults. The results suggest that the Fitbit Charge HR could be applicable on medical research as an alternative tool to actigraphy for sleep evaluation and measurement of the circadian rest-activity rhythm. PMID:28326116

  9. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed.

  10. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group.

  11. Inulin-enriched pasta improves intestinal permeability and modifies the circulating levels of zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 in healthy young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Clemente, Caterina; Chiloiro, Marisa; Orlando, Antonella; Marconi, Emanuele; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Apart from the intestinal environment, inulin induces physiological effects, which includes a reduction in glucose and lipid concentrations and modulation of gastrointestinal motility through the release of different peptides. We hypothesized that inulin-enriched pasta may also improve small intestine permeability in relation to zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) levels in healthy young subjects. Twenty healthy, young male volunteers completed a randomized, double-blind crossover study consisting of a 2-week run-in period and two 5-week study periods (11% inulin-enriched or control pasta), with an 8-week washout period in between. The intestinal barrier function was assessed by lactulose-mannitol excretion in urine. Zonulin values and GLP-2 release were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the inulin group, the urinary lactulose recovery was significantly lower than the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in urinary mannitol levels between groups. Accordingly, the lactulose-mannitol excretion ratio was significantly decreased in the inulin-enriched pasta group compared with the other 2 groups. The inulin-enriched pasta group had significantly lower zonulin serum values and significantly higher GLP-2 basal values when compared with the baseline and control pasta groups. The dietary use of inulin-enriched pasta preserves intestinal mucosal barrier functioning and modulates circulating levels of zonulin and GLP-2, suggesting that prebiotics could be used in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic disorders.

  12. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 0.64, η2 0.07, η2 Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population. Earlier anticipatory postural adjustments were observed under both Kinesio Taping and placebo conditions. There were no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo condition. PMID:25177198

  13. Reproducibility of Standing Posture for X-Ray Radiography: A Feasibility Study of the BalancAid with Healthy Young Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Purnama, I Ketut Eddy; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Mengko, Tati Latifah Erawati Rajab

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable spinal X-ray radiography measurement due to standing postural variability can be minimized by using positional supports. In this study, we introduce a balancing device, named BalancAid, to position the patients in a reproducible position during spinal X-ray radiography. This study aimed to investigate the performance of healthy young subjects’ standing posture on the BalancAid compared to standing on the ground mimicking the standard X-rays posture in producing a reproducible posture for the spinal X-ray radiography. A study on the posture reproducibility measurement was performed by taking photographs of 20 healthy young subjects with good balance control standing on the BalancAid and the ground repeatedly within two consecutive days. We analyzed nine posterior–anterior (PA) and three lateral (LA) angles between lines through body marks placed in the positions of T3, T7, T12, L4 of the spine to confirm any translocations and movements between the first and second day measurements. No body marks repositioning was performed to avoid any error. Lin’s CCC test on all angles comparing both standing postures demonstrated that seven out of nine angles in PA view, and two out of three angles in LA view gave better reproducibility for standing on the BalancAid compared to standing on the ground. The PA angles concordance is on average better than that of the LA angles. PMID:20473569

  14. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  15. Iron and vitamin D defiency in healthy young children in Western-Europe despite current nutrional recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, M.D.; Horst, van der Judith; Eussen, S.R.B.M.; Goudoever, van J.B.; Brus, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are the 2 most common micronutrient deficiencies in young children worldwide and may lead to impaired neurodevelopment and rickets, respectively. Risk factors for ID and VDD differ between populations. The objective of this stud

  16. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  17. Iron and vitamin D defiency in healthy young children in Western-Europe despite current nutrional recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, M.D.; Horst, van der Judith; Eussen, S.R.B.M.; Goudoever, van J.B.; Brus, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are the 2 most common micronutrient deficiencies in young children worldwide and may lead to impaired neurodevelopment and rickets, respectively. Risk factors for ID and VDD differ between populations. The objective of this stud

  18. Salmonella osteomyelitis of the distal radius in a healthy young adult patient: report of a rare case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Hamada, Yoshitaka; Hibino, Naohito; Sato, Ryosuke; Henmi, Tatsuhiko; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius in a healthy individual is very rare. We present such a case involving the distal radius of a healthy 23-year-old man without underlying disease or possible episode. He had right wrist pain for approximately 3 years, and osteolytic lesion was seen in the right distal radius. He underwent surgical treatment, and salmonella was isolated from pus in the lesion. Postoperative antibiotics successfully treated his infection. He had no sign of recurrence, but the point of entry for infection remains unknown.

  19. Plasma Growth Hormone and Prolactin Levels in Healthy Sedentary Young Men after Short-Term Endurance Training under Hot Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary hormones play an important role energy expenditure and body temperature regulation during exercise. The aim of the stu¬dy was to investigate the effect of two different endurance training in ambient temperature (30.76 ± 1.71oC and 57.92 ± 5.80% r.h.) on plasma growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) levels in non-trained healthy subjects. Twenty-four untrained healthy men participated in an 8-wk progressive two different endurance-training program. Subjects were divided into two gro...

  20. Young adults perinatally infected with HIV perform more poorly on measures of executive functioning and motor speed than ethnically matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Elizabeth J; Cuadra, Anai; Arheart, Kristopher L; Post, M J D; Govind, Varan

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal HIV is associated with significant neurocognitive morbidities, but few studies have examined cognitive impact of early HIV infection on patients surviving to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive outcomes among a cohort of perinatally infected young adults. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 with perinatal infection were recruited for this cross-sectional study along with similarly aged healthy controls. Participants completed an MRI and brief neuropsychological assessment battery. Multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education was completed to detect differences between the HIV+ and control groups. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess HIV-associated factors potentially impacting neuropsychological findings among the HIV+ group. Twenty-nine HIV+ young adults and 13 healthy controls were included in the study. After adjusting for age and sociodemographic variables, the HIV+ group scored lower on attention/working memory (Digit Span (p = .008) and Letter-Number Sequencing (p = .038)), set-shifting (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 4 (p = .026) and motor speed (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 5 (p = .003)). For the HIV+ group, nadir CD4 was associated with better Letter-Number Sequencing score (p = .029) and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with better performance on Category Fluency (p = .040). After controlling for sociodemographic variables, executive dysfunction persists among young adults with perinatal HIV infection in comparison to controls. Future studies to further elucidate the impact of executive dysfunction on independent living and functional outcomes are indicated.

  1. Sustained Increase of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Healthy Young Women during Wintertime after Three Suberythemal UV Irradiations-The MUVY Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gudrun Biersack

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (VitD deficiency is a health problem prevalent not only in the elderly but also in young adults. The primary objective of our observational pilot study "MUVY" (Mood, UVR, Vitamin D in Young women was to test both the short-term and long-term effects of a series of three suberythemal UV radiation (UVR exposures on the VitD status and well-being of young healthy women during winter in a repeat measure design.20 healthy young women (Fitzpatrick skin types I-III, aged 21-25 years received three full body broad band UVR exposures with an escalating erythemally weighted dose schedule during one week in winter, and completed self-report questionnaires monitoring symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI and affective state/well-being (Profile of Mood States, POMS at baseline and three days after the last UVR exposure. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D were measured in serum at baseline, and at study days 8, 36 and 50.Mean baseline 25(OHD level was 54.3 nmol/L (standard deviation (s.d. = 24.1, with seven women having VitD deficient status. Relevant symptoms of depression, as indicated by low BDI total scores (0-8, were absent. After the three UVR exposures the increment of 25(OHD was an average of 13.9 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI = 9.4-18.4 and 26.2 pmol/L (95%CI = 7.2-45.1 for 1,25(OH2D. Δ25(OHD, and corresponding baseline levels were significantly and inversely associated (rho = -0.493, p = 0.027. Only 25(OHD remained significantly increased above baseline for at least six weeks after the last UVR exposure. A strong inverse correlation of the POMS subscale "Vigor/Activity" and the increment in 1,25(OH2D was found (rho = -0.739, p<0.001 at day 8.Three suberythemal whole body UVR exposures during one week are a simple and suitable method for improving 25(OHD levels during winter, for at least six weeks, and especially in young women with VitD deficient status.German Clinical Trials

  2. Acute Effects of Constant-Angle and Constant-Torque Static Stretching on Passive Stiffness of the Posterior Hip and Thigh Muscles in Healthy, Young and Old Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B

    2017-07-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of constant-angle (CA) and constant-torque (CT) static stretching on passive stiffness of the posterior hip and thigh muscles in healthy, young and old men. Fifteen young (25±3 years) and 15 old (71±4 years) men underwent 2 passive straight-leg raise (SLR) assessments before and after 8 min of CA and CT stretching using an isokinetic dynamometer. Passive stiffness was calculated during each SLR as the slope of the final 10% of the angle-torque curve. The results indicated that passive stiffness decreased from pre- to post-stretching for both treatments (P≤0.001-0.002) and age groups (P≤0.001-0.046); however, greater decreases were observed for the CT than the CA stretching (P=0.045) and for the old than the young men (Pstretching. These findings suggest that holding stretches at a constant tension may be a more effective strategy for altering passive stiffness of the posterior hip and thigh muscles. The greater stretch-induced stiffness decreases observed for the older men provide support that acute static stretching may be particularly effective for reducing stiffness in the elderly. As a result, it may be advantageous to prescribe static stretching prior to exercise for older adults, as this may be used to elicit substantial declines in passive stiffness, which could help reduce the risk of subsequent injury events in this population.

