WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-seven states enacted

  1. Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard

    2011-03-01

    One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.

  2. From Metaphors of Empire to Enactments of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    of the imperial metaphor points to an intimate relation between religious practices and the state that merits attention. This article examines how the state—not only the long-defunct imperial bureaucracy but also the Maoist state—is imagined as a central provider of cosmic order in religious practices in a rural...... system and popular religion as both enactments of the state idea. Instead of presenting the relation between the state system and popular religion in terms of a metaphorical or oppositional logic between two terms, local cosmology offers a third term and claims that the state system and popular religion...

  3. Naturalistic Enactment to Elicit and Recognize Caregiver State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Darien; Favela, Jesus; Ibarra, Catalina; Cruz, Netzahualcoyotl

    2016-09-01

    Caring for people with dementia imposes significant stress on family members and caregivers. Often, these informal caregivers have no coping strategy to deal with these behaviors. Anxiety and stress episodes are often triggered by problematic behaviors exhibited by the person who suffers from dementia. Detecting these behaviors could help them in dealing with them and reduce caregiver burden. However, work on anxiety detection using physiological signals has mostly been done under controlled conditions. In this paper we describe an experiment aimed at inducing anxiety among caregivers of people with dementia under naturalistic conditions. We report an experiment, using the naturalistic enactment technique, in which 10 subjects were asked to care for an older adult who acts as if she experiences dementia. We record physiological signals from the participants (GSR, HR, EEG) during the sessions that lasted for approximately 30 min. We explain how we obtained ground truth from self-report and observation data. We conducted two different tests using the Support Vector Machine technique. We obtained an average precision of 77.8 % and 38.1 % recall when classifying two different possible states: "Anxious" and "Not anxious". Analysis of the data provides evidence that the experiment elicits state anxiety and that it can be detected using wearable sensors. Furthermore, if episodes of problematic behaviors can also be detected, the recognition of anxiety in the caregiver can be improved, leading to the enactment of appropriate interventions to help caregivers cope with anxiety episodes.

  4. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  5. The antigerminative activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-09-21

    Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±)-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M).

  6. Did births decline in the United States after the enactment of no-fault divorce law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Shaw, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that U.S. no-fault divorce laws implemented between 1953 and 1987 resulted in more divorces in some states than would have occurred otherwise. In other states, divorce patterns appeared to follow prevailing trends even after implementation of no-fault divorce legislation. A more distal question is whether implementation of no-fault divorce laws had an effect on birth rates. We analyzed state-level birth data from all 50 states to assess the birth response to the enactment of no-fault divorce law in each state. Results suggested that birth rates decreased significantly two to four years following the enactment of no-fault divorce law for the group of 34 states whose divorce rates responded to no-fault divorce legislation. As predicted, among the 16 states whose divorce rates did not respond to no-fault divorce legislation, the enactment of no-fault divorce law had a small and nonsignificant positive influence on birth rates. Generally, the group of 34 states had lower post no-fault birth rates than the group of 16 states.

  7. "Getting much more than a song contest". Attempts at enacting a competitive state through project events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Krogh; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    seeks to engage not only devoted ESC fans, but also a larger public, comprising citizens, planners and companies in and beyond Denmark. While according to relations manager at Danish Broadcasting (DR), the ESC event is to “unite and develop the Danes as well as DR”, the Refshale Island Holding Company...... see Copenhagen and Denmark getting “much more than a song contest” with this particular choice of venue. We propose to explore the ESC and the choice of Refshale Island as the ESC venue as enacting a specific issue of public concern (Marres 2012), namely the competitiveness of the Danish state. We...... discuss the implications and consequences of organizing the event in this way, arguing that the B&W halls take part in envisioning a new kind of creative and competitive project state rooted in the cultural economy....

  8. Federal Enactment of Healthy Homes Legislation in the United States to Improve Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Coralie Ferguson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Not all homes across America are ‘healthy’ homes. This contributes to the poor health of Americans and exacerbates existing health conditions costing millions each year in health care cost. Newer research is being conducted into strategies to alleviate biological, chemical and physical hazards in the home, and various programs exist to assist the homeowner in making improvements in the quality of their home. Not every homeowner or renter nationwide or within community localities has access to these strategies or programs that could potentially improve their home environment and therefore the health of their family. The objective of this article is to propose elements of a policy to address this inconsistency and variation. This proposal centers around the federal enactment of a national policy demanding that each state implements a healthy homes program tailored to fit their specific state housing and health needs. Members of Congress from States that have successfully implemented healthy home programs should champion this policy. Organizations that recognize the impact of housing on health should support the development of a national healthy homes strategy. This article will discuss the need, outcomes, stakeholders, and minimum requirements of such a policy.

  9. "Getting much more than a song contest". Attempts at enacting a competitive state through project events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Krogh; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    In the 1960s and 70s, the large Burmeister & Wain (B&W) halls on Refshale Island in Copenhagen stood as iconic symbol of the Danish industrial society (Nielsen 2004). A few decades later, in 1996, the shipyard filed for bankruptcy and the island was left almost bare for decades. Within the last 1...... years however, the area situated only a few kilometers from the Town hall square and close to the increasingly popular Copenhagen harbor front has reinvented itself as a temporary site for a range of creative industries and city planning experiments. Also, it is the unconventional venue...... for the Eurovision Song Contest of 2014. In this paper, we explore the coming together of the ESC on Refshale Island. This seemingly ‘out of the box’ choice of venue is described by the partnership of organizers as a creative trip up. By unraveling the connections made between ESC actors, we see how the project...... see Copenhagen and Denmark getting “much more than a song contest” with this particular choice of venue. We propose to explore the ESC and the choice of Refshale Island as the ESC venue as enacting a specific issue of public concern (Marres 2012), namely the competitiveness of the Danish state. We...

  10. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  11. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  12. Reading Jihad: The Identity Enactment and Literacy Practices of Muslim Immigrant Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Rohany

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation manuscript reports on a study that explored the ways in which the focal children in three Muslim immigrant families enacted identity by way of literacy practice. This study set out to construct a better understanding of Muslim American immigrant families by providing a "thick description" of their identity performance…

  13. Enacting science

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Anthony Leo

    My study examines the development of forms of knowing that arise when students engage in open-ended explorations involving self-directed design and building involving simple materials. It is grounded in an enactivist theoretical perspective on cognition which holds that the creation of action-thought processes for engaging the world is interwoven with the meanings that are constructed for these experiences. A dynamic conception of persons-acting-in-a-setting is fundamental to an enactivist view of cognition. How is understanding enacted in building activity? How does the shape of a problem emerge? How do students enact meaning and understanding when they experience a high degree of physical engagement in building things? What are some characteristics of an enactive learning/teaching environment? My research settings comprise a range of individual, group and classroom engagements of varying lengths over a three and one-half year period. The first research episode involved two grade eight students in an investigation of Paper Towels. The second four month engagement was in a grade nine science class that culminated in the building of a Solar House. The third grade ten episode involved a one month project to build a Mousetrap Powered Car. A fourth Invent a Machine project was conducted in two grade eight science classes taught by the teacher who participated in the Solar House project. Two students were present in three of the four projects. I interviewed one of these students upon completion of his high school physics courses. I found that building is a form of thinking which develops competency in managing complex practical tasks. A triadic relationship of exploration, planning and acting is present. Practical and procedural understandings emerge as students enter and re-enter self-directed problem settings. Thinking patterns depend on the kinds of materials chosen, the ways they are used, and on how students contextualize the problem. Classroom assessment

  14. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-seven. Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Missouri governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Chapter Twenty Seven

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Adopting feminist theory as the implied theoretical framework which need not be ... usually stigmatized while their male clients are often covered up in most ... As a literary archetype, the image of the prostitute adopted by Ekwensi goes far ..... continuum of sexual exploitation and violence which begins with sexual assault or.

  17. The Enactment of Reforms in State Governance of Higher Education: Testing the Political Instability Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Michael K.; Deaton, Russ; Hearn, James C.

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that the manner in which states govern higher education "matters." Thus, the restructuring of governance patterns may hold important implications for higher education policy, finance, and management. Somewhat more abstractly, shifting governance patterns afford researchers an excellent opportunity to test…

  18. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Enactments in Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Stanley

    The therapeutic benefits of enactments are addressed. Relevant literature reveals disparate conceptions about the nature and use of enactments. Clarification of the term is discussed. This analyst's theoretical and technical evolution is addressed; it is inextricably related to using enactments. How can it not be? A taxonomy of enactments is presented. The article considers that enactments may be fundamental in the evolution from orthodox to contemporary analytic technique. Assumptions underlying enactments are explored, as are guidelines for using enactments. Finally, the article posits that enactments have widened the scope of analysis and contributed to its vitality.

  20. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    along four core dimensions: the setting in space and time, the definition of the public, the framing of the res publica and legitimacy issues. Moreover, our comparative analysis of Sydney and Vienna gives evidence of differences in governance configurations enacted through strategy documents....... of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...

  1. Sites and Enactments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Neergaard, Helle

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for researching entrepreneurial opportunities. We argue that these can best be understood as dynamic and fluid effects of entrepreneurial processes that are enacted differently across different sites. On this basis we develop a framework for studying entrepreneuria...

  2. Sites and Enactments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Neergaard, Helle

    2008-01-01

    is formulated where opportunities are seen as dynamic in the sense that they are enacted in different social practices at different sites. The method is illustrated through an analysis of the birth of The Republic of Tea, a very successful tea company, as presented in the book "The Republic of Tea"....

  3. Enacting Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michea, Adela

    This is an ethnographic study of business model innovation in an established manufacturing company. The motivation of the thesis is to propose a sensemaking (Weick, 1995), with focus on enactment (Weick, 1979), analysis of a business model innovation process, stepping outside the usual perspectives...... companies is an intricate process, and a mountain to climb in the eyes of top management. Often, in the choice between innovation and control the latter wins. Studies have shown that technologies and processes, which have the potential to challenge the exiting model, are being filtered out. In here...... employed in analysing such a phenomenon, namely activity system, dynamic capability and transaction costs, discovery driven or cognitive perspective. The research question guiding the thesis is: How do established companies enact new business models? The innovation of business models in established...

  4. Enacting Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michea, Adela

    This is an ethnographic study of business model innovation in an established manufacturing company. The motivation of the thesis is to propose a sensemaking (Weick, 1995), with focus on enactment (Weick, 1979), analysis of a business model innovation process, stepping outside the usual perspectives...... companies is an intricate process, and a mountain to climb in the eyes of top management. Often, in the choice between innovation and control the latter wins. Studies have shown that technologies and processes, which have the potential to challenge the exiting model, are being filtered out. In here...... employed in analysing such a phenomenon, namely activity system, dynamic capability and transaction costs, discovery driven or cognitive perspective. The research question guiding the thesis is: How do established companies enact new business models? The innovation of business models in established...

  5. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research has emphasised a shift from city government to urban governance. Such a shift brings about its very own challenges, namely governance gaps, uncertain configurations in governance and a limited capacity to act. In this paper, we argue that the concurrent rise...... of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...

  6. Enactments and dissociations driven by cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Etty

    2007-03-01

    Cultural differences between the analytic dyad can foster powerful transference-counter-transference feelings and potentially promote traumatic re-enactments. Those patients who are more directly affected by traumatic experiences may be able to verbalize what has happened to them only if they are convinced that their analysts are "taking in their horror, holding it for them, responding to it emotionally (reenacting) and giving it back in more modulated and containable" manner (Davies, 1997, p. 24). These mutual enactments that emerge in patients and their analysts can be understood as dissociated self-states. Clinical material is presented from the treatment of an African-American inner-city teenager and an Israeli teenage soldier to illustrate the emergence of enactments and dissociation in patient-analyst dyads.

  7. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Diagnosis of Local Recurrences of Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy: Preliminary Evaluation on Twenty-Seven Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Francesco Carbone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI in patients affected by prostatic fossa (PF relapse after radical prostatectomy (RP for prostatic carcinoma (PC. Methods. Twenty-seven patients showing a nodular lesion in the PF at T2-weighted MR imaging after RP, with diagnosis of PC relapse established by biopsy or PSA determinations, were investigated by DWI. Two readers evaluated the DWI results in consensus and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC of the nodules, separately; a mean value was obtained (ADCm. Results. Relapses did not significantly differ in size in respect of postsurgical benign nodules. The DWI qualitative evaluation showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, ppv, and npv values, respectively, of 83.3%, 88.9%, 85.2%, 93.7%, and 72.7% (100%, 87.5%, 95.6%, 93.7%, and 100%, for nodules >6 mm. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for ADC evaluation between the two readers was 0.852 (95% CI 0.661–0.935; P=0.0001. The ADCm values for relapses and benign nodules were, respectively, 0.98±0.21×10−3 mm2/sec and 1.24±0.32×10−3 mm2/sec (P=0.006. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, ppv and npv of ADCm were, respectively, 77.8%, 88.9%, 81.8%, 93.3%, and 66.7% (93.3%, 87.5%, 85.4%, 93.3%, and 87.5% for nodules >6 mm. Conclusions. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is a promising tool in the management of a hyperintense nodule detected by T2-weighted sequences. This might have a relevant importance in contouring radiotherapy treatment volumes.

  8. Enacting and Re-Enacting the Constitution of Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    study that will show how there in a development company exits a constitution of development. This constitution of development is perceived as a set of development rules and guidelines that are implicitly enacted by the employees and for certain development opportunities. Through the case study we...... will present different strategies for re-enactment of the constitution of development that frame for alternative development spaces with perceived different rules, and therefor make space for the development of a more radical nature....

  9. Neurocisticercose com quadro clínico inicial de meningite aguda Twenty seven cases of neurocysticercosis with clinical picture of acute meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bonametti

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 27 casos de neurocisticercose, com quadro clínico inicial de meningite aguda, atendidos no Hospital Universitário Regional do Norte do Paraná (HURNP - Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Vinte (74,1% pacientes eram do sexo masculino; a idade variou de 4 a 52 anos (23,6 ± 11,7 anos; 11 tinham menos de 20 anos, 10 tinham entre 21 e 30 anos e 6, mais de 30 anos. O diagnóstico etiológico foi estabelecido pela reatividade no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR do teste de fixação do complemento (Weinberg em 17 pacientes e pelo imunoenzimático (ELISA para cisticercose em 10. Em 6 pacientes foi realizada tomografia computadorizada de crânio, todas com alterações sugestivas de neurocisticercose. No LCR colhido na admissão, em 21 (77,78% pacientes havia predomínio de linfócitos/monócitos e em 6 (22,2%, predomínio de neutrófilos. A presença de eosinófilos, possibilitando a suspeita de neurocisticercose, só ocorreu na primeira amostra de LCR em 7 casos; desses, 4 casos a pleocitose era linfomonocitária e 3 era neutrofilica. Hiperproteinorraquia e hipoglicorraquia no LCR colhido na admissão foram observadas em 18 (66,6% e 6 (22,2% pacientes, respectivamente. Nos doentes em que não havia eosinófilos no LCR colhido na admissão, o diagnóstico inicial foi de meningite linfomonocitária de etiología presumivelmente viral ou de meningite purulenta. O tratamento da meningite aguda por neurocisticercose foi realizado com dexametasona e houve desaparecimento dos sintomas e sinais. Não houve óbito em nenhum caso. Os autores ressaltam a importância de incluir a neurocisticercose no diagnóstico diferencial das meningites agudas, em áreas endêmicas para essa doença, assim como realizar rotineiramente em todas as amostras de LCR colhidas de pacientes atendidos o teste ELISA para cisticercose.Twenty seven cases of neurocysticercosis, with clinical picture of acute meningitis, are described. Twenty (74.1% patients are male

  10. Freaky: Collaborative Enactments of Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Sengers, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    The field of CSCW is increasingly drawing on theories and approaches from feminist philosophy of science. To date such efforts have focused on understanding users and their practices. We present a research prototype showing that feminist theories can lead to novel design solutions. Freaky...... is a mobile, interactive system that collaborates with its users in the enactment of emotion. Informed by the feminist literature, the system introduces a novel approach to emotion: designing for human-machine co-production of emotion....

  11. University autonomy as sensemaking: from formal to enacted autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jonas Krog

    The formal autonomy of universities in Europe has generally increased over recent decades. However, new forms of accountability measures and more indirect state steering have accompanied this development, making it difficult to assess the actual autonomy. The article addresses this problem...... by applying the sensemaking approach to the study of organizational autonomy. Enacted autonomy is suggested as a new conceptualization that challenges the basic assumption in studies on formal autonomy that autonomy is only about external constraints on action. It does so by insisting on the active subjects...... in the enactment of the environment, thereby questioning the validity of a clear distinction between what is internal and what is external to an organization. By acknowledging the subjective dimension of autonomy, a set of stylized identities is developed as a tool for understanding the enactment of autonomy...

  12. A twenty-seven kilometre film

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the past two weeks, Bram Conjaerts, a Belgian filmmaker, has been touring the CERN sites and surrounding countryside conducting research for his new documentary. The film will follow the entire 27 Km length of the LHC ring, but unlike most documentaries about the LHC, it will take place mostly above ground! Bram Conjaerts during his visit to CERN.While working towards his film degree in 2008, Bram Conjaerts won an award at the International Documentary Festival for his documentary "Henri and the Islands", an anthropological documentary about the smallest village in Belgium. In an unlikely change of subject matter he decided to use the prize money to make a film about the LHC. "With the money granted by the Flemish government, I wanted to create a documentary about something adventurous and something that I did not know about, " explains Conjaerts. "I started doing research about the LHC and CERN and I came across the fantasy of...

  13. Common pitfalls of beginning therapists utilizing enactments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark H; Davis, Sean D; Seedall, Ryan B

    2008-07-01

    Empirical data, clinical observation, and theoretical rationales support use of enactments as a fundamental mechanism of change in relationship therapies. Yet beginning therapists may lack an adequate conceptual framework and operational training essential to effectively utilize enactments. Inadequate training may contribute to ineffective execution, and in turn to negative results, which could lead to abandonment of enactments. This study sought to identify proficiencies and nonproficiencies of beginning therapists in conducting enactments. Twenty beginning therapists from three Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE)-accredited programs were briefly trained in an indirect therapy style that incorporates enactments. Twenty-six therapist enactments were coded using a comprehensive observational measure designed to assess proficiencies and nonproficiencies in executing enactment phases, component tasks, and subcomponent operations. Results suggest that beginning therapists struggle with numerous clinical operations conceptually linked to the successful engagement of relationships in marriage and family therapy. In light of these findings, specific recommendations for additional enactment training in COAMFTE-accredited programs are offered.

  14. Alignment of the Intended, Planned, and Enacted Curriculum in General and Special Education and Its Relation to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Smithson, John L.

    2010-01-01

    In this initial study, the authors examined the content of the planned and enacted eighth-grade mathematics curriculum for 18 general and special education teachers and the curricula's alignment to state standards via the Surveys of the Enacted Curriculum. The relation between alignment and student achievement was analyzed for three formative…

  15. Enacting relationships in marriage and family therapy: a conceptual and operational definition of an enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sean D; Butler, Mark H

    2004-07-01

    Enactments are a potential common clinical process factor contributing to positive outcomes in many relational therapies. Enactments provide therapists a medium for mediating relationships through simultaneous experiential intervention and change at multiple levels of relationships--including specific relationship disagreements and problems, interaction process surrounding these issues, and underlying emotions and attachment issues confounded with those problems. We propose a model of enactments in marriage and family therapy, consisting of three components--initiation operations, intervention operations, and evaluation operations. We offer a conceptual framework to help clinicians know when and to what purpose to use this model of enactments. We provide an operational description of each component of an enactment, exemplifying them using a hypothetical clinical vignette. Directions for future research are suggested.

  16. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  17. Shaping accountabilities for erroneously enacted environmental evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    Drawing on fieldwork in and around a transnational Fortune 50 company's "corporate social responsibility" unit, this paper opens up a range of situations that took part in enacting the company's evidence of its impact on global warming. This evidence was implicated in at least two significant modes...... of accountability: first, the company was performing itself as a socially and environmentally accountable and responsible "corporate citizen"; second, the company was inhabiting a discourse of evidence-based decision-making, requiring the evidence to be produced accountably. I analyse a limited set of ethnographic......, in the enactment of such erroneous environmental evidence by and in heterogeneous collectives. To explore these enactments I experiment with contrasting analyses of these practices as ontological (Mol) or ontic (Verran) politics whilst focusing on how these politics shape and distribute the (im...

  18. Analysis of the superoxide dismutase from twenty-seven Agaves%二十七种龙舌兰麻超氧化物歧化酶的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冰; 李开成; 陈碧练; 张云霞; 姚军; 叶素玉; 刘培炼; 肖瑞

    2011-01-01

    The water content,protein content,activity and specific activity of superoxide dismutase from twenty -seven Agaves were determined and statistical analyzed with Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS),respectively. The descriptive statistics showed that the ranges of water content,protein content,activity and specific activity were 78. 10%~87. 08%,0. 44~1. 00mg/g,115. 81~331. 98U/g and 133. 91~577. 99U/mg,respectively. The standard deviations and ranges of the specific activity and activity were much higher than water content and protein content raised by different Agaves. Furthermore,there weren’t obvious distinctions for the above four dependent variables to whether being hybridized with independent samples tests and variance analysis. The Pearson analysis indicated that the specific activities were extremely affected by the protein content and the activity other than the water content,respectively. Some new references for the protection,breeding,production and complex utilization of Agave were revealed.%应用统计产品与服务解决方案对我国引种的二十七种龙舌兰麻种质资源的水分含量与超氧化物歧化酶的蛋白含量、活力、比活力测定数据进行统计分析。描述性统计结果表明,龙舌兰麻的水分含量及其超氧化物歧化酶的蛋白含量、活力、比活力分别为78.10%~87.08%、0.44~1.00mg/g、115.81~331.98U/g和133.91~577.99U/mg,由于龙舌兰麻种类的不同所引起的比活力和活力差异比水分含量和蛋白含量的差异要大得多。独立样本T检验结果表明对上述四个因变量按杂交与否分类评价均没有显著性差异。方差分析结果也表明,原来品种、杂交种、新杂交种三个不同品种之间的四个因变量显著性差异均不存在。皮尔逊相关分析结果表明,比活力受到蛋白含量和活力的影响非常显著,而受到水分含量的影响不显著;另外,水分含量、蛋白含量和活力之间的相关性不显著。

  19. Filial Role Enactment by Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Raeann R.

    1992-01-01

    Used data from 144 elderly parent-adult child pairs to examine family caregiving. Final multiple regression model accounted for 63.2 percent of variability in filial role enactment. One main effect, parental marital status, and two interaction effects, child's gender with parental health and adult child's affection toward parent with geographical…

  20. SOFTWARE RELIABILITY OF PROFICIENT ENACTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Anni Princy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A software reliability exemplary projects snags the random process as disillusionments which were the culmination yield of two progressions: emerging faults and initial state values. The predominant classification uses the logistic analysis effort function mounting efficient software on the real time dataset. The detriments of the logistic testing were efficaciously overcome by Pareto distribution. The estimated outline ventures the resolved technique for analyzing the suitable communities and the preeminent of fit for a software reliability progress model. Its constraints are predictable to evaluate the reliability of a software system. The future process will permit for software reliability estimations that can be used both as prominence Indicator, but also for planning and controlling resources, the development times based on the onslaught assignments of the efficient computing and reliable measurement of a software system was competent.

  1. An enactive and dynamical systems theory account of dyadic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eKyselo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many social relationships are a locus of struggle and suffering, either at the individual or interactional level. In this paper we explore why this is the case and suggest a modeling approach for dyadic interactions and the well-being of the participants. To this end we bring together an enactive approach to self with dynamical systems theory. Our basic assumption is that the quality of any social interaction or relationship fundamentally depends on the nature and constitution of the individuals engaged in these interactions. From an enactive perspective the self is conceived as an embodied and socially enacted autonomous system striving to maintain an identity. This striving is involves a basic two-fold goal: the ability to exist as an individual in its own right, while also being open to and affected by others. In terms of dynamical systems theory one can thus consider the individual self as a self-other organized system represented by a phase space spanned by the dimensions of distinction and participation, and in which attractors can be defined. Based on two everyday examples of dyadic relationship we propose a simple model of relationship dynamics in which struggle or well-being in the dyad is analyzed in terms of movements of dyadic states that are in tension or in harmony with individually developed attractors. Our model predicts that relationships can be sustained when the dyad develops a new joint attractor towards which dyadic states tend to move, and well-being when this attractor is in balance with the individuals’ attractors. We outline how this can inspire research on psychotherapy. The psychotherapy process itself provides a setting in which participants can become aware how they fare with regards to the two-fold norm of distinction and participation and develop, through active engagement between client (or couple and therapist, strategies to co-negotiate their self-organization.

  2. Role of management devices in enacting strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    the SSC’s creation. Originality/value - This study is the first to use a performative method to highlight the temporary and local nature of enacting strategic decisions to construct an SSC in the public sector. Keywords: Management control, SSC, strategic change, actor-network theory, organizational......Purpose - This study illustrates the role of management devices in enacting strategy and strategic decisions, resulting in the development of a Shared Service Centre (SSC) in a Danish municipality. It shows how devices interact in defending, rejecting and reframing strategy, leading to the closure...... of the SSC to pave the way for new strategic ideas. Design/methodology/approach - It employs a longitudinal case-based approach, which draws on actor-network theory, particularly Callon’s (1998) notions of framing and overflowing. These notions help describe strategic events and processes by highlighting...

  3. Role of management devices in enacting strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This study illustrates the role of management devices in enacting strategy and strategic decisions, resulting in the development of a Shared Service Centre (SSC) in a Danish municipality. It shows how devices interact in defending, rejecting and reframing strategy, leading to the closure...... of the SSC to pave the way for new strategic ideas. Design/methodology/approach - It employs a longitudinal case-based approach, which draws on actor-network theory, particularly Callon’s (1998) notions of framing and overflowing. These notions help describe strategic events and processes by highlighting...... the active role of non-human entities, such as management devices, in enacting and reformulating strategy. Findings - Different devices have become key actants in shaping and formulating the new strategy in the municipality and the strategic decision to construct a SSC. However, different devices mobilise...

  4. Enactments in emotionally focused couple therapy: shaping moments of contact and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Douglas; Palmer, Gail

    2013-07-01

    Emotionally focused couple therapy (EFT) uses enactments to shape responsive attachment-significant contact and to change couple interaction. In this article, we show how EFT enactments differ from enactments in other therapy approaches, present a theory of EFT enactments, a model for creating EFT enactments, and an extended case example of an EFT enactment.

  5. Property Law Enacted for People's Wellbeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG WENTING

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the morning of March 16,2007 the 10th National People's Congress passed the Property Law of the People's Republic of China (referred to as the Property Law below) with a majority of votes. Having gone through 13 years of deliberations and discussions, this law sets a record in China's legislation history as a single bill that has gone through the greatest number of examinations. Enactment of the law has great significance for China's economic reforms, the effort to make China a role of law country and the safeguarding of people's interests.

  6. Enacting entrepreneurship as social value creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    situated. Accordingly, this article examines the enactment of a socialized opportunity to explore the process of entrepreneurial growth. We find that a conceptualization of social value creation usefully develops our understanding and challenges the view that economic growth is the only relevant outcome...... of entrepreneurship. Our case study shows how social value is created in multiple forms at different centres and on different levels: from individual self-realization over community development to broad societal impact. We also find complex interrelations between the different levels and centres, thus, we argue...

  7. Enacting Critical Literacy: The Case of a Language Minority Preservice Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyesun

    2014-01-01

    This narrative study of an Asian female prospective teacher describes a language minority student's ways of enacting critical literacy in a teacher preparation program in the United States. It discusses how she exerted her agency despite her perceived marginalization as a non-native English speaker. The findings demonstrate how she resisted…

  8. New science teachers' descriptions of inquiry enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Oliver, Jr.

    This phenomenological study demonstrates the influence that affective factors have on beginning teachers' ability to enact instructional practices. Through narratives shared in interviews and web log postings, two beginning science teachers' emotional engagement with their instructional practices, especially that of implementing inquiry-based instruction, and the resulting impact these emotions had on professional decision-making were evidenced. Anxiety emerged as the most significant impacting emotion on instructional decision-making with the participants. Through their stories, the two participants describe how their emotions and views of self influence whether they continue using inquiry pedagogy or alter their lesson to adopt more didactic means of instruction. These emotions arise from their feelings of being comfortable teaching the content (self-efficacy), from the unpredictability of inquiry lessons (control beliefs), from how they perceive their students as viewing them (teacher identity) and from various school constraints (agency). This research also demonstrates how intertwined these aspects are, informing each other in a complex, dialectical fashion. The participants' self-efficacy and professional identity emerge from their interactions with the community (their students and colleagues) and the perceived agency afforded by their schools' curricula and administration. By providing descriptions of teachers' experiences enacting inquiry pedagogy, this study expands our understanding of factors that influence teachers' instructional practices and provides a basis for reforming science teacher preparation.

  9. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-09-01

    To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18-49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels in accordance with the bioecological model. The results of this study

  10. Enacting a social ecology: radically embodied intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognitive science frequently describe the mind as "world-involving," indicating complementary and interdependent relationships between an agent and its environment. The precise nature of the environment is frequently left ill-described, however, and provides a challenge for such approaches, particularly, it is noted here, for the enactive approach which emphasizes this complementarity in quite radical terms. This paper argues that enactivists should work to find common cause with a dynamic form of ecological psychology, a theoretical perspective that provides the most explicit theory of the psychological environment currently extant. In doing so, the intersubjective, cultural nature of the ecology of human psychology is explored, with the challenges this poses for both enactivist and ecological approaches outlined. The theory of behavior settings (Barker, 1968; Schoggen, 1989) is used to present a framework for resolving some of these challenges. Drawing these various strands together an outline of a radical embodied account of intersubjectivity and social activity is presented.

  11. Enacting the social relations of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the writings of Danish science journalist Børge Michelsen from 1939 to 1956. As part of the international social relations of science movement in the period, Michelsen transformed science journalism from mere reporting on issues pertaining to science into performing...... the social function of science journalism: advancing and enacting the social relations of science. Based on analyses of Michelsen's articles and other initiatives, this study suggests that the social function of science journalism practiced by Michelsen showed many new and conflicting aspects. From...... new links to reinforce mutual relations between scientists and policy-makers, between scientists and journalists, and between science and the public. Finally, in the concluding remarks, the contemporary significance of Michelsen's social function of science journalism is discussed....

  12. Enactive Metaphors: Learning through Full-Body Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun; Lindgren, Robb

    2015-01-01

    Building on both cognitive semantics and enactivist approaches to cognition, we explore the concept of enactive metaphor and its implications for learning. Enactive approaches to cognition involve the idea that online sensory-motor and affective processes shape the way the perceiver-thinker experiences the world and interacts with others.…

  13. The Enactive Roots of STEM: Rethinking Educational Design in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Daniel D.; Kirchhoff, Michael D.; Abrahamson, Dor

    2015-01-01

    New and radically reformative thinking about the enactive and embodied basis of cognition holds out the promise of moving forward age-old debates about whether we learn and how we learn. The radical enactive, embodied view of cognition (REC) poses a direct, and unmitigated, challenge to the trademark assumptions of traditional cognitivist theories…

  14. Enhancing and Enacting Curricular Progressions in Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Tonia J.; Drake, Corey

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined how curricular resources supported three expert teachers in their enactment of progressions. Using a video-stimulated interview process, we documented the multiple types of progressions identified, described, and enacted by the teachers. Results indicate that the teachers used four different types of…

  15. Enacting Informal Science Learning: Exploring the Battle for Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Informal Science Learning (ISL) is a policy narrative of interest in the United Kingdom and abroad. This paper explores how a group of English secondary school science teachers, enacted ISL science clubs through employing the Periodic Table of Videos. It examines how these teachers "battled" to enact ISL policy in performative conditions…

  16. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    organisations. The complexity of the facilitation field and diversity of potential facilitator roles fosters a need to investigate in detail how facilitation is enacted. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the enactment of external peer facilitation in general practice in order to create a stronger...

  17. Percutaneous gastrostomy -a report of twenty-seven cases-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Ho Suk; Kim, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Hun; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    Nutritional support by gastrostomy feeding is an important treatment adjunct when major swallowing difficulty or debilitating diseases is present. This technique for percutaneous placement of a gastric feeding tube now provides many patients with a simple, safe, and well-tolerated alternative to surgical feeding gastrostomy. We experienced 27 cases of percutaneous gastrostomy from January 1989 to February 1991 at Kyungpook National University Hospital. The underlying diseases of the patients were esophageal cancer (11), pyriform sinus cancer (4), laryngeal cancer (3), tongue cancer (2), lye stricture (1), lung cancer (1), chordoma (1), lethal midline granuloma (1), malignant lymphoma (1), maxillary cancer (1), and tonsil cancer (1). Selding method was used in all cases. In five patients it was difficult to insert the nasogastric tube for air insufflation, and one patient had subtotal gastrectomy with gastrojejunostomy, but gastrostomy was performed in all cases. The general condition improved in all patients. We experienced one case of mild peritonitis, but no other significant complications were observed. Gastrostomy tubes were patient in all patients during their survival period, except two patients who experienced obstruction 2 and 6 months after the procedure. Percutaneous gastrostomy can be used safely and effectively in such patients who have pharyngoesophageal or CNS lesions precluding oral intake.

  18. Twenty-seven Years of Cerebral Pyruvate Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Sebastián

    2017-01-18

    Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates. Its cellular localization between the neuronal or astrocytic compartments of the in vivo brain has been controversial, with evidences favoring either a primarily neuronal or glial localizations, more recently accepted to occur in both environments. This review provides a brief history on the detection and characterization of the pathway, its relations with the early developments of cerebral high resolution (13)C NMR, and its potential neuroprotective functions under hypoglycemic conditions or ischemic redox stress.

  19. Teachers enacting a technology-rich curriculum for emergent literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cviko, Amina; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Cviko, A., McKenney, S., & Voogt, J. (2012). Teachers enacting a technology-rich curriculum for emergent literacy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 60(1), 31-54. doi:10.1007/s11423-011-9208-3

  20. Curriculum enactment patterns and associated factors from teachers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Ok-Kyeong

    2016-12-01

    As part of a larger effort to improve teacher capacity for high-quality mathematics instruction, we investigated the factors that are associated with different enactment patterns at three levels: contextual (e.g., type and quality of textbook), individual (e.g., teacher knowledge), and teachers' opportunity-to-learn (e.g., professional development experiences). Analysis of 183 teachers' self-reports on their practices revealed three notable findings. First, the factors at the three levels were all found to be significantly related to the different patterns of enacted curriculum. However, the use of quality textbooks and the alignment of teachers' views and instructional goals with curriculum goals were found to be the two factors that are most strongly associated with the enactment pattern of high-level problems and high-level teacher questions in instruction. Furthermore, teachers with the enactment pattern of increasing lower cognitive demand of problems into higher ones tended to rate their curriculum knowledge higher than teachers with the enactment pattern of using low-level problems and teacher questions in their teaching. In particular, deviation from and dissatisfaction with their assigned low-quality textbooks were found to be critical factors that are associated with the enactment pattern of increasing lower cognitive demands of problems in instruction.

  1. Developing A Strategy to Enact Lean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Morrey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the strategy employed by a case study company to implement lean across the business, and to reflect on the success of this approach so other companies may consider this learning and how it might be useful to them. The strategy to enact lean in the case study company was based on creating a number of standard tools/ways of working. These tools can be considered to be standardised work for key aspects of the construction process that the company undertakes. The aim of the tools was to ensure that critical tasks would be carried out to the correct standard (quality, time, cost, health and safety every time, across the business. Achievement of this is expected to lead to improved performance and elimination of variation (waste. To implement this strategy of using standardised work to eliminate variation and lead to improved performance, a step-by-step process was developed to create the tools/standardised work. The paper describes the process that was undertaken and how it aimed to not only produce a number of tools/standardised work, but also to involve people and managers from across the business such that lean philosophy and thinking might also begin to become embedded. The paper will firstly explain, with reference to the relevant literature, how and why the strategy to implement standardised work was chosen, the process that was defined to develop the standardised work, and what happened when that process was put into practice. The findings of the paper show that whilst the completed tools delivered business benefits, the development of the tools did not follow the planned process. The paper discusses how people within the business responded to this strategy and how the process had to be continuously adapted to cope with the current business environment and path dependencies, further evidencing that lean implementations need to be tailored to suit the needs of the individual firm, rather than there being a one size fits all

  2. The Animal Welfare Act: from enactment to enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-05-01

    Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the 'Age of Enforcement.' As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection.

  3. Field station as stage: Re-enacting scientific work and life in Amani, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann H

    2016-12-01

    Located high in Tanzania's Usambara Mountains, Amani Hill Station has been a site of progressive scientific endeavours for over a century, pushing the boundaries of botanical, zoological and medical knowledge, and providing expertise for imperial expansion, colonial welfare, national progress and international development efforts. The station's heyday was from the 1950s to the 1970s, a period of global disease eradication campaigns and the 'Africanization' of science. Today, Amani lies in a state of suspended motion. Officially part of a national network of medical research stations, its buildings and vegetation are only minimally maintained, and although some staff report for duty, scientific work has ceased. Neither ruin nor time capsule, Amani has become a quiet site of remains and material traces. This article examines the methodological potentials of re-enactment - on-site performances of past research practices - to engage ethnographically with the distinct temporalities and affective registers of life at the station. The heuristic power of re-enactment resides in its anachronicity, the tensions it introduces between immediacy and theatricality, authenticity and artifice, fidelity and futility. We suggest that re-enacting early post-colonial science as events unfolding in the present disrupts straightforward narratives about the promises and shortfalls of scientific progress, raising provocative questions about the sentiments and stakes of research in 'the tropics'.

  4. Software Process Development and Enactment: Concepts and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    desirable to simultaneously plan multipla Instantlations to reduce the amount of planning and improve the efficiency of Instantlation, Evolution: The act of...refinement of the process definition before the responsibility to enact is transferred. For exampe, Mr. Jones may delegate his approval authority to Ms . Doe

  5. Ecological Journey: An Enactive View of the Nature of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Johnna

    1999-01-01

    Analogies drawn from a whitewater kayaking trip illustrate principles of enactive theory, which holds that mind, body, and world are interconnected. Learning, action, and place influence, and are influenced by, each other. Experience emerges collectively through the interrelationships of body, environment, social history, and perception as a…

  6. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  7. Incremental Method Enactment for Computer Aided Software Engineering Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, K.; Tuijl, G.J. van; Brinkkemper, S.; Jansen, Slinger

    2013-01-01

    In most cases, enactment is the most resource consuming aspect of process improvement, as large process changes are put into practice. Problems that typically are encountered include ine ective process changes, resistance from employees, and unclarity about the advantages of the new process. These p

  8. Learning to Enact Social Justice Pedagogy in Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Moore, Cara M.

    2014-01-01

    Some mathematics educators assert that P-12 students respond better to mathematics when it is taught for cultural relevance and social justice. Providing teachers with examples of how to use culturally relevant pedagogy and social justice pedagogy (SJP) is critical to enacting these strategies in mathematics classrooms. The results of this…

  9. The Practical Enactment of Adventure Learning: Where Will You AL@?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Hougham, R. Justin; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The Adventure Learning (AL) approach to designing and implementing learning experiences has great potential for practitioners. This manuscript delineates the practical enactment of AL to support the K-12 community, teacher educators, and residential environmental science program providers in the conceptualization and delivery of their own AL…

  10. Therapeutic Enactment: Integrating Individual and Group Counseling Models for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Marvin J.; Keats, Patrice A.; Wilensky, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to a group-based therapy model known as therapeutic enactment. A description of this multimodal change model is provided by outlining the relevant background information, key concepts related to specific change processes, and the differences in this model compared to earlier psychodrama…

  11. Reconciling the Historical and the Contemporary in Liturgical Enactment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2016-01-01

    A discussion of the problems and potential insights from reconstructing and modern re-enactments of medieval liturgical ceremonies. The author was a member of an International Research Group invited as discussants within a UK Research Council funded project "Experience of Worship in Late Medieval...