  3. Intake of up to 3 Eggs per Day Is Associated with Changes in HDL Function and Increased Plasma Antioxidants in Healthy, Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Diana M; Norris, Gregory H; Millar, Courtney L; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-03-01

    Background: HDL function may be more important than HDL concentration in determining risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, HDL is a carrier of carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes, which protect HDL and LDL particles against oxidation.Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of consuming 0-3 eggs/d on LDL and HDL particle size, HDL function, and plasma antioxidants in a young, healthy population.Methods: Thirty-eight healthy men and women [age 18-30 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 18.5-29.9] participated in this 14-wk crossover intervention. Subjects underwent a 2-wk washout (0 eggs/d) followed by sequentially increasing intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/d for 4 wk each. After each period, fasting blood was collected for analysis of lipoprotein subfractions, plasma apolipoprotein (apo) concentration, lutein and zeaxanthin concentration, and activities of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and paraoxonase-1.Results: Compared with intake of 0 eggs/d, consuming 1-3 eggs/d resulted in increased large-LDL (21-37%) and large-HDL (6-13%) particle concentrations, plasma apoAI (9-15%), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity (5-15%) (P HDL function and large-LDL particle concentration; however, intake of 2-3 eggs/d supported greater improvements in HDL function as well as increased plasma carotenoids. Overall, intake of ≤3 eggs/d favored a less atherogenic LDL particle profile, improved HDL function, and increased plasma antioxidants in young, healthy adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02531958.

  4. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  5. A survey study comparing young adults with MS and healthy controls on self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer Uccelli, Michele; Traversa, Silvia; Ponzio, Michela

    2016-09-15

    Studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) report low levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem, high levels of anxiety and depression and reduced quality of life. The study aims to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life in young adults with MS and to compare them to a healthy control group. The age range for inclusion in the study was between 18 and 35years of age for both groups. Subjects with MS were recruited through the Italian MS Society. Healthy controls were recruited through social media and from a university undergraduate program. Subjects completed an anonymous online questionnaire combining various scales. Group differences on demographic data were assessed using parametric and non-parametric tests. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to evaluate differences between the two groups on scales of self-perception, mood and quality of life, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Eighty-nine subjects with MS and 109 HC were included in the analysis. ANCOVA failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences between groups on self-esteem (F=0.11, p=0.743), self-efficacy (F=2.22, p=0.138), mood (anxiety F=0.03, p=0.855; depression F=0.06, p=0.812) and quality of life (F=0.08, p=0.772). This study demonstrated that young adults with MS and healthy controls have similar levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy and that they do not differ significantly on measures of mood and quality of life, as previously reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely related to central adiposity as well as to metabolic and oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulet M Ángeles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC has been assumed as a useful tool to assess the relationship between the cumulative antioxidant food capacity and several chronic disorders. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the potential relationships of dietary TAC with adiposity, metabolic and oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults. Methods This study enrolled 266 healthy subjects (105 men/ 161 women; 22 ± 3 years-old; 22.0 ± 2.7 kg/m2. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features, and biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. Results In linear regression analyses, dietary TAC values were inversely associated with glycemia, total cholesterol:HDL-c ratio, triglycerides and oxidized-LDL concentrations, and positively associated with HDL-c concentrations, independently of gender, age, smoking status, physical activity, vitamin use supplement, waist circumference, energy intake, fatty acid intake. In addition, plasma TAC was negatively correlated with ox-LDL concentrations (r= -0.20, P = 0.003, independently of the assessed confounding variables. Finally, dietary TAC values were inversely related to waist circumference values (r= -0.17, P = 0.005 as well as to lower mild central obesity occurrence (waist circumference ≥ 80/ 94 cm for women/ men, respectively. Conclusion Dietary TAC values are inversely associated with glucose and lipid biomarkers as well as with central adiposity measurements in healthy young adults, indicating dietary TAC as a useful tool to assess the health benefits of cumulative antioxidant capacity from food intake. In addition, the independent and inverse relationships of ox-LDL concentrations with dietary and plasma TAC respectively suggest a putative role of antioxidant rich-diet in the link between redox state and atherogenesis at early stage.

  7. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first...

  8. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J

    2012-01-01

    .... Whey protein was included as reference protein. Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic...

  9. Quality of life in young patients after bone tumor surgery around the knee joint and comparison with healthy controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W.P.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Koopman, H.M.; Schaap, G.R.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Beishuizen, A.; Tissing, W.J.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Anninga, J.K.; Taminiau, A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls. PROCEDURE: Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received t

  10. Quality of Life in Young Patients After Bone Tumor Surgery Around the Knee Joint and Comparison With Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W. Peter; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet; Koopman, Hendrik M.; Schaap, Gerard R.; Schreuder, H. W. Bart; Beishuizen, Auke; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Anninga, Jacob K.; Taminiau, Antonie H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls. Procedure. Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received t

  11. A study of the variation in the salivary peptide profiles of young healthy adults acquired using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, A.; Brand, H.; Imangaliyev, S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; van der Weijden, F.; de Jong, A.; Paauw, A.; Crielaard, W.; Keijser, B.; Veerman, E.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18–30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal

  12. A study of the variation in the salivary peptide profiles of young healthy adults acquired using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, A.; Brand, H.; Imangaliyev, S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Weijden, F. van der; Jong, A. de; Paauw, A.; Crielaard, W.; Keijser, B.; Veerman, E.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18-30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal

  13. Mechanical energy transfers across lower limb segments during stair ascent and descent in young and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Alison C; Li, Qingguo; Yang, Shuozhi; Brouwer, Brenda

    2011-07-01

    Older adults present with altered movement patterns during stair negotiation although the extent to which modifications in pattern and speed influence mechanical efficiency is unknown. This study evaluated mechanical energy transfers attributed to active force production during stair negotiation in young and older adults to provide insight into age-related changes in mechanical efficiency. Secondary analysis on data obtained from 23 young (23.7±3.0 years) and 32 older adults (67.0±8.2 years) during self-paced stair ascent and descent was conducted. Mechanical energy expenditures (MEE) during concentric transfer, eccentric transfer and no-transfer phases were determined for the ankle, knee and hip power profiles in the sagittal plane. Mechanical energy compensations (MEC) were also determined at each joint. During ascent, MEEs were similar for young and older adults although older adults compensated ankle muscles to a lesser extent during concentric muscle action. Controlling for cadence eliminated this difference. During descent, older adults demonstrated lower energy expenditures at the ankle and hip and similar expenditures at the knee compared to young adults. Changes in joint MEE in the older group resulted in reduced energy compensation at the ankle during concentric and eccentric activity and at the knee during eccentric activity. These age-related differences in mechanical energy transfers and related adjustments in MEC were not a function of the slower cadence in older adults and suggest a loss in mechanical efficiency. These results provide a benchmark against which physical impairments in older adults may be explored.

  14. Dynamic changes of the respiratory microbiota and its relationship to fecal and blood microbiota in healthy young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Ericsson, Aaron C; Rindt, Hansjorg; Grobman, Megan E; Graham, Amber; Bishop, Kaitlin; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol R

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the field of metagenomics using culture-independent methods of microbial identification have allowed characterization of rich and diverse communities of bacteria in the lungs of healthy humans, mice, dogs, sheep and pigs. These data challenge the long held belief that the lungs are sterile and microbial colonization is synonymous with pathology. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate differences in the composition of airway microbiota in health versus disease suggesting respiratory dysbiosis occurs. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rectal and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and blood, our objective was to characterize the fecal, OP, blood, and lower airway microbiota over time in healthy cats. This work in healthy cats, a species in which a respiratory microbiota has not yet been characterized, sets the stage for future studies in feline asthma in which cats serve as a comparative and translational model for humans. Fecal, OP and BALF samples were collected from six healthy research cats at day 0, week 2, and week 10; blood was collected at week 10. DNA was extracted, amplified via PCR, and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and microbial richness and diversity were assessed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to visualize relatedness of samples and PERMANOVA was used to test for significant differences in microbial community composition. Fecal and OP swabs provided abundant DNA yielding a mean±SEM of 65,653±6,145 and 20,6323±4,360 sequences per sample, respectively while BALF and blood samples had lower coverage (1,489±430 and 269±18 sequences per sample, respectively). Oropharyngeal and fecal swabs were significantly richer than BALF (mean number OTUs 93, 88 and 36, respectively; p airways. In comparison, blood had an apparent compositional similarity with BALF with regard to a few dominant taxa, but

  15. Cardiorespiratory Biomarker Responses in Healthy Young Adults to Drastic Air Quality Changes Surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Huang, Wei; Rich, David; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott; Hu, Min; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    (HR and SBP) in healthy, young adults. These changes support the prominently hypothesized mechanistic pathways underlying the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution. PMID:23646463

  16. Systemic exposure to armodafinil and its tolerability in healthy elderly versus young men: an open-label, multiple-dose, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Hellriegel, Edward T; Yang, Ronghua; Robertson, Philmore

    2011-02-01

    Armodafinil (Nuvigil(®), Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA), the longer-lasting isomer of racemic modafinil, is a nonamphetamine, wakefulness-promoting medication. In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder, treated obstructive sleep apnoea, or narcolepsy, armodafinil has been found to improve wakefulness throughout the shift or day. In addition, while not approved for this indication, armodafinil has been found to improve excessive sleepiness associated with jet-lag disorder. This study evaluated systemic exposure to armodafinil and its two major circulating metabolites, R-modafinil acid and modafinil sulfone, and assessed the tolerability profile of armodafinil in elderly and young subjects. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of armodafinil were assessed in an open-label, multiple-dose, parallel-group study in two groups (n = 25 in each group) of healthy men (elderly group aged ≥65 years and young group aged 18-45 years) who received armodafinil 50 mg on day 1, 100 mg on day 2 and 150 mg once daily on days 3 through 7. Plasma concentrations of armodafinil and its metabolites were quantified over 72 hours following the last dose on day 7. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including area under the plasma drug concentration-versus-time curve during a dosing interval (AUC(τ)) and maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), and tolerability were assessed. All 50 subjects enrolled in the study were evaluable for tolerability and 49 were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. One elderly subject was excluded from the pharmacokinetic analyses because of apparent noncompliance with armodafinil dosing. Systemic exposure following administration of armodafinil, as measured by steady-state AUC(τ) and C(max) values, was approximately 15% greater in elderly subjects compared with young subjects. Geometric mean ratios for AUC(τ) and C(max) in the two groups were 1.14 (95% CI 1.03, 1.25; p = 0.0086) and 1.15 (95% CI 1

  17. Analysis of Twenty-Two Performance Properties of Diesel, Gasoline, and Jet Fuels Using a Field-Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Carl; Smith, Wayne; Shende, Chetan; Gladding, Zack; Farquharson, Stuart; Morris, Robert E; Cramer, Jeffrey A; Schmitigal, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The change in custody of fuel shipments at depots, pipelines, and ports could benefit from an analyzer that could rapidly verify that properties are within specifications. To meet this need, the design requirements for a fuel analyzer based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, such as spectral region and resolution, were examined. It was found that the 1000 to 1600 nm region, containing the second CH overtone and combination vibrational modes of hydrocarbons, provided the best near-infrared to fuel property correlations when path length was taken into account, whereas 4 cm(-1) resolution provided only a modest improvement compared to 16 cm(-1) resolution when four or more latent variables were used. Based on these results, a field-portable near-infrared fuel analyzer was built that employed an incandescent light source, sample compartment optics to hold 2 mL glass sample vials with ∼1 cm path length, a transmission grating, and a 256 channel InGaAs detector that measured the above stated wavelength range with 5-6 nm (∼32 cm(-1)) resolution. The analyzer produced high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of samples in 5 s. Twenty-two property correlation models were developed for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels with root mean squared error of correlation - cross-validated values that compared favorably to corresponding ASTM reproducibility values. The standard deviations of predicted properties for repeat measurements at 4, 24, and 38℃ were often better than ASTM documented repeatability values. The analyzer and diesel property models were tested by measuring seven diesel samples at a local ASTM certification laboratory. The standard deviations between the analyzer determined values and the ASTM measured values for these samples were generally better than the model root mean squared error of correlation-cross-validated values for each property.

  18. Detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria in children using a twenty-two target reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Chelsey; Misir, Amita; Hui, Charles; Jabbour, Mona; Barrowman, Nicholas; Langill, Jonathan; Bowes, Jennifer; Slinger, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rapid detection of the wide range of viruses and bacteria that cause respiratory infection in children is important for patient care and antibiotic stewardship. We therefore designed and evaluated a ready-to-use 22 target respiratory infection reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) panel to determine if this would improve detection of these agents at our pediatric hospital. RT-qPCR assays for twenty-two target organisms were dried-down in individual wells of 96 well plates and saved at room temperature. Targets included 18 respiratory viruses and 4 bacteria. After automated nucleic acid extraction of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples, rapid qPCR was performed. RT-qPCR results were compared with those obtained by the testing methods used at our hospital laboratories. One hundred fifty-nine pediatric NPA samples were tested with the RT-qPCR panel. One or more respiratory pathogens were detected in 132/159 (83%) samples. This was significantly higher than the detection rate of standard methods (94/159, 59%) (Pviruses, bocavirus, and coronaviruses. The panel internal control assay performance remained stable at room temperature storage over a two-month testing period. The RT-qPCR panel was able to identify pathogens in a high proportion of respiratory samples. The panel detected more positive specimens than the methods in use at our hospital. The pre-made panel format was easy to use and rapid, with results available in approximately 90 minutes. We now plan to determine if use of this panel improves patient care and antibiotic stewardship.

  19. DFT:B3LYP/3-21G theoretical insights on the confocal Raman experimental observations in skin dermis of healthy young, healthy elderly, and diabetic elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; Pereira, Liliane; dos Santos, Laurita; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Fávero, Priscila; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2016-12-01

    In the confocal Raman spectra of skin dermis, the band area in the spectral region of proline and hydroxyproline varies according to the age and health condition of the volunteers, classified as healthy young women, healthy elderly women, and diabetic elderly women. Another observation refers to the intensity variation and negative Raman shift of the amide I band. To understand these effects, we adopted a model system using the DFT/B3LYP:3-21G procedure, considering the amino acid chain formed by glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine, which interacts with two and six water molecules. Through these systems, polarizability variations were analyzed to correlate its values with the observed Raman intensities of the three groups of volunteers and to assign the vibrational spectra of the skin dermis. As a way to correlate other experimental trends, we propose a model of chemical reaction of water interchange between the bonding amino acids, in which water molecules are attached with glucose by hydrogen bonds. The theoretical results are in accordance with the observed experimental trends.

  20. Cognitive function is related to fronto-striatal serotonin transporter levels--a brain PET study in young healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Erritzøe, David Frederik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission in healthy volunteers impacts on cognitive test performance. Specifically, markers of serotonin function are associated with attention and executive functioning, long-term memory, and general cognitive ability. The serotonin transporter...... (SERT) protein is a key regulator in the serotonin system. We hypothesized that higher performance on tests sensitive to serotonin would be associated with higher SERT levels in specific fronto-striatal brain regions....

  1. Healthy Older Observers Show Equivalent Perceptual-Cognitive Training Benefits to Young Adults for Multiple Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Legault, Isabelle; Allard, Rémy; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, traveling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002) and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006). H...

  2. Motivational dynamics underlying eating regulation in young and adult female dieters: relationships with healthy eating behaviours and disordered eating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstuyf, Joke; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soetens, Barbara; Soenens, Bart

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether type of goals and motives underlying females' eating regulation are associated differentially with daily eating behaviours, dependent upon weight and age category. 99 late adolescent female dieters (Mage = 18.94) and 98 adult female dieters (Mage = 45.06), 23.6% of which were overweight, completed a questionnaire and a 7-day diary assessment. Descriptive analysis and path analysis were performed to investigate the research questions. Healthy eating behaviours (HEHS), drive for thinness and binge eating symptoms (EDI). Appearance-focused and controlled eating regulation were positively related to disordered eating symptoms throughout the week. In contrast, autonomous and health-focused eating regulation were associated positively with healthy eating behaviours and were either related negatively or unrelated to disordered eating symptoms. Mean level differences in motivation and eating behaviours emerged according to age and weight status. However, the examined structural model was similar for late adolescent and adult dieters and only few differences emerged between normal-weight and overweight dieters. Dieters' type of motivation helps to explain when eating regulation relates to healthy and disordered eating symptoms.

  3. Excessive dietary phosphorus intake impairs endothelial function in young healthy men: a time- and dose-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tamae; Shuto, Emi; Ogawa, Mariko; Ohya, Miho; Nakanishi, Misaki; Masuda, Masashi; Katsumoto, Misaki; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Sakai, Tohru; Takeda, Eiji; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Taketani, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus (P) has been speculated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we performed a double-blinded crossover study to investigate the time- and dose-dependent effects of dietary P intake on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were given meals containing 400, 800, and 1,200 mg P (P400, P800, and P1200 meals, respectively) with at least 7 days between doses. There were no differences in nutritional composition among the experimental diets except for P content. Blood biochemistry data and flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) of the brachial artery were measured while fasted, at 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h after meal ingestion, and the next morning while fasted. The P800 and P1200 meals significantly increased serum P levels at 1-4 h after ingestion. A significant decrease in %FMD was observed between 1-4 h,while the P400 meal did not affect %FMD. We observed no differences among meals in serum P levels or %FMD the next morning. A significant negative correlation was observed between %FMD and serum P. These results indicate that excessive dietary P intake can acutely impair endothelial function in healthy people.

  4. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  5. Dynamic changes of the respiratory microbiota and its relationship to fecal and blood microbiota in healthy young cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindt, Hansjorg; Grobman, Megan E.; Graham, Amber; Bishop, Kaitlin; Cohn, Leah A.; Reinero, Carol R.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the field of metagenomics using culture-independent methods of microbial identification have allowed characterization of rich and diverse communities of bacteria in the lungs of healthy humans, mice, dogs, sheep and pigs. These data challenge the long held belief that the lungs are sterile and microbial colonization is synonymous with pathology. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate differences in the composition of airway microbiota in health versus disease suggesting respiratory dysbiosis occurs. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rectal and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and blood, our objective was to characterize the fecal, OP, blood, and lower airway microbiota over time in healthy cats. This work in healthy cats, a species in which a respiratory microbiota has not yet been characterized, sets the stage for future studies in feline asthma in which cats serve as a comparative and translational model for humans. Fecal, OP and BALF samples were collected from six healthy research cats at day 0, week 2, and week 10; blood was collected at week 10. DNA was extracted, amplified via PCR, and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and microbial richness and diversity were assessed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to visualize relatedness of samples and PERMANOVA was used to test for significant differences in microbial community composition. Fecal and OP swabs provided abundant DNA yielding a mean±SEM of 65,653±6,145 and 20,6323±4,360 sequences per sample, respectively while BALF and blood samples had lower coverage (1,489±430 and 269±18 sequences per sample, respectively). Oropharyngeal and fecal swabs were significantly richer than BALF (mean number OTUs 93, 88 and 36, respectively; p cats have a rich and distinct lower airway microbiome with dynamic bacterial populations. The microbiome is likely to be

  6. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseva, Nina; Pyhälä, Riikka; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g). The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD), 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet. With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0), P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0), P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1) was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8), P = 0.97)]. Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  7. A single dose of the potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline suppresses gonadotropins and testosterone for 2 weeks in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L; Coviello, Andrea D; Page, Stephanie; Amory, John K; Anawalt, Bradley D; Bremner, William J

    2004-12-01

    Acyline is a novel GnRH antagonist that reliably inhibits gonadotropins and testosterone (T) levels in men for 48 h after a single dose up to 75 microg/kg. In this study we examined gonadotropin and T levels in 28 healthy young men administered acyline as single doses of 150 or 300 microg/kg or serial injections of 75 microg/kg. A single 300 microg/kg dose of acyline suppressed gonadotropins and T to castrate levels for 15 d (baseline, 21.1 +/- 3.1; nadir, 1.95 +/- 0.4 nmol/liter; mean +/- sem; P gonadotropins for more than 20 d (nadir T, 1.06 +/- 0.17 nmol/liter; P hormonal male contraceptive or for treatment of hormonally dependent disease.

  8. Left atrial and ventricular function during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress in healthy young and elderly as evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe phasic volume changes of the left atrium (LA) in healthy young and elderly subjects at rest and during pharmacological stress (PS). LA maximum size is related to cardiovascular mortality. LA has passive, active, and conduit function for left ventricular (LV...... imaging at rest and during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress. We identified LA minimum, maximum, and middiastolic volumes and the volume before atrial contraction. LA emptying volumes were calculated as LA passive and active emptying volumes and LA conduit volume. We also calculated LV peak filling...... rates (LVPFRs). Both at rest and during PS, LA maximum and minimum volumes were similar in the groups, whereas middiastolic volume was higher in the elderly. During PS, a marked decrease in LA passive emptying function and a corresponding increase in LA active emptying function were seen in the elderly...