  12. Teachers' selection and enactment of mathematical problems from textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Ok-Kyeong

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate how teachers' use of textbooks creates different kinds of opportunities for student learning, this study focused on teachers' selection and enactment of problems and tasks from the textbooks and their influence on the cognitive demand placed on students. By drawing on data from three elementary teachers in the USA, two of which used a reform-oriented textbook— Math Trailblazers and one a commercially developed textbook—this study examined kinds of problems the teachers chose and ways in which they enacted those problems in relation to the cognitive demand of the problems. In particular, we attended to the kinds of questions the teachers asked in enacting the problems and ways in which those questions influenced the cognitive demand of the textbook problems. This study also identified critical issues involved in teacher decision-making on task selection and enactment, such as the match between teachers' goals and those of the textbooks, and teachers' perception of textbook problems. Based on the results of the study, we discuss implications for teacher education and professional development.

  13. The Enactment of Professional Learning Policies: Performativity and Multiple Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Augusto; Viczko, Melody

    2015-01-01

    While teacher learning has become a locus of school reform across many international settings, there is relatively little examination of the idiosyncratic ways in which policy discourses on teacher learning are enacted in schools. In this paper, we aim to investigate how these policy discourses are translated and configured into practices and…

  14. 19 CFR 132.2 - Enactment and administration of quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directly by Headquarters, U.S. Customs Service, and quotas administered by other agencies which are enforced by Headquarters, U.S. Customs Service, and which may require special procedures or special... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enactment and administration of quotas....

  15. Enacting Green Consumers: The Case of the Scandinavian Preppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytic approach that brings the active making and makings of green consumer images to the fore. Efforts to "know" the green consumers have generated multiple representations. Enactments of the green consumer are not innocent but also play a role in shaping how we understand and approach sustainable consumption. Because of this it is important to examine and critically discuss how green consumers are enacted today. This paper develops an approach that allows us to examine how green consumers are enacted and discuss the consequences these constructions might have for sustainability. Theoretically, a performativity approach drawing on theories from Science and Technology Studies (STS and economic sociology is used to discuss the enactment of green consumers. Empirically, focus is on Boomerang � a Swedish fashion retailer, brand, and producer � and its marketing practices. The analysis shows how the marketing work of the Boomerang Company leads to the enactment of the Green Scandinavian Preppy. This specific version of the green consumer is a combination of the knowledgeable green connoisseur - a consumer that knows quality when he/she sees it - and the green hedonist in search of the good life. The Green Scandinavian Preppy wants to enjoy nature, go sailing, and do so wearing fashionable quality clothes. This is a consumer that knows quality, appreciates design, and has the means to pay for both. While this is a version of the green consumer that might be appealing and thus have the potential to pro-mote a version of green consumption, it is also a green consumer image that has lost much of its political power as green consumption is framed as simply another source of pleasure and identity-making.

  16. Tools and techniques: ways to engage telling, making and enacting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Binder, Thomas; Sanders, Elizabeth B.-N.

    2012-01-01

    tools and techniques within participatory design and describes participatory design as various practices of participation. The following sections give examples of how designers and non-designers participate in PD practices through activities focusing on telling, making and enacting. The final section......Participatory design is not one approach but a proliferating family of design practices that hosts many design agendas and comes with a varied set of toolboxes. In this chapter we will give examples of toolboxes with the ambition to show that there is a richness of tools and techniques available...... challenges and to new designer/user communities. Our claim is not that tools and techniques have to be applied rigorously. Instead we suggest that sensitivity to the coherence of making, telling and enacting provides sufficient grounding for designers (and non-designers) to make the tools and techniques...

  17. Optimizing enactment of nursing roles: redesigning care processes and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Karen Jackson,1 Deborah E White,2 Jeanne Besner,1 Jill M Norris21Health Systems and Workforce Research Unit, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Effective and efficient use of nursing human resources is critical. The Nursing Role Effectiveness Model conceptualizes nursing practice in terms of key clinical role accountabilities and has the potential to inform redesign efforts. The aims of this study were to develop, implement, and evaluate a job redesign intended to optimize the enactment of registered nurse (RN clinical role accountabilities.Methods: A job redesign was developed and implemented in a single medical patient care unit, the redesign unit. A mixed-methods design was used to evaluate the job redesign; a second medical patient care unit served as a control unit. Data from administrative databases, observations, interviews, and demographic surveys were collected pre-redesign (November 2005 and post-redesign (October 2007.Results: Several existing unit structures and processes (eg, model of care delivery influenced RNs' ability to optimally enact their role accountabilities. Redesign efforts were hampered by contextual issues, including organizational alignment, leadership, and timing. Overall, optimized enactment of RN role accountabilities and improvements to patient outcomes did not occur, yet this was predictable, given that the redesign was not successful. Although the results were disappointing, much was learned about job redesign.Conclusion: Potential exists to improve the utilization of nursing providers by situating nurses' work in a clinical role accountability framework and attending to a clear organizational vision and well-articulated strategic plan that is championed by leaders at all levels of the organization. Health care leaders require a clear understanding of nurses' role accountabilities, support in managing change, and

  18. Hinge Dimension: An Exploration of Enaction in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franinovic, Karmen; Wilson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of technologically mediated enactive experience with and within architectural contexts, and the ways in which it may affect our relationships to constructed surroundings. We present the conceptual ideas and design development of the Hinge Dimension project......, an interactive architecture which is activated and transformed though the actions of its inhabitants. Changing structural, sonic and luminous arrangements continuously produce different spatial experiences as visitors move though the architecture. We summarize the results that we gathered during the public...

  19. Alliance ruptures, impasses, and enactments: a relational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Jeremy D; Kraus, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Alliance ruptures, impasses, and transference-countertransference enactments are inevitable in therapy. A growing body of evidence suggests that repairing ruptures in the alliance is related to positive outcome (Safran, Muran, & Eubanks-Carter, 2011). Our research program has led to the development of training methods to enhance therapists' abilities to detect and work constructively with alliance ruptures and negative therapeutic process (Safran et al., 2014). This article outlines relevant theoretical underpinnings, intervention principles, and empirical findings.

  20. Dream-Enacting Behaviors in a Normal Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Svob, Connie; Kuiken, Don

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the prevalence and gender distributions of behaviors enacted during dreaming (“dream-enacting [DE] behaviors”) in a normal population; the independence of such behaviors from other parasomnias; and the influence of different question wordings, socially desirable responding and personality on prevalence. Design: 3-group questionnaire study Setting: University classrooms Participants: Three undergraduate samples (Ns = 443, 201, 496; mean ages = 19.9 ± 3.2 y; 20.1 ± 3.4 y; 19.1 ± 1.6 y) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Subjects completed questionnaires about DE behaviors and Social Desirability. Study 1 employed a nonspecific question about the behaviors, Study 2 employed the same question with examples, and Study 3 employed 7 questions describing specific behavior subtypes (speaking, crying, smiling/laughing, fear, anger, movement, sexual arousal). Somnambulism, somniloquy, nightmares, dream recall, alexithymia, and absorption were also assessed. Factor analyses were conducted to determine relationships among DE behaviors and their independence from other parasomnias. Prevalence increased with increasing question specificity (35.9%, 76.7%, and 98.2% for the 3 samples). No gender difference obtained for the nonspecific question, but robust differences occurred for more specific questions. Females reported more speaking, crying, fear and smiling/laughing than did males; males reported more sexual arousal. When controlling other parasomnias and dream recall frequency, these differences persisted. Factor solutions revealed that DE behaviors were independent of other parasomnias and of dream recall frequency, except for an association between dream-talking and somniloquy. Sexual arousal was related only to age. Behaviors were independent of alexithymia but moderately related to absorption. Conclusions: Dream-enacting behaviors are prevalent in healthy subjects and sensitive to question wording but not social desirability

  1. Mining workflow processes from distributed workflow enactment event logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanghoon Pio Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Workflow management systems help to execute, monitor and manage work process flow and execution. These systems, as they are executing, keep a record of who does what and when (e.g. log of events. The activity of using computer software to examine these records, and deriving various structural data results is called workflow mining. The workflow mining activity, in general, needs to encompass behavioral (process/control-flow, social, informational (data-flow, and organizational perspectives; as well as other perspectives, because workflow systems are "people systems" that must be designed, deployed, and understood within their social and organizational contexts. This paper particularly focuses on mining the behavioral aspect of workflows from XML-based workflow enactment event logs, which are vertically (semantic-driven distribution or horizontally (syntactic-driven distribution distributed over the networked workflow enactment components. That is, this paper proposes distributed workflow mining approaches that are able to rediscover ICN-based structured workflow process models through incrementally amalgamating a series of vertically or horizontally fragmented temporal workcases. And each of the approaches consists of a temporal fragment discovery algorithm, which is able to discover a set of temporal fragment models from the fragmented workflow enactment event logs, and a workflow process mining algorithm which rediscovers a structured workflow process model from the discovered temporal fragment models. Where, the temporal fragment model represents the concrete model of the XML-based distributed workflow fragment events log.

  2. The body social: an enactive approach to the self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyselo, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes a new look at an old question: what is the human self? It offers a proposal for theorizing the self from an enactive perspective as an autonomous system that is constituted through interpersonal relations. It addresses a prevalent issue in the philosophy of cognitive science: the body-social problem. Embodied and social approaches to cognitive identity are in mutual tension. On the one hand, embodied cognitive science risks a new form of methodological individualism, implying a dichotomy not between the outside world of objects and the brain-bound individual but rather between body-bound individuals and the outside social world. On the other hand, approaches that emphasize the constitutive relevance of social interaction processes for cognitive identity run the risk of losing the individual in the interaction dynamics and of downplaying the role of embodiment. This paper adopts a middle way and outlines an enactive approach to individuation that is neither individualistic nor disembodied but integrates both approaches. Elaborating on Jonas’ notion of needful freedom it outlines an enactive proposal to understanding the self as co-generated in interactions and relations with others. I argue that the human self is a social existence that is organized in terms of a back and forth between social distinction and participation processes. On this view, the body, rather than being identical with the social self, becomes its mediator. PMID:25309471

  3. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Geospatial semantics: beyond ontologies, towards an enactive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Di Donato, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to semantics in the geospatial domain are mainly based on ontologies, but ontologies, since continue to build entirely on the symbolic methodology, suffers from the classical problems, e.g. the symbol grounding problem, affecting representational theories. We claim for an enactive approach to semantics, where meaning is considered to be an emergent feature arising context-dependently in action. Since representational theories are unable to deal with context, a new formalism is required toward a contextual theory of concepts. SCOP is considered a promising formalism in this sense and is briefly described.

  5. Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Yanna B

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.

  6. Multivariate statistics and the enactment of metabolic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nadine

    2014-08-01

    This ethnographic study, based on fieldwork at the Computational and Systems Medicine laboratory at Imperial College London, shows how researchers in the field of metabolomics--the post-genomic study of the molecules and processes that make up metabolism--enact and coproduce complex views of biology with multivariate statistics. From this data-driven science, metabolism emerges as a multiple, informational and statistical object, which is both produced by and also necessitates particular forms of data production and analysis. Multivariate statistics emerge as 'natural' and 'correct' ways of engaging with a metabolism that is made up of many variables. In this sense, multivariate statistics allow researchers to engage with and conceptualize metabolism, and also disease and processes of life, as complex entities. Consequently, this article builds on studies of scientific practice and visualization to examine data as material objects rather than black-boxed representations. Data practices are not merely the technological components of experimentation, but are simultaneously technologies and methods and are intertwined with ways of seeing and enacting the biological world. Ultimately, this article questions the increasing invocation and role of complexity within biology, suggesting that discourses of complexity are often imbued with reductionist and determinist ways of thinking about biology, as scientists engage with complexity in calculated and controlled, but also limited, ways.

  7. Narrativity and Enaction: The Social Nature of Literary Narrative Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna B. Popova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.

  8. Enactment of Scientific Inquiry: Observation of Two Cases at Different Grade Levels in China Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ronghui; Clarke, David; Wang, Weizhen

    2014-04-01

    Enactment of scientific inquiry in classroom has attracted a great attention of science educators around the world. In this study, we examined two competent teachers' (one Grade 9 chemistry teacher and one Grade 4 science teacher) enactment of scientific inquiry in selected teaching units to reveal the characteristics of enacted inquiry at different grade levels by analyzing lesson sequence videos. The coding schemes for enacted inquiry consist of ontological properties and instructional practices. Pre-topic and post-topic teacher interviews and the two teachers' responses to a questionnaire were adopted to identify the factors influencing teacher's enactment. The results indicate that the two case teachers' enactment involved a range of inquiry activities. The enacted inquiry at fourth-grade level covered all the inquiry elements, tending to engage students in the whole procedure of inquiry. The ninth-grade chemistry class placed emphasis on the elements "making plans" to solve problems in authentic context. Important factors influencing the enactment include teacher's understanding about scientific inquiry, textbooks, assessment, students and resource. Implications for inquiry enactment and instruction improvement have been provided.

  9. Relational adaptivity - enacting human-centric systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2016-01-01

    Human centered design approaches places the experiencing human at the center of concern, situated in relation to the dynamics of the environmental condition and the variables of the system of control and sensing. Taking the approach of enacted design methods to enforce the experience...... of the inhabitant as core in human-centered design solutions, the intelligence of the connected sensors is suggested to be developed as an actual learning and self-adjusting adaptive environment, where the adaptive system is part of a negotiation with users on the qualities of the environment. We will present...... and activity, driven by detailed encounters with human centered investigations and experiential accounts. The sensor system is a test environment, using a very elaborate system design to enable extensive variations in the sensor and network parameters. But, the suggestion is, that by using this kind of high...

  10. A Comparison of Exemplary Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Teachers' Conceptions and Enactment of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne; McGinnis, J. Randy

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' use of inquiry has been studied largely without regard for the disciplines in which teachers practice. As a result, there is no theoretical understanding of the possible role of discipline in shaping teachers' conceptions and enactment of inquiry. In this mixed-methods study, conceptions and enactment of inquiry for 60 National Board…

  11. Teaching (Un)Connected Mathematics: Two Teachers' Enactment of the Pizza Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather C.; Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the ways mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) and curriculum materials appear to contribute to the enactment of a 7th grade "Connected Mathematics Project" lesson on comparing ratios. Two teachers with widely differing MKT scores are compared teaching this lesson. The comparison of the teachers' lesson enactments suggests…

  12. Sexual and gender prejudice among adolescents and enacted stigma at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. Collier

    2014-01-01

    Sexual and gender prejudice refer, respectively, to negative attitudes based on sexual orientation or gender identity or expression; enacted stigma is the behavioral expression of such attitudes. This thesis explored the possible antecedents and outcomes of enacted sexual and gender stigma in second

  13. Enacted identities in the university spin-off process - bridging an imaginative gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper employs a case study to explore the interdependencies between enacted role identities and behavioural logics of eight inventor-founders embedded in university spin-off venturing. The major tendencies in the findings suggest that the inventor-founders enact their academic role identity...

  14. Creating One's Reality: The Interaction of Politics Perceptions and Enactment Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieder, Rachel E; Ma, Shuang Sara; Hochwarter, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the previously unexamined relationship between politics perceptions and employee enactment behavior. Consistent with previous job stress and sense-making research, we hypothesized that individuals reporting low levels of enactment behaviors would be more adversely affected by politics perceptions than those who engaged in high levels of enactment behavior. Results across two samples provided strong support for the hypothesized relationships. Specifically, employees who reported low levels of enactment behavior experienced less satisfaction, less person-environment fit, and reported lower levels of effort when faced with highly political environments. Conversely, levels of satisfaction and person-environment fit perceptions of individuals reporting high levels of enactment behaviors were largely unaffected by highly political contexts. Implications of these findings, strengths and limitations, and avenues for future research are provided.

  15. The historicity of the physics class: enactments, mimes and imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay discusses Anna Danielsson's article "In the physics class: university physics students' enactments of class and gender in the context of laboratory work". The situated co-construction of knowledge and identity forms the crucial vantage point and I argue that it is a point of intersection between the history of science and research in science education. The former can provide a valuable understanding of the historicity of learning science. I thus highlight the importance of knowledge as situated in time and space, for instance the importance of the historical division between "head and hand" clearly visible in the discourse of Danielsson's informants. Moreover, the article discusses how identity is produced in specific knowledge contexts through repeated performances. The article closes by briefly suggesting analytical alternatives, in particular "belonging" and "imitation". Both draw on post-structuralist ideas about the citational nature of identity. Belonging is created by citing and reinstating norms. Imitating knowledge, identity and norms is an issue that should be brought to the fore when we speak of education and training.

  16. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws.

  17. What contributes to action plan enactment? Examining characteristics of physical activity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Gardner, Benjamin; Keller, Jan; Lippke, Sonia; Pomp, Sarah; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2017-08-18

    Individuals with chronic conditions can benefit from formulating action plans to engage in regular physical activity. However, the content and the successful translation of plans into action, so-called plan enactment, are rarely adequately evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the content of user-specified plans and to examine whether participants were more likely to enact their plans if these plans were highly specific, viable, and instrumental. The study presents secondary analyses from a larger behavioural intervention in cardiac and orthopaedic rehabilitation. The content of 619 action plans from 229 participants was evaluated by two independent raters (i.e., qualitative analyses and ratings of specificity) and by participants themselves (i.e., instrumentality and viability). Plan enactment was also measured via self-reports. Multilevel analyses examined the relationship between these plan characteristics and subsequent plan enactment, and between plan enactment and aggregated physical activity. Participants preferred to plan leisure-time physical activities anchored around time-based cues. Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment. Interestingly, individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans. Plan enactment was positively associated with aggregated behaviour. Interventions should not only emphasize the importance of planning, but also the benefits of formulating specific contextual cues. Planning of the behavioural response seems to require less precision. Allowing for some flexibility in executing the anticipated target behaviour seems to aid successful plan enactment. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Action planning interventions are efficacious in promoting health behaviour. Characteristics of plan content (i.e., specificity) matter for unconditional behaviour

  18. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Semantic Integration: Effects of Imagery, Enaction, and Sentence Repetition Training on Prereaders' Recall for Pictograph Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, George W.; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    1985-01-01

    Over a two-week period, examined the effectiveness of integrative imagery strategy over concrete enaction and repetition strategies for improving kindergartners' recall of pictograph sentences. (Author/BE)

  20. Institutionalizing planning, enactment and reflection of daily lessons through appropriate organizational restructuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Raval, H., McKenney, S., & Pieters, J. (2011). Institutionalizing planning, enactment and reflection of daily lessons through appropriate organizational restructuring. The Asia-Pacific Educational Researcher, 20(3), 438-435.

  1. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment.

  2. The importance of organisational identity for formulating and enacting strategies and policies in retailer buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    This paper explores how retail buyers construct their own professional identities and the organisational identity of the retailers they work for and the importance of these constructions for the formulation and enactment of strategies and policies in the field of fresh pork. Through a case study...... how they buy fresh pork through formulating and enacting various strategies and buying policies of the retailers....

  3. The evolution of policy enactment on gender-based violence in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, J. L. N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries, Liberia, South Africa and Brazil, it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes and research. The analysis asks why, despite such achievements, there is little evidence that these policy enactments have succeeded in reducing violence. The c...

  4. World Climate Conference - a play re-enacting the COPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamborg, Freja S. E.; Klockmann, Marlene; Koch, Boris P.; Otto, Juliane; Rauser, Florian; Schemann, Vera; Sonntag, Sebastian; Haug, Helgard; Kaegi, Stefan; Wetzel, Daniel; Schipper, Imanuel; Bochow, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Last December, Paris was the host city for the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Representatives of 195 countries met to dispute a legally binding climate agreement - a highly complex process involving thousands of politicians, scientists and activists, that to date has taken over two decades. The director ensemble "Rimini Protokoll" re-enacted this mammoth-scale drama of diplomacy in the play "Weltklimakonferenz" (World Climate Conference) at the "Deutsches Schauspielhaus" theatre in Hamburg, Germany. Since the opening night (21st Nov. 2014), the play has been performed 16 times, reaching an audience of over 9000. All performers in the play were experts and scientists at different stages of their careers, including PhD students, journalists and professors. Each spectator took on the identity of a delegate of one of the 195 participating countries. We will present the project and the performance, thereby highlighting the role of and the interaction between the spectators and early career scientists. In a nutshell the play went as follows (https://vimeo.com/137817619); after an opening ceremony, the audience was divided up into seven groups, each of which was given advice by experts in several different briefings. These informed on country-specific challenges caused by the social and economic situation, possible future climatic changes and negotiating tactics. In addition, the delegations had bilateral meetings, enabling them to exchange views and experiences with one another. Towards the end of the play each delegation was asked to submit a national commitment to greenhouse gas reduction and a financial contribution to the Green Climate Fund. Based on these national commitments, the final plenum revealed whether or not the delegations had managed to submit reductions compatible with restricting global warming to 2°C compared to pre-industrial times. Due to their direct personal involvement

  5. Nightmare-Enacting Behavior Responding to Zonisamide in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kataoka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, zonisamide (ZNS has been approved as a new adjunctive therapy for motor complications of Parkinson’s disease (PD. More recently, ZNS was reported to be effective for the management of impulse control behavior in PD, suggesting potential effects on non-motor PD symptoms. Dream enactment associated with aggressive, violent behavior can carry a serious risk of injury to patients, as well as to spouses or caretakers. This report describes a patient with PD who had vivid nightmares and dream-enacting behavior that resolved after treatment with ZNS. The present case raises the question whether ZNS might potentially be effective for the management of vivid nightmares or dream-enacting behavior.

  6. Learning to Teach Elementary Science Through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves together cycles of enactment, core practices in science education and culturally relevant pedagogies. The theoretical foundation draws upon situated learning theory and communities of practice. Using video analysis by PSTs and course artifacts, the authors studied how the iterative process of these cycles guided PSTs development as teachers of elementary science. Findings demonstrate how PSTs were drawing on resources to inform practice, purposefully noticing their practice, renegotiating their roles in teaching, and reconsidering "professional blindness" through cultural practice.

  7. Interaction Histories and Short Term Memory: Enactive Development of Turn-taking Behaviors in a Childlike Humanoid Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Broz, Frank; Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, an enactive architecture is described that allows a humanoid robot to learn to compose simple actions into turn-taking behaviors while playing interaction games with a human partner. The robot's action choices are reinforced by social feedback from the human in the form of visual attention and measures of behavioral synchronization. We demonstrate that the system can acquire and switch between behaviors learned through interaction based on social feedback from the human partner. The role of reinforcement based on a short term memory of the interaction is experimentally investigated. Results indicate that feedback based only on the immediate state is insufficient to learn certain turn-taking behaviors. Therefore some history of the interaction must be considered in the acquisition of turn-taking, which can be efficiently handled through the use of short term memory.

  8. The Enactive Approach to Architectural Experience: A Neurophysiological Perspective on Embodiment, Motivation, and Affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, Andrea; Tieri, Gaetano; De Matteis, Federico; Babiloni, Fabio; Vecchiato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, the efforts to reveal through neuroscientific lens the relations between the mind, body, and built environment have set a promising direction of using neuroscience for architecture. However, little has been achieved thus far in developing a systematic account that could be employed for interpreting current results and providing a consistent framework for subsequent scientific experimentation. In this context, the enactive perspective is proposed as a guide to studying architectural experience for two key reasons. Firstly, the enactive approach is specifically selected for its capacity to account for the profound connectedness of the organism and the world in an active and dynamic relationship, which is primarily shaped by the features of the body. Thus, particular emphasis is placed on the issues of embodiment and motivational factors as underlying constituents of the body-architecture interactions. Moreover, enactive understanding of the relational coupling between body schema and affordances of architectural spaces singles out the two-way bodily communication between architecture and its inhabitants, which can be also explored in immersive virtual reality settings. Secondly, enactivism has a strong foothold in phenomenological thinking that corresponds to the existing phenomenological discourse in architectural theory and qualitative design approaches. In this way, the enactive approach acknowledges the available common ground between neuroscience and architecture and thus allows a more accurate definition of investigative goals. Accordingly, the outlined model of architectural subject in enactive terms-that is, a model of a human being as embodied, enactive, and situated agent, is proposed as a basis of neuroscientific and phenomenological interpretation of architectural experience.

  9. The enactive approach to architectural experience: a neurophysiological perspective on embodiment, motivation, and affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eJelic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the efforts to reveal through neuroscientific lens the relations between the mind, body, and built environment have set a promising direction of using neuroscience for architecture. However, little has been achieved thus far in developing a systematic account that could be employed for interpreting current results and providing a consistent framework for subsequent scientific experimentation. In this context, the enactive perspective is proposed as a guide to studying architectural experience for two key reasons. Firstly, the enactive approach is specifically selected for its capacity to account for the profound connectedness of the organism and the world in an active and dynamic relationship, which is primarily shaped by the features of the body. Thus, particular emphasis is placed on the issues of embodiment and motivational factors as underlying constituents of the body-architecture interactions. Moreover, enactive understanding of the relational coupling between body schema and affordances of architectural spaces singles out the two-way bodily communication between architecture and its inhabitants, which can be also explored in immersive virtual reality settings. Secondly, enactivism has a strong foothold in phenomenological thinking that corresponds to the existing phenomenological discourse in architectural theory and qualitative design approaches. In this way, the enactive approach acknowledges the available common ground between neuroscience and architecture and thus allows a more accurate definition of investigative goals. Accordingly, the outlined model of architectural subject in enactive terms – that is, a model of a human being as embodied, enactive, and situated agent, is proposed as a basis of neuroscientific and phenomenological interpretation of architectural experience.

  10. The importance of organisational identity for formulating and enacting strategies and policies in retailer buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    This paper explores how retail buyers construct their own professional identities and the organisational identity of the retailers they work for and the importance of these constructions for the formulation and enactment of strategies and policies in the field of fresh pork. Through a case study...... of nine German food retailers, the paper analyses the role of identity in relation to the buying activities. In particular, this paper focuses on how retail buyers discursively construct their professional identities as buyers and the identities of the retail chains they work for and how this influences...... how they buy fresh pork through formulating and enacting various strategies and buying policies of the retailers....

  11. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  12. Parieto-occipital encephalomalacia in children; clinical and electrophysiological features of twenty-seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakize Karaoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Brain injuries occurring at a particular time may cause damages in well-defined regions of brain. Perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and hypoglycemia are some of the most common types of brain injuries. Neonatal hypoglycemia can cause abnormal myelination in parietal and occipital lobes resulting in parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. There is a small number of studies about clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. They might have important neurologic sequelae such as cortical visual loss, seizures, and psychomotor retardation. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the causes of parieto-occipital encephalomalacia and evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. Settings and Design: We evaluated clinical features and EEGs of 27 children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Hospitalization during the neonatal period was the most common cause (88.9% of parieto-occipital brain injury. Eleven patients (40.7% had a history of neonatal hypoglycemia. Twenty-three patients (85.2% had epilepsy and nine of the epileptic patients (39% had refractory seizures. Most of the patients had bilateral (50% epileptic discharges originating from temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (56.2%. However, some patients had frontal sharp waves and some had continuous spike and wave discharges during sleep. Visual abnormalities were evident in 15 (55.6% patients. Twenty-two (81.5% had psychomotor retardation. Fine motor skills, social contact and language development were impaired more than gross motor skills. Conclusions: In our study, most of the patients with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia had an eventful perinatal history. Epilepsy, psychomotor retardation, and visual problems were common neurologic complications.

  13. The dynamic interdependence of international financial markets: An empirical study on twenty-seven stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwei; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the dynamic interdependence of international financial markets. Based on the data regarding daily returns of each market during the period 2006-2015 from Yahoo finance, we mainly focus on examining 27 markets from three continents, including Asia, America and Europe. By checking the dynamic interdependence between those markets, we find that markets from different continents have strong correlation at specific time shift. We also obtain that markets from different continents not only have a strong linkage with others at same day, but at a delay of one day, especially between Asia, Europe and Asia, America. In addition, we further analyze the time-varying influence strength between each two continents and observe that this value has abnormal changes during the financial crisis. These findings can provide us significant insights to understand the underlying dynamic interdependency of international financial markets and further help us make corresponding reasonable decisions.

  14. Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Seven Rhinorrhea (Nasosinusitis,"Bi Yuan") with Turbid Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Xiukui; GUO Ling; DONG Hongying

    2002-01-01

    @@ In traditional Chinese medicine, "Bi Yuan"(rhinorrhea 鼻渊 ), also known as Nao Lou ( nasosinusitis with purulent discharge), is mainly characterized by turbid nasal discharge. It is often divided into two types, namely excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome. The excess syndrome results from the flaring-up of the stagnant lung-heat affecting the nose due to chronic common cold, or from the upward attack of the excessive fire from the liver and gallbladder. The deficiency syndrome is usually caused by hypofunction of the lung in dispersing and descending actions and the spleen in transportation and transformation of the water and dampness. Excess type rhinorrhea should be treated by removing heat, eliminating dampness and dredging the orifices, while deficiency type rhinorrhea treated by warming the lung, strengthening the spleen,dispelling cold and eliminatingdampness. It has been proved that excess type rhinorrhea can be treated effectively with acupuncture.

  15. Twenty-seven-year nonunion of a Hoffa fracture in a 46-year-old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yirui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Hoffa fracture is an uncommon clinical entity typically seen in adults after high-energy trauma. Nonunion of a Hoffa fracture appears to be even more uncommon. To our knowledge, only three cases of nonunion of a Hoffa fracture have been documented in the literature to date, including two children and one adult. This article presents a case of an adult who had nonunion of a Hoffa fracture for 27 years and was treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and the varus deformity corrected with xenogenous bone graft. An excellent result has been achieved to date. This unusual case reminds us that we cannot neglect the possibility of nonunion of a cancellous bone fracture, especially the Hoffa fractures of the medial femoral condyle if they are treated nonoperatively. It also demonstrates that internal fixation with bone graft is effective, even for the 27-year Hoffa fracture.

  16. A Statistical Discrimination Experiment for Eurasian Events Using a Twenty-Seven-Station Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-08

    earthquakes. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 35, 57. Gutenberg, B., and C. F. Richter (1956). Magnitude and energy of earthquakes, Annali Geofisica , 9, 1...Magnitude and energy of earthquakes, Annali Geofisica , _9, 1. Hanks, T., and W. Thatcher (1972). A graphical representation of

  17. The Natural History of Clinical Operational Tolerance After Kidney Transplantation Through Twenty-Seven Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouard, S.; Pallier, A.; Renaudin, K.; Foucher, Y.; Danger, R.; Devys, A.; Cesbron, A.; Guillot-Guegen, C.; Ashton-Chess, J.; Roux, S. le; Harb, J.; Roussey, G.; Subra, J.F.; Villemain, F.; Legendre, C.; Bemelman, F.J.; Orlando, G.; Garnier, A.; Jambon, H.; Monies De Sagazan, H. le; Braun, L.; Noel, C.; Pillebout, E.; Moal, M.C.; Cantarell, C.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Ranbant, M.; Testa, A.; Soulillou, J.P.; Giral, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on a European cohort of 27 kidney transplant recipients displaying operational tolerance, compared to two cohorts of matched kidney transplant recipients under immunosuppression and patients who stopped immunosuppressive drugs and presented with rejection. We report that a lower propo

  18. An Experts Survey on Sustainability Across Twenty-Seven Extensive European Systems of Grassland Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Rafael; Gil, Ángel; Fernández-Santos, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    European Large Scale Grazing Systems (LSGS) are at a crossroad with environmental, agronomic, and social factors interacting on their future viability. This research assesses the current environmental and socio-economic status of a wide range of European LSGS according to an agreed subset of sustainability criteria and indicators, which have been recognized by corresponding experts and privileged observers on their respective case-study system. A survey questionnaire was drafted containing five main criteria (pastoral use, environmental, economic, social, and market and development), with four conceptual-scored variables (indicators) within each criterion. Descriptive, analytical and clustering statistical techniques helped to draw a synthesis of the main result and to standardize sustainability variables across different biogeographical regions and management situations. The results show large multicollinearity among the 20 variables proposed. This dependence was revealed by the reduction to six main factor-components, which accounted for about 73% of the total variance in responses. Aggregation of point-score indicators across criteria to obtain a sustainability index can be of less policy relevance than responses to specific criteria or indicators. Affinity between case-study systems, as judged by collaborative-expert responses, was not related to biogeographical location, operating livestock sector, or population density in their areas. The results show larger weaknesses and constraints in the economic and social criteria than in the pastoral and environmental criteria, and the large heterogeneity of responses appears in the social criterion.

  19. The enactment of thermal efficiency standard for domestic gas appliances and its foreground of Implementing in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGShini; PENGLuo; FUXiuping

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the principles we should obey and the problems we should be confronted with when thermal efficiency standards for instantaneous gas water heaters and gas ranges are enacted. It is considered that enactment of thermal efficiency standards for domestic gas appliances could intensify economization on domestic gas utilization and marked economic and environmental benefits could be generated consequently.

  20. Mathematics Teachers' Enactment of Cognitively Demanding Tasks: Investigating Links to Teachers' Knowledge and Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Anne Garrison

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand how aspects of middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge and conceptions are related to their enactment of cognitively demanding tasks. I defined the enactment of cognitively demanding tasks to involve task selection and maintenance of the cognitive demand of high-level tasks and examined those two…

  1. "Where You Stand Depends on Where You Sit": The Social Construction of Policy Enactments in the (English) Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Ball, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a study of education policy enactments in four English secondary schools, this paper argues that different "types" of policies call-up different forms of enactments, and that teachers and others who work in schools will have different orientations towards some of these possible ways of "doing" school. Through…

  2. "Where You Stand Depends on Where You Sit": The Social Construction of Policy Enactments in the (English) Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Ball, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a study of education policy enactments in four English secondary schools, this paper argues that different "types" of policies call-up different forms of enactments, and that teachers and others who work in schools will have different orientations towards some of these possible ways of "doing" school. Through…

  3. Managing Curriculum Change from the Middle: How Academic Middle Managers Enact Their Role in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudhumbu, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows that the role of academic middle managers (AMMs) has been a subject of contestation for a long time the world over owing to the fact that there has not been a clear cut articulation of what exactly this role constitutes or means. Such a situation according to literature has tended to affect the way the AMMs enact their role in…

  4. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  5. Enacting Effective Climate Policy Advice: Institutional Strategies to Foster Saliency, Credibility and Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anja; Pregernig, Michael; Reinecke, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This article asks how scientific advisory institutions (SAIs) in climate policy strive towards effectiveness. Our analysis is grounded on the assumption that effectiveness is not passively experienced but is deliberately enacted by SAIs. We draw on a widely used set of criteria, namely saliency, credibility and legitimacy (SCL). Based on an…

  6. 75 FR 63080 - Interim Final Rule for Reporting Pre-Enactment Swap Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 44 RIN 3038-AD24 Interim Final Rule for Reporting Pre-Enactment Swap Transactions AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Interim final rule; request for public comment... an interim final rule to implement new statutory provisions introduced by Title VII of the...

  7. Learning Trajectories, Lesson Planning, Affordances, and Constraints in the Design and Enactment of Mathematics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Julie; Lamberg, Teruni

    2013-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in mathematics education have stimulated a focus on learning trajectories. At the same time, a global increase in high-stakes testing has influenced instructional practices. This study investigated how four fourth grade teachers within a school planned and enacted lessons to understand what mediated their planning and…

  8. The Evolution of Policy Enactment on Gender-Based Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries--Liberia, South Africa, and Brazil--it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes, and…

  9. Recapturing the history of surgical practice through simulation-based re-enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger; Woods, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces simulation-based re-enactment (SBR) as a novel method of documenting and studying the recent history of surgical practice. SBR aims to capture ways of surgical working that remain within living memory but have been superseded due to technical advances and changes in working patterns. Inspired by broader efforts in historical re-enactment and the use of simulation within surgical education, SBR seeks to overcome some of the weaknesses associated with text-based, surgeon-centred approaches to the history of surgery. The paper describes how we applied SBR to a previously common operation that is now rarely performed due to the introduction of keyhole surgery: open cholecystectomy or removal of the gall bladder. Key aspects of a 1980s operating theatre were recreated, and retired surgical teams (comprising surgeon, anaesthetist and theatre nurse) invited to re-enact, and educate surgical trainees in this procedure. Video recording, supplemented by pre- and post-re-enactment interviews, enabled the teams' conduct of this operation to be placed on the historical record. These recordings were then used to derive insights into the social and technical nature of surgical expertise, its distribution throughout the surgical team, and the members' tacit and frequently sub-conscious ways of working. While acknowledging some of the limitations of SBR, we argue that its utility to historians - as well as surgeons - merits its more extensive application.

  10. Examining the Effect of Enactment of a Geospatial Curriculum on Students' Geospatial Thinking and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Kulo, Violet; Peffer, Tamara

    2014-08-01

    A potential method for teaching geospatial thinking and reasoning (GTR) is through geospatially enabled learning technologies. We developed an energy resources geospatial curriculum that included learning activities with geographic information systems and virtual globes. This study investigated how 13 urban middle school teachers implemented and varied the enactment of the curriculum with their students and investigated which teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students' GTR posttest achievement. Data included biweekly implementation surveys from teachers and energy resources content and GTR pre- and posttest achievement measures from 1,049 students. Students significantly increased both their energy resources content knowledge and their GTR skills related to energy resources at the end of the curriculum enactment. Both multiple regression and hierarchical linear modeling found that students' initial GTR abilities and gain in energy content knowledge were significantly explanatory variables for their geospatial achievement at the end of curriculum enactment, p < .001. Teacher enactment factors, including adherence to implementing the critical components of the curriculum or the number of years the teachers had taught the curriculum, did not have significant effects on students' geospatial posttest achievement. The findings from this study provide support that learning with geospatially enabled learning technologies can support GTR with urban middle-level learners.

  11. STEAM Enacted: A Case Study of a Middle School Teacher Implementing STEAM Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, Danielle; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation practices of a 6th grade middle school teacher enacting STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) teaching in his classroom after participating in a 45-hour STEAM professional development. Case study is used to detail the process, successes, and challenges. Project-based learning, technology…

  12. Popular Culture as Emotional Provocation: The Material Enactment of Queer Pedagogies in a High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notion of popular culture as a form of queer emotional provocation, in this paper I suggest that attending to the material enactment of queer pedagogies in context enables an understanding of the importance of attending more fully to the emotional ramifications of queer pedagogies. Working within the context of a research project…

  13. Popular Culture as Emotional Provocation: The Material Enactment of Queer Pedagogies in a High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notion of popular culture as a form of queer emotional provocation, in this paper I suggest that attending to the material enactment of queer pedagogies in context enables an understanding of the importance of attending more fully to the emotional ramifications of queer pedagogies. Working within the context of a research project…

  14. Collaborative Inquiry with a Web-Based Science Learning Environment: When Teachers Enact It Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daner; Looi, Chee-Kit; Xie, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Though discussion of the teacher factor in ICT-enabled science learning abounds in the literature, the investigation of Teacher Enactments (TEs) of ICT-facilitated lessons through exploring teaching practices is still under-explored and under-recognized. Current studies are still lacking in evidence-based findings of TEs based on the investigation…

  15. Developing and Enacting Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Voices of New Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Noah E.; Flores, Esther; de la Cruz, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A group of preservice and first year teachers share their experiences as new teachers of Color entering the profession in urban public schools. Specifically, these novice teachers discuss the transition from an urban education teacher preparation program into the classroom and their successes and challenges enacting culturally relevant pedagogy.…

  16. The Evolution of Policy Enactment on Gender-Based Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries--Liberia, South Africa, and Brazil--it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes, and…

  17. An Analysis of How Carl Rogers Enacted Client-Centered Conversation with Gloria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Scott A.; Campbell, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzed Carl Rogers's session with Gloria in "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy" to determine how Rogers's conversational style functioned to enact his core conditions of empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard. Rogers's conversational style was found to be congruent with his espoused theory as well as a…

  18. Teachers' Enactments of Workplace Conditions and Their Beliefs and Attitudes toward Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imants, J.; Wubbels, T.; Vermunt, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on two assumptions regarding agency in teachers' workplace learning: (1) While teachers enact school reform in daily school and classroom practice, they actively redefine the reform; (2) In this learning process, in which working and learning are integrated, teachers reinterpret and reinvent the workplace conditions in their…

  19. Design and Enactment of Online Components during Four Blended Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayer, Nicola; Crippen, Kent; Dawson, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which four K-12 teachers, following professional development in blended learning, designed the online portion of their blended learning courses and how these online components were ultimately enacted with students. Specifically, the study investigates what kind of content, resources, or activities were developed…

  20. Enactment of Teacher Identity in Resolving Student Disagreements in Small Group Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a sequential analysis of the enactment of teacher identity in closing disagreements among students in small group peer interactions in an advanced academic writing class. In doing so, it discusses: (a) the micro-details of how oppositional stances and opinions are constructed, challenged and/or defended; (b) the sequential…

  1. An Enactive Approach to the Preservation of Musical Instruments Reconstructing Russolo's Intonarumori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; De Goetzen, Amalia

    2009-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Italian Futurist Luigi Russolo made a set of instruments called Intonarumori. In each, sound was generated inside a box with a horn, by means such as a wheel scraping on a string, controlled by a crank and one or more levers. The original instruments were all...... instruments whereby their original enactive properties are recreated....