  9. NO EFFECT OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS SUPPLEMENTATION ON TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS FOR RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Hsu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of oral Cordyceps sinensis supplementation combined with resistance training in young male adults. A group of 16 subjects were randomly allocated to two groups (double blind to receive either Cordyceps sinensis (CS; 2.4 g/day; n = 8 or a placebo (P; 2.4 g maltodextrin/day; n = 8 during eight weeks of resistance training. Exercises were performed for three sets of 3 to 5 repetitions at a mean training intensity of 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM. Before and after training, measurements were taken 1 RM to bench press, leg press, and seated rowing. The body composition, plasma testosterone levels, as well as serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate transaminoferase, and alanine transaminoferase were also measured. The results showed that CS supplementation did not significantly affect (p>0.05 the changes in all measurable variables after eight weeks of resistance training. This study suggested that CS is relatively safe to be ingested; however, CS supplementation for eight weeks neither appear to possess a significant ergogenic value nor affect testosterone level of resistance-trained young male adults.

  10. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-ling Ho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6 status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19–35 years; n = 202. Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP. Mean (95% confidence interval plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3 nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20–30 nmol/L was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population.

  12. In search for geroprotectors: in silico screening and in vitro validation of signalome-level mimetics of young healthy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander; Belikov, Aleksey V.; Garazha, Andrew; Jellen, Leslie; Artemov, Artem; Suntsova, Maria; Ivanova, Alena; Venkova, Larisa; Borisov, Nicolas; Buzdin, Anton; Mamoshina, Polina; Putin, Evgeny; Swick, Andrew G.; Moskalev, Alexey; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Populations in developed nations throughout the world are rapidly aging, and the search for geroprotectors, or anti-aging interventions, has never been more important. Yet while hundreds of geroprotectors have extended lifespan in animal models, none have yet been approved for widespread use in humans. GeroScope is a computational tool that can aid prediction of novel geroprotectors from existing human gene expression data. GeroScope maps expression differences between samples from young and old subjects to aging-related signaling pathways, then profiles pathway activation strength (PAS) for each condition. Known substances are then screened and ranked for those most likely to target differential pathways and mimic the young signalome. Here we used GeroScope and shortlisted ten substances, all of which have lifespan-extending effects in animal models, and tested 6 of them for geroprotective effects in senescent human fibroblast cultures. PD-98059, a highly selective MEK1 inhibitor, showed both life-prolonging and rejuvenating effects. Natural compounds like N-acetyl-L-cysteine, Myricetin and Epigallocatechin gallate also improved several senescence-associated properties and were further investigated with pathway analysis. This work not only highlights several potential geroprotectors for further study, but also serves as a proof-of-concept for GeroScope, Oncofinder and other PAS-based methods in streamlining drug prediction, repurposing and personalized medicine. PMID:27677171

  13. Large screening of CA-MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus colonizing healthy young children living in two areas (urban and rural of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miragaia Maria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of pediatric infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA, including children with no identifiable risk factors, has increased worldwide in the last decade. This suggests that healthy children may constitute a reservoir of MRSA in the community. In this study, nested within a larger one on nasopharyngeal ecology, we aimed to: (i evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonizing young children in Portugal; and (ii compare results with those obtained in a study conducted a decade ago, when this prevalence was Methods In the years 2006, 2007, and 2009, nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 2,100 children aged up to 6 years attending day-care centers. S. aureus were isolated by routine procedures and strains were tested for susceptibility against a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents. MRSA isolates were further characterized by SmaI-PFGE profiling, MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and presence of virulence factors. Results Seventeen percent of the children carried S. aureus. Among the 365 isolates, non-susceptibility rates were 88% to penicillin, 14% to erythromycin, 6% to clindamycin, 2% to tetracycline, and spa type t148; the other was ST939-IVa (ST939 is a single locus variant (SLV of ST72, spa type t324. The third strain was related to USA300 (ST8-IV being characterized by ST931 (SLV of ST8-VI, spa type t008. The three MRSA strains were PVL-negative, but all carried LukE-LukD leukocidin, hemolysins gamma, gamma variant and beta, and staphylococcal enterotoxin sel. Conclusions Our results, based on analysis of S. aureus isolated from nasopharyngeal samples, suggest that in Portugal the prevalence of CA-MRSA carriage in healthy young children remains extremely low favoring the exclusion of this group as a reservoir of such isolates.

  14. The Dihydrofolate Reductase 19 bp Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Biomarkers of Folate Status in Healthy Young Adults, Irrespective of Folic Acid Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mari; Molloy, Anne M; Mills, James L; Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Brody, Lawrence C; Parle-McDermott, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is essential for the conversion of folic acid to active folate needed for one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variation within DHFR is restricted to the noncoding regions, and previous studies have focused on a 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism (rs70991108) within intron 1. Reports of an association between this polymorphism and blood folate biomarker concentrations are conflicting. In this study, we evaluated whether the DHFR 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism affects circulating folate biomarkers in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to address this question to date. Healthy young Irish individuals (n = 2507) between 19 and 36 y of age were recruited between February 2003 and February 2004. Folic acid intake from supplements and fortified foods was assessed with the use of a customized food intake questionnaire. Concentrations of serum folate and vitamin B-12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression models. Folic acid intake was positively associated with serum (P folic acid intake (>326 μg folic acid/d; P = 0.96). A nonsignificant trend toward lower RBC folate by genotype (P = 0.09) was observed in the lowest folic acid intake quintile (0-51 μg/d). In this cohort of healthy young individuals, the DHFR 19 bp deletion allele did not significantly affect circulating folate status, irrespective of folic acid intake. Our data rule out a strong functional effect from this polymorphism on blood folate concentrations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B.; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217). PMID:27630772

  16. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour use of Kinesiotaping (KT on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old were randomly allocated into two groups: 1 Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation; 2 Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension. Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1 familiarization; 2 baseline measurement without tape (BL; 3 immediately post-tape application (T0; 4 24h (T24; and 5 48h (T48 post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT and triple hop tests (THT, vertical jump height (VJH, vertical jump power (VJP, and rate of force development (RFD. A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. Results No significant (p >0.05 differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05. Conclusion The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance.

  17. Disposition of acetaminophen at 4, 6, and 8 g/day for 3 days in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelotte, C K; Auiler, J F; Lynch, J M; Temple, A R; Slattery, J T

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition and tolerability of 1, 1.5, and 2 g acetaminophen every 6 h for 3 days. Group I healthy adults received acetaminophen (4 then 6 g/day) or placebo; Group II received acetaminophen (4 then 8 g/day) or placebo. Acetaminophen and metabolites were measured in plasma and urine. Hepatic aminotransferases were measured daily. At steady state, acetaminophen concentrations were surprisingly lower than predicted from single-dose data, although sulfate formation clearance (fCL) was lower as expected, indicating cofactor depletion with possible sulfotransferase saturation. In contrast, glucuronide fCL was unexpectedly higher, strongly suggesting glucuronosyltransferase induction. This is the first evidence that acetaminophen induces its own glucuronidation. No dose-dependent differences were detected in fCL of thiol metabolites formed via cytochrome P4502E1. Hepatic aminotransferases stayed within reference ranges, and the incidence and frequency of adverse events were similar for acetaminophen and placebo. Although dose-dependence of acetaminophen disposition was reported previously, this study shows a novel finding of time-dependent disposition during repeated dosing. Unexpected increases in glucuronide fCL more than offset decreases in sulfate fCL, thus increasing acetaminophen clearance overall. Thiol metabolite fCL remained constant up to 8 g/day. These findings have important implications in short-term (3 day) tolerability of supratherapeutic acetaminophen doses in healthy adults.

  18. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on experimental pain: A double-blind, randomized study in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Karen; Beland, Patricia; Pinard, Marilee; Handfield, Guilène; Handfield, Nicole; Goffaux, Philippe; Corriveau, Hélène; Léonard, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy can decrease pain. To date, however, it remains difficult to determine whether the analgesic effect observed in patients are attributable to a direct effect of PEMF on pain or to an indirect effect of PEMF on inflammation and healing. In the present study, we used an experimental pain paradigm to evaluate the direct effect of PEMF on pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and temporal summation of pain. Twenty-four healthy subjects (mean age 22 ± 2 years; 9 males) participated in the experiment. Both real and sham PEMF were administered to every participant using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. For each visit, PEMF was applied for 10 minutes on the right forearm using a portable device. Experimental pain was evoked before (baseline) and after PEMF with a 9 cm(2) Pelletier-type thermode, applied on the right forearm (120 s stimulation; temperature individually adjusted to produce moderate baseline pain). Pain intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated using a 0-100 numerical pain rating scale. Temporal summation was evaluated by comparing pain intensity ratings obtained at the end of tonic nociceptive stimulation (120 s) with pain intensity ratings obtained after 60 s of stimulation. When compared to baseline, there was no change in pain intensity and unpleasantness following the application of real or sham PEMF. PEMF did not affect temporal summation. The present observations suggest that PEMF does not directly influence heat pain perception in healthy individuals.

  19. Autonomic control of heart rate during non-linear incremental upper-limb resistance exercise with elastic bands in young healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Batalha, Priscila; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Campos Freire, Renato; Zanela DA Silva Arêas, Fernando; Peixoto Tinoco Arêas, Guilherme

    2016-11-01

    Elastic bands are therapeutic tools widely used in rehabilitation. However, knowledge regarding autonomic cardiovascular overload during this type of resistance exercise is limited. This study assessed the autonomic control of heart rate during an incremental exercise protocol with elastic bands in sedentary healthy young individuals. Ten young women were subjected to an exercise protocol involving bilateral shoulder flexion to 90° with various thicknesses of elastic bands; the exercise was performed for 36 uninterrupted repetitions with a 15-minute rest interval between sets. During the exercise, the RR intervals (R-Ri) were collected and determined, the heart rate variability was analyzed. All subjects completed the exercise protocol. Heart rate increased, and RR intervals decreased from the yellow elastic band onward. However, the square root of the sum of the square of the difference of RR intervals divided by the number of RR interval, standard deviation of the arithmetic mean of all normal RR intervals, and standard deviation of the RR interval instantaneous intervals of type I decreased significantly when performed with the green band onward (PExercise with progressive elastic load increases heart rate. However, the green elastic band induces less total and parasympathetic modulation heart rate variability.

  20. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    ) and femoral (SCFAT) adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA expression of lipases was evaluated in biopsies from SCAAT. Lipolysis in SCAAT was substantially higher in IUGR than in CON subjects despite markedly lower mRNA expression of lipases. Blood flow was higher in IUGR compared with CON in both SCAAT and SCFAT...... are characterized by increased in vivo adipose tissue lipolysis and blood flow with a paradoxically decreased expression of lipases compared with CON, and 10 days of physical inactivity underlined the baseline findings. Subjects with IUGR exhibit primary defects in adipose tissue metabolism........ Whole body insulin sensitivity did not differ between groups and decreased after bed rest. After bed rest, SCAAT lipolysis remained higher in IUGR compared with CON, and SCFAT lipolysis decreased in CON but not in IUGR. Prior to the development of whole body insulin resistance, young men with IUGR...

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability during wakefulness and sleep and cardiorespiratory responses of young and middle-aged healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Catai

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic physical training (APT on heart rate variability (HRV and cardiorespiratory responses at peak condition and ventilatory anaerobic threshold. Ten young (Y: median = 21 years and seven middle-aged (MA = 53 years healthy sedentary men were studied. Dynamic exercise tests were performed on a cycloergometer using a continuous ramp protocol (12 to 20 W/min until exhaustion. A dynamic 24-h electrocardiogram was analyzed by time (TD (standard deviation of mean R-R intervals and frequency domain (FD methods. The power spectral components were expressed as absolute (a and normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequencies and as the LF/HF ratio. Control (C condition: HRV in TD (Y: 108, MA: 96 ms; P<0.05 and FD - LFa, HFa - was significantly higher in young (1030; 2589 ms²/Hz than in middle-aged men (357; 342 ms²/Hz only during sleep (P<0.05; post-training effects: resting bradycardia (P<0.05 in the awake condition in both groups; VO2 increased for both groups at anaerobic threshold (P<0.05, and at peak condition only in young men; HRV in TD and FD (a and nu was not significantly changed by training in either groups. The vagal predominance during sleep is reduced with aging. The resting bradycardia induced by short-term APT in both age groups suggests that this adaptation is much more related to intrinsic alterations in sinus node than in efferent vagal-sympathetic modulation. Furthermore, the greater alterations in VO2 than in HRV may be related to short-term APT.

  2. "A conscious control over life and my emotions:" mindfulness practice and healthy young people. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshat, Kaveh; Khong, Belinda; Hassed, Craig; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Norrish, Jacolyn; Burns, Jane; Herrman, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Although quantitative benefits of mindfulness training have been demonstrated in youth, little is known about the processes involved. The aim of this study was to gain a detailed understanding of how young people engage with the ideas and practices known as mindfulness using qualitative enquiry. Following completion of a six-week mindfulness training program with a nonclinical group of 11 young people (age 16-24), a focus group (N = 7) and open-ended interviews (n = 5) were held and audio-recorded. Qualitative data, collected at eight time points over three months from the commencement of training, were coded with the aid of computer software. Grounded theory methodology informed the data collection process and generation of themes and an explanatory model that captured participants' experiences. Participants described their daily lives as beset by frequent experiences of distress sometimes worsened by their unhelpful or destructive reactions. With mindfulness practice, they initially reported greater calm, balance, and control. Subsequently they commented on a clearer understanding of themselves and others. Mindfulness was then described as a "mindset" associated with greater confidence and competence and a lessened risk of future distress. Participants demonstrated a sophisticated understanding of and engagement with mindfulness principles and practice. Their reported experience aligned well with qualitative research findings in adults and theoretical literature on mindfulness. An encouraging finding was that, with ongoing mindfulness practice and within a relatively short time, participants were able to move beyond improved emotion regulation and gain greater confidence in their ability to manage life challenges. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Effects of an Energy Drink on Myocardial Function Assessed by Conventional Echo-Doppler Analysis and by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography on Young Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Menci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Previous studies have underlined the effects of the energy drinks containing caffeine end taurine on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine acute changes on echocardiographic parameters assessed by conventional echo-Doppler analysis and by speckle tracking echocardiography after the consumption of an energy drink in a young healthy population. Methods. measurement of blood pressure, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic examination were performed on 35 healthy subjects (mean age 25 ± 2 years, 16 men, at baseline and one hour after the consumption of a body surface area indexed amount of an energy drink (168 mL/m2 containing caffeine (0.03% and taurine (0.4%. Results. The analysis of left ventricular function showed a significant increase of mean relative values of MAPSE (+11%; , global longitudinal strain (+10%, , and left ventricular twisting (+22%, in respect to baseline. Also, right ventricular function parameters appeared significantly increased after energy drink consumption, as TAPSE (+15%, , global, and free wall right ventricular longitudinal strain (+8%, ; +5%, , resp.. Conclusion. In conclusion, the consumption of the ED in our population showed a significant increase of right and left ventricular myocardial function, suggesting a possible positive inotropic effect related to the substances contained therein.

  4. Noninvasive 4D pressure difference mapping derived from 4D flow MRI in patients with repaired aortic coarctation: comparison with young healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengier, Fabian; Delles, Michael; Eichhorn, Joachim; Azad, Yoo-Jin; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Ley, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    To assess spatial and temporal pressure characteristics in patients with repaired aortic coarctation compared to young healthy volunteers using time-resolved velocity-encoded three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) and derived 4D pressure difference maps. After in vitro validation against invasive catheterization as gold standard, 4D flow MRI of the thoracic aorta was performed at 1.5T in 13 consecutive patients after aortic coarctation repair without recoarctation and 13 healthy volunteers. Using in-house developed processing software, 4D pressure difference maps were computed based on the Navier-Stokes equation. Pressure difference amplitudes, maximum slope of pressure amplitudes and spatial pressure range at mid systole were retrospectively measured by three readers, and twice by one reader to assess inter- and intraobserver agreement. In vitro, pressure differences derived from 4D flow MRI showed excellent agreement to invasive catheter measurements. In vivo, pressure difference amplitudes, maximum slope of pressure difference amplitudes and spatial pressure range at mid systole were significantly increased in patients compared to volunteers in the aortic arch, the proximal descending and the distal descending thoracic aorta (p coarctation.

  5. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  6. Mean diffusivity of globus pallidus associated with verbal creativity measured by divergent thinking and creativity‐related temperaments in young healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nouchi, Rui; Sassa, Yuko; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Iizuka, Kunio; Nakagawa, Seishu; Nagase, Tomomi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent investigations revealed mean diffusivity (MD) in gray matter and white matter areas is correlated with individual cognitive differences in healthy subjects and show unique properties and sensitivity that other neuroimaging tools donot have. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the MD in the dopaminergic system is associated with individual differences in verbal creativity measured by divergent thinking (VCDT) and novelty seeking based on prior studies suggesting associations between these and dopaminergic functions. We examined this issue in a large sample of right‐handed healthy young adults. We used analyses of MD and a psychological measure of VCDT, as well as personality measures of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Our results revealed associations between higher VCDT and lower MD in the bilateral globus pallidus. Furthermore, not only higher novelty seeking, but also lower harm avoidance, higher self‐directedness, and higher self‐transcendence were robustly associated with lower MD in the right globus pallidus, whereas higher persistence was associated with lower MD in the left globus pallidus. These personality variables were also associated with VCDT. The globus pallidus receives the dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra and plays a key role in motivation which is critically linked to dopamine. These results suggested the MD in the globus pallidus, underlie the association between VCDT and multiple personalities in TCI including novelty seeking. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1808–1827, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25627674

  7. Mean diffusivity of globus pallidus associated with verbal creativity measured by divergent thinking and creativity-related temperaments in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nouchi, Rui; Sassa, Yuko; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Iizuka, Kunio; Nakagawa, Seishu; Nagase, Tomomi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-05-01

    Recent investigations revealed mean diffusivity (MD) in gray matter and white matter areas is correlated with individual cognitive differences in healthy subjects and show unique properties and sensitivity that other neuroimaging tools donot have. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the MD in the dopaminergic system is associated with individual differences in verbal creativity measured by divergent thinking (VCDT) and novelty seeking based on prior studies suggesting associations between these and dopaminergic functions. We examined this issue in a large sample of right-handed healthy young adults. We used analyses of MD and a psychological measure of VCDT, as well as personality measures of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Our results revealed associations between higher VCDT and lower MD in the bilateral globus pallidus. Furthermore, not only higher novelty seeking, but also lower harm avoidance, higher self-directedness, and higher self-transcendence were robustly associated with lower MD in the right globus pallidus, whereas higher persistence was associated with lower MD in the left globus pallidus. These personality variables were also associated with VCDT. The globus pallidus receives the dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra and plays a key role in motivation which is critically linked to dopamine. These results suggested the MD in the globus pallidus, underlie the association between VCDT and multiple personalities in TCI including novelty seeking. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Acute effects of an energy drink on myocardial function assessed by conventional echo-Doppler analysis and by speckle tracking echocardiography on young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menci, Daniele; Righini, Francesca Maria; Cameli, Matteo; Lisi, Matteo; Benincasa, Susanna; Focardi, Marta; Mondillo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Previous studies have underlined the effects of the energy drinks containing caffeine end taurine on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine acute changes on echocardiographic parameters assessed by conventional echo-Doppler analysis and by speckle tracking echocardiography after the consumption of an energy drink in a young healthy population. Methods. measurement of blood pressure, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic examination were performed on 35 healthy subjects (mean age 25 ± 2 years, 16 men), at baseline and one hour after the consumption of a body surface area indexed amount of an energy drink (168 mL/m(2)) containing caffeine (0.03%) and taurine (0.4%). Results. The analysis of left ventricular function showed a significant increase of mean relative values of MAPSE (+11%; P < 0.001), global longitudinal strain (+10%, P = 0.004), and left ventricular twisting (+22%, P < 0.0001) in respect to baseline. Also, right ventricular function parameters appeared significantly increased after energy drink consumption, as TAPSE (+15%, P < 0.0001), global, and free wall right ventricular longitudinal strain (+8%, P = 0.001; +5%, P = 0.1, resp.). Conclusion. In conclusion, the consumption of the ED in our population showed a significant increase of right and left ventricular myocardial function, suggesting a possible positive inotropic effect related to the substances contained therein.