  2. Subject-Matter Experts in Urban Schools: Journeys of Enacted Identities in Science and Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Varelas, Maria; Guajardo, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how two mathematics/science subject-matter experts (Fellows) conceptualized urban classrooms and the students they worked with for a year, how they negotiated academic achievement with cultural and sociopolitical competence, and how their identities as educators were co-constructed and enacted. Using grounded theory, Fellows'…

  3. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  4. Enactment versus observation: item-specific and relational processing in goal-directed action sequences (and lists of single actions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as "apply the patch") by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2-3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing.

  5. Enactment versus observation: item-specific and relational processing in goal-directed action sequences (and lists of single actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Schult

    Full Text Available What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as "apply the patch" by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2-3, Experiment 2. An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2. Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing.

  6. New pedagogies for teaching thinking: the lived experiences of students and teachers enacting narrative pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2003-11-01

    The need to prepare students for a rapidly changing health care system sustains teachers' interest in developing students' thinking abilities at all levels of nursing education. Although significant effort has been directed toward developing efficient and effective strategies to teach thinking, this study explores the underlying assumptions embedded in any approach to teaching and learning and how these assumptions influence students' thinking. This study, using Heideggerian hermeneutics, explored how teachers and students experience enacting a new pedagogy, Narrative Pedagogy, and this article explains how enacting this pedagogy offers new possibilities for teaching and learning thinking. Two themes emerged from this analysis and are discussed: Thinking as Questioning: Preserving Perspectival Openness and Practicing Thinking: Preserving Fallibility and Uncertainty.

  7. Re-enacting Inua: Artistic practice as Inuit research and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Naja Dyrendom

    2013-01-01

    These two portfolio components comprise a sustained meditation on some of the challenges and conflicts of decolonizing Inuit politics and identity in Greenland. In the light of capital-intensive development programs forced upon and adopted by Inuit, these two works draw on arts-based inquiry to re......-engage and re-enact Inuit ways of knowing and being as part of the political processes of defining and practicing self-determination in Greenland. They document a self-reflective, experimental and artistic journey through which Indigenous performance appears as a potential site for decolonization. They seek...... seeks to portray the personal processes involved in decolonization and reclamation. The essay, Re-Enacting Inua: Artistic Practice as Inuit Research and Method, elaborates a method for articulating and performing political aspects of Inuit knowledge and identity through life histories and oral...

  8. Risk Factors of Enacting Spouse Abuse in a Sample of Iranian Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jafari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the modelling of different processes that could account for the link between psychopathology,cognitive social and demographic risk factors and enacting assault by husband. Method: This article reports a test using data on 230 males who participated in a family violence survey study.The sample was selected by a multiclustral sampling method from 4 different randomized regions of Tehran. All participants completed Conflict Tactic Scales, Personal and Relationship Profile, Marital Attitude Survey Questionnaire, Symptoms Checklist Inventory, Social and Demographic Measure. Logistics regression was used to estimate spouse abuse model for men. Results: The findings were consistent with the theoretical model.The path from social- demographic,cognitive and psychopathological risk factors to enacting spouse abuse was demonstrated.Conclusion:The implications of the findings for understanding spouse assaults,cognitive, psychopathological,social and demographic differences in male population are discussed.

  9. Conceptual framework of acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Lamothe, Lise; Ritchie, Judith A; Doran, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new conceptual framework for acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work and perceptions of team effectiveness. Acute care nurse practitioners contribute positively to patient care by enacting an expanded scope of practise. Researchers have found both positive and negative reactions to the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. The process of role enactment, shifting role boundaries, and perceptions of team effectiveness has been studied disparately. A framework linking team structures and processes to desirable outcomes is needed. Literature was obtained by searching CINAHL, PsycInfo, MedLine, PubMed, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, JSTOR Archive, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1985-2010. A descriptive multiple-case study was completed from March 2009-May 2009. A new conceptual framework describing how role enactment and boundary work affect perceptions of team effectiveness was developed by combining theoretical and empirical sources. The framework proposes proximal indicators used by team members to assess their team's performance. The framework identifies the inter-related dimensions and concepts that different stakeholders need to consider when introducing nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. Further study is needed to identify team-level outcomes that reflect the contributions of all providers to quality patient care, and explore the patients' and families' perceptions of team effectiveness following the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners. The new framework can guide decision-making and research related to the structures, processes, and outcomes of nurse practitioner roles in healthcare teams. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Jihad, McWorld and enactment in the postmodern mental health world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2002-01-01

    Most clinicians have strong reactions to managed care. This article suggests that managed care, despite its imperfections, shares the same moral imperative as the environmental movement. In a rapidly changing world, skilled clinicians' intense reactions to managed care may lead them unwittingly to participate in enactments involving failure to attend to the emerging meaning of resource limitation in analytic work. A case example is offered as an illustration.

  11. Enactment of Third-Party Punishment by 4-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Kenward, Ben; Östh, Therese

    2012-01-01

    When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment) or victim (inconsistent punishment). When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their ...

  12. Negotiating a Place in the Family-A Grounded Theory Exploration of Stepgrandmothers' Enactment of Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ashton; Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Kang, Youngjin; Sanner, Caroline; Russell, Luke T

    2016-08-12

    Stepgrandparents are becoming more common, and they can, and often do, provide affective and instrumental support to families. Little is known, however, about how they negotiate and enact their roles within families, especially with stepgrandchildren. Stepgrandmothers warrant special attention because researchers have found that women experience more challenges than men in stepfamilies. Guided by symbolic interactionism, the purposes of our study were: (a) to explore stepgrandmothers' role enactment and (b) to explore the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors that contribute to role enactment in intergenerational steprelationships. Eighteen stepgrandmothers participated in semi-structured interviews, discussing their relationships with 94 stepgrandchildren. Consistent with grounded theory methods, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Interviews with stepgrandmothers revealed that they spend considerable time and energy defining their roles with stepgrandchildren. Stepgrandmothers' role enactment is a complex, reflexive process. A few perceived that their roles were shaped by their own dispositions, desires, and expectations (evidence for role-making), but most stepgrandmothers described their roles as reflecting the dispositions, desires, and expectations of others (evidence for role-taking). Stepgrandmothers reflected on their roles as a delicate balance of intra- and inter-personal negotiations, operating within cultural expectations. Findings draw attention to the complex nature of role-taking, role-making, and gendered, relational processes in multigenerational stepfamilies. We discuss implications for research and theory related to stepgrandmotherhood as an incomplete institution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Enacted support's links to negative affect and perceived support are more consistent with theory when social influences are isolated from trait influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward; Hain, Kate L; Van Vleet, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Social support theory typically explains perceived support's link to mental health as reflecting the role of specific supportive actions (i.e., enacted support).Yet enacted support typically is not linked to mental health and perceived support as predicted by theory. The links are examined among enacted support, affect, and perceived support when links reflected (a) aspects of support and affect that generalized across relationship partners and time (i.e., trait influences) and (b) aspects that reflected specific relationship partners (i.e., social influences). Multivariate generalizability analyses indicated that enacted support was linked to low negative affect as predicted by theory only when correlations reflected social influences. When correlations reflected trait influences, enacted support was linked to high negative affect. Furthermore, perceived and enacted support were strongly linked when correlations reflected social influences but not trait influences. Thus, findings for enacted support fit social support theory better when social influences were isolated from trait influences.

  14. Enacted Support during Stressful Life Events in Middle and Older Adulthood: An Examination of the Interpersonal Context

    OpenAIRE

    Birditt, Kira S.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Tighe, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Individuals often turn to their close social ties for support during stressful life events. Although a great deal of work examines perceived support (i.e., support believed to be available should an event occur), less is known about enacted support (i.e., support actually provided during stressful events), especially among middle aged and older people. The present study investigated whether enacted support (emotional or instrumental) varies by relationship quality and stress appraisals. Parti...

  15. Which characteristics of planning matter? Individual and dyadic physical activity plans and their effects on plan enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jan; Fleig, Lena; Hohl, Diana Hilda; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Burkert, Silke; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Knoll, Nina

    2017-09-01

    Past research supports individual planning as an effective intervention strategy to increase physical activity in individuals. A similar strategy, dyadic planning, adds a planning partner who supports an individual's planning processes. Whether the two planning formats differ in terms of participants' entered plan content and whether and how different content characteristics are linked to plan enactment remains unknown. By investigating the content of generated plans, this study aimed at distinguishing plan characteristics of the two planning formats and examining their role as predictors of later plan enactment. Secondary analyses of a three-arm RCT with German couples (data collection between 2013 and 2015). Couples were assigned to an individual (IPC, n = 114) or dyadic planning condition (DPC, n = 111) and formulated up to 5 physical activity plans for a target person. Couples assigned to a control condition were not included as they did not generate plans. The following characteristics were distinguished and coded for each plan: number of planned opportunities, presence of a planned routine, planned cue- or activity-related specificity, activity-related intensity, and chronological plan rank. One week before (T0) and two weeks following (T2) the intervention (T1), increase vs. no increase of the planned activity was coded as a dichotomous plan enactment variable. Multilevel logistic regressions were fit. Plan enactment was higher in dyadic than in individual planners. Findings indicated that routines (e.g., after work) were positively related to plan enactment, whereas a high specificity of when-cues (e.g., Friday at 6.30 p.m.) showed a negative relationship. None of the examined plan characteristics could explain differences in enactment between IPC and DPC. Linking health behaviours to other behavioural routines seems beneficial for subsequent plan enactment. Dyadic planning was linked with higher enactment rates than individual planning. However, as

  16. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    , as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found......, ultimately, the epistemic and ontic effects of fact-making in the heart of neoliberal capitalism....

  17. Enactive Horror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    Threat simulations in the form of horror stories have existed for thousands of years because they satisfy an evolved appetite for vicarious experience with danger and negative emotion. Now, haunted attractions, or haunts, are becoming a multi-million dollar industry in North America and abroad....... In such attractions, paying costumers confront frightening set pieces and scare actors. Despite their commercial success, the phenomenon has attracted very little research. This study analyzes the structure of one major Danish haunt from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that successful haunts are designed...... to facilitate immersion and the elicitation of negative emotions ranging from disgust to fear in costumers. In contrast to observational horror (e.g. in literature and film), which situates audiences as passive observers, haunts position visitors as active participants in live-action horror scenarios. Haunts...

  18. Over reported and misunderstood? A study of teachers' reported enactment and knowledge of inquiry-based science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Daniel K.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.; Young, Ashley M.

    2016-04-01

    Science education reforms worldwide call on teachers to engage students in investigative approaches to instruction, like inquiry. Studies of teacher self-reported enactment indicate that inquiry is used frequently in the classroom, suggesting a high level of proficiency with inquiry that would be amenable to inquiry reform. However, it is unclear whether the high frequency of self-report is based on sound knowledge inquiry. In the absence of sound knowledge, high rates of self-reported enactment would be suspect. We conducted a study to measure teachers' knowledge of inquiry as it related to the known, high frequency of reported enactment. We developed a multidimensional survey instrument using US reform documents and administered it to 149 K-12 teachers at a national science teachers' conference. The majority of the teachers surveyed did not report inquiry enactment based on well-structured knowledge of inquiry. Interviews with participants showed how teachers could readily map non-inquiry activities onto inquiry statements taken directly from reform documents. From these results we argue that teachers often believed they were enacting inquiry, when likely they were not. We further reason that teachers may struggle to interpret and enact inquiry-related requirements of science education reform and will need support distinguishing inquiry from non-inquiry practices.

  19. The role of the European Commission in the enactment and execution of legal acts of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the EU founding treaties, the European Commission has been entrusted with a range of responsibilities, the most significant of which are the enactment and execution of EU legal acts. First of all, the Commission has a major role in proposing new legal acts and initiating common EU policies and measures. Concurrently, the Commission may be given the authority to adopt some general EU legal acts, acting either on the basis of the original powers it has been vested under the founding treaties or on the basis of rights it has been delegated by the European Council and the European Parliament. Yet, only in exceptional cases can the Commission act in the capacity of the holder of original powers; in most cases, it acts on the basis of the delegated authorities conferred by the Council and the Parliament. Finally, the Commission has executive powers, which are aimed at ensuring a uniform implementation of the legally binding EU acts. The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes in terms of the Commission's role in the process of enactment and execution of EU legal acts. Under this Treaty, the Commission has retained and partly extended its authority to propose new legislation in the legislative procedure, as well as its competences in the field of foreign and security policy, and police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. In addition to the original legislative powers entrusted to the Commission, the Lisbon Treaty introduced a completely new category of legal acts into the EU legal system. The delegated acts are adopted by the Commission on the basis of the authorization contained in a legislative act for the purpose of supplementing or amending some non-substantial elements of that legislative act. In terms of the Commission's executive powers, the Lisbon Treaty still leaves the implementation of EU law and policies to the Member States. However, apart from the Commission and the Council, which may be entrusted with the

  20. Case study of attempts to enact self service tobacco display ordinances: a tale of three communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, M.; Furlong, M.; Dunn, D.; Koegler, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine self service tobacco displays (SSTDs) and youth retail tobacco access by comparing longitudinal illegal tobacco sales rates in three communities in Santa Barbara County, California, that considered or implemented ordinances banning SSTDs. A confirmatory survey was also conducted to substantiate the longitudinal data.
DESIGN—A longitudinal case study design was utilised. Five undercover tobacco buys were conducted between 1994 and 1997 (n = 332). In addition, one confirmatory survey was conducted in a geographically separated area, which had no ordinances banning SSTDs (n = 57).
RESULTS—Decreases in youth buy rates were reported in all three communities. Most notably, the first city to enact a SSTD ban, Carpinteria, achieved a 0% sales rate, which was maintained throughout the study period. In contrast, Santa Barbara and Goleta experienced considerable drops in their illegal sales rates, but neither community obtained results as dramatic as those found in Carpinteria. The confirmatory survey showed that 32.1% of stores with SSTDs sold cigarettes to minors; this compares to a sales rate of 3.4% in stores without SSTDs (χ2 (1) = 8.11, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to enact self service bans are likely to meet with retail and tobacco industry opposition, as was the case in this study's three communities. The process of community debate, resultant publicity surrounding the issue, and enactment of SSTD ordinances may serve to not only increase merchant awareness of youth tobacco laws and their penalties but also may contribute to reduced youth cigarette sales rates. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.


Keywords: self service tobacco displays; youth tobacco access; community tobacco control efforts PMID:10691760

  1. Opportunities, threats and barriers to enacting mandatory child car restraint laws in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Hamid; Ainy, Elaheh; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of Iranian children's deaths are caused by injuries. Of these, 36% result from road traffic injuries (RTIs). Both RTIs and fatalities could be reduced by using child car restraints (CCRs). Despite their demonstrated effectiveness, CCRs are not mandatory in Iran. This study was conducted to assess opportunities and barriers in enacting mandatory CCR laws in that country. Using mixed method research, a phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences and perspectives of road safety stakeholders in regard to opportunities and threats in enacting mandatory CCR laws in Iran. The themes derived from group discussions were used to first develop a structured questionnaire, which was later distributed to and completed by study participants. The study analysis was conducted using scores and rankings from the responses to these questions. Twenty-eight stakeholders participated in the study. Most were male, aged 36.7 ± 5.6 (range 25-59). In terms of identifying the organization that should establish mandatory CCR laws, the Traffic Police Department achieved the highest score of 90 (range 0-100). The participants also thought that the Traffic Police department is responsible to monitor compliance and conduct follow-up investigations (score = 100). In regard to existing barriers in enacting CCR laws, the lack of positive Publicity by mass media and the lack of related laws received scores of 85 and 70, respectively. Enabling factors and opportunities included 'positive regards or attitude of families towards their child's health,' 'officials' commitment to support such laws' and 'having adequate resources to raise community awareness of the importance of CCR use. These received scores of 83, 69 and 68, respectively. The results suggest that cooperation and collaboration among stakeholders including the Traffic Police, families and local communities are needed to maximize the likelihood of mandating CCR laws.

  2. Barriers and enablers to advanced practitioners' ability to enact their leadership role: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Naomi; Begley, Cecily; Sheaf, Greg; Higgins, Agnes

    2016-08-01

    Advanced roles such as nurse practitioner, nurse consultant and advanced nurse or midwife practitioner are increasing across the world. In most countries, clinical practice, education, leadership and research are the four components that define the advanced practitioner's role. Of these, leadership is perhaps the most important part of the role, but its study has largely been neglected. There is a risk that failure to identify and respond to barriers to enacting the advanced practitioners' leadership role will limit the extent to which they can become strategic leaders for professional development, and jeopardise the long-term sustainability of the role. To identify the barriers and enablers to advanced practitioner's ability to enact their leadership role. A search of the research literature was undertaken in electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses, from inception to 4-6th June 2015), unpublished research in seventeen online research repositories and institutes, and hand search of 2 leadership journals (March/April 2010-4th June 2015). Using pre-set inclusion criteria, the 1506 titles found were screened by two authors working independently. The 140 full text reports selected were reviewed by two authors separately and 34 were included, and data extracted and cross-checked. Any disagreements were discussed by the scoping team until consensus was reached. Using content analysis, the barriers and enablers relating to leadership enactment were sorted into themes based on their common characteristics, and using a Structure-Process-Outcome conceptual framework were categorised under the four structural layers: (1) healthcare system-level, (2) organisational-level, (3) team-level, and (4) advanced practitioner-level. Thirteen barriers to, and 11 enablers of, leadership were identified. Of these a majority (n=14) were related to organisational-level factors such as mentoring, support from senior management, opportunity to

  3. The 1966 enactment of Medicare: its effect on discharges from Los Angeles County-operated hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, P A; Bell, R M; Tranquada, R E

    1994-08-01

    The effect of Medicare on two public hospitals in Los Angeles County was analyzed by examining the percentage of patients 65 years of age and older among all discharges from 1958 through 1971. At Harbor General Hospital, discharges of elderly patients had dropped from 21.7% to 7.9% by late 1966; at Los Angeles County General Hospital, discharges decreased from 15.3% to 10.7% between 1966 and 1967. Monitoring public hospitals' demographic changes after enacting a national health plan may provide information on patients' and providers' acceptance of insurance and on resources needed by public hospitals to care for those left without coverage.

  4. The Safety Culture Enactment Questionnaire (SCEQ): Theoretical model and empirical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Borja López; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the Safety Culture Enactment Questionnaire (SCEQ), designed to assess the degree to which safety is an enacted value in the day-to-day running of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The SCEQ is based on a theoretical safety culture model that is manifested in three fundamental components of the functioning and operation of any organization: strategic decisions, human resources practices, and daily activities and behaviors. The extent to which the importance of safety is enacted in each of these three components provides information about the pervasiveness of the safety culture in the NPP. To validate the SCEQ and the model on which it is based, two separate studies were carried out with data collection in 2008 and 2014, respectively. In Study 1, the SCEQ was administered to the employees of two Spanish NPPs (N=533) belonging to the same company. Participants in Study 2 included 598 employees from the same NPPs, who completed the SCEQ and other questionnaires measuring different safety outcomes (safety climate, safety satisfaction, job satisfaction and risky behaviors). Study 1 comprised item formulation and examination of the factorial structure and reliability of the SCEQ. Study 2 tested internal consistency and provided evidence of factorial validity, validity based on relationships with other variables, and discriminant validity between the SCEQ and safety climate. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) carried out in Study 1 revealed a three-factor solution corresponding to the three components of the theoretical model. Reliability analyses showed strong internal consistency for the three scales of the SCEQ, and each of the 21 items on the questionnaire contributed to the homogeneity of its theoretically developed scale. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) carried out in Study 2 supported the internal structure of the SCEQ; internal consistency of the scales was also supported. Furthermore, the three scales of the SCEQ showed the expected correlation

  5. Enacting representations of markets in exchange practies in the Danish potato industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The paper explores the potential of John Shotter’s (2008) relationally-responsive version of social constructionism for studying and analysing representations of markets and how these are enacted in actual exchanges practices. Research method......: The paper uses the extended case study method to integrate existing concepts and theories using empirical data from the Danish potato industry. Twenty semistructured, narrative interviews were conducted with different actors in the industry. Research findings: Analysis suggests that the representations...

  6. Entanglements of storytelling and power in the enactment of organizational subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2017-01-01

    The paper constructs a storytelling framework for understanding how people enact their subjectivities in organizations. Storytelling is presented as the practical ways in which subjectivities are made within a dispositive. Dispositive is Foucault’s concept for where power becomes concrete. It cap...... the subjects’ continuous work in finding managerial styles that work within the different historical, spatial and material conditions of being managers....... certain stories possible and permissible. At the same time, however, stories always establish a new beginning and reshape reality. The framework is illustrated by analysing stories from a management learning project. The analysis provides a window into a complex and dynamic social world and illuminates...

  7. Trust in Leadership for Sustaining Innovations: How Leaders Enact on Showing Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savolainen Taina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the environment of continuous change today, trust is needed more in most organizations but is enacted less. This paper discusses trust in leadership. Trust is the essence of leadership forming a foundation for functioning relationships and co-operation. Trust is intangible asset, a managerial skill, and an influencing power for leaders. Leadership by trust emphasizes trustful behavior towards employees. It can be defined as an interactive way of leading organizations for effectiveness and profitability. In this paper, we suggest that, it is trustworthiness in leader behavior that matters. Showing trustworthiness by competence, integrity, benevolence, and credibility makes a difference in daily leadership work and sustaining innovations. This paper focuses on how leaders enact on trust by showing trustworthiness to subordinates. Real life case examples are presented and their implications are discussed. In conclusion, leadership by trust matters in building innovative work environment. As to untrustworthy leader behavior, it is worth noting that building and sustaining trust is reciprocal in nature. A practical implication for leaders is that the development of an awareness of trustworthiness and skills for demonstrating it should be a top priority in the current business environment, which demands strong interaction, cooperation, and communication abilities.

  8. Science teachers' learning to notice from video cases of the enactment of cognitively demanding instructional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Miray Tekkumru

    Members of a profession develop a professional vision that enables them to see and understand complex situations in particular ways. This study focuses on developing science teachers' professional vision by supporting their learning to attend to particular classroom interactions and make sense of them in particular ways. Specifically, this study investigated high school biology teachers' learning to notice in a professional development (PD) setting from video cases that depict classroom interactions during the enactment of high-level, cognitively demanding science tasks. A seven-session, video-based PD intervention in which teachers analyzed short video clips that illustrated students' engagement with cognitively demanding tasks was designed and implemented. The findings focused on changes in teacher noticing from pre- to post-PD as revealed through the analysis of two sets of baseline and exit interviews with each individual teacher as well as the analysis of particular PD sessions. According to the findings, there were mostly significant changes in what teachers attended to in the video cases and how they made sense of what they saw. In addition, there was a shift towards connecting the specifics of what they noticed in the video cases to the level or kind of student thinking as outlined in the Task Analysis Guide in Science framework. The findings are promising in terms of developing science teachers' professional vision of classroom interactions during the enactment of cognitively demanding tasks. The study findings provide implications for designing effective PD programs to support teachers' professional vision.

  9. Evidence for the re-enactment of a recently learned behavior during sleepwalking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Oudiette

    Full Text Available Animal studies have shown that sequenced patterns of neuronal activity may be replayed during sleep. However, the existence of such replay in humans has not yet been directly demonstrated. Here we studied patients who exhibit overt behaviors during sleep to test whether sequences of movements trained during the day may be spontaneously reenacted by the patients during sleep. We recruited 19 sleepwalkers (who displayed complex and purposeful behaviors emerging from non REM sleep, 20 patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (who enacted their dreams in REM sleep and 18 healthy controls. Continuous video sleep recordings were performed during sleep following intensive training on a sequence of large movements (learned during a variant of the serial reaction time task. Both patient groups showed learning of the intensively trained motor sequence after sleep. We report the re-enactment of a fragment of the recently trained motor behavior during one sleepwalking episode. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a temporally-structured replay of a learned behavior during sleep in humans. Our observation also suggests that the study of such sleep disorders may provide unique and critical information about cognitive functions operating during sleep.

  10. A History of History: The Origins of War Re-enacting in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Americans remember history in many different ways. The Historical Re-enactment is the most controversial and bewildering event of public remembrance. Americans re-enact every war in American history from the French and Indian War down to the Vietnam War. My research set out to answer several questions about this custom of public history: why does it exist, what purpose does it serve, and who started it? My research led me to a shattered post-Civil War America. The true test of the unity of American had passed and people were left to make sense of the war that was experienced on the level of a national tragedy. The re-enactor, a veteran and an amateur historian, would begin to write his tory and present it for the public. This form of public memory would be used to facilitate an idealistic ad blind reunion of North and South. The history would be changed to make remembering safe.

  11. Enactment of third-party punishment by four-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eKenward

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment or victim (inconsistent punishment. When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their own preferred actions for the adult doll, four-year-olds (N = 32 were influenced by the demonstrated choice of target when selecting a target for punishment or admonishment. This influence was weak following inconsistent punishment, however, because the participants tended to change the story by punishing or admonishing the perpetrator when the demonstrator had punished the victim. Four-year-olds’ tendency to select a moral rule violator as a target for punishment is therefore stronger than their tendency to copy the specific actions of adults, which itself is known to be very strong. The evidence suggests that four-year-olds’ enactment of punishment is at least partially based on a belief that antisocial actions deserve to be punished.

  12. Youth voices: connections between history, enacted culture and identity in a digital divide initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degennaro, Donna; Brown, Tiffany L.

    2009-03-01

    The design of educational experiences is often mediated by historical, institutional, and social conceptions. Although these influences can initially shape the way that educational opportunities are created and implemented, this preliminary form has the potential to reorganize. In this paper, we illustrate how history shows its presence in the ways that instructors systematically arrange a technology course for urban youth. This original approach to the course inhibits youth participation. Incrementally, however, the cultural enactments of instructors and students lead to a reorganization of activity. Through highlighting history and examining the intersection of culture, we provide insight into the ways in which adolescents of color become successfully engaged in learning technology. We focus our study by asking how co-existence and the dialectic of structure and agency play a role as youth develop an identity as a technology user. Further, this emergent learning design affords outsiders a unique view of the educational and contextual experiences of these youth. Our illustration of how history, enacted culture and identity mediate the emergent learning design stems from a grounded theory approach to analyzing video, interview and artifact data in this after-school technology course.

  13. Multiscale Enaction Model (MEM): the case of complexity and "context-sensitivity" in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Éric

    2014-01-01

    I review the data on human visual perception that reveal the critical role played by non-visual contextual factors influencing visual activity. The global perspective that progressively emerges reveals that vision is sensitive to multiple couplings with other systems whose nature and levels of abstraction in science are highly variable. Contrary to some views where vision is immersed in modular hard-wired modules, rather independent from higher-level or other non-cognitive processes, converging data gathered in this article suggest that visual perception can be theorized in the larger context of biological, physical, and social systems with which it is coupled, and through which it is enacted. Therefore, any attempt to model complexity and multiscale couplings, or to develop a complex synthesis in the fields of mind, brain, and behavior, shall involve a systematic empirical study of both connectedness between systems or subsystems, and the embodied, multiscale and flexible teleology of subsystems. The conceptual model (Multiscale Enaction Model [MEM]) that is introduced in this paper finally relates empirical evidence gathered from psychology to biocomputational data concerning the human brain. Both psychological and biocomputational descriptions of MEM are proposed in order to help fill in the gap between scales of scientific analysis and to provide an account for both the autopoiesis-driven search for information, and emerging perception.

  14. Enacted support during stressful life events in middle and older adulthood: an examination of the interpersonal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Antonucci, Toni C; Tighe, Lauren

    2012-09-01

    Individuals often turn to their close social ties for support during stressful life events. Although a great deal of work examines perceived support (i.e., support believed to be available should an event occur), less is known about enacted support (i.e., support actually provided during stressful events), especially among middle-aged and older people. The present study investigated whether enacted support (emotional or instrumental) varies by relationship quality and stress appraisals. Participants included 152 adults (principal respondents; aged 50 to 69 years, 63% women) who had experienced three or more stressful life events in the last year and 180 of their identified supportive ties (core network members). Multilevel models revealed that higher quality relationships enact high levels of support irrespective of high or low stress appraisals. In contrast, lower quality relationships enact greater support under conditions of higher stress but less support under conditions of lower stress, suggesting that lower quality relationships are mobilized only under higher levels of stress. Findings are consistent with the support provision process model and highlight the importance of considering relationship context and the stress continuum in studies of enacted support among older adults.

  15. Trait enactments as density distributions: The role of actors, situations, and observers in explaining stability and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Law, Mary Kate

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this article were to determine (a) whether the high consistency of individual differences in average aggregated behavior is because of actors' personalities or because of the consistency in the situations those actors encounter; and (b) whether the surprisingly high within-person variability in trait enactment is a real phenomenon corroborated by observers, or merely in individuals' heads. Although traits are supposed to describe what individuals are like in everyday life, little evidence exists about the enactment of trait content in everyday life. Past experience-sampling studies have found both highly variable and highly consistent trait enactment, but were restricted to self-report data and to naturally occurring situations. The current study used experience-sampling in controlled lab environments with 97 targets and 183 observers to address these shortcomings. Targets attended hour-long lab sessions 20× each and observers rated targets' behavior. Parameters of distributions were highly consistent (rs ∼ .80), revealing that actors were responsible for consistency, not situations. Nonetheless, observer ratings revealed that most variability in trait enactment was within-person, confirming that even when people put it on the line in ways that affected others, they still varied rapidly in the traits they enacted. In the face of 2 historically vexing objections to traits, this article supports the density distributions model of traits and argues that trait conceptualizations must accommodate large within-person variability.

  16. Association of State Laws and Healthcare Workers' Influenza Vaccination Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Raymund, Mahlon; Sweeney, Patricia M; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2016-02-01

    State laws are being used to increase healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake. Approximately 40% of states have enacted such laws but their effectiveness has been infrequently studied. Data sources for this study were the 2000-2011 U.S. National Health Interview Survey Adult Sample File and a summary of U.S. state HCW influenza vaccination laws. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for two time periods: 1) 2000-2005 (before enactment of many state laws) and 2) 2006-2011 (a time of increased enactment of state HCW influenza vaccination legislation). During 2000-2005, two states had HCW influenza vaccination laws and HCW influenza vaccination rates averaged 22.5%. In 2006-2011, 19 states had such laws and vaccination rates averaged 50.9% (p law score. Although laws varied widely in scope and applicability, states with HCW influenza vaccination laws reported higher HCW vaccination rates.

  17. Bodywork as systemic and inter-enactive competence: Participatory process management in Feldenkrais Method® & Zen Shiatsu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKimmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our micro-ethnographic study demonstrates how bodywork skills in Feldenkrais and Shiatsu are infused with systemic sensitivities. A micro-genetic study both of process vignettes and bodyworkers’ subjective theories reveals their intrinsically systemic self-awareness for process management – which is why we deem dynamic systems concepts a suitable meta-language. From an abstract angle, bodyworkers stimulate self-organization and dynamic homeostatic balance in the client’s somato-personal system. Operating in such a framework requires a progressive reconfiguring of the client’s attractor landscape, his or her systemic dispositions. Specifically, we argue that bodyworkers context-intelligently soft-assemble (frequently non-linear synergies within their apperception of functional architectures of somato-systemic order. The client’s system is stimulated with a mix of perturbing and stabilizing interventions, while oscillating between eigenfunctions of joints, muscles, etc., and their integration in functional ensembles. In concrete embodied interaction this is implemented with continuous tactile coupling in a safe dyadic sphere and in an irreducibly real-time dynamics, even when sketchily planned. By sensorially charting systemic states in the making practitioners continuously stay apace of emergence, respond to minute changes, and customize reactions in a zone of proximal development (dynamic immediacy. Immediate responsiveness, in turn, benefits the client’s somatic learning. Finally, we inventorize the bodyworker’s tool-box at the operative level. Here a host of micro-enactive skills provides the necessary wherewithal for situated intervention, ranging from educated senses which know how to – often subtly – elicit information, via hands-on techniques from the action repertoire (grips, stretches, etc., to habitus (proper posture, muscle activation, gaze patterns, etc..

  18. An educational ethnography of teacher-developed science curriculum implementation: Enacting conceptual change-based science inquiry with Hispanic students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, Eric Steven

    An achievement gap exists between White and Hispanic students in the United States. Research has shown that improving the quality of instruction for minority students is an effective way to narrow this gap. Science education reform movements emphasize that science should be taught using a science inquiry approach. Extensive research in teaching and learning science also shows that a conceptual change model of teaching is effective in helping students learn science. Finally, research into how Hispanic students learn best has provided a number of suggestions for science instruction. The Inquiry for Conceptual Change model merges these three research strands into a comprehensive yet accessible model for instruction. This study investigates two questions. First, what are teachers' perceptions of science inquiry and its implementation in the classroom? Second, how does the use of the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model affect the learning of students in a predominantly Hispanic, urban neighborhood. Five teachers participated in a professional development project where they developed and implemented a science unit based on the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model. Three units were developed and implemented for this study. This is a qualitative study that included data from interviews, participant reflections and journals, student pre- and post-assessments, and researcher observations. This study provides an in-depth description of the role of professional development in helping teachers understand how science inquiry can be used to improve instructional quality for students in a predominantly Hispanic, urban neighborhood. These teachers demonstrated that it is important for professional development to be collaborative and provide opportunities for teachers to enact and reflect on new teaching paradigms. This study also shows promising results for the ability of the Inquiry for Conceptual Change model to improve student learning.

  19. 78 FR 36183 - State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... AGENCY State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the revised Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) allotments that... enacted. These allotments reflect the results from EPA's most recent Drinking Water Infrastructure...

  20. Putting Gino's lesson to work: Actor-network theory, enacted humanity, and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thomas; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-02-01

    This article argues that rehabilitation enacts a particular understanding of "the human" throughout therapeutic assessment and treatment. Following Michel Callon and Vololona Rabeharisoa's "Gino's Lesson on Humanity," we suggest that this is not simply a top-down process, but is cultivated in the application and response to biomedical frameworks of human ability, competence, and responsibility. The emergence of the human is at once a materially contingent, moral, and interpersonal process. We begin the article by outlining the basics of the actor-network theory that underpins "Gino's Lesson on Humanity." Next, we elucidate its central thesis regarding how disabled personhood emerges through actor-network interactions. Section "Learning Gino's lesson" draws on two autobiographical examples, examining the emergence of humanity through rehabilitation, particularly assessment measures and the responses to them. We conclude by thinking about how rehabilitation and actor-network theory might take this lesson on humanity seriously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Listening to the third voices of Pangasinan students: designing and enacting culturally sensitive curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    This response builds upon Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" by exploring how an expanded understanding of the ubiquitous nature of adolescent literacy practices and identities challenge traditional notions of "in school" and "out of school" cultural spaces. Listening to the "third voices" of adolescents can promote a deeper understanding of the complex literate lives of Pangasinan students and inform both the official and the enacted culturally sensitive curriculum. To hear the literate lives of adolescents is to push back against politically dehumanizing and "de-literacizing" neo-liberal educational policies and practices which privilege a singular, whitewashed view of literacy in order to standardize curriculum and instruction, preserve power in the hands of the powerful, and exacerbate socio-economic, racial, ethnic, and linguistic divisions.

  2. Enacting the 'neuro' in practice: translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh; Michael, Mike

    2014-10-01

    This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group's work was held together through the 'promise of porosity'--that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of 'vivification'--in our case mediated by the Group Leader--in rendering 'alive' the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  3. The co-creation of meaningful action: bridging enaction and interactional sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Hanne; Peräkylä, Anssi; Stevanovic, Melisa

    2016-05-05

    What makes possible the co-creation of meaningful action? In this paper, we go in search of an answer to this question by combining insights from interactional sociology and enaction. Both research schools investigate social interactions as such, and conceptualize their organization in terms of autonomy. We ask what it could mean for an interaction to be autonomous, and discuss the structures and processes that contribute to and are maintained in the so-called interaction order. We also discuss the role played by individual vulnerability as well as the vulnerability of social interaction processes in the co-creation of meaningful action. Finally, we outline some implications of this interdisciplinary fraternization for the empirical study of social understanding, in particular in social neuroscience and psychology, pointing out the need for studies based on dynamic systems approaches on origins and references of coordination, and experimental designs to help understand human co-presence. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Enacting Efficacy in Early Career: Narratives of Agency, Growth, and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Niehaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To explore how early career faculty in the field of higher education administration develop and enact their personal and professional identities. Background:\tParticipants sought to understand themselves, to understand their environments and the “rules” of the academic “game,” and to reconcile conflicts between their own values and identities and the expectations and culture of their environments. Methodology: In-depth case studies of seventeen early career scholars in the field. Contribution: The participants’ experiences underscore important implications for mentoring and socialization that takes into consideration the unique motivation and identity development of aspiring and new faculty members. Findings: Identifies the early career period as one where new faculty are working to develop a strong internal foundation upon which they can manage the many challenges of their personal and professional lives. Recommendations: The findings point to implications for practice, both in graduate education and in departments hiring new faculty members.

  5. Enacting representations of markets in exchange practies in the Danish potato industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    various actors have constructed of the Danish market for potatoes and the different market actors share many common features, but also that there are important differences in representations between members along the marketing channel that explain why actors in the Danish potato industry have difficulties...... finding common ground and why retailers are dominant. Main contribution: The paper shows that most activities performed by actors in the industry sustain codified representations of the market, but some activities contest and challenge prevalent representations of the market for potatoes. Not all......Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The paper explores the potential of John Shotter’s (2008) relationally-responsive version of social constructionism for studying and analysing representations of markets and how these are enacted in actual exchanges practices. Research method...

  6. Enacted Reading Comprehension: Using Bodily Movement to Aid the Comprehension of Abstract Text Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Connor, Carol M; Dombek, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    We report a design study that assessed the feasibility of Enacted Reading Comprehension (ERC), an intervention designed to teach 3rd and 4th grade students (n = 40 and 25, respectively) to use gestures to understand an increasingly abstract set of texts. Students were taught to use gestures to understand the idea of "opposing forces" in a concrete setting-the forces at play as tectonic plates move past each other-and then taught to use the gestures to understand opposing forces in more abstract situations. For example, students were taught to use gestures to understand the opposing sides of an argument, and to understand the internal conflicts that arise as individuals are faced with moral dilemmas. The results of our design study suggest that ERC has promise as a method for introducing students to the idea of using gesture to understand text content, and to employ this strategy in a range of reading contexts.

  7. Enacted Reading Comprehension: Using Bodily Movement to Aid the Comprehension of Abstract Text Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Connor, Carol M.; Dombek, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    We report a design study that assessed the feasibility of Enacted Reading Comprehension (ERC), an intervention designed to teach 3rd and 4th grade students (n = 40 and 25, respectively) to use gestures to understand an increasingly abstract set of texts. Students were taught to use gestures to understand the idea of “opposing forces” in a concrete setting–the forces at play as tectonic plates move past each other–and then taught to use the gestures to understand opposing forces in more abstract situations. For example, students were taught to use gestures to understand the opposing sides of an argument, and to understand the internal conflicts that arise as individuals are faced with moral dilemmas. The results of our design study suggest that ERC has promise as a method for introducing students to the idea of using gesture to understand text content, and to employ this strategy in a range of reading contexts. PMID:28107474

  8. The co-creation of meaningful action: bridging enaction and interactional sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peräkylä, Anssi; Stevanovic, Melisa

    2016-01-01

    What makes possible the co-creation of meaningful action? In this paper, we go in search of an answer to this question by combining insights from interactional sociology and enaction. Both research schools investigate social interactions as such, and conceptualize their organization in terms of autonomy. We ask what it could mean for an interaction to be autonomous, and discuss the structures and processes that contribute to and are maintained in the so-called interaction order. We also discuss the role played by individual vulnerability as well as the vulnerability of social interaction processes in the co-creation of meaningful action. Finally, we outline some implications of this interdisciplinary fraternization for the empirical study of social understanding, in particular in social neuroscience and psychology, pointing out the need for studies based on dynamic systems approaches on origins and references of coordination, and experimental designs to help understand human co-presence. PMID:27069055

  9. Progressive dementia and hypersomnolence with dream-enacting behavior: oneiric dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, Jean E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Gold, Michael; Eskin, Thomas A; Gilmore, Robin L; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2002-04-01

    Sleep disorders are associated with several types of degenerative dementias, including Alzheimer and prion diseases. Animal models have demonstrated abolition of rapid eye movement atonia, resulting in dream-enacting complex movements termed oneiric behavior, and patients with fatal familial insomnia may have vivid dreams that intrude on wakefulness. To describe a new form of progressive dementia with hypersomnia and oneiric behavior. Neuropsychological and polysomnographic studies of a middle-aged woman with a progressive dementia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and a vertical gaze palsy. Neuropsychological testing revealed decreased verbal fluency, impaired attention and working memory, amnesia, poor recall, and bradyphrenia with hypersomnia. Polysomnography revealed a rapid eye movement behavioral disorder with complete absence of slow wave sleep. Prion protein analysis did not reveal the mutation associated with fatal familial insomnia, and other diagnostic test findings were unrevealing. Our patient had a previously unreported syndrome of progressive dementia associated with rapid eye movement behavioral disorder and the absence of slow wave sleep.

  10. Islamic Family Law Enactment 1987 (No. 3 of 1987), 20 May 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Islamic Family Law Enactment of Pahang, Malaysia, is based on the model of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act, 1984 (Annual Review of Population Law, Vol. 11, 1984, Section 250). It differs from that Law in the following major respects: 1) marriages between Muslims and non-Muslims are prohibited; 2) a wali Hakim (special guardian appointed by the Sultan) is authorized to consent to marriage if the wali (guardian) of the bride unreasonably withholds consent; 3) the grounds for divorce are fewer (failure to maintain and cruelty being omitted), although there is a general provision allowing divorce for any ground that is recognized as valid by Islamic law; 4) a son is to be maintained until the age of 15, not 18; and 5) a religious court, rather than a civil court, may order a putative father to maintain his illegitimate child.

  11. Felt and enacted stigma in elderly persons with epilepsy: A qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Carolyn; Drake, Kendra; Labiner, David M; Chong, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Stigma is a common psychological consequence of chronic diseases, including epilepsy; however, little research has been done to determine the effect of stigma on persons with epilepsy, especially the elderly. We interviewed 57 older adults with epilepsy to discover the extent and consequences of, and reasons for, epilepsy-related stigma in their lives. Felt stigma was more frequently reported than enacted stigma, with over 70% having experienced this form of stigma. Participants described ignorance and fear of the disease as the foundation of epilepsy-related stigma. The most common response to stigmatizing events was a decrease in epilepsy disclosure to family or friends. Results from this study could inform interventions designed for elderly persons with epilepsy and their support networks, as well as educational campaigns for the general public.

  12. Enacting sustainable school-based health initiatives: a communication-centered approach to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGreco, Marianne; Canary, Heather E

    2011-03-01

    Communication plays an important role in all aspects of the development and use of policy. We present a communication-centered perspective on the processes of enacting public health policies. Our proposed conceptual framework comprises 4 communication frames: orientation, amplification, implementation, and integration. Empirical examples from 2 longitudinal studies of school-based health policies show how each frame includes different communication processes that enable sustainable public health policy practices in school-based health initiatives. These 4 frames provide unique insight into the capacity of school-based public health policy to engage youths, parents, and a broader community of stakeholders. Communication is often included as an element of health policy; however, our framework demonstrates the importance of communication as a pivotal resource in sustaining changes in public health practices.

  13. Medical image registration algorithms assesment Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Pennec, X

    2006-01-01

    Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grids to tackle such computations on medical image databases. We demonstrate MOTEUR, a service-based workflow engine optimized for dealing with data intensive applications. MOTEUR eases the enactment of the Bronze Standard and similar applications on the EGEE production grid infrastructure. It is a generic workflow engine, based on current standards and freely available, that can be used to instrument legacy application code at low cost.

  14. Enacting a Vision for a Master's Entry Clinical Nurse Leader Program: Rethinking Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Frank D; Rosenberg, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The need to educate nurses at the graduate level and provide them with a different skill set that broadens their view of health and nursing is clearly articulated by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Consequently, the role of the clinical nurse leader (CNL) was born. Responding to the need for providing a highly educated and credentialed professional at the bedside, Rush University College of Nursing made the bold move to phase out baccalaureate education and enact a prelicensure, master's entry CNL program. Although there is a clear need for this type of graduate, there is little in the literature to provide guidance to institutions that wish to develop this type of program. This paper describes the factors that came into play in making that decision, the process of curriculum development and implementation, the challenges encountered in implementing this type of program, and the outcomes that the program has evidenced since its inception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Do Soccer Players Adjust Their Activity in Team Coordination? An Enactive Phenomenological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gesbert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how individual team members adjust their activity to the needs for collective behavior. To do so, we used an enactive phenomenological approach and explored how soccer players' lived experiences were linked to the active regulation of team coordination during eight offensive transition situations. These situations were defined by the shift from defensive to offensive play following a change in ball possession. We collected phenomenological data, which were processed in four steps. First, we reconstructed the diachronic and synchronic dynamics of the players' lived experiences across these situations in order to identify the units of their activity. Second, we connected each player's units of activity side-by-side in chronological order in order to identify the collective units. Each connection was viewed as a collective regulation mode corresponding to which and how individual units were linked at a given moment. Third, we clustered each collective unit using the related objectives within three modes of regulation—local (L, global (G, and mixed (M. Fourth, we compared the occurrences of these modes in relation to the observable key moments in the situations in order to identify typical patterns. The results indicated four patterns of collective regulation modes. Two distinct patterns were identified without ball possession: reorganize the play formation (G and M and adapt to the actions of putting pressure on the ball carrier (M. Once the ball was recovered, two additional patterns emerged: be available to get the ball out of the recovery zone (L and shoot for the goal (L and M. These results suggest that team coordination is a fluctuating phenomenon that can be described through the more or less predictable chaining between these patterns. They also highlight that team coordination is supported by several modes of regulation, including our proposal of a new mode of interpersonal regulation. We conclude that future research

  16. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply...

  17. Managing Inquiry-Based Science: Challenges in Enacting Complex Science Instruction in Elementary and Middle School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher J.; Rooks, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    Effectively enacting inquiry-based science instruction entails considerable changes in classroom management practices. In this article, we describe five interconnected management areas that need to be addressed when managing an inquiry-oriented K-8 science classroom. We introduce a pyramid model as a framework for thinking about these management…

  18. From Curriculum Guides to Classroom Enactment: Examining Early Career Elementary Teachers' Orientations toward Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This article examines three early career elementary teachers' orientations toward standards-based mathematics curriculum implementation in New York City public schools. It is important to have a greater understanding of teachers who are responsible for enacting standards-based curriculum in authentic teaching situations in order to learn more…

  19. The Construction, Enactment, and Maintenance of Power-as-Domination through an Acquisition: The Case of TWA and Ozark Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Tamyra; Dougherty, Debbie S.

    2002-01-01

    Explores how domination was created, enacted, and maintained in the acquisition of Ozark Airlines by TWA. Uses the concepts of resources, hegemony, and resistance from the functionalist, Marxist, and postmodern traditions, respectively, to understand power-as-domination as a complex communication process. Reveals how communication practices were…

  20. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  1. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifes

  2. How the Framing of Instructional Coaching as a Lever for Systemic or Individual Reform Influences the Enactment of Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Dunsmore, KaiLonnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Instructional coaching is framed as both a means for systemic and individual reform. These competing conceptualizations of coaching as a mechanism for change have not been systematically examined, and therefore, we know little about how the framing of instructional coaching initiatives affects the enactment of coaching. In response to…

  3. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  4. Enacting Teaching and Learning in the Interaction Process: "Keys" for Developing Skills in Piano Lessons through Four-Hand Improvisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Julien; Kaddouch, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Embodied mind theories underline the role of the body in the act of knowing. According to the enactive approach, we learn to perceive and to know through our bodily interactions with the world (Varela, Thompson & Rosch, 1991). However, such an approach remains incomplete as long as sociality is not taken into account (Froese & Di Paolo,…

  5. The Writing on the Wall: Enacting Place Pedagogies in Order to Reimagine Schooling for Black Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Latrise P.

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines how Black educators at an urban middle school enacted critical place pedagogies in order to create a sense of community--that is, a sense of belonging to the place of school--and mutual nurturing between people and space in an attempt to transform how their Black males experienced school. Educators at Starks…

  6. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as

  7. State Education Reform within Reach? Exploring the Effectiveness of State Support Teams for Districts and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Since Congress enacted the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965, the federal government has emphasized states' shared responsibility for improving student achievement. When Congress reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2001 as the No Child Left Behind Act, it called upon states to provide technical support to…

  8. Creative Practices Embodied, Embedded, and Enacted in Architectural Settings: Towards an Ecological Model of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Healey Malinin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Memoires by eminently creative people often describe architectural spaces and qualities they believe instrumental for their creativity. However places designed to encourage creativity have had mixed results, with some found to decrease creative productivity for users. This may be due, in part, to lack of suitable empirical theory or model to guide design strategies. Relationships between creative cognition and features of the physical environment remain largely uninvestigated in the scientific literature, despite general agreement among researchers that human cognition is physically and socially situated. This paper investigates what role architectural settings may play in creative processes by examining documented first person and biographical accounts of creativity with respect to three central theories of situated cognition. First, the embodied thesis argues that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body. Second, the embedded thesis maintains that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to increase their cognitive capabilities. Third, the enaction thesis describes cognition as dependent upon a person’s interactions with the world. Common themes inform three propositions, illustrated in a new theoretical framework describing relationships between people and their architectural settings with respect to different cognitive processes of creativity. The framework is intended as a starting point toward an ecological model of creativity, which may be used to guide future creative process research and architectural design strategies to support user creative productivity.

  9. Enacting the ‘neuro’ in practice: Translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group’s work was held together through the ‘promise of porosity’ – that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of ‘vivification’ – in our case mediated by the Group Leader – in rendering ‘alive’ the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:25362829

  10. Creative Practices Embodied, Embedded, and Enacted in Architectural Settings: Toward an Ecological Model of Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Memoires by eminently creative people often describe architectural spaces and qualities they believe instrumental for their creativity. However, places designed to encourage creativity have had mixed results, with some found to decrease creative productivity for users. This may be due, in part, to lack of suitable empirical theory or model to guide design strategies. Relationships between creative cognition and features of the physical environment remain largely uninvestigated in the scientific literature, despite general agreement among researchers that human cognition is physically and socially situated. This paper investigates what role architectural settings may play in creative processes by examining documented first person and biographical accounts of creativity with respect to three central theories of situated cognition. First, the embodied thesis argues that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body. Second, the embedded thesis maintains that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to increase their cognitive capabilities. Third, the enaction thesis describes cognition as dependent upon a person's interactions with the world. Common themes inform three propositions, illustrated in a new theoretical framework describing relationships between people and their architectural settings with respect to different cognitive processes of creativity. The framework is intended as a starting point toward an ecological model of creativity, which may be used to guide future creative process research and architectural design strategies to support user creative productivity.

  11. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  12. [Surveillance in Spain 3 years since the enactment of the Public Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Anxela; Godoy, Pere; Aragonés, Nuria; Cano, Rosa; Sierra, María José; González, Francisco; Mayoral, José María

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Epidemiological Surveillance Working Group of the Sociedad Española de Epidemiología (Spanish Society of Epidemiology), carried out a descriptive study in order to evaluate the level of development of the Spanish Public Health Law since its enactment in 2011. A survey collecting data on the existence of information systems and other aspects pertaining to each surveillance section included in the law was sent to all 19 autonomous communities and cities. All regional authorities reported the presence of an information system for communicable diseases, and six also reported an information system for social factors. 18 reported that at least one chronic disease was subject to surveillance and 14 confirmed surveillance of some of its determinants. They all systematically analysed the data derived from the communicable diseases. There is room for improvement in Public Health surveillance in Spain, and action should be aimed at the main health problems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-management support in primary care: enactments, disruptions, and conversational consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thille, Patricia; Ward, Natalie; Russell, Grant

    2014-05-01

    A common refrain in chronic disease management is that patients and clinicians need to enact new roles: patients as their own caregivers; clinicians as professional supporters of patient self-management activities. These roles are central to self-management support (SMS), an approach that emphasizes a clinical partnership, and promotes patient identification and achievement of realistic and short-term behavioral goals. With SMS, behavior change is the desired end, not the means to a desired biomedical end. Shifting SMS concepts into clinical practice has proven to be difficult and inconsistent, creating potential, unknown risks or harms to patients. We completed a discourse analysis of 16 clinical dialogues between diabetic patients and clinicians, collected during a study of six Ontario Family Health Teams, to explore the questions of risks and harms relating to SMS implementation. We observed varying degrees of incomplete implementation of SMS, as well as interactions that actively negated the core principles. Contrary to SMS principles, clinicians tended to emphasize behavioral changes as means to achieve biomedical ends, though to varying degrees. We present two appointments in detail, highlighting how linking behavior change closely with biomedical measures often elicited face-saving defenses from patients. The subsequent dialogue shifted attention away from problem solving and behavior change into active negotiation of responsibility and identity. Interactions that oriented more to SMS concepts elicited fewer defensive maneuvers from patients. Our analysis helps explicate one additional mechanism by which self-management talk threatens the clinical relationship, and highlights a promising method to mitigate this threat.

  14. From naturalistic neuroscience to modeling radical embodiment with narrative enactive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eTikka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream cognitive neuroscience has begun to accept the idea of embodied mind, which assumes that the human mind is fundamentally constituted by the dynamical interactions of the brain, body, and the environment. In today’s paradigm of naturalistic neurosciences, subjects are exposed to rich contexts, such as video sequences or entire films, under relatively controlled conditions, against which researchers can interpret changes in neural responses within a time window. However, from the point of view of radical embodied cognitive neuroscience, the increasing complexity alone will not suffice as the explanatory apparatus for dynamical embodiment and situatedness of the mind. We suggest that narrative enactive systems with dynamically adaptive content as stimuli,may serve better to account for the embodied mind engaged with the surrounding world. Among the ensuing challenges for neuroimaging studies is how to interpret brain data against broad temporal contexts of previous experiences that condition the unfolding experience of nowness. We propose means to tackle this issue, as well as ways to limit the exponentially growing combinatoria of narrative paths to a controllable number.

  15. From naturalistic neuroscience to modeling radical embodiment with narrative enactive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Pia; Kaipainen, Mauri Ylermi

    2014-01-01

    Mainstream cognitive neuroscience has begun to accept the idea of embodied mind, which assumes that the human mind is fundamentally constituted by the dynamical interactions of the brain, body, and the environment. In today's paradigm of naturalistic neurosciences, subjects are exposed to rich contexts, such as video sequences or entire films, under relatively controlled conditions, against which researchers can interpret changes in neural responses within a time window. However, from the point of view of radical embodied cognitive neuroscience, the increasing complexity alone will not suffice as the explanatory apparatus for dynamical embodiment and situatedness of the mind. We suggest that narrative enactive systems with dynamically adaptive content as stimuli, may serve better to account for the embodied mind engaged with the surrounding world. Among the ensuing challenges for neuroimaging studies is how to interpret brain data against broad temporal contexts of previous experiences that condition the unfolding experience of nowness. We propose means to tackle this issue, as well as ways to limit the exponentially growing combinatoria of narrative paths to a controllable number.

  16. Preservice special education teachers' understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry: Issues and hopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajlakshmi

    This study examined the understandings, enactments, views, and plans for scientific inquiry held by preservice special education teachers enrolled in a K--8 general science methods course. Sixteen participants from four special education concentration areas---Mild to Moderate Educational Needs, Moderate to Intense Educational Needs, Mild to Moderate Educational Needs with Language Arts and Reading Emphasis, and Early Childhood Intervention---participated in this study. Qualitative data were collected from questionnaires, interviews, teaching videos, lesson plans, planning commentaries, and reflection papers. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and compared against the theoretical view of inquiry as conceptualized by the National Research Council (NRC, 2000). The participants held unique interpretations of inquiry that only partially matched with the theoretical insights provided by the NRC. The participants' previous science learning experiences and experiences in special education played an important role in shaping their conceptualizations of inquiry as learned in the science methods class. The impacts of such unique interpretations are discussed with reference to both science education and special education, and implications for teacher education are provided.

  17. Using video-reflexive ethnography to capture the complexity of leadership enactment in the healthcare workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lisi; Rees, Charlotte; Ker, Jean; Cleland, Jennifer

    2016-12-30

    Current theoretical thinking asserts that leadership should be distributed across many levels of healthcare organisations to improve the patient experience and staff morale. However, much healthcare leadership education focusses on the training and competence of individuals and little attention is paid to the interprofessional workplace and how its inherent complexities might contribute to the emergence of leadership. Underpinned by complexity theory, this research aimed to explore how interprofessional healthcare teams enact leadership at a micro-level through influential acts of organising. A whole (interprofessional) team workplace-based study utilising video-reflexive ethnography occurred in two UK clinical sites. Thematic framework analyses of the video data (video-observation and video-reflexivity sessions) were undertaken, followed by in-depth analyses of human-human and human-material interactions. Data analysis revealed a complex interprofessional environment where leadership is a dynamic process, negotiated and renegotiated in various ways throughout interactions (both formal and informal). Being able to "see" themselves at work gave participants the opportunity to discuss and analyse their everyday leadership practices and challenge some of their sometimes deeply entrenched values, beliefs, practices and assumptions about healthcare leadership. These study findings therefore indicate a need to redefine the way that medical and healthcare educators facilitate leadership development and argue for new approaches to research which shifts the focus from leaders to leadership.

  18. Focal Dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerruchoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, and the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic-functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE. Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration.

  19. A new view of "dream enactment" in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Plumeau, Alan M

    2016-12-01

    Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) exhibit increased muscle tone and exaggerated myoclonic twitching during REM sleep. In addition, violent movements of the limbs, and complex behaviors that can sometimes appear to involve the enactment of dreams, are associated with RBD. These behaviors are widely thought to result from a dysfunction involving atonia-producing neural circuitry in the brainstem, thereby unmasking cortically generated dreams. Here we scrutinize the assumptions that led to this interpretation of RBD. In particular, we challenge the assumption that motor cortex produces twitches during REM sleep, thus calling into question the related assumption that motor cortex is primarily responsible for all of the pathological movements of RBD. Moreover, motor cortex is not even necessary to produce complex behavior; for example, stimulation of some brainstem structures can produce defensive and aggressive behaviors in rats and monkeys that are strikingly similar to those reported in human patients with RBD. Accordingly, we suggest an interpretation of RBD that focuses increased attention on the brainstem as a source of the pathological movements and that considers sensory feedback from moving limbs as an important influence on the content of dream mentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theories of nutrition education and promotion in Japan: enactment of the "Food Education Basic Law".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Miyuki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the necessity of a theory incorporating "a holistic view of food and nutrition dynamics". The generation of this theory and its potential to effect nutrition education practices, was also examined using examples of practice in Japan. The necessity and potential of a nutrition theory with "a holistic view of food and nutrition dynamics" was shown through discussions about the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku) enacted in 2005 in Japan and the following case examples: a study of daily fish consumption of 2,110 school children in Japan from the viewpoint of human and food ecology; a study of school children's eating habits with their families which involved drawing a meal picture; a nutrition intervention that used a 5 point meal box system (3:1:2 meal box magic) to measure the quantity and quality appropriate for one meal; and a nutrition education program for school-aged children. Finally, a definition of nutrition education aimed at the sustainable and harmonious coexistence of both quality of life (QOL) and quality of environment (QOE) was suggested.

  1. Nature of Technology: Implications for design, development, and enactment of technological tools in school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2012-12-01

    This position paper provides a theory-based explanation informed by philosophy of technology (PoT) of the recurrent documented patterns often associated with attempts to enact technology-supported, inquiry-based approaches in precollege science classrooms. Understandings derived from the history of technological development in other domains (e.g. medicine, transportation, and warfare) reveal numerous parallels that help to explain these recurrent patterns. Historical analyses of major technologies reveal a conglomerate of factors that interact to produce benefits, as well as intended and unintended consequences. On a macro-scale, PoT facilitates understandings of how technologies interact and are impacted by individuals, society, institutions, economy, politics, and culture. At the micro-level, and most relevant to science education, PoT engages the inherent nature of technology along a number of key dimensions: role of culture and values, notions of technological progression, technology as part of systems, technological diffusion, technology as a fix, and the notions of expertise. Overall, the present analysis has implications for the design, development, implementation, and adoption of technological tools for use in precollege science education, and highlights the role of technology as both artifact and process.

  2. Multiscale Enaction Model (MEM: The Case of Complexity and Context-Sensitivity in Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric eLAURENT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I review the data on human visual perception that reveal the critical role played by non-visual contextual factors influencing visual activity. The global perspective that progressively emerges reveals that vision is sensitive to multiple couplings with other systems whose nature and levels of abstraction in science are highly variable. Contrary to some views where vision is immersed in modular hard-wired modules, rather independent from higher-level or other non-cognitive processes, converging data gathered in this article suggest that visual perception can be theorized in the larger context of biological, physical, and social systems with which it is coupled, and through which it is enacted. Therefore, any attempt to model complexity and multiscale couplings, or to develop a complex synthesis in the fields of mind, brain, and behavior, shall involve a systematic empirical study of both connectedness between systems or subsystems, and the embodied, multiscale and flexible teleology of subsystems. The conceptual model (MEM that is introduced in this paper finally relates empirical evidence gathered from psychology to biocomputational data concerning the human brain. Both psychological and biocomputational descriptions of MEM are proposed in order to help fill in the gap between scales of scientific analysis and to provide an account for both the autopoiesis-driven search for information, and emerging perception.

  3. The enactment of knowledge translation: a study of the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care initiative within the English National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andreta, Daniela; Scarbrough, Harry; Evans, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    We contribute to existing knowledge translation (KT) literature by developing the notion of 'enactment' and illustrate this through an interpretative, comparative case-study analysis of three Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) initiatives. We argue for a focus on the way in which the CLAHRC model has been 'enacted' as central to the different KT challenges and capabilities encountered. A comparative, mixed method study created a typology of enactments (Classical, Home-grown and Imported) using qualitative analysis and social network analysis. We identify systematic differences in the enactment of the CLAHRC model. The sources of these different enactments are subsequently related to variation in formative interpretations and leadership styles, the implementation of different governance structures, and the relative epistemic differences between the professional groups involved. Enactment concerns the creative agency of individuals and groups in constituting a particular context for their work through their local interpretation of a particular KT model. Our theory of enactment goes beyond highlighting variation between CLAHRCs, to explore the mechanisms that influence the way a particular model is interpreted and acted upon. We thus encourage less focus on conceptual models and more on the formative role played by leaders of KT initiatives.

  4. A Content Analysis of Protective Factors within States' Antibullying Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lori M.; Brown, James R.; Weddle, Daniel B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    State lawmakers have responded to school bullying by crafting antibullying legislation. By July 2011, 47 states enacted such laws, though varied widely in content and scope. This study systematically evaluated each state's antibullying legislation by focusing on the inclusion of individual, parental, and systemic protective factors through…

  5. 7 CFR 1940.328 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Environmental Policy Acts. 1940.328 Section 1940... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.328 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Numerous States have enacted environmental policy acts or regulations similar to...

  6. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  7. A Content Analysis of Protective Factors within States' Antibullying Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lori M.; Brown, James R.; Weddle, Daniel B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    State lawmakers have responded to school bullying by crafting antibullying legislation. By July 2011, 47 states enacted such laws, though varied widely in content and scope. This study systematically evaluated each state's antibullying legislation by focusing on the inclusion of individual, parental, and systemic protective factors through…

  8. ProcessGene-Connect: SOA Integration between Business Process Models and Enactment Transactions of Enterprise Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Avi; Lincoln, Maya

    In recent years, both practitioners and applied researchers have become increasingly interested in methods for integrating business process models and enterprise software systems through the deployment of enabling middleware. Integrative BPM research has been mainly focusing on the conversion of workflow notations into enacted application procedures, and less effort has been invested in enhancing the connectivity between design level, non-workflow business process models and related enactment systems such as: ERP, SCM and CRM. This type of integration is useful at several stages of an IT system lifecycle, from design and implementation through change management, upgrades and rollout. The paper presents an integration method that utilizes SOA for connecting business process models with corresponding enterprise software systems. The method is then demonstrated through an Oracle E-Business Suite procurement process and its ERP transactions.

  9. Commercial validation of the true ileal digestible lysine requirement for eleven- to twenty-seven-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, D C; Gaines, A M; Allee, G L; Usry, J L

    2008-02-01

    Five experiments utilizing 3,628 pigs were conducted to determine the true ileal digestible (TID) Lys requirement for 11- to 27-kg pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. In Exp. 1, 216 barrows (initial BW = 11.5 kg) were used, with dietary TID Lys levels from 1.05 to 1.40% TID Lys (0.07% increments). All diets were isocaloric (3.42 Mcal of ME) and contained the same inclusion of soybean meal (33.1%). Dietary Lys content was increased by adding graded levels of L-Lys.HCl (0.0 to 0.445%), with other crystalline AA supplied to meet minimum AA-to-Lys ratios. For the 21-d period, ADG and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing Lys levels. Experiments 2 through 5 were each conducted in different commercial research facilities. In Exp. 2, a 5-point titration (1.05 to 1.41% TID Lys; 0.09% increments) was used containing the same level of soybean meal (34.3%), with graded levels of L-Lys.HCl addition as in Exp. 1 for a 16-d period. Exp. 3 used similar diets, but was a 28-d period from 11.8 to 28 kg. There were linear increases in ADG (P < 0.01) and G:F (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary Lys in both experiments. On the basis of these results, 2 additional 28-d experiments were conducted with similar diets, except for 1 additional level at 1.50% TID Lys. In Exp. 4, linear increases (P < 0.01) in ADG and G:F were observed from d 0 to 14. From d 14 to 28, there were quadratic increases (P < 0.04) in ADG and G:F, which resulted in quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in ADG and G:F with increasing dietary Lys for the entire 28-d period. Similarly, in Exp. 5, there were linear increases (P < 0.01) in growth performance from d 0 to 14, but there were quadratic increases in G:F (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Lys for the overall period. Data from all 5 experiments yielded a single-slope, broken-line response, with requirement estimates for TID Lys of 1.33 and 1.35% for 11- to 19-kg pigs. The 5 experiments gave requirement estimates of 1.30% TID Lys (3.80 g of TID Lys/Mcal of ME) for 11- to 27-kg pigs, equivalent to 19 g of TID Lys/kg of gain.

  10. Juvenile Male Rats Exposed to a Low-Dose Mixture of Twenty-Seven Environmental Chemicals Display Adverse Health Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Svingen, Terje; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2016-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals in their daily life, many of which are readily detectable in blood or urine. It remains uncertain if these chemicals can cause adverse health effects when present together at low doses. In this study we have tested whether a mixture...

  11. Deletion of twenty seven nucleotides within exon 11 of the band 3 gene identified in ovalocytosis in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimsardjono, H; Mukono, I S; Dachlan, Y P; Matsuo, M

    1997-03-01

    This study reports the molecular characterization of ovalocytosis in Lombok Island, Indonesia. The analysis of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction shows that all 21 ovalocytotic individuals have two amplified products of different size from a region encompassing exon 11 of the band 3 gene. The sequence of the larger product matched perfectly with that of normal individuals. In the sequence of the smaller product, 27 nucleotides within exon 11 were deleted. The heterozygous presence of the deletion identified in other parts of Southeast Asia was confirmed in patients with ovalocytosis in an isolated island of eastern Indonesia.

  12. Leveraging Appreciative Intelligence for Positive Enactment in Times of Uncertainty: A Case Study of a Small Investment Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. Case

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: How do we develop a complex understanding of markets and environments? Are markets and environments concrete entities that exist “out there” or are they socially constructed by human imagination and intentional language use? Approach: Using a case study approach, the interactions in a small investment firm were analyzed to bring to surface the complex relationship among markets, enactment and learning, often from ambiguous events in unstable environments. Weick’s framework of enactment and components of appreciative intelligence theory are used to explicate how the CEO of a small investment firm engages in intentional conversations and dialogue to reduce cognitive dissonance brought about by fast changing and often conflicting financial data and creates new opportunities. Results: Using Weick’s notion of enactment, we showed that managers often create their environments through cycles of perceptions and action whereby perceptions of the environment leads to particular actions and choices by organizations. Such a process made use of two of the three components of appreciative intelligence: reframing to recognize opportunities and engaging in actions to bring the new possibility to fruition. Conclusion: The case study showed that enactment and several components of strategic management use the same processes and that an opportunity existed to develop an integrated model between the two perspectives. Results indicated that strategic actions were meaning-laden stimuli that feed selective information to decision makers about market uncertainty. The case study of the investment firm also revealed how the two components of appreciative intelligence, reframing to recognize opportunities and bringing the future to the present, help managers under high stress who operate in fast paced environments make innovative use of ambiguous data and produce positive outcomes.

  13. Labour Rights Protection of Foreign Workers After Enactment of Law Number 6 of 2012 in Sidoarjo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifqi Ridlo Phahlevy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enactment of Law No. 6 of 2012 on the Ratification of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, is a manifestation of the government's efforts in human rights, and also the Indonesian government protection measures against the presence of migrant workers in overseas. However, with the passing of this Law, the Government also has an obligation to protect the Foreign Workers who are in Indonesia, to protect their rights as contained in the convention. Sidoarjo Regency is one of the districts with a population of Foreign Workers pretty much in East Java, so Sidoarjo considered to represent ideal conditions most of the local government in Indonesia in terms of a form of protection against TKA after the enactment of Law No. 6 of 2012. This normative law research was supported by primary data sourced from the Social Service Workers at Sidoarjo Regency. Based on research that has been done, founded the lack of regulations Sidoarjo district that specifically regulates the protection of the rights of foreign workers. How To Cite: Phahlevy, R., Multazam, M., & Mediawati, N. (2015. Labour Rights Protection of Foreign Workers After Enactment of Law Number 6 of 2012 in Sidoarjo Regency. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 21-52. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.3

  14. 论艺术语言的“无意为语”%On“Unintendedly Enacted Speech”in Artistic Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆小所

    2016-01-01

    In artistic language,“unintendedly enacted speech”is a form of discourse of the addresser in a state between“action”and“inaction.”In terms of creation of artistic language,the thinking process of the addresser is one of“unity of man and nature”! a unique combination of work of both man and na-ture as well as presence and absence of intention ! a state where every word is inspired,creating a sense of imposing ubiquity. The agreement between intention and speech,in artistic language,is presented in the form of agreement between intention and imagery,which is a reflection of the inner imagery of the ad-dresser. It is the imagery of“unintendedly enacted speech”! a form of speech both bright and intelli-gent. It may appear random,but its inner quality never transgresses although free-going,enabling the ad-dressee to catch the extraordinary beauty and meaning from the ordinary.%艺术语言的“无意为语”是发话主体处在“有为”和“无为”之间的一种话语表达方式。从艺术语言的创造来看,发话主体的运思过程表现为“天人合一”,即“天工”与“人巧”、“无意”与“有意”合二为一的一种不寻常的新境界。它所造化的一辞一语都是有感而发的,它给人一种万籁之鸣风之感。意与言会,在艺术语言中,表现为意与象融。象,便是发话主体的心象,它是“无意为语”之象。艺术语言之象有着灵动的规律,表面看,它具有很大的随意性,但它产生的内在性,却“从心所欲”而又“不逾距”,使受话人从而体味到寻常之中非同寻常的情趣和意义。

  15. Evaluation of cases with impaired state of consciousness: Gaziantep Children's Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Uluç; Yüksel, Ciğdem Nükhet; Köse, Ahmet; Erdoğan, Serpil

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the etiology, course and prognosis in children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Gaziantep Children's Hospital for impaired state of consciousness. Three hundred and eighty cases were evaluated. Convulsions (44%; n=170) were the leading cause of the impaired state of consciousness followed by poisonings, envenomation, infection, metabolic disease, electrical injury, hepatic encephalopathy, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumor, and drowning. The diagnosis was definite in 95% (n=359) and probable in 5% (n=21) of cases. Twenty-seven (7%) patients died with impaired state of consciousness. We suggest that defining the causes of impaired state of consciousness in a specific region will help physicians to evaluate the patients faster and in a more systemic manner. Since most of the causes seem to be preventable, appropriate education programs and policies should be provided for improving sanitation and socioeconomic conditions.

  16. Effective Emotions The Enactment of a Work Ethic in the Swedish Meeting Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Andersson Cederholm

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The meeting industry – an encompassing term for services related to various kinds of professional meetings, from mega-conventions to the ordinary work meetings – is increasingly consolidated and legitimated as a specific sector in the service in-dustry. New professions such as meeting designers, meeting facilitators and meet-ing consultants are emerging, promoting new knowledge in this field. By focuss-ing on processes and social interaction, and highlighting emotional dimensions of meetings, these professions pave the way for new modes of conceptualising and practising professional relationships. The intangible, emotional and playful di-mensions of social interactions are promoted as effective means to achieve eco-nomic goals, thus highlighting a professional ideal that is here called “effective emotions”. The aim of this article is to show how the work ethic promoted by the meeting industry encourages new intersections, and tensions, between the ideali-sation of the tangible/measurable/rational on the one hand and the intangi-ble/emotional/magical on the other hand, and between working life and intimate spheres. Through a discourse analysis of a Swedish corporate meeting magazine, it is shown how the distinction between work and leisure is dissolved in this spe-cific work culture, and by this, it is discussed how the meeting profession acts as a normative regulator by reinforcing ideal ways of being and interacting with oth-ers. Creativity, personal growth, reflexivity and flexibility are enacted as idealised personal assets as well as moral imperatives in the discourse of the meeting pro-fession and through the practices of various meeting techniques, thus reinforcing not merely a professional ethic but cultural ideals of being as a person as well. It is also suggested that this reinforcement may, under certain circumstances, turn into its opposite and undermine the promoted ideals, thus pointing at the impor-tance to pinpoint the

  17. BioMoby extensions to the Taverna workflow management and enactment software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger Martin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As biology becomes an increasingly computational science, it is critical that we develop software tools that support not only bioinformaticians, but also bench biologists in their exploration of the vast and complex data-sets that continue to build from international genomic, proteomic, and systems-biology projects. The BioMoby interoperability system was created with the goal of facilitating the movement of data from one Web-based resource to another to fulfill the requirements of non-expert bioinformaticians. In parallel with the development of BioMoby, the European myGrid project was designing Taverna, a bioinformatics workflow design and enactment tool. Here we describe the marriage of these two projects in the form of a Taverna plug-in that provides access to many of BioMoby's features through the Taverna interface. Results The exposed BioMoby functionality aids in the design of "sensible" BioMoby workflows, aids in pipelining BioMoby and non-BioMoby-based resources, and ensures that end-users need only a minimal understanding of both BioMoby, and the Taverna interface itself. Users are guided through the construction of syntactically and semantically correct workflows through plug-in calls to the Moby Central registry. Moby Central provides a menu of only those BioMoby services capable of operating on the data-type(s that exist at any given position in the workflow. Moreover, the plug-in automatically and correctly connects a selected service into the workflow such that users are not required to understand the nature of the inputs or outputs for any service, leaving them to focus on the biological meaning of the workflow they are constructing, rather than the technical details of how the services will interoperate. Conclusion With the availability of the BioMoby plug-in to Taverna, we believe that BioMoby-based Web Services are now significantly more useful and accessible to bench scientists than are more traditional

  18. Child-Resistant Packaging for E-Liquid: A Review of US State Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Leslie T; Tilburg, William C

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of states have introduced or enacted legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for e-liquid containers; however, these laws involve varying terms, packaging standards, and enforcement provisions, raising concerns about their effectiveness. We evaluated bills against 4 benchmarks: broad product definitions that contemplate future developments in the market, citations to a specific packaging standard, stated penalties for violations, and express grants of authority to a state entity to enforce the packaging requirements. Our findings showed that 3 states meet all 4 benchmarks in their enacted legislation. We encourage states to consider these benchmarks when revising statutes or drafting future legislation.

  19. Mandated State-Level Open Government Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Michele Bush

    2011-01-01

    Although every state in the country has recognized the importance of government transparency by enacting open government provisions, few of those statutes require training programs to encourage records custodians to comply with the law. Ten states mandate training in how to legally respond to public records requests, and some mandates are stronger…

  20. Paths through interpretive territory: Two teachers' enactment of a technology-rich, inquiry-fostering science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott Powell

    New understandings about how people learn and constructivist pedagogy pose challenges for teachers. Science teachers face an additional challenge of developing inquiry-based pedagogy to foster complex reasoning skills. Theory provides only fuzzy guidance as to how constructivist or inquiry pedagogy can be accomplished in a wide variety of contexts and local constraints. This study contributes to the understanding of the development of constructivist, inquiry-based pedagogy by addressing the question: How do teachers interpret and enact a technology-rich, inquiry fostering science curricula for fifth grade students' biodiversity learning? This research is a case study of two teachers chosen as critical contrasting cases and represent differences across multiple criteria including: urban I suburban, teaching philosophy, and content preparation. The two fifth grade teachers each enacted BioKIDS: Kids' Inquiry in Diverse Species, an eight week curriculum focused on biodiversity. BioKIDS incorporates multiple learning technologies to support student learning including handheld computer software designed to help students collect field data, and a web-based resource for data on local animal species. The results of this study indicate there are tensions teachers must struggle with when setting goals during enactment of inquiry science curricula. They must find a balance between an emphasis on authentic learning and authentic science, and between natural history and natural science. Authentic learning focuses on students' interests and lives; Authentic science focuses on students working with the tools and processes of science. Natural history focuses on the foundational skills in science of observation and classification. Natural science focuses on analytical science drawing on data to develop claims about the world. These two key tensions in teachers' goal setting were critical in defining and understanding differences in how teachers interpreted a curriculum to meet

  1. Advancing the Interdisciplinary Collaborative Health Team Model: Applying Democratic Professionalism, Implementation Science, and Therapeutic Alliance to Enact Social Justice Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This essay reframes the interdisciplinary collaborative health team model by proposing the application of 3 foundational pillars-democratic professionalism, implementation science, and therapeutic alliance to advance this practice. The aim was to address challenges to the model, enhance their functional capacity, and explicate and enact social justice practices to affect individual health outcomes while simultaneously addressing health inequities. The pillars are described and examples from the author's dissertation research illustrate how the pillars were used to bring about action. Related theories, models, and frameworks that have negotiation, capacity building, collaboration, and knowledge/task/power sharing as central concepts are presented under each of the pillars.