  9. Regular Yoga Practice Improves Antioxidant Status, Immune Function, and Stress Hormone Releases in Young Healthy People: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Ah; Cheong, Kwang-Jo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to highlight the beneficial effects of yoga practice on bio-parameters, such as oxidative stress, antioxidant components, immune functions, and secretion of stress hormones, in healthy young people. This study was conducted on healthy volunteers recruited from among university students, who were divided into two groups: a control (no yoga intervention, n=13) group and a yoga (n=12) group. Yoga practice was with an instructor for 90 minutes once a week spread over 12 weeks, with recommendations to practice daily at home for 40 minutes with the help of a DVD. The yoga program consisted of yoga body poses (asanas), exercises involving awareness, voluntary regulation of breath (pranayama), and meditational practices. Whole blood samples were collected when the volunteers had fasted for 8 hours at 0 and 12 weeks. The oxidative stress/antioxidant components, immune-related cytokines, and stress hormones were evaluated in serum or plasma. Serum levels of nitric oxide, F2-isoprostane, and lipid peroxide were significantly decreased by yoga practice (pyoga practice compared with the control group (pYoga practice also significantly increased immune-related cytokines, such as interleukin-12, and interferon-γ, in serum (pYoga practice significantly reduced the plasma levels of adrenalin (pyoga practice remarkably attenuated oxidative stress and improved antioxidant levels of the body. Moreover, yoga beneficially affected stress hormone releases as well as partially improved immune function.

  10. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Everman

    Full Text Available Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity.To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans.Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5 to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5. In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4 or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3. Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion.Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05. Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR across all groups. However, the increase (% in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278 vs. 186 (94-308] or 80 U ([491 (414-548 vs. 478 (409-857] experiments (P > 0.05. Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P 0.05.Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  11. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Morris

    Full Text Available Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT. We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO, a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20 compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT device (n = 15 in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20-36 yrs. HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2 × 30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week. Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003 and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005 groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; p<0.001. Maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure was increased by training in both the HFAO (vs. PRE; p<0.001 and SHAM-RMT (vs. PRE; p = 0.021 groups. Peak inspiratory flow rate (L.s(-1 achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001 in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading-induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT.

  12. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theresa; Sumners, David Paul; Green, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT). We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO), a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20) compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT) device (n = 15) in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20-36 yrs). HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2 × 30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week). Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003) and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005) groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O) was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; pRMT (vs. PRE; p = 0.021) groups. Peak inspiratory flow rate (L.s(-1)) achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001) in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading-induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT) in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT.

  13. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Müller, Yvonne; Snaga, Wenke; Fliege, Herbert; Reißhauer, Anett; Schmidt-Rose, Thomas; Max, Heiner; Schweiger, Dorothea; Rose, Matthias; Kruse, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison) female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T) 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS]), COPE), cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs), and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis). Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample populations is

  14. Bradykinin type 2 receptor -9/-9 genotype is associated with triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy following strength training in young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadic Gacesa Jelena Z

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2BRK genotype was reported to be associated with changes in the left-ventricular mass as a response to aerobic training, as well as in the regulation of the skeletal muscle performance in both athletes and non-athletes. However, there are no reports on the effect of B2BRK 9-bp polymorphism on the response of the skeletal muscle to strength training, and our aim was to determine the relationship between the B2BRK SNP and triceps brachii functional and morphological adaptation to programmed physical activity in young adults. Methods In this 6-week pretest-posttest exercise intervention study, twenty nine healthy young men (21.5 ± 2.7 y, BMI 24.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2 were put on a 6-week exercise protocol using an isoacceleration dynamometer (5 times a week, 5 daily sets with 10 maximal elbow extensions, 1 minute rest between sets. Triceps brachii muscle volumes were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging before and after the strength training. Bradykinin type 2 receptor 9 base pair polymorphism was determined for all participants. Results Following the elbow extensors training, an average increase in the volume of both triceps brachii was 5.4 ± 3.4% (from 929.5 ± 146.8 cm3 pre-training to 977.6 ± 140.9 cm3 after training, p9 allele compared to individuals with one or two +9 alleles (−9/-9, 8.5 ± 3.8%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 4.7 ± 4.5%, p B2BRK genotype (−9/-9, 50.2 ± 19.2%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 46.8 ± 20.7%, p > 0.05. Conclusions We found that muscle morphological response to targeted training – hypertrophy – is related to polymorphisms of B2BRK. However, no significant influence of different B2BRK genotypes on functional muscle properties after strength training in young healthy non athletes was found. This finding could be relevant, not only in predicting individual muscle adaptation capacity to training or sarcopenia related to aging and inactivity, but also in

  15. 3D quantitative evaluation of spine proprioceptive perception/motor control through instinctive self-correction manoeuvre in healthy young subjects' posture: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Kinel, Edyta; Roncoletta, Piero

    2017-07-18

    Conservative treatment in spine deformities and spine related disorders is mainly based on proper individual proprioceptive and motor control training. For these reasons, conservative treatment involves the stimulation of individual capability of perceiving/reducing deformities, blocks and/or improper spine posture by voluntary control. The literature describes that habitually adopted relaxed postures often exacerbate low back pain. Typically, youths can be referred to therapeutic programs aimed at improving the quality of body posture along with fostering the awareness of the importance of correct posture. Few studies in literature outline the subject's individual instinctive ability to perceive properly and control his/her posture and produce an improvement through a self- correction manoeuvre. How do healthy young adult subjects perceive and control their posture and spine shape? Are they able to modify them in a correct way through an instinctive self-correction manoeuvre? Cross-sectional observational study. A cohort of asymptomatic young adult university students and workers were recruited at Clinic of Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland. 121 healthy subjects (57 females, 64 males), 19-34 years (μ=23.5±3.2). Subject's full body posture including 3D spine shape reconstruction, identified using 27 retro-reflective markers suitably located on anatomical landmarks has been measured by using a non-ionizing 3D optoelectronic stereo-photogrammetric approach and a 3D full skeleton biomechanical model. From the 3D full skeleton and spine reconstruction, eleven quantitative biomechanical parameters describing the nature of body posture have been computed to compare Natural erect Vs Self-corrected standing attitudes. A high percentage of healthy participants 105(87%) was unable to modify its spinal shape in the frontal plane. Conversely, the sagittal plane presented significant clinical changes in the thoracic spine, where Males showed to

  16. Adverse Effects of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 Allele on Episodic Memory, Task Switching and Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Nao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that healthy elderly subjects and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD who carry the apolipoprotein E (ApoE ε4 allele have worse cognitive function and more severe brain atrophy than non-carriers. However, it remains unclear whether this ApoE polymorphism leads to changes of cognition and brain morphology in healthy young adults. In this study, we used an established model to measure verbal episodic memory and core executive function (EF components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching in 32 ApoE ε4 carriers and 40 non-carriers between 20 years and 40 years of age. To do this, we carried out an adapted auditory verbal learning test and three computerized EF tasks. High-resolution head magnetic resonance scans were performed in all participants and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used for image processing and analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA performed on memory measures showed that the overall verbal episodic memory of ApoE ε4 carriers was significantly worse than non-carriers (Wilk’s λ = 4.884, P = 0.004. No significant differences were detected in overall EF between the two groups. Post hoc analyses revealed group differences in terms of immediate recall, recognition and task switching, which favored non-carriers. VBM analysis showed gray matter (GM bilateral reductions in the medial and dorsolateral frontal, parietal and left temporal cortices in the carrier group relative to the non-carrier group, which were most significant in the bilateral anterior and middle cingulate gyri. However, these changes in GM volume were not directly associated with changes in cognitive function. Our data show that the ApoE ε4 allele is associated with poorer performance in verbal episodic memory and task switching, and a reduction in GM volume in healthy young adults, suggesting that the effects of ApoE ε4 upon cognition and brain morphology exist long before the possible occurrence of AD.

  17. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  18. Acute high-intensity exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in young, healthy adults.

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    Hwang, Jungyun; Brothers, R Matthew; Castelli, Darla M; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Chen, Yen T; Salinas, Mandy M; Kim, Jihoon; Jung, Yeonhak; Calvert, Hannah G

    2016-09-06

    Acute exercise can positively impact cognition. The present study examined the effect of acute high-intensity aerobic exercise on prefrontal-dependent cognitive performance and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Fifty-eight young adults were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (a) an acute bout of high-intensity exercise (n=29) or (b) a non-exercise control (n=29). Participants in the exercise group improved performance on inhibitory control in Stroop interference and on cognitive flexibility in Trail Making Test (TMT) Part-B compared with participants in the control group and increased BDNF immediately after exercise. There was a significant relationship between BDNF and TMT Part-B on the pre-post change following exercise. These findings provide support for the association between improved prefrontal-dependent cognitive performance and increased BDNF in response to acute exercise. We conclude that the changes in BDNF concentration may be partially responsible for prefrontal-dependent cognitive functioning following an acute bout of exercise.

  19. Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.

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    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-05-01

    Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.

  20. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

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    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  1. Relationships between QT interval and heart rate variability at rest and the covariates in healthy young adults.