  2. A Matter of Time: Enacting the Exclusion of Onshore Refugee Applicants through the Reform and Acceleration of Refugee Determination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea Vogl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available State-based processes for determining refugee claims are crucial sites of inclusion or exclusion for onshore refugee applicants. This paper argues that cultures of disbelief and exclusion towards onshore refugee applicants are increasingly being enacted indirectly, via procedural reforms to Refugee Status Determination (RSD, which limit the ability of applicants to establish and articulate their claims. Focusing on Australia and Canada, this paper tracks the acceleration and truncation of RSD procedures, which first reflect and then frequently achieve the exclusion of onshore applicants. Two sets of reforms in particular have profoundly limited the terms on which applicants may present their claims. In Canada, this occurred as the result of a major overhaul of RSD that took place in December 2012. In Australia, the policy of ‘enhanced screening’ of applicants achieves the immediate screening-out of certain claims from the Australian determination system. Alongside analysing these reforms as a means of exclusion, this paper argues that the new procedures most disadvantage applicants making claims on the basis of gender-related persecution. Los procesos estatales para resolver las concesiones de asilo son situaciones cruciales para la inclusión o exclusión de los solicitantes de asilo una vez están en el territorio de acogida. Este artículo defiende que cada vez más, se está promulgando indirectamente la cultura de la desconfianza y exclusión hacia los solicitantes de asilo, a través de reformas procesuales de la Determinación del Estatus de Refugiado (DER, lo que limita la capacidad de los solicitantes para establecer y articular sus demandas de asilo. Centrándose en Australia y Canadá, este artículo realiza un seguimiento de la aceleración y el truncamiento de los procedimientos de DER que primero reflejan y después a menudo consiguen la exclusión de los solicitantes en el propio territorio de acogida. Dos grupos de reformas

  3. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    ;6–14;0) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age (10......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  4. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age (10......;6–14;0) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  5. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  6. Stigma management? The links between enacted stigma and teen pregnancy trends among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Poon, Colleen S.; Homma, Yuko; Skay, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, several large-scale school-based studies of adolescents in Canada and the U.S. have documented health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual teens compared to their heterosexual peers, such as higher rates of suicide attempts, homelessness, and substance use. Many of these disparities have been linked to “enacted stigma,” or the higher rates of harassment, discrimination, and sexual or physical violence that sexual minority youth experience at home, at school, and in the community. An unexpected health disparity for lesbia n, gay and bisexual youth is their significantly higher risk of teen pregnancy involvement (between two and seven times the rate of their heterosexual peers), especially in light of declining trends in teen pregnancy across North America since the early 1990s. What is behind this higher risk? Is it getting better or worse? Using the province-wide cluster-stratified British Columbia Adolescent Health Surveys from 1992, 1998, and 2003, this paper explores the trends in pregnancy involvement, related sexual behaviours, and exposure to forms of enacted stigma that may help explain this particular health disparity for gay, lesbian and bisexual youth in Canada. PMID:19293941

  7. Adoption of Innovative Information Systems by SMEs: Comparing The Role of Firm’s Enacted Capabilities of Active Adopters and Non-Active Adopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Akma Mohd Salleh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of innovative information systems (IS by small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs across heterogeneous culture, locales, and markets are a critical and an ongoing challenge. Such challenge requires more than just good ideas and extensive resources. It requires organisational capabilities that can be labelled as “enacted capabilities”. This study defines enacted capabilities as the firm’s ability to mobilise and deploy IS-based resources in combination or co-present with other capabilities within SMEs. Consequently, the aim of this study is to make a contribution by empirically examining the enacted capabilities of SMEs in developing countries that may influence the success of innovative IS adoption. In line with this objective, an innovative IS adoption behaviour investigation is conducted particularly as to why some SMEs are able to be enabled for use and utilise innovative IS, while others fail to do so. A survey of 206 of the CEOs/owners from Malaysian SMEs was con-ducted. The innovative IS examined was the government’s electronic procure-ment systems. The findings are consistent with the notion that all SMEs have enacted capabilities. Some SMEs integrate and coordinate them in a different way, depending on the context of each organisation. The findings also indicate that strong enacted capabilities and perceived net benefits affect the SMEs’ ability to perform or assimilate IS related strategic change.

  8. Policy Note on the Unfinished Fiscal Reform Agenda in Indian States

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Both central and state governments have carried out significant correction of financial imbalances since 2000, through the implementation of fiscal reforms including enactment of fiscal responsibility (FR) acts. However, the improvement in the finances of all states in aggregate hides wide disparities between them. Some state governments are already on a sustainable path while some others ...

  9. Determination of β haplotypes in patients with sickle-cell anemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Cynthia Hatsue Kitayama; Serafim, Edvis Santos Soares; de Medeiros, Waleska Rayane Dantas Bezerra; de Medeiros Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Rebecchi, Ivanise Marina Moretti; de Medeiros, Tereza Maria Dantas

    2011-07-01

    β(S) haplotypes were studied in 47 non-related patients with sickle-cell anemia from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Molecular analysis was conducted by PCR/RFLP using restriction endonucleases XmnI, HindIII, HincII and HinfI to analyze six polymorphic sites from the beta cluster. Twenty-seven patients (57.5%) were identified with genotype CAR/CAR, 9 (19.1%) CAR/BEN, 6 (12.8%) CAR/CAM, 1 (2.1%) BEN/BEN, 2 (4.3%) CAR/Atp, 1 (2.1%) BEN/Atp and 1 (2.1%) with genotype Atp/Atp. The greater frequency of Cameroon haplotypes compared to other Brazilian states suggests the existence of a peculiarity of African origin in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  10. The mediational role of identification in the relationship between experience mode and self-efficacy: Enactive role-playing versus passive observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Abstract Based on Social Cognitive Theory, this study proposes a new concept-mediated enactive experience to understand game playing effects on self-efficacy in the context of a health promotion role-playing game. An experiment demonstrated that a mediated enactive experience afforded by game playing was more effective than a mediated observational experience provided by game watching in influencing self-efficacy. It was found that identification with the game character partially mediated the relationship between experience mode and self-efficacy.

  11. Should the Red Dragon arise? Assessing China's options vis-Ã -vis the enactment of a domestic space resources utilization law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Tronchetti, F.

    2017-05-01

    The past couple of years have witnesses one of the most exciting, yet controversial, developments in the field of space law, namely the adoption of domestic laws authorizing the (private) appropriation and utilization of outer space resources. Even though the technology to effectively mine resources in outer space is still under development countries like the United States and Luxembourg have taken this legislative step as a mean to promote the growth of a domestic private space mining sector. The enactment of national space resources utilization laws has generated extensive interest both within academic circles and official fora, such as the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS). In this context, several countries have expressed their opinion about these initiatives, by often criticizing their legality vis-a-vis international space law. Despite this remarkable level of interest there is a country that throughout this process has maintained a low profile, namely China. Indeed, China has neither reacted to the US and Luxembourgish moves nor has officially commented on the lawfulness of domestic space mining laws. This conduct is particularly relevant not only in the light of the growing importance of the Chinese space program but also if one considers that China is the country most involved in the exploration and study of celestial bodies and their resources, particularly the Moon. For this reasons it would have been legitimate to expect China to have a more engaged behavior. However, China has acted otherwise. It seems thus worth evaluating whether China should maintain this 'wait and see' approach or should instead switch towards a more assertive position, both internationally and domestically, especially one which includes the adoption of a space resources utilization act.

  12. Enabling and Enacting `Practical Action' in Catchments: Responding to the `Wicked Problem' of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Subtropical Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J.; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting `practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to `wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on `enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other `wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  13. Enabling and enacting 'practical action' in catchments: responding to the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source pollution in coastal subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting 'practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to 'wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on 'enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other 'wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  14. Literacy Instruction in the Wake of Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Mynes, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    As teachers modify their instruction to meet English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards (CCSS), how do these modifications influence literacy instruction and learning opportunities afforded to students? While the CCSS standardized objectives for literacy instruction, the enacted curriculum is uniquely shaped by teachers and their…

  15. The Association between Funding for Statewide Programs and Enactment of Obesity Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James; Lynch, Christina; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Rooks, Adrienne; Hamre, Robin; Chappelle, Eileen F.; Roussel, Amy; O'Toole, Terry; Grasso, Tamara; Hannan, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As part of a national effort to prevent and control obesity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases (NPAO) provides funding to states to improve access to healthful food and increase opportunities for physical activity. The CDC also…

  16. Argumentation and Self: The Enactment of Identity in "Dances with Wolves."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Randall A.

    1997-01-01

    States several postmodernist currents of thought have rejected the modernist faith in a stable, autonomous self (and the natural culture it inhabits) as a pernicious fiction. Argues for a dialectical view of self and culture, exploring the weaknesses of both modernist and postmodernist models through an analysis of "Dances with Wolves,"…

  17. Genre, Medium, and Learning to Write: Negotiating Identities, Enacting School-Based Literacies in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarshie Smith, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    Writing instruction in the United States now routinely takes place in networked environments. For adult learners in open admissions institutions, the literacy demands of the academic sphere and the public nature of the acts of writing in networked environments can create alienating experiences. This study examined the possibilities that the genre…

  18. State Legislative Support for Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parks are important venues that can encourage population-level physical activity, and policy legislation can facilitate or discourage physical activity and other park uses, depending on the type and level of support. This study aims to summarize the status and content of state-level park-related legislation. Methods: We searched for eligible legislation from 2001–2007 in two data sources, CDC’s Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Legislative Database and Lexis-Nexis, using the key words conservation, growth management/land use, parks, recreation, preservation, path, green space, or open space. State legislation was categorized into seven broad topic areas and analyzed by number introduced and passed (enacted as law, by state and category. Results: States varied in the number and type of park-related legislation introduced and passed. Common categories of introduced park-related state legislation were preservation or conservation (n = 26, 9 passed, funding (n = 43, 10 passed, creation or acquisition of park land (n = 53, 9 passed, safety and liability (n = 34, 5 passed, accessibility (n = 20, 2 passed, outreach (n = 15, 2 passed, and outdoor activities (n = 13, 2 passed. Conclusion: During 2001 to 2007, 19% of park-related state legislation was enacted. Research on legislative policy is an emerging field, and more information on the content of park-related legislation could assist states in their efforts to promote physical activity in park venues.

  19. Enacting teaching and learning in the interaction process: “Keys” for developing skills in piano lessons through four-hand improvisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laroche Julien

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Embodied mind theories underline the role of the body in the act of knowing. According to the enactive approach, we learn to perceive and to know through our bodily interactions with the world (Varela, Thompson & Rosch, 1991. However, such an approach remains incomplete as long as sociality is not taken into account (Froese & Di Paolo, 2009. Recently, an inter-enactive approach has accordingly been proposed. Social interactions are seen as processes of coordinated sense-making that emerge from the dynamics of the inter-action process itself (De Jaegher & Di Paolo, 2007. As learning mainly takes place in intersubjective contexts (e.g. as an effect of teaching, this approach is relevant to the issue of pedagogy. Teaching settings are a special case though: cognitive interactions are reciprocal but asymmetrically guided by the teacher. In this paper, the question of the relations between body and education is thus addressed from the point of view of the inter-enactive approach. To this end, we first sketch out the phenomenological and theoretical contours of embodied intersubjectivity and intersubjective embodiment. Then, we present an interactive pedagogical method for musical learning (free spontaneous four-hand improvisations in the context of the Kaddouch pedagogy and discuss it using illustrative case studies. The teacher’s role appears to operate directly within the dynamics of the interaction process, a source of knowing and skill enaction for the learner

  20. Science through Engineering in Elementary School: Comparing Three Enactments of an Engineering-Design-Based Curriculum on the Science of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke

    2011-01-01

    This research illustrates how varying enactments of an engineering-design-based science curriculum shaped the development of students' domain-specific scientific ideas and practices. In this comparative case study rooted in the analytical perspectives of activity theory and learning environments, student and teacher participants in three…

  1. "Here the Scientists Explain What I Said." Coordination Practices Elicited during the Enactment of the Results and Discussion Sections of Adapted Primary Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) is a novel text genre that retains the authentic characteristics of primary literature. Learning through APL represents an educational intervention with an authentic scientific context. In this case study, we analyzed the 80-min discourse developed during the enactment of an article from an APL-based curriculum in…

  2. War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Resolution: Presidential Compliance, by Richard F. Grimmett. 9 See Campbell v. Clinton, 203 F.3d 19, 25 (D.C. Cir. 2000) ( Silberman , J., concurring...lacked standing to bring their challenge. Each of the three judges on the appellate panel filed concurring opinions as well. Judge Silberman stated...Finally, Judge Silberman said, such issues are necessarily ones of “the greatest sensitivity for our foreign relations” on which conflicting

  3. Enacting legislation to restrict youth access to tanning beds: a survey of advocates and sponsoring legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayan, Busayo; Geller, Alan C; Resnick, Elissa A; Demierre, Marie-France

    2010-07-01

    Passing tanning bed legislation restricting underage use has remained challenging. We sought to determine the resources required to pass tanning bed legislation restricting use to children and identify key barriers to its passage. A total of 15 states sought to pass tanning bed legislation in 2006; in-depth surveys were completed with advocates in 10 states and legislators in 5 states. Advocates sought advice from the sponsoring legislator or legislators (n = 9), held discussions with other organizations (n = 8), and used a lobbyist (n = 5). The 3 major barriers were strong lobbying efforts by the tanning bed industry (n = 10), proceedings after the bill was filed (n = 5), and obtaining support from other organizations (n = 4). For legislators, the most significant barrier was making colleagues aware of the health effects of tanning bed use. Five of 10 legislators and 10 of 15 advocates responded to the survey. Barriers to passage of tanning bed legislation can potentially be surmounted with advice to advocates and coordinated efforts by multiple organizations. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Issue Brief: A Survey of State Policies to Support Utility-Scale and Distributed-Energy Storage (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes proposed and enacted legislation and activities related to energy storage for nine states, which are presented alphabetically. These states were selected to provide a high-level view of various energy storage efforts taking place across the United States.

  5. Determination of βS haplotypes in patients with sickle-cell anemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Hatsue Kitayama Cabral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available βS haplotypes were studied in 47 non-related patients with sickle-cell anemia from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Molecular analysis was conducted by PCR/RFLP using restriction endonucleases XmnI, HindIII, HincII and HinfI to analyze six polymorphic sites from the beta cluster. Twenty-seven patients (57.5% were identified with genotype CAR/CAR, 9 (19.1% CAR/BEN, 6 (12.8% CAR/CAM, 1 (2.1% BEN/BEN, 2 (4.3% CAR/Atp, 1 (2.1% BEN/Atp and 1 (2.1% with genotype Atp/Atp. The greater frequency of Cameroon haplotypes compared to other Brazilian states suggests the existence of a peculiarity of African origin in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  6. Enação e processo de trabalho: uma abordagem atuacionista da ação operatória Enaction and work process: an embodied-enactive approach of the operating-action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Cardoso Bouyer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, baseado no novo paradigma das ciências cognitivas, convida a uma ruptura ontológica com a abordagem objetivista da representação operatória em Ergonomia Cognitiva. O atuacionismo é um ponto de vista incorporado-enativo. Ou seja, processos cognitivos emergem ou enagem pelos agentes (trabalhadores. A abordagem atuacionista pode fornecer significativas contribuições à Ergonomia. Este trabalho é o resultado de pesquisa realizada em sistemas reais de produção, pelos métodos de Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho. Ele identificou e caracterizou uma falha ontológica, presente nas análises da atividade operatória: Observador isolado do objeto observado pelas distinções de atuação entre ambos. Isso resulta em diferenças de ação, percepção e interpretação, as quais, historicamente, têm tornado impraticável um conhecimento aprofundado sobre o funcionamento do processo de trabalho. Atualmente, os processos que aparentam ser rotineiros, parcelados e manuais abrigam uma nova noção de competência, a competência atuacionista ou cognitiva, necessária para conferir continuidade e fluxo à produção.Based on the new paradigm of cognitive sciences, this paper deals with an ontological rupture having an objectivist approach to the Operating-Representation in cognitive ergonomics. Actuationism is an embodied-enactive view. According to this approach, cognitive processes are seen as emerging or enacted by situated agents (workers. The Actuationistic approach is important underpinning various contributions in ergonomics. This work is the result of research done on real production systems using an ergonomic work analysis. It identified and characterized an ontological failure present in the operating-activity analysis: An isolated observer observing the object by the actuation distinguishes between them. This results in perception, interpretation and action differences, which, historically, have made an in-depth knowledge

  7. A Hand Up: How State Earned Income Tax Credits Help Working Families Escape Poverty. 2000 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas

    An Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a tax reduction and a wage supplement for low- and moderate-income working families. The federal government, and some states, administer an EITC through the income tax. States that enact EITCs can reduce child poverty, support welfare-to-work efforts, and cut taxes for families struggling to make ends meet.…

  8. A Hand Up: How State Earned Income Tax Credits Help Working Families Escape Poverty. 1999 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas

    An Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a tax reduction and a wage supplement for low- and moderate-income working families. The federal government administers an EITC through the income tax, as do some states. States that enact EITCs can reduce child poverty, support welfare-to-work efforts, and cut taxes for families struggling to make ends meet.…

  9. Eligibility Characteristics of Infants and Toddlers Entering Early Intervention Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Anita A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Spiker, Donna

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, legislation originally enacted in 1986 provided grants to states to build interagency service systems for children from birth to 3 years of age with developmental delays and disabilities. This legislation now renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was intended to facilitate the development of a…

  10. Striving toward useful interpretation while managing countertransference enactments: encounters with a thick-skinned narcissistic person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Narcissistic patients tend to push the analyst to work harder than usual to contain, understand, translate, and utilize their countertransference states. This is because of the unusually extreme reliance on denial, devaluation, projective identification, and control that these individuals exhibit. Defenses against loss, envy, greed, and dependence create difficult transference states in which symbolic or creative material is flattened, stripped, and neutralized. Feelings are out of the question. This clinical paper explores the narcissistic lack of connection to self and other that endures in the transference as well as in all aspects of these patients' lives. With thick-skinned narcissistic patients, there is a subtle lack of engagement, an underbelly of control, and a complete uncoupling of feeling or link between self and object. Envy is often a cornerstone of such difficult clinical problems and is part of an internal desolation that fuels an emotional firebombing of any awareness of interest in self or other. Detailed case material is used to show how confusing, alarming, and demanding such narcissistic patients can be, trying the very essence of the analytic process. They enter treatment looking for help, wanting a quick fix to their suffering, but resist the deeper understanding, learning, and change that psychoanalytic treatment offers.

  11. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination.

  12. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  13. Enacting trust: contract, law and informal economic relationships in a Spanish border enclave in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and removed from the Spanish mainland, the Enclave of Ceuta has always depended on flows of goods and labour out of the Moroccan hinterland, with individuals from different ethnic and religious groups forming informal, flexible and personal economic bonds based on mutual ‘confianza’ (trust. Since its entry into the European Union in 1986,the Spanish government has erected a border-wall around the enclave, and introduced new migration policies branding many informal workers within its borders as a threat to Spanish society. Based on my preliminary months of research, this paper compares the Ceutancontext with other research recently conducted on the topics of migration and borders in the Mediterranean region. It brings into focus key theoretical issues and assumptions that constantly emerge in such literature, particularly regarding the role of ‘a-cultural’ personal ties between migrants and locals in undermining State categories and ideology. This paper observes how the Ceutan case encourages us to expand our focuses and consequently problematise our understanding of crucial concepts such as ‘trust’ and ‘integration’.

  14. Comparation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Disclosure Before and After Enactment of the Indonesia Act No. 17 of 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuztitya Asmaranti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia, as a country with high vulnerable to the effects of global climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions, is committed to implementing the Kyoto Protocol by issuing the Law No. 17 of 2004 regulating the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the other hand, Indonesia with the second largest tropical forest in the world is expected to contribute oxygen to protect the world's top greenhouse gas effect as the main cause of global warming. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of the extent to which the response of companies in Indonesia in addressing global warming due to carbon emissions leading to dumping greenhouse gases and what efforts done as a form of corporate social responsibility. This study found that there are differences in the disclosure of carbon emissions before and after the enactment of Indonesian Act No. 17 of 2004. However, the study also found that only about 10% of manufacturing companies in Indonesia have an action associated with a reduction in carbon emissions of the company.

  15. Enacting cultural interests: how intergroup contact reduces prejudice by sparking interest in an out-group's culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the hypothesis that cues of social connectedness to a member of another social group can spark interest in the group's culture, and that such interest, when freely enacted, contributes to reductions in intergroup prejudice. In two pilot studies and Experiment 1, we found that extant and desired cross-group friendships and cues of social connectedness to an out-group member predicted increased interest in the target group's culture. In Experiments 2 and 3, we manipulated cues of social connectedness between non-Latino American participants and a Latino American (i.e., Mexican American) peer and whether participants freely worked with this peer on a Mexican cultural task. This experience reduced the participants' implicit bias against Latinos, an effect that was mediated by increased cultural engagement, and, 6 months later in an unrelated context, improved intergroup outcomes (e.g., interest in interacting with Mexican Americans; Experiment 4). The Discussion section addresses the inter- and intragroup benefits of policies that encourage people to express and share diverse cultural interests in mainstream settings.

  16. The impact of technology on the enactment of inquiry in a technology enthusiast's sixth grade science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the use of computer technology on the enactment of inquiry in a sixth grade science classroom. Participants were 42 students (38% female) enrolled in two sections of the classroom and taught by a technology-enthusiast instructor. Data were collected over the course of 4 months during which several inquiry activities were completed, some of which were supported with the use of technology. Non-participant observation, classroom videotaping, and semi-structured and critical-incident interviews were used to collect data. The results indicated that the technology in use worked to restrict rather than promote inquiry in the participant classroom. In the presence of computers, group activities became more structured with a focus on sharing tasks and accounting for individual responsibility, and less time was dedicated to group discourse with a marked decrease in critical, meaning-making discourse. The views and beliefs of teachers and students in relation to their specific contexts moderate the potential of technology in supporting inquiry teaching and learning and should be factored both in teacher training and attempts to integrate technology in science teaching.

  17. Introducing a Pictographic Language for Envisioning a Rich Variety of Enactive Systems with Different Degrees of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K. Moore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the considerable amount of progress that has been made in recent years, the parallel fields of cognitive science and cognitive systems lack a unifying methodology for describing, understanding, simulating and implementing advanced cognitive behaviours. Growing interest in ’enactivism’ - as pioneered by the Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela - may lead to new perspectives in these areas, but a common framework for expressing many of the key concepts is still missing. This paper attempts to lay a tentative foundation in that direction by extending Maturana and Varela’s pictographic depictions of autopoietic unities to create a rich visual language for envisioning a wide range of enactive systems - natural or artificial - with different degrees of complexity. It is shown how such a diagrammatic taxonomy can help in the comprehension of important relationships between a variety of complex concepts from a pan-theoretic perspective. In conclusion, it is claimed that visual language is not only valuable for teaching and learning, but also offers important insights into the design and implementation of future advanced robotic systems.

  18. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ria

    2013-10-01

    This article examines children's enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifestations of social crises and mass traumatic stress. On the other hand, such idioms also allow children to articulate, reflect upon, and communicate the complex feelings resulting from their precarious positions within families and communities under duress. With the help of Dow's transactional model of symbolic healing, this article explores obstacles to the effectivity of the rich variety of symbolic healing available for haunting spirits in Uganda and points to the generational gap between children and their families and communities. Elsewhere, witchcraft idioms may act as a healing resource at the group level, but at the expense of the accused child. The idioms of evil spirits and witchcraft speak of these children's navigation of the moral universe of their postconflict communities. Given that children's appraisal of their experiences through these notions may also exacerbate their anxiety, interdisciplinary research examining the microprocesses that lead to children being haunted or accused, including emotional and physiological levels effects, is urgently needed.

  19. Detecting Anxiety States when Caring for People with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Darién; Favela, Jesús; Arnrich, Bert

    2017-01-09

    Caregiving is a complex, stressful activity, which frequently leads to anxiety and the development of depressive disorders. Recent advances in wearable sensing allows to monitor relevant physiological data of the caregiver for detecting anxiety spans and for enacting coping strategies to reduce their anxiety when needed. This work proposes a method to infer anxiety states of caregivers when caring for people with dementia, by using physiological data. A model using Markov chains for detecting internal anxiety states is proposed. The model is tested with a physiological dataset gathered from a naturalistic enactment experiment with 10 participants. A visual analysis for observing anxiety states is employed. The Markov chain model is evaluated by using Inter-beat Interval (IBI) data to detect 4 internal states: "Relaxed", "Arousing", "Anxiety", and "Relaxing". From the visual inspection of inter-beat interval data, self-report and observation labels a total of 823 state segments were identified which contained the following states: 137 "relaxed", 91 "arousing", 410 "anxious", and 185 "relaxing". By using the average IBI value of 60 seconds segments as classification feature, the model was evaluated with a "leave one-out" cross validation with an average accuracy of 73.03 %. We proposed a Markov chain model for internal anxiety state detection of caregivers that care for people with dementia. The model was evaluated in a naturalistic enactment experiment with 10 participants. The resulting accuracy is comparable to previous results on stress classification.

  20. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  1. Integrating Popular Music and Informal Music Learning Practices: A Multiple Case Study of Secondary School Music Teachers Enacting Change in Music Education

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Vasil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the practices and perspectives of music teachers who integrated popular music and informal music learning practices into their secondary school music programs. A primary goal was to understand music teachers’ perspectives on the process of enacting change. The data for this parallel multiple-case study were four semistructured interviews, two school site visits and observations, documents, and a researcher journal. The content of teachers’ interviews w...

  2. Rievocazione e diffusione del sapere: un'intervista a Franco Cardini / Re-enactment and spreading of knowledge: an interview with Franco Cardini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Moscatelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Franco Cardini, storico del Medioevo di fama internazionale, risponde alle domande di Umberto Moscatelli sul ruolo che la rievocazione storica svolge nella diffusione del sapere scientifico presso il grande pubblico.   Franco Cardini, internationally renowned expert of medieval history, answers the Umberto Moscatelli’s questions about the role of re-enactment and living history in the diffusion of scientific knowledge among the general public.

  3. Current state of US breastfeeding laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2013-07-01

    This study systematically examined state-level laws protecting breastfeeding, including their current status and historical development, as well as identified gaps across US states and regions. The National Conference of State Legislatures summarised breastfeeding laws for 50 states and DC as of September 2010, which we updated through May 2011. We then searched LexisNexis and Westlaw to find the full text of laws, recording enactment dates and definitions. Laws were coded into five categories: (1) employers are encouraged or required to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees; (2) employers are prohibited from discriminating against breastfeeding employees; (3) breastfeeding is permitted in any public or private location; (4) breastfeeding is exempt from public indecency laws; and (5) breastfeeding women are exempt from jury duty. By May 2011, 1 state had enacted zero breastfeeding laws, 10 had one, 22 had two, 12 had three, 5 had four and 1 state had laws across all five categories. While 92% of states allowed mothers to breastfeed in any location and 57% exempted breastfeeding from indecency laws, 37% of states encouraged or required employers to provide break time and accommodations, 24% offered breastfeeding women exemption from jury duty and 16% prohibited employment discrimination. The Northeast had the highest proportion of states with breastfeeding laws and the Midwest had the lowest. Breastfeeding outside the home is protected to varying degrees depending on where women live; this suggests that many women are not covered by comprehensive laws that promote breastfeeding. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. "All the sheeps are dead. He murdered them": Sibling Pretense, Negotiation, Internal State Language, and Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Petrakos, Harriet; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    Compared pretend play enactment, negotiation, internal state language, and sibling relationship quality in 40 kindergartners with older or younger siblings. Found that frequent pretend play dyads used more high-level negotiation and internal state language than infrequent pretend dyads. Friendly relationship quality was negatively related to…

  5. The phenomenology of deep brain stimulation-induced changes in OCD: an enactive affordance-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sanneke; Rietveld, Erik; Stokhof, Martin; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    People suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) do things they do not want to do, and/or they think things they do not want to think. In about 10% of OCD patients, none of the available treatment options is effective. A small group of these patients is currently being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain. These electrodes give a continuous electrical pulse to the brain area in which they are implanted. It turns out that patients may experience profound changes as a result of DBS treatment. It is not just the symptoms that change; patients rather seem to experience a different way of being in the world. These global effects are insufficiently captured by traditional psychiatric scales, which mainly consist of behavioral measures of the severity of the symptoms. In this article we aim to capture the changes in the patients' phenomenology and make sense of the broad range of changes they report. For that we introduce an enactive, affordance-based model that fleshes out the dynamic interactions between person and world in four aspects. The first aspect is the patients' experience of the world. We propose to specify the patients' world in terms of a field of affordances, with the three dimensions of broadness of scope ("width" of the field), temporal horizon ("depth"), and relevance of the perceived affordances ("height"). The second aspect is the person-side of the interaction, that is, the patients' self-experience, notably their moods and feelings. Thirdly, we point to the different characteristics of the way in which patients relate to the world. And lastly, the existential stance refers to the stance that patients take toward the changes they experience: the second-order evaluative relation to their interactions and themselves. With our model we intend to specify the notion of being in the world in order to do justice to the phenomenological effects of DBS treatment.

  6. Sexual stigma and symbolic violence experienced, enacted, and counteracted in young Africans' writing about same-sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Sabben, Gaëlle

    2016-07-01

    There is growing recognition of the health disparities faced by sexual minority populations and the critical role played by sexual stigma in increasing their vulnerability. Experienced, anticipated, and internalized, stigma based on sexual orientation reduces access to HIV/STI prevention and treatment services among African men who have sex with men and has been linked to compromised mental health, risk-taking, and HIV status. It is likely that similar processes undermine the health of sexual minority African women and transgender and non-binary people. There is a need for increased understanding of both the contextual factors and the cultural meanings, or symbolic violence, that inform sexual stigma and harmful stigma management strategies in contexts that are culturally and socio-politically oppressive for sexual and gender minorities. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, we analyzed narratives and essays on same-sex attraction contributed by young people aged 13-24 from ten African countries to a Spring 2013 scriptwriting competition on HIV, sexuality, and related themes. Submitted by 27 male and 29 female authors, the texts were written in response to a prompt inviting participants to "Tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex". We analyzed the ways in which sexual stigma and its effects are described, enacted, and counteracted in the texts. The data provide insights into the social and symbolic processes that create and sustain sexual stigma in the context of broader transnational discourses. The data shed light on psychosocial challenges faced by sexual minority youth and identify both rhetoric, stereotypes, and discourse that devalue them and representations that counteract this symbolic violence. We share our findings in the hope they may inform education and communication programming as part of multi-level efforts to improve the health and human rights of sexual minority populations in sub

  7. Acting, interacting, enacting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    This study followed the rehearsals of a 2014 Copenhagen theatre production of Margaret Edson’s play WIT. The play depicts the palliative care provision of a woman diagnosed with advanced ovarian cancer, with an important theme of the narrative centering around the dehumanizing practices that resu...

  8. Seat Belt Law Experience in Four Foreign Countries Compared to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; Campbell, Frances A.

    This report examines the process of enacting laws requiring the use of seat belts in the United States. It assesses these laws against the perspective of benefits realized from such mandates in other nations. Chapter one is an introduction; chapter two provides background on seat belt installation in U.S. vehicles, introduction of belt use laws,…

  9. The Politics of Domestication and Curriculum as Pasture in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alberto J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the enacted curriculum in the United States of America is driven by a politics of domestication--a negative process of acculturation by which individuals are required to conform uncritically to established norms in a community of practice, and by which they are prevented from using their own craft and/or professional…

  10. Parental Leave Policies and Pediatric Trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avika; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Szucs, Kinga A

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that each residency program should have a clearly delineated, written policy for parental leave. Parental leave has important implications for trainees' ability to achieve their breastfeeding goals. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and awareness among members of the AAP Section on Medical Students, Residents, and Fellowship Trainees (SOMSRFT) regarding parental leave. An online survey was emailed to SOMSRFT members in June 2013. Quantitative data are presented as percentage of respondents. Awareness of leave policies was analyzed based on having children and the sex of respondents. Nine hundred twenty-seven members responded to the survey. Among those with children, 40% needed to extend the duration of their training in order to have longer maternity leave, 44% of whom did so in order to breastfeed longer. Thirty percent of respondents did not know if their program had a written, accessible policy for parental leave. Trainees without children and men were more unaware of specific aspects of parental leave such as eligibility for the Family Medical Leave Act as compared to women and those with children. Despite the fact that United States national policies support parental leave during pediatrics training, and a majority of programs comply, trainees' awareness regarding these policies needs improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Procedimentos, colocação em cena da dupla ("Enactment" e validação clínica em psicoterapia psicanalítica e psicanálise Psicoanálisis y psicoterapia psicoanalítica: procedimientos, validación clínica y el modelo de "colocación en escena" ("enactment" Procedures, enactment and clinical validation in psychoanalytical psychotherapy and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosevelt M. Smeke Cassorla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Discutem-se procedimentos utilizados no processo analítico e em psicoterapias analíticas, em especial aqueles que indicariam falhas na capacidade do analista e a necessidade de sua validação. Para esse propósito, apresentam-se diferenças entre Psicanálise e Psicoterapia Psicanalítica em relação a seus procedimentos e objetivos. É apresentado o modelo da "colocação em cena da dupla"("enactment" e discute-se a possibilidade de ele ser útil para o processo de validação, em conjunto com a definição dos objetivos do tratamento. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e discutir formas de validação clínica de procedimentos em psicanálise e relacioná-los com os objetivos da Psicanálise e da Psicoterapia Psicanalítica. MÉTODO: Clínico-psicanalítico, ilustrado com paciente com TOC RESULTADOS-MATERIAL CLÍNICO: APREsenta-se a dinâmica subjacente a trechos de duas sessões, mostrando-se que uma "falha" do analista revelou-se produtiva, ao avaliar-se seu efeito (validação clínica, resultando em ampliação da capacidade de pensar, modelo teórico utilizado. DISCUSSÃO: São discutidos: 1. Validação, "enactment" e contratransferência: mostrando-se a necessidade de o analista "entrar na cena" e usar os derivados de sua contratransferência para a compreensão dos "enactments"; 2. Psicanálise e Psicoterapia Psicanalítica: mostrando-se como a clareza em seus objetivos é condição para que a validação seja possível. CONCLUSÔES: por lidar com variáveis complexas, de impossível isolamento e controle, a Psicanálise e a Psicoterapia Psicanalítica necessitam da validação intra-clínica contínua, e a clareza dos objetivos é condição essencial para tal. Demonstra-se a utilidade dos modelos do "enactment" associados à teoria do pensar de Bion, como bases para essa validação.INTRODUCCIÓN: Se discuten procedimientos utilizados en el proceso analítico y en psicoterapias analíticas, en especial aquellas que indicar

  12. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    Full Text Available The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS.

  13. Structuring an integrated care system: interpreted through the enacted diversity of the actors involved – the case of a French healthcare network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Grenier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it. Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved. Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process.  Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.

  14. Structuring an integrated care system: interpreted through the enacted diversity of the actors involved – the case of a French healthcare network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Grenier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it.Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved.Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process.  Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.

  15. Use of an Enactive Insole for Reducing the Risk of Falling on Different Types of Soil Using Vibrotactile Cueing for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Martin J. -D.; Ayena, Johannes C.; Tremblay, Louis E.; Fortin, Pascal E.; Ménélas, Bob-Antoine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our daily activities imply displacements on various types of soil. For persons with gait disorder or losing functional autonomy, walking on some types of soil could be challenging because of the risk of falling it represents. Methods In this paper, we present, in a first part, the use of an enactive shoe for an automatic differentiation of several types of soil. In a second part, using a second improved prototype (an enactive insole), twelve participants with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and nine age-matched controls have performed the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test on six types of soil with and without cueing. The frequency of the cueing was set at 10% above the cadence computed at the lower risk of falling (walking over the concrete). Depending on the cadence computed at the lower risk, the enactive insole activates a vibrotactile cueing aiming to improve gait and balance control. Finally, a risk index is computed using gait parameters in relation to given type of soil. Results The frequency analysis of the heel strike vibration allows the differentiation of various types of soil. The risk computed is associated to an appropriate rhythmic cueing in order to improve balance and gait impairment. The results show that a vibrotactile cueing could help to reduce the risk of falling. Conclusions Firstly, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the risk of falling while walking on different types of soil using vibrotactile cueing. We found a significant difference and a significant decrease in the computed risks of falling for most of types of soil especially for deformable soils which can lead to fall. Secondly, heel strike provides an approximation of the impulse response of the soil that can be analyzed with time and frequency-domain modeling. From these analyses, an index is computed enabling differentiation the types of soil. PMID:27603211

  16. The Art and Science of Acoustic Recording: Re-enacting Arthur Nikisch and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra’s landmark 1913 recording of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Aleks Kolkowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Art and Science of Acoustic Recording was a collaborative project between the Royal College of Music and the Science Museum that saw an historic orchestral recording from 1913 re-enacted by musicians, researchers and sound engineers at the Royal College of Music (RCM in 2014. The original recording was an early attempt to capture the sound of a large orchestra without re-scoring or substituting instruments and represents a step towards phonographic realism. Using replicated recording technology, media and techniques of the period, the re-enactment recorded two movements of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony on to wax discs – the first orchestral acoustic recordings made since 1925. The aims were primarily to investigate the processes and practices of acoustic sound recording, developed largely through tacit knowledge, and to derive insights into the musicians’ experience of recording acoustically. Furthermore, the project sought to discover what the acoustic recordings of the past do – and don't – communicate to listeners today. Archival sources, historic apparatus and early photographic evidence served as groundwork for the re-enactment and guided its methodology, while the construction of replicas, wax manufacture and sound engineering were carried out by an expert in the field of acoustic recording. The wax recordings were digitised and some processed to produce disc copies playable on gramophone, thus replicating the entire course of recording, processing, duplication and reproduction. It is suggested that the project has contributed to a deeper understanding of early recordings and has provided a basis for further reconstructions of historical recording sessions.

  17. Coral species, coral colony sizes and percent coverage data derived from photographic surveys at twenty-seven sites in the Hawaiian islands, 2000 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0002312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fixed photoquadrats are used to examine trends of individual organisms with regards to growth, recruitment and mortality. Five haphazardly selected photoquadrats at...

  18. Detection and quantitation of twenty-seven cytokines, chemokines and growth factors pre- and post-high abundance protein depletion in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Beom Ahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors (CCGFs in human plasma are analyzed for identification of biomarkers. However concentrations of CCGFs are very low; it is difficult to identify and quantify low abundance proteins in the presence of the high abundance proteins (HAPs unless HAPs are removed prior to analysis. However, there is a concern that the low abundance proteins such as CCGFs may also be removed during the HAP depletion process. In this study, we have examined whether or not depletion of the HAPs enhances detection of the CCGFs by immuno-assays. Top 14 HAPs were depleted from 10 healthy volunteers’ plasma using MARS-14 immuno-depletion column and a total of 27 CCGFs were analyzed by bead-based multiplexed immuno-assay. All 27 CCGFs were detected in neat plasma (NP, 25 were detected in flow through fraction (FT and 21 were detected in bound protein (BP fraction. Concentrations of 22 CCGFs were significantly higher in NP compared to FT and BP. Only one CCGF had higher concentration in FT compared to NP. The remaining 2 CCGFs were not different between NP and FT. It was counter-productive for the detection of 24 CCGFs after HAP removal, primarily due to post-depletion protein precipitation and/or re-suspension of pellets.

  19. Facial trauma in the largest city in Latin America, São Paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarley Eloy Pessoa de Barros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian authorities have benefited the population 15 years after the enactment of the law of compulsory seat belts in the city of São Paulo

  20. Energy: the states' response in 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Earl S.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of all state legislative energy enactments for legislature, in 1978 is presented. It provides source material to legislators and their staff. Each bill is separated into one or more of the 37 major subject categories. Broad categories cover public utilities; tax exemption; tax application; franchise protection; conservation; resource development; solar easements; mineral extraction regulation; management; emergency powers; anti-trust; anit-environment; and miscellaneous legislation.

  1. Paper 5944 Changing Climates @ Colorado State: It's Everybody's Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Denning, S.; Betsill, M.; Klein, J. A.; Fiege, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the help of faculty from all eight colleges, twenty-seven departments, and numerous other entities on and off the Colorado State University campus, this education and outreach initiative is based on the premises that climate change is everybody's business and that everyone has something to offer in meeting its challenges. Beginning in 2007, CC@CSU has organized some 120 talks to audiences totaling some 6,000, helping inform the student body and community and catalyzing relationships among faculty and researchers across campus. It has offered communication coaching to scientists (and others) who want to translate their expertise for the public. And it has developed a multidisciplinary website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) with over 450 annotated entries, all college-level content, primer-level clarity, on topics that include climate science and ecology, economics and emotions, ethics and policy, communication and activism, paleoclimate and human history, and much more. This presentation will address the basic questions of why, who, how, what, for whom, and so what, concluding with some of the key lessons learned about communicating across disciplinary boundaries on this important subject.

  2. The Impact of High School Science Teachers' Beliefs, Curricular Enactments and Experience on Student Learning During an Inquiry-based Urban Ecology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Silva Pimentel, Diane; Strauss, Eric G.

    2013-10-01

    Inquiry-based curricula are an essential tool for reforming science education yet the role of the teacher is often overlooked in terms of the impact of the curriculum on student achievement. Our research focuses on 22 teachers' use of a year-long high school urban ecology curriculum and how teachers' self-efficacy, instructional practices, curricular enactments and previous experience impacted student learning. Data sources included teacher belief surveys, teacher enactment surveys, a student multiple-choice assessment focused on defining and identifying science concepts and a student open-ended assessment focused on scientific inquiry. Results from the two hierarchical linear models indicate that there was significant variation between teachers in terms of student achievement. For the multiple-choice assessment, teachers who spent a larger percentage of time on group work and a smaller percentage of time lecturing had greater student learning. For the open-ended assessment, teachers who reported a higher frequency of students engaging in argument and sharing ideas had greater student learning while teachers who adapted the curriculum more had lower student learning. These results suggest the importance of supporting the active role of students in instruction, emphasising argumentation, and considering the types of adaptations teachers make to curriculum.

  3. Catch me if I fall! Enacted uncertainty avoidance and the social safety net as country-level moderators in the job insecurity-job attitudes link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Maike E; Probst, Tahira M; König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Job insecurity is related to many detrimental outcomes, with reduced job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment being the 2 most prominent reactions. Yet, effect sizes vary greatly, suggesting the presence of moderator variables. On the basis of Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory, we assumed that country-level enacted uncertainty avoidance and a country's social safety net would affect an individual's appraisal of job insecurity. More specifically, we hypothesized that these 2 country-level variables would buffer the negative relationships between job insecurity and the 2 aforementioned job attitudes. Combining 3 different data sources, we tested the hypotheses in a sample of 15,200 employees from 24 countries by applying multilevel modeling. The results confirmed the hypotheses that both enacted uncertainty avoidance and the social safety net act as cross-level buffer variables. Furthermore, our data revealed that the 2 cross-level interactions share variance in explaining the 2 job attitudes. Our study responds to calls to look at stress processes from a multilevel perspective and highlights the potential importance of governmental regulation when it comes to individual stress processes.

  4. Mothers, Fathers, and Parental Systems: A Conceptual Model of Parental Engagement in Programmes for Child Mental Health-Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact (CAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Tully, L A; Lenroot, R; Kimonis, E; Hawes, D; Moul, C; Frick, P J; Anderson, V; Dadds, M R

    2016-12-02

    Parenting programmes are one of the best researched and most effective interventions for reducing child mental health problems. The success of such programmes, however, is largely dependent on their reach and parental engagement. Rates of parental enrolment and attendance are highly variable, and in many cases very low; this is especially true of father involvement in parenting programmes. This paper proposes a conceptual model of parental engagement in parenting programmes-the CAPE model (Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact) that builds on recent models by elaborating on the interdependent stages of engagement, and its interparental or systemic context. That is, we argue that a comprehensive model of parental engagement will best entail a process from connection to enactment of learned strategies in the child's environment, and involve consideration of individual parents (both mothers and fathers) as well as the dynamics of the parenting team. The model provides a framework for considering parent engagement as well as associated facilitators and mechanisms of parenting change such as parenting skills, self-efficacy, attributions, and the implementation context. Empirical investigation of the CAPE model could be used to further our understanding of parental engagement, its importance for programme outcomes, and mechanisms of change. This will guide future intervention refinement and developments as well as change in clinical practice.

  5. Entrepreneurship Education at Indian Industrial Training Institutes – A Case Study of the Prescribed, Adopted and Enacted Curriculum in and around Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Zenner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, India is a growing economy that needs skilled labour, self-employed entrepreneurs and employees to tackle its economic and social challenges. On the other hand, India faces high unemployment rates, especially among young people. Graduates from industrial training institutes (ITIs in particular are often facing difficulties in pursuing self-employment. Entrepreneurship education is an essential element in preparing young people for self-employment. This paper analyses how and to what extent entrepreneurship education has been conceived and implemented in vocational schools in and around Bangalore to face these challenges. Methodologically the authors use a three-step approach following the theories of a `prescribed', `adopted' or `enacted' curriculum. Qualitative interviews are used for the analysis of the adopted and enacted curriculum. The authors conclude that whereas the prescribed curriculum includes several elements of entrepreneurship education and teacher's understanding is in line with the prescription, the understanding is seldom translated into input in the day-to-day teaching. The plausible reasons for this gap are discussed in this paper.

  6. Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Sarah B; Gutman, Abraham; Allen, Leslie; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott

    2017-07-11

    (1) To describe open source legal data sets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of US state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. (2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety and dispensary practice. Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety and dispensaries in effect on 1 February 2017, creating three empirical legal data sets. We used summary tables to identify the variation in specific statutory provisions specified in each state's medical marijuana law as it existed on 1 February 2017. We compared aspects of these laws to the traditional Federal approach to regulating medicine. Full data sets, codebooks and protocols are available through the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (http://www.pdaps.org/; Archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6qv5CZNaZ on 2 June 2017). Twenty-eight states (including the District of Columbia) have authorized medical marijuana. Twenty-seven specify qualifying diseases, which differ across states. All states protect patient privacy; only 14 protect patients against discrimination. Eighteen states have mandatory product safety testing before any sale. While the majority have package/label regulations, states have a wide range of specific requirements. Most regulate dispensaries (25 states), with considerable variation in specific provisions such as permitted product supply sources number of dispensaries per state and restricting proximity to various types of location. The federal ban in the United States on marijuana has resulted in a patchwork of regulatory strategies that are not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and whose effectiveness remains unknown. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Observations of the role of science in the United States medical cannabis state policies: Lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Jelica; Goddard, Perilou; Ryder, David

    2017-04-01

    Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U.S.; researchers from the same five states conducting funded research in the alcohol and other drugs field; and members of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Six major themes emerged in relation to the factors influencing policy: scientific evidence plays a limited role in the development of policy; the available research is limited and mixed; there is a need for clearer communication and active dissemination of evidence to policy makers; researchers need to consider what research is likely to impact on policy; scientific evidence is not a major factor in policy development; and there is a need to consider evidence within a political context. Researchers need to be aware of the political context in which medical cannabis laws are or are not enacted and consider ways in which research findings can achieve a higher profile within this context. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Quantitative skills as a graduate learning outcome of university science degree programmes: student performance explored through theplanned-enacted-experiencedcurriculum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Adams, Peter; Goos, Merrilyn

    2016-07-01

    Application of mathematical and statistical thinking and reasoning, typically referred to as quantitative skills, is essential for university bioscience students. First, this study developed an assessment task intended to gauge graduating students' quantitative skills. The Quantitative Skills Assessment of Science Students (QSASS) was the result, which examined 10 mathematical and statistical sub-topics. Second, the study established an evidential baseline of students' quantitative skills performance and confidence levels by piloting the QSASS with 187 final-year biosciences students at a research-intensive university. The study is framed within the planned-enacted-experienced curriculum model and contributes to science reform efforts focused on enhancing the quantitative skills of university graduates, particularly in the biosciences. The results found, on average, weak performance and low confidence on the QSASS, suggesting divergence between academics' intentions and students' experiences of learning quantitative skills. Implications for curriculum design and future studies are discussed.

  9. 77 FR 31880 - Operating Instructions for Implementing the Amendments to the Trade Act of 1974 Enacted by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... scope of the TAA program and increased benefit amounts, repealed the North American Free Trade Agreement... other countries with which the United States had trade agreements or treaties or where there was also a... Employment and Training Administration Operating Instructions for Implementing the Amendments to the...

  10. Methodology for determining whether an increase in a state's child poverty rate is the result of the TANF program--Administration for Children and Families, HHS. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-23

    The Administration for Children and Families is proposing a methodology to determine the child poverty rate in each State. If a State experiences an increase in its child poverty rate of 5 percent or more as a result of its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, the State must submit and implement a corrective action plan. This requirement is a part of the new welfare reform block grant program enacted in 1996.

  11. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  12. Teachers' understandings and enactments of social and environmental justice issues in the classroom: What's "critical" in the manufacturing of road-smart squirrels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Alison J.

    How do five new teachers understand and enact counter-hegemonic pedagogies in their own classes? This study developed from this question. The question arose as I taught critical environmental education, a counter-hegemonic pedagogy, to preservice science teachers. I encouraged the exploration of social and environmental injustices and how they function to reproduce dominant economic agendas. To understand how five teachers, in the second year of their practice and my former students, made sense of the critical environmental education I taught them, I used Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology as my research frame. Gadamer argues that meaning develops through dialogue, so data collection occurred mainly through lively research conversations over leisurely dinners. As practicing teachers, the six of us jointly explored taken-for-granted meanings and actions in our everyday pedagogical experiences. In these conversations we made meaning (the hermeneutic aspect) of the lived experiences (phenomenological aspect) of incorporating critical environmental education into our practices. This led me to a deeper understanding and increased awareness of how science education reform agendas have influenced and shaped our individual science pedagogies. The analytic lens of critical education showed that these teachers were strongly influenced by the dominant science reform agenda. Regardless of the science curriculum, or the strong social and environmental beliefs some of these teachers held, they did not perceive the teaching of the social and environmental justice issues to be 'critical' or 'their job.' They demonstrated a belief that it was 'critical' to teach well-defined, "hard science" facts. Student success, hence teacher success, involved playing the academic game well and gaining long-term financial security. Re/viewing the data stories through the additional analytic lens of feminist poststructuralism, I saw how dominant discourse constructs the identity of teachers

  13. Implementing health care reform in the United States: intergovernmental politics and the dilemmas of institutional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, and continues to operate, under conditions of political polarization. In this article, we argue that the law's intergovernmental structure has amplified political conflict over its implementation by distributing governing authority to political actors at both levels of the American federal system. We review the ways in which the law's demands for institutional coordination between federal and state governments (and especially the role it preserves for governors and state legislatures) have created difficulties for rolling out health-insurance exchanges and expanding the Medicaid program. By way of contrast, we show how the institutional design of the ACA's regulatory reforms of the insurance market, which diminish the reform's political salience, has allowed for considerably less friction during the implementation process. This article thus highlights the implications of multi-level institutional designs for the post-enactment politics of major reforms.

  14. New State Forest Practice Laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Forest practice regulations can be established by being specified in state law or by being promulgated by some other official body delegated the authority to do so. At the state level, public regulation of private forest practices resulted in many cases, in the enactment of state forest practice laws regulating both private, and in some cases, public landowner activities. These laws aim not only to protect natural environments, but also to encourage continuous productivity of forest lands, to maintain or enhance aesthetic values, and to serve as an implementing mechanism to control water pollution. Profiles of regulations in California, Idaho, Maine, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Washington are examined and assessed. Voluntary guidelines in use in 18 states are summarized.

  15. Perceptions of Occupational Therapists on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Five Years After Its Enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Spicher, Hillary S; Semon, Madelyn R; Winwood, Leah M; Dudgeon, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of occupational therapists regarding the impact and implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA or ACA) on occupational therapy practice. Fifteen occupational therapists participated in an interview to answer open-ended questions related to their thoughts and perceptions regarding the impact and implications of the ACA on their practice. The participants were practicing in eight different states and worked in five different settings with clinical experience ranging from 3 to 38 years; their positions ranged from staff therapist to owner of a free-standing outpatient clinic. Qualitative content analysis was used to synthesize the interview transcripts. Results showed that therapists did not have sufficient knowledge on the various mandates and provisions of the ACA, or were uncertain about what implications the ACA would have on practice, with the ACA affecting some settings more than others. Data revealed the perceived impacts of the ACA on occupational therapy practice include greater attention on documenting outcome-focused care, external accountability pressures on productivity, conscientiousness about clients' insurance coverage, uncertainty about collaborative care delivery, and survival of small businesses. Findings suggest training regarding knowledge about and implications of different elements of the ACA is needed as well as practices needing to promote the services that occupational therapists can provide to improve cost-effectiveness and outcomes in collaborative care environments.

  16. SUSTAINABLE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE FATE OF BALINESE ADAT VILLAGE POSTERIOR THE ENACTMENT OF LAW NUMBER 6 YEAR 2014 CONCERNING VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Nurjaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of indigenous peoples existence is very dependent on the will of the Government. The village government as formulated in Act number 6/2014 of the village, as well as Government Regulation number 43/2014 about Implementation of the Act number 6/2014 has naturally become a bureaucratic and legal officials law, that the village is set in the system of local government under the supervision of State law. In the case of Bali and the local Government of Bali, there is legal consequences with the fate and the future existence and life of indigenous village/pakraman village as a social and cultural system of the Hindu society, it is the law on the development basis of the indigenous village/pakraman village will not remain be ”the awig-awig” as Balinese traditional society customary law; philosophy and the essence, function and role of the indigenous village/pakraman village changed physically as well as community life of Balinese people loss; traditional customs and Government system should be changed in accordance with the system of the village Government; on one side the customs affairs village should organize pakraman village administration and bureaucracy under the structure of local governments, and on the other hand the indigenous village is at the same time responsible to organize and responsible about the culture, traditions, customs and ritual as Hindu affairs, village understanding of pakraman village customs and traditions should be completely ignored in Balinese village daily community life.

  17. Drug Policy and the Ultima Ratio in A Social and Democratic State, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Hogg; Xabier Arana

    2013-01-01

    As a Member State of the UN and the EU, Spain's drug policy is heavily conditioned by these external superior ‘legal personalities’. Although, the Spanish legislature has enacted amendments to legislation on illicit substances over the last ten years to attenuate excessively punitive law, their interpretation and internal application of conventions on drug legislation has by in large overlooked the ultima ratio principle i.e. minimum intervention (Arana 2012). Spain’s crimin...

  18. Enterprise Modeling in the context of Enterprise Engineering: State of the art and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    François Vernadat

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Modeling is a central activity in Enterprise Engineering and can facilitate Production Management activities. This state-of-the-art paper first recalls definitions and fundamental principles of enterprise modelling, which goes far beyond process modeling. The CIMOSA modeling framework, which is based on an event-driven process-based modeling language suitable for enterprise system analysis and model enactment, is used as a reference conceptual framework because of its generality. N...

  19. O desenvolvimento cognitivo do ponto de vista da enação The enaction point of view of cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald João Jacques Arendt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo das contribuições de Rorty e Varela ao pragmatismo e à biologia, este ensaio visa discutir a compatibilidade destas abordagens com o modelo de desenvolvimento elaborado por Jean Piaget. Ao efetuar uma crítica ao reducionismo, o pragmatismo propõe um modelo materialista, fisicalista e não reducionista da relação do indivíduo com o mundo, enquanto a escola chilena de biologia sugere que a cognição humana seja entendida como uma ação guiada pela percepção, a enação. Ambas abordagens terminam por propor modelos entendidos como redes em níveis múltiplos que se organizam e reorganizam e cuja proximidade conceitual com as posições piagetianas é considerada.Starting with the contributions of Rorty and Varela to pragmatism and biology, this essay discusses the compatibility of those approaches to the development model elaborated by Jean Piaget. Criticising reductionism, the pragmatism position proposes a materialist, physicalist, and non-reductive model of the relation of the individual and the world, while the Chilean school of biology suggests that human cognition should be understood as an action guided by perception, the enaction. Both approaches propose models best understood as networks in multiple levels which self organize and reorganize. Their conceptual proximity with Piagetian propositions is also considered.

  20. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Primary Headache and Dream-Enacting Behaviour in Japanese Patients with Narcolepsy or Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Multi-Centre Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsui, Kentaro; Nishida, Shingo; Hayashida, Kenichi; Usui, Akira; Ueki, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Masaki; Murata, Momoyo; Numao, Ayaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Suzuki, Shiho; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Because the prevalence and characteristics of primary headache have yet to be thoroughly studied in patients with hypersomnia disorders, including narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, we examined these parameters in the Japanese population. In a multicentre cross-sectional survey, among 576 consecutive outpatients with sleep disorders, 68 narcolepsy patients and 35 idiopathic hypersomnia patients were included. Additionally, 61 healthy control subjects participated. Semi-structured headache questionnaires were administered to all participants. The patients with narcolepsy (52.9%) and idiopathic hypersomnia (77.1%) more frequently experienced headache than the healthy controls (24.6%; pnarcolepsy patients, the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects, respectively. Those who experienced migraine more frequently experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of ≥10, than those who did not experience headache among the patients with narcolepsy (93.8% vs. 65.6%, p = 0.040) and idiopathic hypersomnia (86.7% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.026). Dream-enacting behaviour (DEB), as evaluated by the rapid eye movement sleep disorders questionnaire, was more frequently observed in the narcolepsy patients than in the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects. An increased DEB frequency was observed in the narcolepsy patients with migraines compared to those without headache. Migraines were frequently observed in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. DEB is a characteristic of narcolepsy patients. Further studies are required to assess the factors that contribute to migraines in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia patients.

  1. Personality systems interactions theory and the theory of planned behaviour: evidence that self-regulatory volitional components enhance enactment of studying behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina

    2003-03-01

    The role of volitional components specified by personality systems interactions theory in enhancing behavioural prediction was examined in a longitudinal investigation of students' studying. Participants completed measures specified by the theory of planned behaviour and questionnaire measures of 'conscious attention control', 'implicit attention control' and 'self-determination' from the volitional components inventory. Behaviour was assessed 2 weeks later. Regression analyses showed that volitional components increased variance explained in behaviour by 10-18%, after taking into account strength of motivation to study assessed by attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention from the theory of planned behaviour. Moreover, consistent with elements of personality systems interactions theory, moderator effects were obtained. Participants who reported self-determination, conscious attention control and implicit attention control were more likely to enact their intentions. Volitional components were also associated with increased studying among participants who perceived a low subjective norm for studying. Volitional components improved prediction of studying after accounting for past behaviour in the regression models.

  2. A comprehensive examination of U.S. laws enacted to reduce alcohol-related crashes among underage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Scherer, Michael; Fell, James; Taylor, Eileen

    2015-12-01

    To effectively address concerns associated with alcohol-related traffic laws, communities must apply comprehensive and well-coordinated interventions that account for as many factors as possible. The goal of the current research article is to examine and evaluate the simultaneous contribution of 20 underage drinking laws and 3 general driving safety laws, while accounting for demographic, economic, and environmental variables. Annual fatal crash data (1982 to 2010), policies, and demographic, economic, and environmental information were collected and applied to each of the 51 jurisdictions (50 states and the District of Columbia). A structural equation model was fit to estimate the relative contribution of the variables of interest to alcohol-related crashes. As expected, economic factors (e.g., unemployment rate, cost of alcohol) and alcohol outlet density were found highly relevant to the amount of alcohol teens consume and therefore to teens' impaired driving. Policies such as those regulating the age of bartenders, sellers, or servers; social host civil liability laws; dram shop laws; internal possession of alcohol laws; and fake identification laws do not appear to have the same impact on teens' alcohol-related crash ratios as other types of policies such as those regulating alcohol consumption or alcohol outlet density. This effort illustrates the need for comprehensive models of teens' impaired driving. After simultaneously accounting for as many factors as possible, we found that in general (for most communities) further reductions in alcohol-related crashes among teens might be more rapidly achieved from efforts focused on reducing teens' drinking rather than on reducing teens' driving. Future efforts should be made to develop models that represent specific communities. Based on this and community-specific models, simulation programs can be developed to help communities understand and visualize the impact of various policy alternatives. Copyright © 2015

  3. The Effect of the Dried-Bonito Broth on Blood Pressure, 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an Oxidative Stress Marker, and Emotional States in Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Youko; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Hisano, Manami; Kuroda, Motonaka; Honda, Masashi; Ando, Bunei; Ohta, Masanori; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2008-11-01

    Dried-bonito broth (DBB, katsuo-bushi dashi) is commonly used in Japanese cuisine, and is also used as a traditional remedy for recovery from fatigue and improvement of blood circulation. To clarify the effect of DBB on blood pressure, oxidative stress and emotional states, a randomized crossover human trial was performed. Twenty-seven elderly Japanese subjects ingested DBB or water for one month. Measurement of blood pressure and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and evaluation of emotional states were performed before and after the ingestion periods. The changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) during DBB ingestion was significantly lower than that during water ingestion (p = 0.037). Urinary 8-OHdG significantly decreased during DBB ingestion (p = 0.0002). Evaluation of emotional states indicated that composure significantly improved during DBB ingestion (p = 0.034). These results suggest that the daily ingestion of DBB lower SBP, reduce urinary 8-OHdG and might improve emotional states in elderly subjects.

  4. High occurrence of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in soil sources from Bolívar State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Hernán, Aurora; Rojas, Elsy; Pérez, Gladymar; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, twenty-seven soil samples were collected in the Bolivar State in Venezuela and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2% non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed E. coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 51.8% of soil samples. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genotype T4 in soil sources from Venezuela. Further studies should be carried out in this State and in the country in order to determine the current occurrence of Acanthamoeba in Venezuelan environments.

  5. Musgos da Gruta de Mirassol, São Paulo Mosses from the Gruta de Mirassol, São Paulo State

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    Olga Yano

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Gruta de Mirassol foram encontradas 27 espécies de musgos pertencentes a 23 gêneros de 19 famílias. Racopilum tomentosum (Hedw. Brid., Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid. e Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. são as espécies mais abundantes. Brachymenium acuminatum Harv., Cyclodictyon varians (Sull. O. Kuntze, Entodontopsis leucostega (Brid. Buck & Ireland, Fissidens mollis Mitt., F. weirii Mitt., Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. e Trichosteleum fluviale (Mitt. Jaeg. estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o estado de São Paulo.Twenty-seven species of moss are described from the Gruta de Mirassol, State of São Paulo, Brazil; these are distributed among 23 genera and 19 families. Racopilum tomentosum (Hedw. Brid., Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid., and Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. are the most common species. Brachymenium acuminatum Harv., Cyclodictyon varians (Sull. O. Kuntze, Entodontopsis leucostega (Brid. Buck & Ireland, Fissidens mollis Mitt., F. weirii Mitt., and Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. are cited for the firtst time from São Paulo State.

  6. Exploring the interaction of personal and contextual factors during the induction period of science teachers and how this interaction shapes their enactment of science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Yavuz

    The first years of teaching are demanding as the novice works to gain a degree of familiarity in her/his professional work. It is during this period that many teachers decide to leave the teaching profession or move away from the reform-minded beliefs and practices acquired during their teacher preparation programs. To understand what happens during induction requires a focus on both the cognitive and contextual issues related to science teaching. The goal of this qualitative, multi-case study was to describe the induction experiences of two reform-minded first year science teachers and the strategies they used to negotiate contradictions embedded the context of schooling. Using the frame of Cultural Historical Activity Theory, in this research I focused on changes in science teachers' personal and professional identities, self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment, the manner in which these factors shaped science teaching practices, and beliefs and practices shaped and were shaped by the context of the novices' work. Data included a year of participant observations, surveys, open-ended questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and mediating artifacts such as lesson plans and assignments. Identities and dispositions of these teachers played significant role their attempts to become competent members of their school communities, attempts that influenced and were influenced by their teaching self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment. Mild contradictions in the system allowed for the refinement of reform-minded science teaching practices, while extreme contradictions in the system served to change one teacher's goals and prevented his successful enactment of science education reform. Findings indicated that the successful enactment of reform-minded practice depends not just on contextual factors related to schools, or just on individual factors associated with science teaching. Instead, personal and contextual factors interact to shape a novice's first

  7. Anger self-management in chronic traumatic brain injury: protocol for a psycho-educational treatment with a structurally equivalent control and an evaluation of treatment enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tessa; Brockway, Jo Ann; Fann, Jesse R; Maiuro, Roland D; Vaccaro, Monica J

    2015-01-01

    Anger and irritability are important and persistent clinical problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment options include medications, behavioral modification, and psychotherapies, but some are impractical and none have proven efficacy with this population. We describe a randomized multi-center clinical trial testing a novel, one-on-one, 8-session psychoeducational treatment program, Anger Self-Management Training (ASMT), designed specifically for people with TBI who have significant cognitive impairment. The trial is notable for its use of a structurally equivalent comparison treatment, called Personal Readjustment and Education (PRE), which was created for the study and is intended to maximize equipoise for both participants and treaters. Fidelity assessment is conducted in real time and used in therapist supervision sessions. The primary outcome is change in self-reported anger on validated measures from pre-treatment to 1 week after the final session. Secondary outcomes include participant anger as reported by a significant other; emotional distress in domains other than anger/irritability; behavioral functioning; and quality of life. An interim assessment after the 4th session will allow examination of the trajectory of any observed treatment effects, and a follow-up assessment 2 months after the end of intervention will allow examination of persistence of effects. A treatment enactment phase, in which participants are interviewed several months after the last therapy session, is designed to provide qualitative data on whether and to what extent the principles and techniques learned in treatment are still carried out in daily life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Moral agency as enacted justice: a clinical and ethical decision-making framework for responding to health inequities and social injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2011-11-01

    This is the second of 2 companion articles in this issue. The first article explored the clinical and ethical implications of new emphases in physical therapy codes of conduct reflecting the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. The first article was theoretically oriented and proposed that a re-thinking of ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics could both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. A review of the ethical principle of "justice," which, arguably, remains the least consensually understood and developed principle in the ethics literature of physical therapy, was provided, and a more recent perspective-the capability approach to justice-was discussed. The current article proposes a clinical and ethical decision-making framework, the ethical reasoning bridge (ER bridge), which can be used to assist physical therapy practitioners to: (1) understand and implement the capability approach to justice at a clinical level; (2) reflect on and evaluate both the fairness and influence of beliefs, perspectives, and context affecting health and disability through a process of "wide reflective equilibrium" and assist patients to do this as well; and (3) nurture the development of moral agency, in partnership with patients, through a transformative learning process manifest in a mutual "crossing" and "re-crossing" of the ER bridge. It is proposed that the development and exercise of moral agency represent an enacted justice that is the result of a shared reasoning and learning experience on the part of both therapists and patients.

  9. Shooting History: An interview with Swiss artist Christoph Draeger about the re-enactment of terrorism in his video installation Black September (2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Baden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This contribution introduces to the video installation Black September (2002 by Swiss artist Christoph Draeger and presents statements of the artist given in an interview in 2012. Draeger collects media representations of disasters in order to reconfigure their inherent sensationalism later in his artworks. The video installation Black September consists of appropriated footage from a documentary movie and video sequences from a re-enactment of the historical events of September 5th 1972, the terrorist attack during the 20th Olympic Games in Munich. Even the artist himself gets involved in the play in his mimikry of a hostage-taker and terrorist. Thus he questions the conditions of the mutual constitution of cultural memory and collective memory. His video installation creates a “counter image” in reaction to the “omnipresent myth of terrorism”, generated by the tragedy of 9/11 and the media reports in its aftermath. Both terrorist attacks, in Munich 1972 and in New York 2001, mark a turning point in the visual dominance of terrorism. In the case of September 11th, the recurring images of the airplane-attacks and the explosion of the WTC, followed by its collapsing, symbolize the legacy of the “terror of attention”, that would affect every spectator. The video questions the limits of the “disaster zone” in fictional reality and mass media. The artwork re-creates central scenes of the event in 1972. It brings the terrorist action close to the spectator through emersive images, but technically obtains a critical distance through its mode of reflection upon the catastrophe.The installation Black September stimulates and simulates history and memory simultaneously. It fills the void of a traumatic narrative and tries to recapture the signs that have been unknown yet.

  10. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Primary Headache and Dream-Enacting Behaviour in Japanese Patients with Narcolepsy or Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Multi-Centre Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Keisuke Suzuki

    Full Text Available Because the prevalence and characteristics of primary headache have yet to be thoroughly studied in patients with hypersomnia disorders, including narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, we examined these parameters in the Japanese population.In a multicentre cross-sectional survey, among 576 consecutive outpatients with sleep disorders, 68 narcolepsy patients and 35 idiopathic hypersomnia patients were included. Additionally, 61 healthy control subjects participated. Semi-structured headache questionnaires were administered to all participants.The patients with narcolepsy (52.9% and idiopathic hypersomnia (77.1% more frequently experienced headache than the healthy controls (24.6%; p<0.0001. The prevalence rates were 23.5%, 41.2% and 4.9% for migraine (p<0.0001 and 16.2%, 23.5% and 14.8% (p = 0.58 for tension-type headache among the narcolepsy patients, the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects, respectively. Those who experienced migraine more frequently experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of ≥10, than those who did not experience headache among the patients with narcolepsy (93.8% vs. 65.6%, p = 0.040 and idiopathic hypersomnia (86.7% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.026. Dream-enacting behaviour (DEB, as evaluated by the rapid eye movement sleep disorders questionnaire, was more frequently observed in the narcolepsy patients than in the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects. An increased DEB frequency was observed in the narcolepsy patients with migraines compared to those without headache.Migraines were frequently observed in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. DEB is a characteristic of narcolepsy patients. Further studies are required to assess the factors that contribute to migraines in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia patients.

  11. Three-year follow-up of attitudes and smoking behaviour among hospital nurses following enactment of France's national smoke-free workplace law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Nadia; Maurel-Donnarel, Elodie; Baumstarck-Barrau, Karine; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated among hospital nurses the smoking status, knowledge and attitudes regarding smoking cessation services, and smoking behaviour 3years after the implementation of smoke-free workplace law (decree no. 2006-1386). A descriptive study was undertaken in a public referral hospital in the South of France. Between February and April 2010, a questionnaire was distributed to the nurses. Data on demographic information, smoking status, behaviour and attitudes regarding smoking addiction, and knowledge regarding smoking cessation services were collected. Changes in nurses' smoking habits were studied through a former study conducted in this hospital a year after the law had come into effect. Three years after the enactment of the smoking ban, 30% (30% in 2008) reported themselves as current smokers, 26% (25% in 2008) as ex-smokers and 44% (45% in 2008) as non-smokers. Among smokers, 72% (68% in 2008) declared they had decreased tobacco consumption during working hours and 50% (29% in 2008) daily cigarette consumption. The majority of nurses (88%) supported the smoke-free law. A higher percentage of smokers than non smokers have knowledge of smoking cessation services. The smoking prevalence among hospital nurses seemed to have remained constant between 2008 and 2010 despite a better compliance with the law. France's national smoke-free workplace law is associated with a reduction in tobacco consumption and exposure to second-hand smoke in nurses but not smoking prevalence. The other measures of the MPOWER package have to be reinforced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. From Modern to Global State. History and Transformation of a Concept

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    Maurizio Ricciardi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the post-colonial State underlines the transformations of the modern State. In fact, some features of the post-colonial State which were regarded as being overcome or at least inconsistent with the constitutional, democratic and rational form of the State, are now emerging also in those States that never made experience of colonization, or have been colonizers. The essay analyses the transformations of the modern State aiming to articulate the concept of Global State. In this case, the question of origins does not represent a principle of legitimation, as it was with the doctrine of social contract. Rather, the symbolic and historical discontinuity defines a cut between the origin and the functioning of the State, corresponding to a transformation of the legitimating sources of the State itself. Within the global State, sovereignty is not anymore a monopoly, but a widespread practice enacted by several social structures.

  13. Announcement of ruling: implementing United States v.Windsor for purposes of entitlement and enrollment in Medicare hospital insurance and supplementary medical insurance. Notice of CMS ruling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-13

    This document announces a CMS Ruling that states the CMS policies for implementing United States v. Windsor ("Windsor''), in which the Supreme Court held that section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), enacted in 1996, is unconstitutional. Section 3 of DOMA defined ``marriage'' and "spouse'' as excluding same-sex marriages and same-sex spouses, and effectively precluded the Federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages and spouses.

  14. The association of state law to breastfeeding practices in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hollen, Robin; Tashiro, Stephanie; Cook, Daniel M; Yang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the relationship between breastfeeding initiation and duration with laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. We analyzed breastfeeding practices using the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We evaluated three measures of breastfeeding practices: Mother's reported breastfeeding initiation, a proxy report of infants ever being breastfeed, and a proxy report of infants being breastfeed for at least 6 months. Survey data were linked to eight laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. The most robust laws associated with increased infant breastfeeding at 6 months were an enforcement provision for workplace pumping laws [OR (95 % CI) 2.0 (1.6, 2.6)] and a jury duty exemption for breastfeeding mothers [OR (95 % CI) 1.7 (1.3, 2.1)]. Having a private area in the workplace to express breast milk [OR (95 % CI) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7)] and having break time to breastfeed or pump [OR (95 % CI) 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)] were also important for infant breastfeeding at 6 months. This research responds to breastfeeding advocates' calls for evidence-based data to generate the necessary political action to enact legislation and laws to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. We identify the laws with the greatest potential to reach the Healthy People 2020 targets for breastfeeding initiation and duration.

  15. Coaching Conversations: Enacting Instructional Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed coaching conversations and interviews of four coach/teacher partnerships for specific ways in which kindergarten and first-grade teachers, and coaches, conceptualized instructional scaffolding for guided reading. Interview transcripts were coded for coaches' and teachers' specific hypotheses/ ideas regarding instructional…

  16. Multimodal Design for Enactive Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Goetzen, Amalia; Mion, Luca; Avanzini, Federico

    2008-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 4th International Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval Symposium, CMMR 2007, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2007 jointly with the International Computer Music Conference 2007, ICMC 2007. The 33 revised full ...

  17. Multiple Enactments of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The article addresses the widespread claim to make educational research more relevant for practitioners, policy makers, potential users and stakeholders, and proposes a problematisation of the notion of "useful knowledge". The article illustrates the conceptual, instrumental and legitimative relevance of knowledge and highlights empirically the…

  18. Multimodal Design for Enactive Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Goetzen, Amalia; Mion, Luca; Avanzini, Federico;

    2008-01-01

    papers presented were carefully selected during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the area, the papers address a broad variety of topics in computer science and engineering areas such as information retrieval, programming, human computer interaction, digital......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 4th International Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval Symposium, CMMR 2007, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2007 jointly with the International Computer Music Conference 2007, ICMC 2007. The 33 revised full...

  19. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  20. Attitudes and practices of patients and physicians towards patient autonomy: a survey conducted prior to the enactment of the Patients' Rights Bill in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadan, B; Chejk-Saul, T

    2000-07-01

    On the surface, it would appear that patients would welcome the opportunity to relinquish their traditional subordination to doctors in therapeutic decision making, and that doctors would be pleased to have partners with whom to share the burden involved in making such fateful decisions. We investigated the attitudes and practices of patients and physicians towards "patient autonomy" in an outpatient clinic of an internal medicine department prior to the enactment of the Patient's Rights Bill in Israel. There were 81 patients randomly chosen from those attending the study clinic and 21 physicians randomly selected from among the physicians treating them. They were all administered the Krantz, the Abramson Health Index, and the Christie Ethical Decision Making pre-tested questionnaires. They were also queried on demographic and background material. The results indicated that the patient sample was neither particularly interested in participating in medical decision making (average score of 3 out of 9 in the Krantz behavioral involvement sub-scale) nor in receiving medical information (average score of 4 out of 7 in the Krantz preference of information sub-scale). The physicians exhibited a willingness to establish equal relations with their patients, and claimed to prefer their taking an active role in decision making. However, when presented with ethical dilemmas, the physicians were not consistent in their attitude in terms of respecting "patient autonomy." The findings of an Israeli survey conducted three years after the bill's passage showed that only one-third of the studied physicians had read the Israel Medical Association booklet's explaining the new law and most of them claimed that the new law had no affect on their daily encounter with patients, meaning that the law did not affect any change in these physicians' pattern of behavior. We concluded that if the Patient's Rights Bill is to achieve its goals, it will have to be accompanied by a widespread

  1. Fact or factitious? A psychobiological study of authentic and simulated dissociative identity states.

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    A A T S Reinders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dissociative identity disorder (DID is a disputed psychiatric disorder. Research findings and clinical observations suggest that DID involves an authentic mental disorder related to factors such as traumatization and disrupted attachment. A competing view indicates that DID is due to fantasy proneness, suggestibility, suggestion, and role-playing. Here we examine whether dissociative identity state-dependent psychobiological features in DID can be induced in high or low fantasy prone individuals by instructed and motivated role-playing, and suggestion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DID patients, high fantasy prone and low fantasy prone controls were studied in two different types of identity states (neutral and trauma-related in an autobiographical memory script-driven (neutral or trauma-related imagery paradigm. The controls were instructed to enact the two DID identity states. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study: 11 patients with DID, 10 high fantasy prone DID simulating controls, and 8 low fantasy prone DID simulating controls. Autonomic and subjective reactions were obtained. Differences in psychophysiological and neural activation patterns were found between the DID patients and both high and low fantasy prone controls. That is, the identity states in DID were not convincingly enacted by DID simulating controls. Thus, important differences regarding regional cerebral bloodflow and psychophysiological responses for different types of identity states in patients with DID were upheld after controlling for DID simulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings are at odds with the idea that differences among different types of dissociative identity states in DID can be explained by high fantasy proneness, motivated role-enactment, and suggestion. They indicate that DID does not have a sociocultural (e.g., iatrogenic origin.

  2. Fact or Factitious? A Psychobiological Study of Authentic and Simulated Dissociative Identity States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone Reinders, A. A. T.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Vos, Herry P. J.; den Boer, Johan A.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a disputed psychiatric disorder. Research findings and clinical observations suggest that DID involves an authentic mental disorder related to factors such as traumatization and disrupted attachment. A competing view indicates that DID is due to fantasy proneness, suggestibility, suggestion, and role-playing. Here we examine whether dissociative identity state-dependent psychobiological features in DID can be induced in high or low fantasy prone individuals by instructed and motivated role-playing, and suggestion. Methodology/Principal Findings DID patients, high fantasy prone and low fantasy prone controls were studied in two different types of identity states (neutral and trauma-related) in an autobiographical memory script-driven (neutral or trauma-related) imagery paradigm. The controls were instructed to enact the two DID identity states. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study: 11 patients with DID, 10 high fantasy prone DID simulating controls, and 8 low fantasy prone DID simulating controls. Autonomic and subjective reactions were obtained. Differences in psychophysiological and neural activation patterns were found between the DID patients and both high and low fantasy prone controls. That is, the identity states in DID were not convincingly enacted by DID simulating controls. Thus, important differences regarding regional cerebral bloodflow and psychophysiological responses for different types of identity states in patients with DID were upheld after controlling for DID simulation. Conclusions/Significance The findings are at odds with the idea that differences among different types of dissociative identity states in DID can be explained by high fantasy proneness, motivated role-enactment, and suggestion. They indicate that DID does not have a sociocultural (e.g., iatrogenic) origin. PMID:22768068

  3. Body weight management and dilemmas of health responsibility for vulnerable groups in the changing Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Ditlevsen, Kia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how health responsibility in relation to body weight management is institutionally enacted in three welfare institutions in the interplay between traditional ‘social interventionist’ welfare and ‘non-interfering’ neoliberal ideology. The analysis asks how citizens of non...... of individual responsibility increases, but that in all three settings health responsibility is ambiguously distributed and enacted among welfare state agencies and citizens, and that this renders children, youths and parents vulnerable in different ways. We identify how marginalised citizens are constituted by......, but also resist, neoliberal health promotion policies as welfare policy moves away from universalism and towards targeting in Denmark, which appears to increase health inequalities along socio-economic and ethnic lines....