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    Arai, Kaori; Nakagawa, Yui; Iwata, Toyoto; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    To clarify the links between ECG QT-related parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) and the covariates possibly distorting them, the averaged RR and QT intervals in a single lead ECG were measured for 64 male and 86 female subjects aged 18-26. The QT index, defined by Rautaharju et al., in the young adults was not significantly related to any HRV parameters nor heart rate, but the Bazett's corrected QT (QTc) interval was associated negatively with the parasympathetic activity and positively with heart rate. No significant differences in the QTc interval, QT index or heart rate were seen between the men and women, but they significantly differed between both sexes after adjustment for possible covariates such as age and body mass index (BMI). Significant sex differences in parasympathetic parameters of the HRV were unchanged before and after the adjustment, but significant differences observed in the unadjusted sympathetic parameters disappeared after adjusting for covariates. Age, BMI and body fat percentage also were significant covariates affecting these ECG parameters. Consequently, QT index, unaffected by heart rate and HRV parameters, appears to be a more useful indicator than the QTc interval. Instead, the QT index and HRV parameters are recommended to be simultaneously measured in epidemiological research because they are probably complementary in assessing autonomic nervous function. Also, these parameters should be analyzed in men and women separately. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of pharmacist blood pressure telemonitoring systems in diagnosis of nocturnal hypertension in a young healthy male

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    Mizuno T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,* Chizuru Matsumoto,1,* Nobuko Nabetani,2 Yoshinari Yasuda,3 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Norimasa Umemura2 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Haruka Community Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Blood pressure (BP telemonitoring systems and pharmacist management programs were introduced into Haruka Community Pharmacy. A 22-year-old healthy male came to the community pharmacy, although he was not in a diseased state, he had been informed previously that he had a moderately high BP during a routine examination. He continued home BP telemonitoring for 28 days. A pharmacist intervention was conducted at 2 week intervals. His average nighttime systolic BP was higher than the daytime systolic BP. The pharmacist consulted a doctor based on the BP telemonitoring results, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was initiated. The doctor detected nocturnal hypertension based on the results of ABPM monitoring. BP telemonitoring systems have been introduced into a small percentage of pharmacies in Japan, and this is the first case report for the usefulness of these systems in a community pharmacy. Keywords: community pharmacy, management, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  3. Enhanced orienting of attention in response to emotional gaze cues after oxytocin administration in healthy young men.

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    Tollenaar, Marieke S; Chatzimanoli, Michaela; van der Wee, Nic J A; Putman, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Oxytocin is known to enhance recognition of emotional expressions and may increase attention to the eye region. Therefore, we investigated whether oxytocin administration would lead to increased orienting of attention in response to gaze cues of emotional faces. In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study 20 healthy males received 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo. Thirty-five minutes after administration they performed a gaze cueing task with happy, fearful and neutral faces. Stress levels were measured throughout the study. Oxytocin did not affect stress levels during the study, but significantly increased gaze cueing scores for happy and fearful expressions compared to placebo. No effects were found for neutral expressions. Trait anxiety or depression did not moderate the effect. Oxytocin increases orienting of attention in response to emotional gaze cues, both for happy and fearful expressions. Replication is needed in female and clinical populations. Effects of oxytocin on early, automatic processing levels should be studied in relation to previously found pro-social and behavioral effects of oxytocin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The reliability and convergent and divergent validity of the Ruff Figural Fluency Test in healthy young adults.

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    Ross, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    The reliability and validity of standard and qualitative scores for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; Ruff, 1988) was examined in 102 healthy undergraduates. Participants (M age = 21.79; SD = 3.7; age = 80% Caucasian) were administered the RFFT and measures assessing executive functions (EF) and other cognitive domains. Inter-scorer reliability was excellent (0.9 range) for most RFFT indices. Test-retest coefficients (M interval = 7 weeks) ranged from 0.64 for the error ratio score to 0.87 for unique designs. RFFT indices correlated with Block Design performance and nonverbal measures of working memory, but were unrelated to measures of verbal fluency, verbal learning, or working memory for verbal material. RFFT novel design output correlated with most measures of EF supporting the convergent validity of this measure. In contrast, correlations between measures of EF and qualitative scores were absent or weak. RFFT score interpretation is discussed in light of relevant models of EF and directions for future research are presented.

  5. The pineal volume: a three-dimensional volumetric study in healthy young adults using 3.0 T MR data.

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    Sun, Bo; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yuchun; Fan, Lingzhong; Lin, Xiangtao; Yu, Taifei; Qi, Hengtao; Li, Zhenping; Liu, Shuwei

    2009-11-01

    It is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via routine or enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scan. The knowledge of normal pineal size is helpful to detect small pineal lesions, while very few true volumetric data of pineal glands have been reported. Therefore, we obtained the accurate reference range of normal pineal volumes in 112 individuals aged 20-30 years recruited randomly from a healthy community sample. Transverse and sagittal 3.0T magnetic resonance data were obtained using three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted FSPGR and T2-weighted SE sequences. True pineal volumes were measured from T1-weighted images, while estimated volumes were calculated using pineal length, width and height. All the glands were divided into three types according to the maximum inner diameter of pineal cysts. The prevalence of asymptomatic pineal cyst is 25.00%, with a slight female predominance. In the whole sample, we found no gender differences of pineal volume, but a significant gender difference of pineal volume index. A significant correlation between pineal volume and asymptomatic cyst was found. After excluding cases with big pineal cysts, there were significant correlations between pineal volume and head circumference, body height and body weight, respectively. This study suggests that asymptomatic pineal cysts may exert an important influence on pineal volume.

  6. Short-term increase of plasma free fatty acids does not interfere with intrinsic mitochondrial function in healthy young men.

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    Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P; Ackermans, Mariette T; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M; van der Plas, Mart N; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K; Serlie, Mireille J

    2011-10-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle. Whether FAs have a direct effect on intrinsic mitochondrial capacity remains to be established. Therefore, we measured ex vivo mitochondrial respiratory capacity in human skeletal muscle after exposure to hyperinsulinemia and high levels of plasma FFA. Nine healthy lean men were studied during a 6-hour hyperinsulinemic (600 pmol/L) euglycemic clamp with concomitant infusion of Intralipid (Fresensius Kabi Nederland, Den Bosch, the Netherlands) (FFA clamped at 0.5 mmol/L) or saline. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity was measured by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized muscle fibers using an Oxygraph (OROBOROS Instruments, Innsbruck, Austria). Each participant served as his own control. Peripheral glucose uptake (rate of disappearance) was significantly lower during infusion of the lipid emulsion compared with the control saline infusion (68 μmol/kg·min [saline] vs 40 μmol/kg·min [lipid], P = .008). However, adenosine diphosphate-stimulated and maximal carbonylcyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone-stimulated uncoupled respiration rates were not different in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers after exposure to high levels of FFA compared with the control condition. We conclude that short-term elevation of FFA within the physiological range induces insulin resistance but does not affect intrinsic mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle in humans.

  7. Cardiovascular risk in young apparently healthy descendents from Asian Indian migrants in the Netherlands: the SHIVA study.

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    Liem, S S; Oemrawsingh, P V; Cannegieter, S C; Le Cessie, S; Schreur, J; Rosendaal, F R; Schalij, M J

    2009-04-01

    BACKGROUND.: Asian Indian migrants in the Western world are highly susceptible for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Until now, most IHD risk studies were performed in first and second generation Asian Indian expatriates. For optimal prevention, knowledge of the cardiovascular risk profile of younger generations is crucial. METHOD.: In a cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of conventional IHD risk factors and Framingham risk score in asymptomatic third to seventh generation Asian Indian descendants, compared with Europeans. Subjects were classified as asymptomatic if they did not have documented IHD, diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol. RESULTS.: A total of 1790 Asian Indians (45% men, age 35.9+/-10.7 years) and 370 native Dutch hospital employees (23% men, age 40.8+/-10.1 years) were recruited. Asian Indians had higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein levels than the Dutch. Glucose intolerance was present in 7.1 vs. 0.5% men, and in 6.1 vs. 1.4% women (both p<0.001). Asian Indian women were more frequently obese (12 vs. 5%; p<0.001), and centrally obese (44 vs. 25%; p<0.001) as compared with the Dutch women. Prevalence of most of the conventional and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in each ten-year age group was higher in Asian Indians compared with controls, which reflected in higher Framingham risk scores. CONCLUSION.: This study demonstrates the persistence of an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile in young, third to seventh generation migrated Asian Indians and supports an aggressive screening and intervention strategy. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:155-61.).

  8. Impact of a single bout of aerobic exercise on regional brain perfusion and activation responses in healthy young adults.

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    Bradley J MacIntosh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Despite the generally accepted view that aerobic exercise can have positive effects on brain health, few studies have measured brain responses to exercise over a short time span. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact within one hour of a single bout of exercise on brain perfusion and neuronal activation. METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 16; age range: 20-35 yrs were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI before and after 20 minutes of exercise at 70% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL was used to measure absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF prior to exercise (pre and at 10 min (post-10 and 40 min (post-40 post-exercise. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional MRI (fMRI was performed pre and post-exercise to characterize activation differences related to a go/no-go reaction time task. RESULTS: Compared to pre-exercise levels, grey matter CBF was 11% (±9% lower at post-10 (P<0.0004 and not different at post-40 (P = 0.12, while global WM CBF was increased at both time points post-exercise (P<0.0006. Regionally, the hippocampus and insula showed a decrease in perfusion in ROI-analysis at post-10 (P<0.005, FDR corrected, whereas voxel-wise analysis identified elevated perfusion in the left medial postcentral gyrus at post-40 compared to pre (pcorrected = 0.05. BOLD activations were consistent between sessions, however, the left parietal operculum showed reduced BOLD activation after exercise. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of regionalized brain effects associated with a single bout of aerobic exercise. The observed acute cerebrovascular responses may provide some insight into the brain's ability to change in relation to chronic interventions.

  9. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

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    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men.

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    Kelley, D S; Taylor, P C; Nelson, G J; Schmidt, P C; Ferretti, A; Erickson, K L; Yu, R; Chandra, R K; Mackey, B E

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as triacylglycerol on the fatty acid composition, eicosanoid production, and select activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). A 120-d study with 11 healthy men was conducted at the Metabolic Research Unit of Western Human Nutrition Reach Center. Four subjects (control group) were fed the stabilization diet throughout the study; the remaining seven subjects were fed the basal diet for the first 30 d, followed by 6 g DHA/d for the next 90 d. DHA replaced an equivalent amount of linoleic acid; the two diets were comparable in their total fat and all other nutrients. Both diets were supplemented with 20 mg D alpha-tocopherol acetate per day. PBMNC fatty acid composition and eicosanoid production were examined on day 30 and 113; immune cell functions were tested on day 22, 30, 78, 85, 106, and 113. DHA feeding increased its concentration from 2.3 to 7.4 wt% in the PBMNC total lipids, and decreased arachidonic acid concentration from 19.8 to 10.7 wt%. It also lowered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production, in response to lipopolysaccharide, by 60-75%. Natural killer cell activity and in vitro secretion of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly reduced by DHA feeding. These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.