  4. The Political and Territorial Development of Nations without States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the issue of nations without states in contemporary Europe between the Atlantic and the Urals. The political map of the continent comprises forty-seven countries, most of which are nation-states. However, the cultural mosaic of Europe is far more complex; there are around fifty ethnic groups (in addition to historical, territorial, or indigenous ethnic minorities and an enormous number of immigrant ethnic communities lacking a state-based organization. Together, these people add up to 78 million, or almost 15% of the European population. Twenty-seven groups can be considered nations without states; they are culturally and ethnically based and have various forms of territorial integrity and political organization. However, they did not create a state organization, despite many attempts by some through history. Without a state organization, those communities have poorer opportunities to protect their folk culture and to reproduce various elements of ethnic identity. This is why they seek territorial autonomy or independent statehood through nationalist movements. In many cases, these ambitions are encompassed in regional movements. These movements have been popular in Europe, particularly because the idea of a “Europe of regions” as part of the European Union has had broad political support and acceptance. However, it has not actually succeeded. The EU and Europe as a whole are still a Europe of (nation-states. In general, regional movements have been successful and through this some nations without states have attained part of their political ambitions in the form of territorial autonomy. The regionalization of former centralist states (e.g., Spain and the United Kingdom increased the chances of ethnic survival for the Catalans, Basques, Scots, and Welsh. On the other hand, the regionalization of nations without states represented territorial division, a kind of “divide and rule” strategy serving to reduce their

  5. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Genetic status of the wood stork (Mycteria americana) from the southeastern United States and the Brazilian Pantanal as revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, I F; Tomasulo-Seccomandi, A M; Bryan, A L; Brisbin, I L; Glenn, T C; Del Lama, S N

    2011-08-30

    The wood stork (Mycteria americana) is a colonial wading bird that inhabits the Neotropical region from the southeastern United States (US) to northern Argentina. The species is considered to be endangered in the US due to degradation of its foraging and breeding habitat. In other parts of its range, such as in the Brazilian Pantanal region, breeding populations of this species appear to be stable. We compared the levels of genetic variability and population structuring of the US and the Pantanal breeding populations using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences. Twenty-seven haplotypes were identified among 88 wood stork samples collected from eight breeding colonies in the US and eight in the Pantanal. Patterns indicative of heteroplasmy were observed in 35.3% of the mtDNA sequences that were examined. Significantly higher levels of haplotype diversity were observed in the Pantanal samples compared to those from the US, suggesting that during the last century, demographic declines or a recent evolutionary bottleneck reduced the levels of mtDNA variability of the US population. Analyses of genetic structuring revealed non-significant genetic differentiation between these regions, indicating that either the populations were only recently separated or that gene flow continues to occur at low levels. Haplotype network analysis indicated low current levels of gene flow between populations that were closely related in the past.

  7. Caring Is Not Enough: Teachers' Enactment of Ethical Care for Adolescent Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE) in a Newcomer Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    The educational landscape for schools in the United States is continuing to shift with the arrival of refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education, especially at the secondary schools. As refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE) adjust to schools in the United States, they may experience acculturative…

  8. Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill.

  9. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  10. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Michael

    Over the past forty years federal efforts at renewable energy policy in the United States have been fragmented and are largely stalled. This is much different from U.S. states, which enact a diverse array of renewable energy policies. What factors explain this subnational variation? Addressing this question requires moving past the standard model of binary policy adoption that dominates studies of renewable energy policy. In its place I provide analyses of multifaceted policy outcomes, and also include predictors from a more inclusive view of politics than the standard economic and political interest factors. These additions to the standard energy policy model shed light not just on when states take policy action, but also on the content of the policies states ultimately adopt. In this dissertation I argue that different combinations of state-level political and economic characteristics influence policy adoption and policy content, a fact that is obscured by analysis of only binary policy action. I demonstrate this through three empirical projects that utilize an original longitudinal dataset and a variety of quantitative methods. The first project examines the diffusion of two varieties of a single regulatory policy instrument within a political context. I demonstrate that, contrary to most diffusion studies, policy adoption should be thought of as a multifaceted process, with separate factors determining the impetus for action and others shaping the content of the policy. My second project examines the role of economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors on a state's portfolio of policies. This work extends findings from prior literature on tax policies and incorporates institutional and cultural accounts of policy adoption into the study of renewable energy policy. I show that state economic and political factors, the predictors in traditional energy policy models, predict policy action but not policy content. Instead it is a state's cultural context

  11. Regulation profiles of e-cigarettes in the United States: a critical review with qualitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Pluye, Pierre; Gore, Genevieve; Granikov, Vera; Filion, Kristian B; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2015-06-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity since their introduction to US markets in 2007. Debates surrounding the proper regulatory mechanisms needed to mitigate potential harms associated with their use have focused on youth access, their potential for nicotine addiction, and the renormalization of a smoking culture. The objective of this study was to describe the enacted and planned regulations addressing this novel public health concern in the US. We searched LexisNexis Academic under Federal Regulations and Registers, as well as State Administrative Codes and Registers. This same database was also used to find information about planned regulations in secondary sources. The search was restricted to US documents produced between January 1(st), 2004, and July 14(th), 2014. We found two planned regulations at the federal level, and 74 enacted and planned regulations in 44 states. We identified six state-based regulation types, including i) access, ii) usage, iii) marketing and advertisement, iv) packaging, v) taxation, and vi) licensure. These were further classified into 10 restriction subtypes: sales, sale to minors, use in indoor public places, use in limited venues, use by minors, licensure, marketing and advertising, packaging, and taxation. Most enacted restrictions aimed primarily to limit youth access, while few regulations enforced comprehensive restrictions on product use and availability. Current regulations targeting e-cigarettes in the US are varied in nature and scope. There is greater consensus surrounding youth protection (access by minors and/or use by minors, and/or use in limited venues), with little consensus on multi-level regulations, including comprehensive use bans in public spaces.

  12. Risky business: effectiveness of state market-based health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream, Christopher; Myers, Nathan

    2010-02-01

    Since the 1990s, state governments have been leaders of health care reform. Today, approximately 47 million people are without health insurance. As health care costs and uninsurance levels continue to rise, states are pursuing a variety of government- and market-based strategies to address this growing social problem. Health care research has indicated that state-based programs have proven to be successful in extending access to coverage. However, the question remains as to whether the market-based programs have had a positive impact on state health care. Advocates for market-based state health programs argue that the reforms benefit the greater good because they serve an economic development function by improving the economic productivity and overall health of state citizens. Whether market-based policies are accomplishing these goals is a matter of debate. This study examines the effects of the various market-based state policies. The evidence generated by this research sheds light on the societal effectiveness of market-based health care strategies used by state governments. The results of our analysis indicate that programs enacted by states to promote increased access to medical care have developmental effects beyond the client population directly served.

  13. Population Health and Paid Parental Leave: What the United States Can Learn from Two Decades of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Burtle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, numerous studies have suggested that dedicated time for parents to be with their children in the earliest months of life offers significant benefits to child health. The United States (US is the only wealthy nation without a formalized policy guaranteeing workers paid time off when they become new parents. As individual US states consider enacting parental leave policies, there is a significant opportunity to decrease health inequities and build a healthier American population. This document is intended as a critical review of the present evidence for the association between paid parental leave and population health.

  14. The Incremental Marketization and Centralization of State Control of Public Higher Education: A Hermeneutic Interpretation of Legislative and Administrative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford P. Harbour

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author reports on an analysis and interpretation of institutional accountability legislation enacted by the Colorado General Assembly from 1985 to 2005. The method of inquiry for the study was grounded in the principles of hermeneutics and narrative policy analysis. Analysis and interpretation of legislative and administrative texts reveal how they rationalize marketized higher education and centralized state control of public colleges and universities. This interpretation also explains how a new integrated funding and accountability framework creates de facto institutional missions validated by marketization and secured by centralization of state control.

  15. Twenty-seven years follow-up of a patient with congenital retinocephalofacial vascular malformation syndrome and additional congenital malformations (Bonnet-dechaume-blanc syndrome or wyburn-mason syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Follow-up of vascular changes in a patient with congenital retinocephalofacial vascular malformation syndrome. Methods MRI and cerebral angiography. Results In a 36-year-old man, magnetic resonance im aging of the skull and cerebral angiography revealed left intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Follow-up observation of 27 years revealed no essential change of retinal and cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Additional congenital deficits in this patient were described. Conclusion Patients with retinal arteriovenous malformations should be early examined with neuroradiological methods.

  16. Lessons from history: Surviving old age during The Great Depression in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on 30 couples who received a pension and other services from two private trusts in Detroit, Michigan beginning in 1929 or 1930. Results of the qualitative analysis of case files, which contain notes recorded chronologically for 17 of the couples and then surviving spouses, provide a portrait of older couples' lives prior to a partner's death, circumstances surrounding the death, and changes in the social support systems of widows and widowers until their deaths. Close examination of the experiences of these couples is a reminder of how old age and widowhood were experienced prior to the enactment of public pensions and health insurance in the United States.

  17. State Fairgrounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile is a point shapefile that displays the locations of the major state/regional agricultural fairs held throughout the United States. Some states (e.g.,...

  18. It is just not fair: the Endangered Species Act in the United States and Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Olive

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The United States and the Canadian province of Ontario have enacted endangered species laws that regulate private land. The rationale for this is that the vast majority of endangered species in the two countries rely on private lands for survival. However, from a landowner perspective the law is deemed unfair. This paper presents analysis from 141 interviews with landowners in three U.S. states and Ontario. In recognition of distributive justice claims, both the U.S. government and the Ontario government have enacted programs aimed at increasing financial incentives for participation and compliance with the law. However, the law is still perceived as unfair. The central argument of this paper is that future amendments and new policies for endangered species should confront two other forms of environmental justice: procedural justice and justice-as-recognition. Landowners in both countries expressed not only concerns about compensation, but also a deep desire to be included in the protection and recovery process, as well as to be recognized by government and society as good stewards of the land. The paper concludes by stating that future policy amendments need to address justice-as-recognition if endangered species conservation on private lands is to be considered fair by landowners.

  19. Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.

  20. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  1. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  2. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  3. Associations between attention, affect and cardiac activity in a single yoga session for female cancer survivors: an enactive neurophenomenology-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Michael J; Carlson, Linda E; Paskevich, David M; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Wurz, Amanda J; Wytsma, Kathryn; Krenz, Katie A; McAuley, Edward; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2014-07-01

    Yoga practice is reported to lead to improvements in quality of life, psychological functioning, and symptom indices in cancer survivors. Importantly, meditative states experienced within yoga practice are correlated to neurophysiological systems that moderate both focus of attention and affective valence. The current study used a mixed methods approach based in neurophenomenology to investigate associations between attention, affect, and cardiac activity during a single yoga session for female cancer survivors. Yoga practice was associated with a linear increase in associative attention and positive affective valence, while shifts in cardiac activity were related to the intensity of each yoga sequence. Changes in attention and affect were predicted by concurrently assessed cardiac activity. Awareness of breathing, physical movement, and increased relaxation were reported by participants as potential mechanisms for yoga's salutary effects. While yoga practice shares commonalities with exercise and relaxation training, yoga may serve primarily as a promising meditative attention-affect regulation training methodology.

  4. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  5. "Welfare queens" and "teen moms": how the social construction of fertile women impacts unintended pregnancy prevention policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, E Angel; Rashid, Moira

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, unintended pregnancy is a serious health, social, and economic concern. However, the existing prevention policies have proven ineffective at decreasing the rate of unintended pregnancy at a national level. This lack of effective national prevention policy is better understood when viewed through the lens of a policy theory that incorporates an understanding of social construction and its effects on policy development. Through the application of one such policy theory, this article explores how the social construction of fertile women in the United States affects previous and recently enacted unintended pregnancy prevention policies.

  6. The current state of Contract Law in Australia and why it is important for rural managers to understand it

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Farmers are business managers and as such they must understand the law or they are likely to fall foul of it. This especially applies to contract law, with which they deal constantly. Contract law is made up of the common law – as the courts have decided it – and statute law- as the state and federal parliaments have enacted statutes which modify the common law. The most important and most recent of the latter is the new Australian Consumer Law.

  7. Enactment of one-to-many communication may induce self-focused attention that leads to diminished perspective taking: The case of Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Chiou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites (SNSs provide users with an efficient interface for distributing information, such as photos or wall posts, to many others simultaneously. We demonstrated experimentally that this type of indiscriminate one-to-many (i.e., monologue communication may induce self-focused attention and thereby impair perspective taking. The present study used multiple paradigms to explore the link between engaging in online one-to-many communication and a decrease in perspective taking. Experiment 1 revealed that Facebookers who published a personal photo to the public or their friends were less likely to adopt another person's visual perspective than were those in the control group. Experiment 2 showed that Facebookers who engaged in indiscriminate one-to-many wall posting were more likely than those in the control group to rely heavily on their own perspectives. A state of self-focus, as measured by greater Stroop interference in naming the color of self-relevant versus neutral words, mediated the detrimental effect of indiscriminate one-to-many communication on cognitive perspective taking. These findings suggest that indiscriminate one-to-many communication on SNSs may promote public self-focus, leading to self-referential processing when making social judgments. Online monologue communication may be more harmful to perspective taking than previously understood.

  8. Does Facebook promote self-interest? Enactment of indiscriminate one-to-many communication on online social networking sites decreases prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chen, Szu-Wei; Liao, Da-Chi

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Communication tools on social networking sites (SNSs) provide users with an efficient way to distribute information to the public and/or their friends simultaneously. In this article, we show that this kind of indiscriminate one-to-many (i.e., monologue) communication, in which the diverse interests of recipients are not considered, may induce a tendency toward egocentrism that interferes with other-oriented concerns, resulting in a reduced inclination to display prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants induced to post a public communication subsequently allocated less money to anonymous strangers in the dictator game than did control participants. In Experiment 2, participants directing a post about participation in an experiment to their Facebook friends volunteered to help code fewer data sheets than did controls. Moreover, an egocentric state was shown to mediate the relationship between indiscriminate one-to-many communication and helping behavior. We provide the first demonstration that indiscriminate one-to-many communication on online social networks may be associated with a tendency toward self-interest. Our results suggest that the prevalence of monologue communication on SNSs may induce an egocentric tendency that undermines the likelihood of prosocial behavior.

  9. Complications - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Complications measures - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  10. State Snapshots

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Snapshots provide graphical representations of State-specific health care quality information, including strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for...

  11. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China.

  12. The economic impact of state cigarette taxes and smoke-free air policies on convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether increasing state cigarette taxes and/or enacting stronger smoke-free air (SFA) policies have negative impact on convenience store density in a state, a proxy that is determined by store openings and closings, which reflects store profits. State-level business count estimates for convenience stores for 50 states and District of Columbia from 1997 to 2009 were analysed using two-way fixed effects regression techniques that control for state-specific and year-specific determinants of convenience store density. The impact of tax and SFA policies was examined using a quasi-experimental research design that exploits changes in cigarette taxes and SFA policies within a state over time. Taxes are found to be uncorrelated with the density of combined convenience stores and gas stations in a state. Taxes are positively correlated with the density of convenience stores; however, the magnitude of this correlation is small, with a 10% increase in state cigarette taxes associated with a 0.19% (pincrease in the number of convenience stores per million people in a state. State-level SFA policies do not correlate with convenience store density in a state, regardless whether gas stations were included. These results are robust across different model specifications. In addition, they are robust with regard to the inclusion/exclusion of other state-level tobacco control measures and gasoline prices. Contrary to tobacco industry and related organisations' claims, higher cigarette taxes and stronger SFA policies do not negatively affect convenience stores.

  13. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  14. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  15. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  16. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  17. Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Lothar; Holm, Hans-Henrik; Sørensen, Georg;

    What does state fragility means and how is it adressed. Case studies of where it went wrong and where it did not......What does state fragility means and how is it adressed. Case studies of where it went wrong and where it did not...

  18. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  19. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  20. Research needs in drinking water: a basis in regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacangelo, Joseph G; Askenaizer, Daniel J; Schwab, Kellogg

    2006-01-01

    Regulations are one of the primary drivers for research on contaminants in drinking water in the United States. Since the original Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), enacted in 1974, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a series of drinking water regulations. These regulations are focused on protecting public health. When evaluating available information on whether or not to regulate a constituent in drinking water, USEPA considers available information on health effects and occurrence of the constituent. The authors provide their view of the research needed for these contaminants. For inorganics, more data are needed on perchlorate. For organics, greater treatment and health effects information is warranted for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Finally, more research is needed on analytical methods for noroviruses and other emerging pathogens.

  1. The Clash of Muslims and the State: Waqf and Zakat in Post Independence Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Saepudin Jahar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Law no. 38/1999 on zakat administration was able to be successfully enacted not solely because the roots of democracy had began to grow in the country; but also because this law is based on the rationale purpose of zakat, that is, to help the poor. In this article, furthermore, the state is responsible to protect and provide necessary support for the poor and needy citizens, even though in fact, the state fails to do so, This is of course of great relevance considering the main aim of zakat is to improve the social and economic position of the poor.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v13i3.556

  2. State Antifeminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Dupuis-Déri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘State feminism’ is a concept that refers to the integration of feminists and feminist issues into the state apparatus. Yet, while the feminist movement must regularly contend with an antifeminist counter-movement, it is worth considering whether a ‘state antifeminism’ is also present or emerging, and how this presence or emergence is affecting efforts by feminist organizations to address the needs of women and advance women's equality. With this objective in mind, this article focuses chiefly on two Western countries and is based on more than twenty semi-structured interviews with feminists in Belgium and Quebec, Canada.

  3. The Promising Syllabus Enacted: One Teacher's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christine Courtade

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a rationale and strategies for use of the Promising Syllabus (in Bain, 2004, What the best college teachers do). This syllabus reflects the learner-centered paradigm where students take charge of their own learning. The syllabus creates a series of promises between teacher and student, focusing on a…

  4. Design and Practice: Enacting Functional Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on experience with a transdisciplinary literacy project in writing development at the secondary level to address the sub-field of "writing-literacy," writing as a linguist working across an applied versus theoretical frontier. (Author/VWL)

  5. Enacting outsourcing: An innovation process perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikte Borgström

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been done on outsourcing. However, we still know little about outsourcing based on a social process view on innovation. Outsourcing is an innovation as a logistics-related process that is perceived as new by the adopter. We will explore and analyse an outsourcing idea, its development and implementation, from an innovation perspective. The development is studied in a qualitative, long-term process study. The analysis draws on Hoholm’s (2009 model of innovation processes. It extends the applicability of this innovation model and its methodology of following the action into logistics and supply chain management (SCM research. The outsourcing process is an innovation that develops in a rational way based on the incremental process because of its actor-network and simultaneous reflection. Interactions and confrontations come about because of involved contrary forces such as competing objectives. The model explains the practice of SCM innovation and increases the understanding of dynamics and complexity. The process study brings insights to cause-effect relations in the development of outsourcing that are consequential to innovative logistics and SCM.

  6. Competence in Education: An Enactive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Medeiros

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to show why Varela (1995 bases his theory on the vision of ethics and the development of the virtuous person established by Meng Tzu (Mencius—a Confucian who lived around the fourth century—in order to determine what is meant by a competent person, implicitly furnishing a promising conceptualization of competence. This paper aims to identify the aspects of Varela’s theory that approximate or differ from the positions of some authors who have studied issues related to learning, namely Piaget (1986 and Freire (1987, as well as in relation to the author’s own doctoral thesis on what constitutes competencies and how they are developed (Silva, 2004.

  7. Translating ideas into actions: entrepreneurial leadership in state health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T R; Paul-Shaheen, P

    1997-06-01

    States are often touted as "laboratories" for developing national solutions to social problems. In this article we examine the appropriateness of this metaphor for comprehensive health care reform and attempt to draw lessons about policy innovation from recent state actions. We present evidence from six states that enacted major pieces of health care legislation in the late 1980s or early 1990s: Massachusetts, Oregon, Florida, Minnesota, Vermont, and Washington State. The variation in design casts doubt on the proposition that states can invent plans and programs for other states and the federal government to adopt for themselves. Instead, we argue that it is more accurate to think of states as specialized political markets in which individuals and groups develop and promote innovative products. We examine the factors that might create receptive markets for comprehensive health care reforms and conclude that the critical factor these states shared in common was skilled and committed leadership from "policy entrepreneurs" who formulated the plans for system reform and prominent "investors" who contributed substantial political capital to the development of the reforms. We illustrate different strategies that leaders in these states used to carry out the entrepreneurial tasks of identifying a market opportunity, designing an innovation, attracting political investment, marketing the innovation, and monitoring its early production.

  8. Do state breastfeeding laws in the USA promote breast feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-03-01

    Despite the passage of state laws promoting breast feeding, a formal evaluation has not yet been conducted to test whether and/or what type of laws may increase breast feeding. The enactment of breastfeeding laws in different states in the USA creates a natural experiment. We examined the impact of state breastfeeding laws on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as on disparities in these infant feeding practices. Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted differences-in-differences models to examine breastfeeding status before and after the institution of laws between 2000 and 2008 among 326 263 mothers from 32 states in the USA. For each mother, we coded the presence of two types of state breastfeeding laws. Mothers reported whether they ever breast fed or pumped breast milk (breastfeeding initiation) and, if so, how long they continued. We defined breastfeeding duration as continuing to breast feed for ≥4 weeks. Breastfeeding initiation was 1.7 percentage points higher in states with new laws to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees (p=0.01), particularly among Hispanic mothers (adjusted coefficient 0.058). While there was no overall effect of laws permitting mothers to breast feed in any location, among Black mothers we observed increases in breastfeeding initiation (adjusted coefficient 0.056). Effects on breastfeeding duration were in the same direction, but slightly weaker. State laws that support breast feeding appear to increase breastfeeding rates. Most of these gains were observed among Hispanic and Black women and women of lower educational attainment suggesting that such state laws may help reduce disparities in breast feeding.

  9. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates.

  10. HCAHPS - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  11. Riparian States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya, the rest of the Nile River riparian countries fall in the category of least developed ... state econo-political and socio-cultural utilisation remains a major challenge. .... Nyukuri, African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), Kenya.

  12. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  13. Coherent states and squeezed states, supercoherent states and supersqueezed states

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, Michael Martin

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on a program to obtain and understand coherent states for general systems. Most recently this has included supersymmetric systems. A byproduct of this work has been studies of squeezed and supersqueezed states. To obtain a physical understanding of these systems has always been a primary goal. In particular, in the work on supersymmetry an attempt to understand the role of Grassmann numbers in quantum mechanics has been initiated.

  14. "Calling a state a state": feminist politics and the policing of violence against women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautzinger, S

    1997-01-01

    This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives.

  15. School Turnaround as National Policy in the United States: Considerations from Three Studies Conducted in the Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby V. Meyers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available School turnaround policy has become prominent in American education discourse. Some federal initiatives specifically target the lowest achieving five percent of schools in the nation, with the goal of bringing schools out of improvement status rapidly. This paper considers and extends the work of three recent studies of school turnaround. Collectively, the studies demonstrate how a strong federal initiative can impact public education on multiple levels, including the state, district, school, and individual levels. School turnaround demonstrates the power of federal initiatives in the United States to impact the public school system at all levels. State departments of education have responded in ways to obtain federal funding. Districts and schools generally with the least capacity to enact change have been challenged with an opportunity to win substantial dollars, but many elected not to compete. Increases in student achievement through such reform appear to be possible, but the human and social costs have yet to be adequately considered.

  16. Indian state plans compulsory HIV testing, segregation and branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1998-04-01

    Health officials in the Indian state of Maharashtra have ordered the compulsory testing of all girls 12 years and older who live in designated "destitute homes." The officials also plan to tattoo a symbol on the thighs of all HIV-positive prostitutes. By April 1998, this December 1997 order had resulted in the compulsory testing of women living in 50 boarding houses and the transfer of several found to be HIV-positive to a separate institution 200 miles from the state capital. Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) have mounted a protest over this statute, but state governments in India are free to enact their own health laws. The Maharashtran government is also seeking to legalize prostitution and to force prostitutes to register with a Board that will be able to order compulsory HIV tests and tattooing. Women with HIV who continue to engage in prostitution will be quarantined, and their clients will be jailed. In response, prostitutes in the capital city of Mumbai have threatened to release a list of their client's names to the press. The only recourse available to NGOs who oppose this action is to generate a large enough public outcry to stop it. A Mumbai-based attorney noted that many private companies are also requiring HIV testing and dismissing those who test positive.

  17. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  18. Enactment of Chinese Syllabus for Schools in Sweden and the relevant reflections%瑞典本土化汉语教学大纲的制定及思考∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛新政

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Syllabus for Schools in Sweden is a localized syllabus developed in Sweden.This syllabus is based on the syllabus for modern languages in Swedish schools and compatible with such programmatic documents as Common European Framework of Reference for Languages:Learning, Teaching,Assessment.The syllabus takes into account the particularities of Chinese such as the lack of kinship with the Swedish language and the use of the Chinese writing system which is completely different from the Latin system.The paper discusses the background,the enactment process,the main contents and localized characteristics of the syllabus on the basis of a comparison with International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education as well as the future challenges to the teaching of Chi-nese in Sweden.%“瑞典中小学汉语教学大纲”是瑞典本土自主开发的汉语教学大纲。该大纲以瑞典现代语言教学大纲为蓝本,并对《欧洲语言共同参考框架:学习、教学、评估》等纲领性文件进行兼容。该大纲同时还考虑到汉语的特殊性,即与瑞典语在语系上不具有亲缘关系、采用与拉丁字母差别悬殊的汉字书写系统等。文章对该大纲的开发背景、制定过程予以介绍,并从跟《国际汉语教学通用课程大纲》等大纲比较的角度出发,对其主要内容和本土特色进行分析,进而对瑞典汉语教学的未来发展问题进行了探讨。

  19. Energy-efficient procurement in state and local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.W. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    As the prices of domestically produced and imported energy continue to skyrocket, the need for increased efforts to save energy grows. While states and their political subdivisions can encourage energy conservation in a variety of ways, they can set an example for their citizens and save energy themselves by becoming more conscious of the energy impacts of government purchasing and more committed to energy-efficient procurement. This report examines the progress made by states in this area since the enactment in 1975 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). One part of this law authorizes Federal assistance to states for the preparation and implementation of energy-conservation plans to include, among other elements, energy-efficient procurement standards and policies. Three and a half years after EPCA's passage, state and local energy-efficient procurement programs, with a few exceptions, have barely advanced beyond infancy. The major reasons for this are a lack of reliable energy-efficiency information on many energy-consuming products, a resistance to change on the part of purchasing officials or their superiors, and a reluctance in the tax-revolt era to spend money in order to save money as well as energy. To overcome these obstacles, states and localities should consider mandating energy-efficient procurement practices through either executive orders or legislation. In addition, states and localities should consider adopting institutional arrangements, such as centralized purchasing and joint or cooperative purchasing that will facilitate energy-efficient procurement. To further state and local efforts in this area, the Federal government should provide technical and financial assistance to an organization or purchasing officials to establish an information clearinghouse.

  20. FAILED STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Miles R. Cone

    The state as a concept and an everyday reality conjures up vastly different images and ... population tied together by some form of socio-political cohesion and governed by a ... the expectation of the provision of certain political, economic and social goods. In .... In such instances the halt and virtual disappearance of a.

  1. State of the States 2016: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The "State of the States 2016" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or administrative code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based on a comprehensive search of state education statute and codes on each state's relevant websites. Complete results from this review are available in…

  2. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  3. Regulatory status of caffeine in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Leah S; Mihalov, Jeremy J; Carlson, Susan J; Mattia, Antonia

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes the history of the regulation of caffeine, a key component of caffeine-containing energy drinks and other caffeine-containing energy products, in the United States. Caffeine as an ingredient in food has been regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1958, when the Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was enacted. It is listed as a substance that is generally recognized as safe by experts for its intended use in cola-type beverages at levels not to exceed 200 parts per million. Here, the history of FDA evaluations of the safe use of, as well as consumer exposure to, caffeine in food in the United States is outlined. Finally, the FDA's current concerns about caffeine and caffeine-containing energy products are reported, along with the current activities to address those concerns. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Productivity Gap and Asymmetric Trade Relations: The Canada-United States of America Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán H. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of the European model of integration is currently subject to debate and the North American integration process has been largely ignored as a comparative framework. The asymmetrical relationship between Canada and the United States began a long time before NAFTA, and the study of this process could shed light on the usual problems faced by Latin American countries. This article attempts to encourage discussion about this topic. Particularly,there is evidence for a substantial and positive change in Canadian productivity at the time of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA. However, the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA does not seem to have had the same effect as the earlier treaty.

  5. Enterprise Modeling in the context of Enterprise Engineering: State of the art and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Vernadat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Modeling is a central activity in Enterprise Engineering and can facilitate Production Management activities. This state-of-the-art paper first recalls definitions and fundamental principles of enterprise modelling, which goes far beyond process modeling. The CIMOSA modeling framework, which is based on an event-driven process-based modeling language suitable for enterprise system analysis and model enactment, is used as a reference conceptual framework because of its generality. Next, the focus is on new features of enterprise modeling languages including risk, value, competency modeling and service orientation. Extensions for modeling collaborative aspects of networked organizations are suggested as research outlook. Major approaches used in enterprise modeling are recalled before concluding.

  6. Vaccination legislation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Silas P; Janusz, Cara B; Jauregui, Barbara; McQuestion, Mike; Felix, Gabriela; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Andrus, Jon K; Quadros, Ciro De

    2013-01-01

    Governments have the authority and responsibility to ensure vaccination for all citizens. The development of vaccination legislation in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) parallels the emergence of sustainable, relatively autonomous, and effective national immunization programs. We reviewed vaccination legislation and related legal documents from LAC countries (excluding Canada, Puerto Rico, the United States, and the US Virgin Islands), and described and assessed vaccination legislation provisions. Twenty-seven of the 44 countries and territories in the Region have proposed or enacted vaccination legislation. Provisions vary substantially, but legal frameworks generally protect the sustainability of the immunization program, the individual's right to immunization, and the state's responsibility to provide it as a public good. Of the legislation from countries and territories included in the analysis, 44 per cent protects a budget line for vaccines, 96 per cent mandates immunization, 63 per cent declares immunization a public good, and 78 per cent explicitly defines the national vaccine schedule. We looked for associations between vaccination legislation in LAC and national immunization program performance and financing, and conclude with lessons for governments seeking to craft or enhance vaccination legislation.

  7. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  8. Solid Waste Management Practices of Select State Universities in CALABARZON, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Gequinto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act prompted higher education institutions including state universities and colleges (SUCs to incorporate ecological waste management in the school system. Thus, this paper aimed to assess the extent of implementation of solid waste management practices in select SUCs in CALABARZON in terms of waste reuse, waste reduction, waste collection, waste recycling, waste treatment, and final waste disposal. Respondents of the study included university administrators, faculty members, non-teaching staff, students and concessionaries for a total of 341. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data from Batangas State University (BatState-U, Cavite State University (CavSU, Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU and Southern Luzon State University (SLSU. Result revealed that solid waste management practices are implemented to a great extent. Among the practices, waste collection got the highest composite mean particularly on the promotion of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle in the collection of waste. On the other hand, waste recycling and waste treatment obtained the lowest composite mean. In terms of waste recycling, establishing partnership with local or private business for recyclable recovery program was to moderate extent. Waste treatment particularly neutralization of acid bases was also of moderate extent. The study recommended strengthening of publicprivate partnership (PPP on the recycling and treatment of wastes.

  9. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  10. State of the States, 2012: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts Education Partnership (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "State of the States 2012" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based primarily on results from the AEP Arts Education State Policy Survey conducted in 2010-11, and updated in April 2012.

  11. Revised federal allotments to states for social services expenditures pursuant to Title XX--Social Services Block Grant Act; promulgation for fiscal year 1984--HHS. Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-25

    The Federal allotments of +2.5 billion to States for social services under Section 2003 of the Social Security Act (Act) which were published in the Federal Register November 26, 1982 (47 FR 53502) were based upon the authorization set forth in Section 2003 of the Act at that time and were contingent upon Congressional appropriations actions for the fiscal year. Public Law 98-135, enacted October 24, 1983, amended Section 2003 of the Act, by increasing the authorization to +2.7 billion for Fiscal Year 1984 and each succeeding fiscal year. The allocation of this authorized amount for Fiscal Year 1984 is shown in Column 1 of the table below, and it too is contingent upon Congressional appropriations actions. Public Law 98-139, enacted October 13, 1983 appropriates +2.675 billion for allocation to the States under Section 2003 of the Act for Fiscal Year 1984. The allocation of this appropriated amount is shown in Column 2 of the table below. Accordingly, the promulgation made in 47 FR 53502, November 26, 1982, is rescinded and the promulgation, as revised, is set forth in Column 2 of the table below.

  12. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changing climate, changing forests: the impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Lindsey; Campbell, John; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Huntington, Thomas; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Mohan, Jacqueline; Rodenhouse, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems provide important insights for forest science, management, and policy. A synthesis of recent research from the northeastern United States and eastern Canada shows that the climate of the region has become warmer and wetter over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme precipitation events. Greater change is projected in the future. The amount of projected future change depends on the emissions scenarios used. Tree species composition of northeast forests has shifted slowly in response to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid and it is unclear how forests will respond to large changes in suitable habitat. Projections indicate significant declines in suitable habitat for spruce-fir forests and expansion of suitable habitat for oak-dominated forests. Productivity gains that might result from extended growing seasons and carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization may be offset by productivity losses associated with the disruption of species assemblages and concurrent stresses associated with potential increases in atmospheric deposition of pollutants, forest fragmentation, and nuisance species. Investigations of links to water and nutrient cycling suggest that changes in evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and mineralization rates could result in significant alterations of key ecosystem processes. Climate change affects the distribution and abundance of many wildlife species in the region through changes in habitat, food availability, thermal tolerances, species interactions such as competition, and susceptibility to parasites and disease. Birds are the most studied northeastern taxa. Twenty-seven of the 38 bird species for which we have adequate long-term records have expanded their ranges predominantly in a northward direction. There is some evidence to suggest that novel species, including pests and

  14. Forensic DNA data banking by state crime labortaories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, J.E. [Eunice Kennedy Shrive Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of the responsible crime laboratories in the first 19 states with legislation establishing forensic DNA data banks. The survey inquired into the labs` policies and procedures regarding the collection, storage, and analysis of samples; the retention of samples and data; search protocols; access to samples and data by third parties; and related matters. The research suggests that (1) the number of samples collected from convicted offenders for DNA data banking has far surpassed the number that have been analyzed; (2) data banks have already been used in a small but growing number of cases, to locate suspects and to identify associations between unresolved cases; (3) crime labs currently plan to retain indefinitely the samples collected for their data banks; and (4) the nature and extent of security safeguards that crime labs have implemented for their data banks vary among states. The recently enacted DNA Identification Act (1994) will provide $40 million in federal matching grants to states for DNA analysis activities, so long as states comply with specified quality-assurance standards, submit to external proficiency testing, and limit access to DNA information. Although these additional funds should help to ease some sample backlogs, it remains unclear how labs will allocate the funds, as between analyzing samples for their data banks and testing evidence samples in cases without suspects. The DNA Identification Act provides penalties for the disclosure or obtaining of DNA data held by data banks that participate in CODIS, the FBI`s evolving national network of DNA data banks, but individual crime labs must also develop stringent internal safeguards to prevent breaches of data-bank security. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. The miraculous year 2010 in United States' gay rights law: Anomaly or tipping point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S Leonard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    During 2010 a series of decisions by United States District Court judges appeared to mark a significant breakthrough in the ongoing struggle by sexual minorities in the United States to achieve legal equality through the removal of objectionable laws and policies.  Almost as if a dam had broken, there was a sudden rush of developments on three highly contested fronts: (1 the statutory ban on military service by openly gay individuals, (2 the exclusion from federal recognition for lawfully contracted same-sex marriages, and (3 a popularly enacted California state constitutional amendment taking away same-sex marriage rights that had previously been granted by a state supreme court decision. In each of these cases, the district courts declared the contested policy to be unconstitutional and ordered injunctive relief, placing in doubt the willingness of courts to continue crediting traditional arguments that had been successfully invoked by the government when defending these and similar policies in past cases. In this comment, the author argues that these decisions may work a fundamental change in the analysis of LGBT constitutional claims that portends significant progress towards achieving legal equality for sexual minorities in the United States.

  16. A summary of state laws regulating youth operating farm tractors on highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, B C; Marlenga, B

    2006-02-01

    Driving farm tractors on highways is hazardous for youth due to the large speed differential between motor vehicles and agricultural vehicles, as well as recent increases in traffic volume on many rural roads. In 1994, the state of Wisconsin enacted legislation requiring youth who operate farm tractors on highways to complete a tractor and machinery certification course. We were interested in finding out whether other states have similar requirements. The purpose of this project was to collect and summarize state laws regulating youth who operate farm tractors on highways in the U.S. A systematic method was used that included an initial Lexis-Nexis database search followed by internet searches in combination with follow-up email and telephone communications when missing or unclear results were obtained. The findings show that 14 states have legislation addressing youth who operate farm tractors on highways. The content of these statutes varies, but includes driver's license or educational requirements, as well as regulations concerning the ages, locations, and/or times of day when youth may drive farm machinery on highways. This compilation of state laws will be useful information for agricultural safety professionals in designing effective outreach programs. A synthesis of the findings may also lead to the development of model legislation or inform future research efforts aimed at preventing youth farm tractor crashes on highways.

  17. Impact of state mandatory insurance coverage on the use of diabetes preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Lawrence

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 46 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have passed laws and regulations mandating that health insurance plans cover diabetes treatment and preventive care. Previous research on state mandates suggested that these policies had little impact, since many health plans already covered the benefits. Here, we analyze the contents of and model the effect of state mandates. We examined how state mandates impacted the likelihood of using three types of diabetes preventive care: annual eye exams, annual foot exams, and performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG. Methods We collected information on diabetes benefits specified in state mandates and time the mandates were enacted. To assess impact, we used data that the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System gathered between 1996 and 2000. 4,797 individuals with self-reported diabetes and covered by private insurance were included; 3,195 of these resided in the 16 states that passed state mandates between 1997 and 1999; 1,602 resided in the 8 states or the District of Columbia without state mandates by 2000. Multivariate logistic regression models (with state fixed effect, controlling for patient demographic characteristics and socio-economic status, state characteristics, and time trend were used to model the association between passing state mandates and the usage of the forms of diabetes preventive care, both individually and collectively. Results All 16 states that passed mandates between 1997 and 1999 required coverage of diabetic monitors and strips, while 15 states required coverage of diabetes self management education. Only 1 state required coverage of periodic eye and foot exams. State mandates were positively associated with a 6.3 (P = 0.04 and a 5.8 (P = 0.03 percentage point increase in the probability of privately insured diabetic patient's performing SMBG and simultaneous receiving all three preventive care, respectively; state mandates were not

  18. New state fertility-related laws dropped sharply in 1980 to lowest total since 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    State legislatures enacted less fertility-related legislation in 1980 than in any year since 1972. 28 new laws were passed in 1980, compared to 61 in 1979. The drop in new laws was caused by a lack of abortion legislation. From 1973, when the Supreme Court legalized abortion, through 1980, states have passed a total of 191 abortion-related laws covering abortion, from the aspect of informed consent to protection of the fetus to Medicaid funding. Abortion dominated the field in 1980's legislation also. There was no legislation dealing with the problems of teen pregnancy. California voted to authorize minors over 12 to consent to hospital, surgical, and medical care for the diagnosis and treatment of venereal diseases and specified that the minor's parents will not be liable for expenses. There was no initiative by state legislatures in sex education. Only Maryland, New Jersey, Kentucky, and the District of Columbia require schools to offer sex education. The number of new laws pertaining to insurance coverage of fertility related medical services doubled from 1979 to 1980. In 1980, Alabama, Idaho, Oklahoma, and Tennessee joined the list of states requesting Congress to call a constitutional convention to propose an antiabortion amendment. Alabama, Idaho, and Oklahoma seek an amendment to outlaw abortion except to save a woman's life.

  19. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dane, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Sivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  20. State legislatures and energy policy in the Northeast: energy facility siting and legislative action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    At the Federal level, a vast array of bureaucratic and legislative institutions are presently immersed in various explorations of energy policy and its national ramifications. Almost each of the 50 states has Energy offices. One element of the institutional/political equation, however, often is missed in studies of energy policy: the state legislature. This institution may well be vitally important to formulation of broad policies, and certainly is critical to successful implementation of certain aspects of those policies--especially when new enabling legislation, new tax incentives, or new regulatory powers are required. The study covers three main aspects of energy-policy formulation and action by state legislatures: legislative structure; enactment of energy-facility-siting laws; and passage (or defeat) of significant energy legislation of a more general nature. Emphasis is placed on energy-facility-siting statutes and approaches for two reasons. First, energy facilities have a great impact on land use, environmental quality, and economic growth. Second, siting of these facilities raises inherent conflicts in the attempt to achieve balance between potentially contradictory objectives. The states of New Jersey and Maryland were examined in considerable depth as examples in this study. (MCW)

  1. State law and influenza vaccination of health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Cox, Marisa A

    2013-01-21

    Nosocomial influenza outbreaks, attributed to the unvaccinated health care workforce, have contributed to patient complications or death, worker illness and absenteeism, and increased economic costs to the health care system. Since 1981, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended that all HCP receive an annual influenza vaccination. Health care employers (HCE) have adopted various strategies to encourage health care personnel (HCP) to voluntarily receive influenza vaccination, including: sponsoring educational and promotional campaigns, increasing access to seasonal influenza vaccine, permitting the use of declination statements, and combining multiple approaches. However, these measures failed to significantly increase uptake among HCP. As a result, beginning in 2004, health care facilities and local health departments began to require certain HCP to receive influenza vaccination as a condition of employment and annually. Today, hundreds of facilities throughout the country have developed and implemented similar policies. Mandatory vaccination programs have been endorsed by professional and non-profit organizations, state health departments, and public health. These programs have been more effective at increasing coverage rates than any voluntary strategy, with some health systems reporting coverage rates up to 99.3%. Several states have enacted laws requiring HCEs to implement vaccination programs for the workforce. These laws present an example of how states will respond to threats to the public's health and constrain personal choice in order to protect vulnerable populations. This study analyzes laws in twenty states that address influenza vaccination requirements for HCP who practice in acute or long-term care facilities in the United States. The laws vary in the extent to which they incorporate the six elements of a mandatory HCP influenza vaccination program. Four of the

  2. Comparison of the Evolution of Genetically Modified Food Safety Policies between the United States and the European Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina SHE; Yaqiong ZHANG; Li ZHANG; Yangying JIA; Wenting XU; Shiqing XIE; Qian LIANG

    2012-01-01

    With the research on and development of Genetically Modified Food (GMF), people's attitude toward GMF may fall into two divergent categories, typical- ly represented by the United States(US) and the European Union(EU), respectively. The former follows a "sound science principle" and firmly objects to the precautionary principle, namely a permissive policy of positive support of and voluntary labelling on GMF; while the latter adopts a cautiously precautionary principle, requiring mandatory labelling and traceability. From the standpoint of regulatory principles, together with corresponding supervisory measures and relevant provisions, this paper compared the execution of directives and provisions on GMF from the initial policies enacted by the US and EU to current situation combined with the track and analysis of latest polic ies issued.

  3. State Health Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Home State Health Facts Search State Health Facts: Choose Category - or - Choose Location Demographics and the ... Expansion Enrollment Featured State Data Resources Medicaid State Fact Sheets What percentage of people are covered by ...

  4. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  5. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  6. Distribution of stream macroalgal communities from the mid-western region of Paraná state, southern Brazil: importance of local scale variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Cesar Zanini Branco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two stream segments, representing the diverse types of environments in the mid-western region of the Paraná State, southern Brazil, were sampled for occurrence of macroalgal communities from May to October in 2002. Twenty-seven macroalgal taxa were found, with Chlorophyta as the dominant algal group, followed by Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta and Chrysophyta. The most widespread species was Phormidium retzii. Distribution was patchy, with species number per sampling sites ranging from zero to six and correlated positively with the abundance. On the other hand, no significant correlation was found among the species number and abundance with environmental variables. Results indicated wide and random variation among the streams. Thus, it seemed that the distribution of macroalgal communities in the study area responded more closely to the local-scale variation than the regional characteristics.Durante o período de maio a outubro de 2002, vinte e dois segmentos de riachos, representando os diversos tipos de ambientes da região centro-oeste do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil, foram amostrados quanto à comunidade de macroalgas. Foram encontradas vinte e sete macroalgas. A divisão Chlorophyta foi o grupo algal predominante, seguido por Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta e Chrysophyta. A espécie com melhor distribuição foi Phormidium retzii. Foi observado um padrão de distribuição em mosaico. O número de espécies por ponto de amostragem variou de zero a seis e correlacionou-se positivamente com abundância de espécies. Por outro lado, nenhuma outra correlação significativa foi encontrada entre número de espécies e abundância com as variáveis ambientais. Os resultados, suportados por dados de literatura, indicaram uma variação ampla e aleatória entre os riachos, sugerindo que a distribuição da comunidade de macroalgas na área de estudos parece responder mais fortemente a variações nas condições em escala local do que em escalas

  7. 美国健康保险交易机构改革评估%Evaluation on Health Insurance Marketplace Reform in United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高善强; 贺英; 刘平; 王珊珊

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the health insurance marketplace reform in USA.Method:The evaluation index system was constructed and the quantitative evaluation was carried out according the public dataof the medical insurance reform in 2014 and 2015.Result:Twenty-seven states were the federal exchange of the four medical insurance exchanges,the number of insured persons,insurance premiums and the proportion of applicants had increased,two-thirds of the insured's choice of silver grade medical insurance plan basically,more than half of the insured registered persons aged from 18 to 34 years old and from 55 to 64 years old.Conclusion:By June 2015,the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has substantially changed health coverage in USA but health insurance exchanges remain works in progress.%目的:对美国医疗保险交易机构改革进行评估。方法:利用2014和2015年医疗保险改革公开数据,构建评价指标体系,进行量化评估。结果:目前4种医疗保险交易所中,27个州是联邦推动建立的交易所,参保登记人数、获得保费援助人数及申请比例有所增加,基本2/3的投保者选择银级医疗保险计划,半数以上投保登记人年龄集中在18~34岁和55~64岁。结论:到2015年6月,患者保护与平价医疗法案(PPACA)已经明显改变了美国医疗保险状况,但其最主要的功能,如医疗保险交易所尚未完全实现。

  8. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  9. MIGRATION POLICIES AND STATE CONTROL IN ARGENTINA: EXPERIENCES OF VULNERABLE BOLIVIAN WOMEN WHO CROSS THE BORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the way in which migration policies impact in the trajectories of Bolivian women who live and work in the outskirts of the main cities of Argentina. It focuses on three cases representative of the experiences of women laborers who, coming from the poorest rural areas of Bolivia, crossed the international border when Argentine migration policy was very restrictive. It shows that symbolic and socio-economic borders keep on excluding them, as well as other labor migrants, within the Argentine territory even when the current Migration Law enacted in 2004 is more inclusive, since it grants human and social rights to the migrants. It highlights the way in which particular state control mechanisms operate nowadays both at the international border and within the Argentine territory, and analyses the difficulties that these women experience due to their positions of class, ethnic, gender, nationality and migratory status. It remarks that despite the changes in the immigration policy of Argentina, state policies keep on controlling labor migrations in accordance with the paradigm of the governance of migration. It also analyses the strategies that these women develop in order to sort out state control policies. Therefore, it considers that they are active agents even though they still have feelings of fear and trauma associated with the crossing of borders.

  10. State of the States in Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    This is the latest edition of the "State of the States in Developmental Disabilities" study--a thorough and the only one of its kind investigation on public spending, revenues, and programmatic trends of intellectual and developmental programs and services within the United States since 1977. Directed by leading researcher, Dr. David Braddock, the…

  11. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  12. The Universal Jurisdiction of South African Criminal Courts and Immunities of Foreign State Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the "complementarity" regime of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC, the jurisdiction of the ICC is secondary to the jurisdiction of domestic courts. States Parties, not the ICC, have the primary responsibility of investigating and prosecuting international crimes. The ICC acts only when States are "unable" or "unwilling" to prosecute. As a State Party, in order to give effect to the complementarity principle, South Africa enacted the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 2002, which determines the modalities of prosecuting perpetrators of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in South African courts. The Implementation Act also provides that South African courts will have jurisdiction over these crimes not only when they are committed on the territory of South Africa but also when they are committed outside the Republic. By granting South African courts jurisdiction over a person who commits a crime outside the Republic when that person is later found on South African territory, without regard to that person's nationality or the nationality of the victims, the Implementation Act empowers South African courts with universal jurisdiction over international crimes. This paper seeks to determine whether and to what extent foreign State officials, such as foreign heads of State, heads of government and ministers of foreign affairs, can plead immunity when they are accused of international crimes before South African courts when exercising their universal jurisdiction in terms of the Implementation Act and in accordance with the complementarity regime of the Rome Statute. In other words, the article endeavours to determine whether international law rules regarding immunities of State officials may or may not limit the ability of South African courts to exercise universal jurisdiction over international crimes committed in foreign States.

  13. Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jin-Ming; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice, and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob or Carol to reconstruct the state with finite success probability. It is shown that for some special ensembles of qubits, the remote state preparation scheme requires only two classical bits, unlike the case in the scheme of quantum teleportation where three classical bits are needed.

  14. Wind Powering America State Outreach. Final Technical Report: Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Tim

    2013-09-30

    The Washington Department of Commerce, via a U.S. Department of Energy grant, supported research into siting and permitting processes for wind projects by Skagit County, Washington. The goal was to help a local government understand key issues, consider how other areas have addressed wind siting, and establish a basis for enacting permitting and zoning ordinances that provided a more predictable permitting path and process for landowners, citizens, government and developers of small and community wind projects. The County?s contractor developed a report that looked at various approaches to wind siting, interviewed stakeholders, and examined technology options. The contractor outlined key issues and recommended the adoption of a siting process. The Skagit County Commission considered the report and directed the Skagit County Planning & Development Services Department to add development of wind guidelines to its work plan for potential changes to development codes.

  15. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  16. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  17. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  18. Qutrit Magic State Distillation

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...

  19. The impact of state laws protecting abortion clinics and reproductive rights on crimes against abortion providers: deterrence, backlash, or neither?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Freilich, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Since Roe v. Wade, most states have passed laws either restricting or further protecting reproductive rights. During a wave of anti-abortion violence in the early 1990s, several states also enacted legislation protecting abortion clinics, staff, and patients. One hypothesis drawn from the theoretical literature predicts that these laws provide a deterrent effect and thus fewer anti-abortion crimes in states that protect clinics and reproductive rights. An alternative hypothesis drawn from the literature expects a backlash effect from radical members of the movement and thus more crimes in states with protective legislation. We tested these competing hypotheses by taking advantage of unique data sets that gauge the strength of laws protecting clinics and reproductive rights and that provide self-report victimization data from clinics. Employing logistic regression and controlling for several potential covariates, we found null effects and thus no support for either hypothesis. The null findings were consistent across a number of different types of victimization. Our discussion contextualizes these results in terms of previous research on crimes against abortion providers, discusses alternative explanations for the null findings, and considers the implications for future policy development and research.

  20. Ninety five percent: an evaluation of law, policy, and programs to promote seat belt use in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberg, Philip M; Moffat, John M

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt use in Washington state was 83% in 2001. In 2002, a series of law, policy, and program initiatives coalesced to produce a dramatic increase in seat belt use. Washington enacted a primary enforcement seat belt, the Chief of the Washington State Patrol made safety belt enforcement one of the core missions of that agency, and Washington participated in the national Memorial Day Click It or Ticket program during May 2002 and continued the program into 2003. Evaluation of these initiatives was accomplished through observation surveys of seat belt use, analysis of seat belt violation data, and analysis of data on traffic deaths of motor vehicle occupants. The major findings were that there was a two- to three-fold increase in enforcement of the seat belt law, belt use rates increased to 93% in 2002 and again to 95% in 2003, and motor-vehicle occupant fatalities decreased by 13%. IMPACT ON PRACTICE AND POLICY: The primary seat belt law and Click It or Ticket program activities were critical factors in increasing belt use in Washington state. Media and enforcement programs targeting seat belt use can be very effective in raising the belt use rate, but a long-term commitment to continuation of these program activities is essential. Other states implementing new primary seat belt laws should consider delivering a Click It or Ticket campaign prior to the effective date of the primary law and continuing these activities during subsequent months and years.

  1. Tomography of nonclassical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    A review of the symplectic tomography method is presented. Superpositions of different types of photon states are considered within the framework of the tomography approach. Such nonclassical photon states as even and odd coherent states, crystallized Schrodinger cat states, and other superposition

  2. Tomography of nonclassical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    A review of the symplectic tomography method is presented. Superpositions of different types of photon states are considered within the framework of the tomography approach. Such nonclassical photon states as even and odd coherent states, crystallized Schrodinger cat states, and other superposition

  3. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union : National Laws and the Employment Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Bonini-Baraldi, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in the field of employment. This book assesses to what degree the Directive’s requirements have been met by the twenty-seven Member States. The authors

  4. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  5. DIII-D Upgrade to Prepare the Basis for Steady-State Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, R. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; Hill, D. N.

    2014-10-01

    Future steady-state burning plasma facilities will access new physics regimes and modes of plasma behavior. It is vital to prepare for this both experimentally using existing facilities, and theoretically in order to develop the tools to project to and optimize these devices. An upgrade to DIII-D is proposed to address the three critical aspects where research must go beyond what we can do now: (i) torque free electron heating to address the energy, particle and momentum transport mechanisms of burning plasmas using electron cyclotron (EC) heating and full power balanced neutral beams; (ii) off-axis heating and current drive to develop the path to true fusion steady state by reorienting neutral beams and deploying EC and helicon current drive; (iii) a new divertor with hot walls and reactor relevant materials to develop the basis for benign detached divertor operation compatible with wall materials and a high performance fusion core. These elements with modest incremental cost and enacted as a user facility for the whole US program will enable the US to lead on ITER and take a decision to proceed with a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Complex fermion coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Oliver, W D; Tyc, Tomas; Hamilton, Brett; Sanders, Barry C.; Oliver, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas boson coherent states provide an elegant, intuitive and useful representation, we show that the desirable features of boson coherent states do not carry over very well to fermion fields unless one is prepared to use exotic approaches such as Grassmann fields. Specifically, we identify four appealing properties of boson coherent states (eigenstate of annihilation operator, displaced vacuum state, preservation of product states under linear coupling, and factorization of correlators) and show that fermion coherent states, and approximations to fermion coherent states, defined over the complex field, do not behave well for any of these four criteria.

  7. Two-state teleportation

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, L; Vedral, V

    1999-01-01

    Quantum teleportation with additional a priori information about the input state achieves higher fidelity than teleportation of a completely unknown state. However, perfect teleportation of two non-orthogonal input states requires the same amount of entanglement as perfect teleportation of an unknown state, namely one ebit. We analyse how well two-state teleportation can be achieved using every degree of pure-state entanglement, and discuss the fidelity of `teleportation' that can be achieved with only classical communication but no shared entanglement. A two-state telecloning scheme is shown to require less entanglement in a certain sense than universal telecloning.

  8. Criminal provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and their interface with the United States sentencing guidelines. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W.P.

    1991-09-30

    The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.

  9. Evolution of Pure States into Mixed States

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J

    1993-01-01

    In the formulation of Banks, Peskin and Susskind, we show that one can construct evolution equations for the quantum mechanical density matrix $\\rho$ with operators which do not commute with hamiltonian which evolve pure states into mixed states, preserve the normalization and positivity of $\\rho$ and conserve energy. Furthermore, it seems to be different from a quantum mechanical system with random sources.

  10. Two iron ladies with rhetoric simplicity;Golda Meir’s speeches, dialogues and interviews in comparison with their counterparts in Ingrid Bergman’s re-enactment in the film A Woman Called Golda (1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Uvanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alan Gibson’s television miniseries can be considered an epideictic speech in honor of the charismatic Israeli leader Golda Meir who coupled the Israeli security policy with the advice and financial support of the American Jewry and the US establishment – demonstrating at the same time a verbal rhetoric of utter simplicity and a power of great personality. The reconstructed film script is partly a documentary biography of the politician avoiding delicate private circumstances and a war film pleading for peace. The choice of Ingrid Bergman for the role of Golda Meir produced a significant sympathy potential whereas the actress showed her intention to compensate for not having understood Hitler’s threat for the Jews during her German UFA career in 1938. The employed camera techniques, repetition procedures and pathos of actors’ performance underlined a strong identification process on the part of the viewers making it impossible to decline the arguments claimed in the film. The rhetorical impact of this production can be defined as a mixture of educational (docere and propagandistic (movere intentions concentrating on the message of peace on the principles of secure Israeli borders and mutual recognition with all Arab states.

  11. Two iron ladies with rhetoric simplicity;Golda Meir’s speeches, dialogues and interviews in comparison with their counterparts in Ingrid Bergman’s re-enactment in the film A Woman Called Golda (1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Uvanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alan Gibson’s television miniseries can be considered an epideictic speech in honor of the charismatic Israeli leader Golda Meir who coupled the Israeli security policy with the advice and financial support of the American Jewry and the US establishment – demonstrating at the same time a verbal rhetoric of utter simplicity and a power of great personality. The reconstructed film script is partly a documentary biography of the politician avoiding delicate private circumstances and a war film pleading for peace. The choice of Ingrid Bergman for the role of Golda Meir produced a significant sympathy potential whereas the actress showed her intention to compensate for not having understood Hitler’s threat for the Jews during her German UFA career in 1938. The employed camera techniques, repetition procedures and pathos of actors’ performance underlined a strong identification process on the part of the viewers making it impossible to decline the arguments claimed in the film. The rhetorical impact of this production can be defined as a mixture of educational (docere and propagandistic (movere intentions concentrating on the message of peace on the principles of secure Israeli borders and mutual recognition with all Arab states.

  12. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  13. Amplification of NOON States

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, G S; Rai, Amit

    2009-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a Non Gaussian state like NOON state under phase insensitive amplification. We derive analytical result for the density matrix of the NOON state for arbitrary gain of the amplifier. We consider cases of both symmetric and antisymmetric amplification of the two modes of the NOON state. We quantitatively evaluate the loss of entanglement by the amplifier in terms of the logarithmic negativity parameter. We find that NOON states are more robust than their Gaussian counterparts.

  14. Amplification of NOON States

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a Non Gaussian state like NOON state under phase insensitive amplification. We derive analytical result for the density matrix of the NOON state for arbitrary gain of the amplifier. We consider cases of both symmetric and antisymmetric amplification of the two modes of the NOON state. We quantitatively evaluate the loss of entanglement by the amplifier in terms of the logarithmic negativity parameter. We find that NOON states are more robust than their Gaussian coun...

  15. Doorway States and Billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Franco-Villafañe, J A; Mateos, J L; Méndez-Sánchez, R A; Novaro, O; Seligman, T H

    2010-01-01

    Whenever a distinct state is immersed in a sea of complicated and dense states, the strength of the distinct state, which we refer to as a doorway, is distributed in their neighboring states. We analyze this mechanism for 2-D billiards with different geometries. One of them is symmetric and integrable, another is symmetric but chaotic, and the third has a capricious form. The fact that the doorway-state mechanism is valid for such highly diverse cases, proves that it is robust.

  16. Herniorrafia inguinal laparoscópica totalmente extraperitoneal: vinte e sete complicações graves após 4565 operações consecutivas Laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: twenty-seven serious complications after 4565 consecutive operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Meyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar e avaliar as complicações do tratamento da hérnia inguinal com a colocação de tela totalmente extraperitoneal. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos, em uma série consecutiva de 4565 reparos de hérnia laparoscópica, pacientes que haviam sido submetidos ao procedimento TEP entre janeiro de 2001 e janeiro de 2011. Os critérios de inclusão foram: diagnóstico com hérnia inguinal sintomática, incluindo recorrência após correção de hérnia inguinal e cirurgia prévia em abdômen inferior e pelve. Todos os pacientes > 18 anos de idade. Pacientes com hérnia encarcerada na urgência foram excluídos do estudo. RESULTADOS: Um total de 4565 hérnias foram incluídas no estudo. Ocorreram 27 complicações graves (0,6%: 12 hemorragias (0,25%, duas lesões da bexiga (0,04%, cinco oclusões (0,11%, quatro perfuraç��es intestinais (0,09%, uma lesão da veia ilíaca (0,02%, uma lesão do nervo femoral (0,02%, duas lesões dos vasos deferentes (0,04% e dois óbitos (0,02% (embolia pulmonar, peritonite. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de complicações com o procedimento TEP é baixa. Correção de hérnia laparoscópica é uma técnica reprodutível e confiável. Em nossa experiência, existem contraindicações para o procedimento de TEP. A técnica TEP deve ser minuciosa para evitar complicações intraoperatórias (diatermia bipolar. As complicações podem ocorrer mesmo após o cirurgião ter adquirido experiência substancial.OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess the complications of laparoscopic inguinal hernia treatment with totally extraperitoneal mesh placement (TEP. METHODS: We included patients who had undergone the TEP procedure in a consecutive series of 4565 laparoscopic hernia repairs between January 2001 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis with symptomatic inguinal hernia, including recurrence after inguinal hernia repair and previous surgery in the lower abdomen and pelvis. All patients were 18 years of age or above. Patients with incarcerated hernia in emergency were excluded from the study. RESULTS: A total of 4565 hernias were included in the study. In the group, there were 27 severe complications (0.6%: 12 bleedings (0.25%, two bladder lesions (0.04%, five intestinal obstructions (0.11%, four intestinal perforations (0.09% one injury to the iliac vein (0.02%, one femoral nerve injury (0.02%, two lesions of vas deferens (0.04% and two deaths (0.02% (pulmonary embolism, peritonitis. CONCLUSION: The rate of complications with the TEP procedure is low. Laparoscopic hernia repair technique is reproducible and reliable. In our experience, there are contraindications to the TEP procedure. TEP technique must be meticulous to avoid intraoperative complications (bipolar diathermy. Complications can occur even after the surgeon has gained substantial experience.

  17. Statutory caps: an involuntary contribution to the medical malpractice insurance crisis or a reasonable mechanism for obtaining affordable health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupkovich, P J

    1993-01-01

    A medical malpractice insurance crisis occurred in the mid-1970s and mid-1980s evidenced by escalating malpractice insurance rates and increasing numbers of malpractice claims. Insurance companies maintained that the increase in insurance rates was necessary because of the sharp rise in the number of malpractice lawsuits, astronomical damage awards, and ineffective mechanisms to prevent and to eliminate nonmeritorious claims. Physicians responded by forming their own insurance companies, cancelling high-risk procedures, and orchestrating intensive legislative lobbying for tort reform. Insurance companies, physicians, and the legislature collaborated efforts to resolve this medical malpractice crisis. A national debate erupted regarding the proper way to address the medical malpractice insurance crisis. Insurance companies and physicians pressured state legislatures to reform liability laws that, in their opinion, permitted recovery of excessive damage awards by plaintiffs. Consumer groups and lawyers suggested tighter regulation of the insurance industry. State legislatures, in an attempt to remedy the perception that injured plaintiffs were overcompensated for their injuries, enacted "tort reform legislation," which included statutory caps on damages recoverable in medical malpractice actions. As a result of the extensive lobbying effort by physicians and insurance companies, twenty-seven states enacted statutes limiting recovery of damages in medical malpractice lawsuits. Lawyers responded by challenging state malpractice legislation on constitutional grounds, alleging violations of federal and state equal protection and due process clauses and the Seventh Amendment right to a jury trial. Opponents of the cap also asserted violations of state constitution provisions such as the "open courts" provision or the "special legislation" clause. To date, the state courts have held that statutory caps are unconstitutional. Statutory caps and other tort reform measures are

  18. Do EMO-operated Charter Schools Serve Disadvantaged Students? The Influence of State Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lacireno-Paquet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research about how the policies enacted by states either foster or hinder charter schools’ service to disadvantaged students or how the characteristics of charter schools themselves affect this outcome. By combining data from the US Department of Education’s Schools and Staffing Survey with data on the characteristics of state charter school policies, this article examines how different types of charter schools respond to the policy and market signals established by state charter legislation, and the impact of such signals on the willingness and ability of charter schools to serve disadvantaged student populations. With a sample of 533 charter schools in 13 states, models are estimated to discern whether specific state policies and whether being managed by two types of for-profit educational management organizations (EMOs—large and small ones—encourages or discourages schools from enrolling low-income and minority students. The results suggest that certain policy characteristics are important for encouraging schools to serve low-income and minority students. Specifically, having multiple chartering authorities and requiring the transportation of students are important for explaining charter schools’ service to low-income and minority students. Being managed by a large-EMO was positively but not significantly related to charter schools enrollment of low-income and minority students. The results differed for small-EMO managed schools. Small-EMOs served significantly lower percentages of minority students. The results suggest that not all charter schools are the same and that policy design and organizational form matters for determining whom charter schools will serve.

  19. “Prefacing the Script” as an Ethical Response to State-Mandated Abortion Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Dragana; Mercier, Rebecca; Bryant, Amy; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laws governing abortion provision are proliferating throughout the United States, yet little is known about how these laws affect providers. We investigated the experiences of abortion providers in North Carolina practicing under the 2011 Women’s Right to Know Act, which mandates that women receive counseling with specific, state-prescribed information at least 24 hours prior to an abortion. We focus here on a subset of the data to examine one strategy by which providers worked to minimize moral conflicts generated by the counseling procedure. Drawing on Erving Goffman’s work on language and social interaction, we highlight how providers communicated moral objections and layered meanings through a practice that we call prefacing the script. METHODS We conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and clinic managers who provide abortion care in North Carolina. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an inductive, iterative analytic approach, which included reading for context, interpretive memo-writing, and focused coding. RESULTS Roughly half of the participants (14/31) reported that they or the clinicians who performed the counseling in their institution routinely prefaced the counseling script with qualifiers, disclaimers, and apologies that clarified their relationship to the state-mandated content. We identified three performative functions of this practice: 1) enacting a frame shift from a medical to a legal interaction, 2) distancing the speaker from the authorial voice of the counseling script, and 3) creating emotional alignment. CONCLUSIONS Prefacing state-mandated abortion counseling scripts constitutes a practical strategy providers use to balance the obligation to comply with state law with personal and professional responsibilities to provide tailored care, emotional support, and serve the patient’s best interests. Our findings suggest that language constitutes a

  20. Excited states v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1982-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho

  1. Backward Evolving Quantum States

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidman, L

    2006-01-01

    The basic concept of the two-state vector formalism, which is the time symmetric approach to quantum mechanics, is the backward evolving quantum state. However, due to the time asymmetry of the memory's arrow of time, the possible ways to manipulate a backward evolving quantum state differ from those for a standard, forward evolving quantum state. The similarities and the differences between forward and backward evolving quantum states regarding the no-cloning theorem, nonlocal measurements, and teleportation are discussed. The results are relevant not only in the framework of the two-state vector formalism, but also in the framework of retrodictive quantum theory.

  2. Generating Squeezed States in Solid State Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xin-An; WEN Yi-Huo; ZHANG Li-You; LONG Gui-Lu

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme for generating squeezed states in solid state circuits which consist a superconducting transmission line resonator (STLR), a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB) and a nanoelectromechanical resonator (NMR). The nonlinear interaction between the STLR and the CPB can be implemented by setting the external biased flux of the CPB at some certain points. The interaction Hamiltonian between the STLR and the NMR is derived by performing Fr 5hlich transformation on the total Hamiltonian of the combined system. Just by adiabatically keeping the CPB at the ground state, we get the standard parametric down-conversion Hamiltonian, and the squeezed states of the STLR can be easily generated, which is similar to the three-wave mixing in quantum optics.

  3. State Health Facts - State Decisions on Exchanges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State Decisions For Creating Health Insurance Exchanges, including Exchange Decision, Federal Approval Status, Structure of Exchange, and Type of Exchange.

  4. State-Chart Autocoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth; Watney, Garth; Murray, Alexander; Benowitz, Edward

    2007-01-01

    A computer program translates Unified Modeling Language (UML) representations of state charts into source code in the C, C++, and Python computing languages. ( State charts signifies graphical descriptions of states and state transitions of a spacecraft or other complex system.) The UML representations constituting the input to this program are generated by using a UML-compliant graphical design program to draw the state charts. The generated source code is consistent with the "quantum programming" approach, which is so named because it involves discrete states and state transitions that have features in common with states and state transitions in quantum mechanics. Quantum programming enables efficient implementation of state charts, suitable for real-time embedded flight software. In addition to source code, the autocoder program generates a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program that, in turn, generates a display of state transitions in response to events triggered by the user. The GUI program is wrapped around, and can be used to exercise the state-chart behavior of, the generated source code. Once the expected state-chart behavior is confirmed, the generated source code can be augmented with a software interface to the rest of the software with which the source code is required to interact.

  5. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  6. STATE_SYSTEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline highway network representation of the 10,000 miles Kansas State Highway System (Interstate, U.S., and Kansas routes). The state...

  7. State Program Integrity Reviews

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State program integrity reviews play a critical role in how CMS provides effective support and assistance to states in their efforts to combat provider fraud and...

  8. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    that the Scandinavian welfare states are the most advanced in relation to women and dicusses both the potentialities and the dangers in the Scandinavian welfare states in relation to women. The paper points to the need to integrate gender relations in the theoretical model for an analysis of the welfare state...... and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  9. The State and Corporatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Schmidt-Hansen, Ulrich

    in corporatist theory. In particular, we draw upon a conceptualization of the state developed by Michael Mann and Eric Nordlinger's different forms of state autonomy. We propose a state-centered theoretical focus enabling us to grasp the role of the state in the dynamics of the corporatist system. In the second......In the literature on the establishment and development of the Danish variant of corporatism, emphasis has most often been on the role of the social partners. Scholars rarely stress the crucial role which the state has played in the development of the system. We argue that several actors contributed...... to the development of the `Danish model', but that these actors were often orchestrated by the state. At crucial moments the direction of these different actors was even determined by the state. In the first part of the article, it is argued that the state has been under-theorized and to some extent neglected...

  10. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  11. Comparative State Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)

  12. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  13. State Capitalism in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.

    2017-01-01

    The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.

  14. State-ing the Facts: Exploring the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jennifer M.; Bledsoe, Ann M.; Reys, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on estimation, scaling, area of nonstandard shapes, algebraic thinking, and real-life situations using the United States of America. These activities make it possible to integrate mathematics and social studies. Uses technology by employing geometry software packages such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, Cabri, and Geometric…

  15. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  18. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  19. Atomic Storage States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯戈; 朱诗尧

    2002-01-01

    We present a complete description of atomic storage states which may appear in the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The result shows that the spatial coherence has been included in the atomic collective operators and the atomic storage states. In some limits, a set of multimode atomic storage states has been established in correspondence with the multimode Fock states of the electromagnetic field. This gives a better understanding of the fact that, in BIT, the optical coherent information can be preserved and recovered.

  20. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b...Coherent states are the most classical of quantum states. Generation and detection of their polarization and phase modulations are well...stream cipher maps message bits onto random blocks of bits producing modulated states that are intrinsically noisy. The ciphertext so generated is

  1. On multipartite invariant states

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    We propose a natural generalization of bipartite Werner and isotropic states to multipartite systems consisting of an arbitrary even number of d-dimensional subsystems (qudits). These generalized states are invariant under the action of local unitary operations. We study basic properties of multipartite invariant states: separability criteria and multi-PPT conditions.

  2. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  3. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    When states are failing, when basic state functions are no longer carried out, and when people have no security, humanitarian crises erupt. In confronting this problem, the stronger states have followed an ad hoc policy of intervention and aid. In some cases, humanitarian disasters have resulted ...

  4. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  5. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  6. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    When states are failing, when basic state functions are no longer carried out, and when people have no security, humanitarian crises erupt. In confronting this problem, the stronger states have followed an ad hoc policy of intervention and aid. In some cases, humanitarian disasters have resulted...

  7. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  8. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  9. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation in the United States: a work in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H Mayer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the initial approval of the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2012 for anti-HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, uptake was initially limited, but more recent community surveys and expert opinion suggest wider acceptance in some key populations. Discussion: Demonstration projects are underway to determine the best practices in the United States to identify at-risk individuals in primary care and sexually transmitted disease clinics who could benefit from PrEP. Studies of PrEP in combination with behavioural interventions are being evaluated. Studies to evaluate the use of PrEP by HIV-uninfected women in HIV-discordant couples interested in safe conception are also getting underway. The optimal deployment of PrEP as part of a comprehensive national HIV/AIDS strategy in the United States has been limited by lack of knowledge among some at-risk people and by some medical providers indicating that they do not feel sufficiently knowledgeable and comfortable in prescribing PrEP. Studies are underway to determine how to assist busy clinicians to determine which of their patients could benefit from PrEP. Although most federal health insurance programmes will cover most of the costs associated with PrEP, underinsured patients in states that have not enacted health reform face additional challenges in paying for PrEP medication and appropriate clinical monitoring. Conclusions: PrEP implementation in the United States is a work in progress, with increasing awareness and uptake among some individuals in key populations.

  10. Quantum states of light

    CERN Document Server

    Furusawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.

  11. Geometry of entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Kus, M; Kus, Marek; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2001-01-01

    Geometric properties of the set of quantum entangled states are investigated. We propose an explicit method to compute the dimension of local orbits for any mixed state of the general K x M problem. In particular we analyze the simplest case of 2 x 2 problem finding a stratification of the 6-D set of N=4 pure states. The set of effectively different states (which cannot be related by local transformations) is one dimensional. It starts at a 3-D manifold of maximally entangled states, cuts generic 5-D manifolds of entangled states (labeled by non-zero values of the entropy of entanglement), and ends at a single 4-D manifold of separable states.

  12. Variations in very preterm births rates in 30 high-income countries: are valid international comparisons possible using routine data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnord, M.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Smith, L.K.; Szamotulska, K.; Richards, J.L.; Deb-Rinker, P.; Rouleau, J.; Velebil, P.; Zile, I.; Sakkeus, L.; Gissler, M.; Morisaki, N.; Dolan, S.M.; Kramer, M.R.; Kramer, M.S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Concerns about differences in registration practices across countries have limited the use of routine data for international very preterm birth (VPT) rate comparisons. DESIGN: Population-based study. SETTING: Twenty-seven European countries, the United States, Canada and Japan in 2010.

  13. A Worthy Asset: The Adjunct Faculty and the Influences on Their Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Telvis

    2015-01-01

    The author explored the intrinsic factors that foster job satisfaction of adjunct faculty members working in the southeastern United States. The literature concerning adjunct work experiences is limited, although adjuncts comprise the great majority of the faculty pool in many community and technical colleges. Twenty-seven adjuncts' work…

  14. Is the Decline of European Multiculturalism the Beginning of a More Secular Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zay, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The bloody First and Second World Wars awakened the dream of a cross-border peaceful territory supported by the Christian community principles of the clerics founding the first universities in the Middle Ages. Since the 1950s the European Union has been built up from six member states to reach twenty-seven, with more associate members. But…

  15. A Worthy Asset: The Adjunct Faculty and the Influences on Their Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Telvis

    2015-01-01

    The author explored the intrinsic factors that foster job satisfaction of adjunct faculty members working in the southeastern United States. The literature concerning adjunct work experiences is limited, although adjuncts comprise the great majority of the faculty pool in many community and technical colleges. Twenty-seven adjuncts' work…

  16. Factors influencing the implementation of school wellness policies in the United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Elizabeth L; Schwarz, Cynthia; Yount, Byron W; Haire-Joshu, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The quality of school wellness policy implementation varies among schools in the United States. The objective of this study was to characterize the school wellness policy environment nationally and identify factors influencing the quality and effectiveness of policy implementation. We invited school administrators from 300 high schools to complete a questionnaire; 112 administrators responded. We performed a 2-step cluster analysis to help identify factors influencing the implementation of school wellness policies. Eighty-two percent of schools reported making staff aware of policy requirements; 77% established a wellness committee or task force, 73% developed administrative procedures, and 56% trained staff for policy implementation. Most commonly reported challenges to implementation were lack of time or coordination of policy team (37% of respondents) and lack of monetary resources (33%). The core domains least likely to be implemented were communication and promotion (63% of respondents) and evaluation (54%). Cluster 1, represented mostly by schools that have taken action toward implementing policies, had higher implementation and effectiveness ratings than Cluster 2, which was defined by taking fewer actions toward policy implementation. In Cluster 1, accountability was also associated with high ratings of implementation quality and effectiveness. The development of organizational capacity may be critical to ensuring an environment that promotes high-quality policy implementation. Assessing, preventing, and addressing challenges; establishing clear definitions and goals; and requiring accountability for enacting policy across all core domains are critical to ensuring high-quality implementation.

  17. The regulation of hematopoietic stem cell collection and storage: the New York State approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, D; Linden, J V

    1992-01-01

    In December 1988, the New York State (NYS) regulatory code on bone marrow banking went into effect. The goals of the regulations were to codify a high standard of practice, to prohibit charlatanism in the practice or promotion of stem cell banking, and to promote legitimate research. The NYS approach modeled the stem cell regulatory language after that already established for blood banks and clinical laboratories. Also, the stem cell standards are an element of standards applicable to all tissue banks, developed as a result of a comprehensive transplant law enacted in NYS in 1990. The code itself, published as an addendum to this article, mandates that a qualified (by training and experience) medical director and medical advisory committee be appointed, and gives broad and complete responsibility for the services provided to that medical director. Explicit written policies and procedures regarding administrative, technical, safety, and quality issues are necessary, but regulatory micromanagement of the laboratory was avoided by limiting detailed procedural requirements. We believe that these regulations have contributed to the quality and safety of stem cell-related therapies in NYS.

  18. Clinical peer review in the United States: history, legal development and subsequent abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hozain, Ahmed E

    2014-06-07

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation requires hospitals to conduct peer review to retain accreditation. Despite the intended purpose of improving quality medical care, the peer review process has suffered several setbacks throughout its tenure. In the 1980s, abuse of peer review for personal economic interest led to a highly publicized multimillion-dollar verdict by the United States Supreme Court against the perpetrating physicians and hospital. The verdict led to decreased physician participation for fear of possible litigation. Believing that peer review was critical to quality medical care, Congress subsequently enacted the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) granting comprehensive legal immunity for peer reviewers to increase participation. While serving its intended goal, HCQIA has also granted peer reviewers significant immunity likely emboldening abuses resulting in Sham Peer Reviews. While legal reform of HCQIA is necessary to reduce sham peer reviews, further measures including the need for standardization of the peer review process alongside external organizational monitoring are critical to improving peer review and reducing the prevalence of sham peer reviews.

  19. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy

  20. Educational Decentralization: Weak State or Strong State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel; Street, Susan

    1986-01-01

    A government is a complex system of competing factions that adopts a decentralization policy when the dominant group sees current government structures or procedures as an obstacle to the realization of group interests. Case studies of educational decentralization in Peru, Chile, and Mexico demonstrate that the "state" tends to share…