  11. An acute intake of a walnut-enriched meal improves postprandial adiponectin response in healthy young adults.

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    Lozano, Aquiles; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Marin, Carmen; Tinahones, Francisco J; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-12-01

    A deficit in adiponectin plays an important causal role in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that as seen during the fasting state, the intake of a walnut-enriched meal increased postprandial adiponectin. Twenty-one healthy white men followed a 4-week baseline diet and then consumed 3 fat-loaded meals that included 1 g fat/kg body weight (65% fat) according to a randomized crossover design: olive oil-enriched meal (22% saturated fatty acids [SFA], 38% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA], 4% polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA]), butter-enriched meal (35% SFA, 22% MUFA, 4% PUFA), and walnut-enriched meal (20% SFA, 24% MUFA, 16% PUFA, and 4% α-linolenic acid). Leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and free fatty acids were determined at 0, 3, 6, and 8.5 hours after the fat load. After the walnut-enriched meal, plasma adiponectin concentrations were higher at 3 and 6 hours (P = .011, P = .046, respectively) compared with the butter-enriched meal and higher at 6 hours compared with the olive oil-enriched meal (P = .036). Free fatty acid levels decreased from baseline at 3 hours after the walnut-enriched meal (P = .001). No differences were observed between the 3 meals for leptin and resistin responses. Our data confirmed a beneficial profile in the postprandial response to walnuts, source of omega-3 PUFA with an increased postprandial adiponectin and lower postprandial free fatty acid responses. These findings suggest that the postprandial state is important for understanding the possible cardioprotective effects associated with omega-3 PUFA dietary fat.

  12. Changes of autonomic nervous system function in healthy young men during initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Long Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level male residents were studied in Chengdu plain and then Tibet plateau. Heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT), resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured at baseline (560 m altitude) and in 2 to 4 d after arriving at Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) to assess the ANS function. Results: Compared with baseline, on day 2 in Tibet the standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), high-frequency (HF) power, total power (TP), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), percentage of delta RR>50 ms (PNN50), normalized high-frequency (Hfnu) and fractal dimension (FD) decreased significantly (SDNN, HF,TP P<0.01, rMSSD, PNNs0, Hfnu, FD P<0.05), while the normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) and LF/HF increased significantly (P<0.01). During day 3-4 in Tibet, SDNN, rMSSD, HF, TP and Hfnu tended to rebound while Lfnu and LF/HF decreased towards baseline day by day. In addition, in Tibet the increase in systolic pressure (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) during CPT decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05), but resting HR increased compared with baseline (P<0.01). Conclusion: ANS modulation is generally blunted, and the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced originally, then it reverts to the sea level states gradually during the initial days of acute high-altitude exposure.

  13. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

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    Juvonen Kristiina R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Methods Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2 participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g, TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g or whey protein (Wh, 30 g in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Results All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

  14. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  15. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral microorganisms in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

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    Mercedes eFernandez y Mostajo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX, has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at one month before the experiment (Pre-exp, at the start of the experiment (Baseline and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp. During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results: AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193, nor did the microbial composition of plaque during a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing. Plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31 at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39 Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after one week of rinsing deserves

  16. Differential trafficking of saccharidic probes following aspirin in clinical tests of intestinal permeability in young healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D

    2014-02-01

    The effects of inflammatory changes on the absorption of different-sized probes and their permeability ratios are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a pharmacological agent on the permeability of the gut mucosa to saccharidic probes of larger and smaller molecular weight. Permeability was assessed by half-hourly urinary excretion of a combined dose of d-mannitol, l-rhamnose and lactulose following consumption of a single 600 mg dose of aspirin and compared with a placebo in a cross-over study in 20 healthy female volunteers. The temporal patterns of excretion of all probes were bimodal, being best fitted by polynomial functions. The relatively small early peak was evident for at least 4 h for smaller sugars, but was less evident with lactulose, being overshadowed by a larger second peak. These conclusions were further supported by separate analyses of the segments of the temporal plots between 2.5 and 4 h and between 4.5 and 6 h. The forms of these curves did not change significantly following dosing with aspirin. A greater proportion of the total dose of mannitol than rhamnose was excreted over the collection period. Following the consumption of aspirin, the cumulative rate of excretion of the smaller sugars (i.e. mannitol and rhamnose) was significantly reduced whereas that of lactulose was increased over the 6 h collection period. Aspirin has opposite effects on the absorption of larger and smaller probes, influencing the outcome of the test. These results have important consequences for the design and comparison of clinical tests of permeability. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. The safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects of LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal oral, selective androgen receptor modulator, in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaria, Shehzad; Collins, Lauren; Dillon, E Lichar; Orwoll, Katie; Storer, Thomas W; Miciek, Renee; Ulloor, Jagadish; Zhang, Anqi; Eder, Richard; Zientek, Heather; Gordon, Gilad; Kazmi, Syed; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about potential adverse effects of testosterone on prostate have motivated the development of selective androgen receptor modulators that display tissue-selective activation of androgenic signaling. LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal, oral selective androgen receptor modulator, binds androgen receptor with high affinity and selectivity. Objectives. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects of ascending doses of LGD-4033 administered daily for 21 days on lean body mass, muscle strength, stair-climbing power, and sex hormones. In this placebo-controlled study, 76 healthy men (21-50 years) were randomized to placebo or 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg LGD-4033 daily for 21 days. Blood counts, chemistries, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, electrocardiogram, hormones, lean and fat mass, and muscle strength were measured during and for 5 weeks after intervention. LGD-4033 was well tolerated. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Frequency of adverse events was similar between active and placebo groups. Hemoglobin, prostate-specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, or QT intervals did not change significantly at any dose. LGD-4033 had a long elimination half-life and dose-proportional accumulation upon multiple dosing. LGD-4033 administration was associated with dose-dependent suppression of total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone showed significant suppression at 1.0-mg dose only. Lean body mass increased dose dependently, but fat mass did not change significantly. Hormone levels and lipids returned to baseline after treatment discontinuation. LGD-4033 was safe, had favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and increased lean body mass even during this short period without change in prostate-specific antigen. Longer randomized trials should evaluate its efficacy in improving physical function

  18. Comportamento saudável entre adultos jovens no Brasil Comportamiento saludable entre adultos jóvenes en Brasil, 2006 Healthy behavior among Brazilian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhi Maria Barreto

    2009-11-01

    Enfermedades Crónicas por Pesquisa Telefónica (VIGITEL, realizado en las 27 capitales brasileras en 2006. Fue considerado saludable quien no fuma, practica actividad física regular y consumo frutas/hortalizas cinco o más días en la semana. Fue analizada asociación entre comportamiento saludable con variables sociodemográficas e indicadores de salud. El análisis de los datos se basó en la razón de prevalencia obtenida por regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de jóvenes saludables fue de 8,0%; 39,6% relataron dos comportamientos saludables, 45,3% relataron un, y 7,0% ningún. En el análisis multivariado, el comportamiento saludable fue más frecuente entre participantes con 25-29 años, escolaridad mayor que nueve años de estudio y que relataron haber local para practicar deportes próximo a la residencia. La frecuencia de comportamiento saludable fue significativamente menor entre participantes que relataron color de piel parda o negra, consumo de leche integral y de carne roja o pollo con grasa, estar haciendo dieta y autopercepción de la salud como mala. CONCLUSIONES: Individuos con menos comportamientos saludables perciben su salud como mala, sugiriendo que estos comportamientos influencian negativamente la percepción de la propia salud. El hecho de jóvenes más saludables tener mayor escolaridad, ser de color blanco y vivir próximo al local para practicar deportes sugiere desigualdades en el acceso a prácticas saludables.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated to healthy behavior among young adults. METHODS: A total of 14,193 respondents aged 18-29 years who participated in the system Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL - Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases carried out in 27 Brazilian capitals in 2006 were studied. Healthy behavior was defined as non-smoking, reported regular physical activity and intake of

  19. Normative 3D opto-electronic stereo-photogrammetric posture and spine morphology data in young healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Kinel, Edyta; Roncoletta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Observational cross-sectional study. The current study aims to yield normative data: i.e., the physiological standard for 30 selected quantitative 3D parameters that accurately capture and describe a full-skeleton, upright-standing attitude. Specific and exclusive consideration was given to three distinct categories: postural, spine morphology and pelvic parameters. To capture such 3D parameters, the authors selected a non-ionising 3D opto-electronic stereo-photogrammetric approach. This required the identification and measurement of 27 body landmarks, each specifically tagged with a skin marker. As subjects for the measurement of these parameters, a cohort of 124 asymptomatic young adult volunteers was recruited. All parameters were identified and measured within this group. Postural and spine morphology data have been compared between genders. In this regard, only five statistically significant differences were found: pelvis width, pelvis torsion, the "lumbar" lordosis angle value, the lumbar curve length, and the T12-L5 anatomically-bound lumbar angle value. The "thoracic" kyphosis mean angle value was the same in both sexes and, even if, derived from skin markers placed on spinous processes it resulted in perfect agreement with the X-ray based literature. As regards lordosis, a direct comparison was more difficult because methods proposed in the literature differ as to the number and position of vertebrae under consideration, and their related angle values. However, when the L1 superior-L5 inferior end plate Cobb angle was considered, these results aligned strongly with the existing literature. Asymmetry was a standard postural-spinal feature for both sexes. Each subject presented some degree of leg length discrepancy (LLD) with μ = 9.37mm. This was associated with four factors: unbalanced posture and/or underfoot loads, spinal curvature in the frontal plane, and pelvis torsion. This led to the additional study of the effect of LLD equalisation influence on