WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-one sensor packages

  1. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  2. Fire behavior sensor package remote trigger design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Jimenez; Jason Forthofer; James Reardon; Bret Butler

    2007-01-01

    Fire behavior characteristics (such as temperature, radiant and total heat flux, 2- and 3-dimensional velocities, and air flow) are extremely difficult to measure insitu. Although insitu sensor packages are capable of such measurements in realtime, it is also essential to acquire video documentation as a means of better understanding the fire behavior data recorded by...

  3. Micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiong; Yao Yan; Ma Jiahao; Zhang Zhaohua; Zhang Yanhang; Wang Qian; Ren Tianling

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement which belongs to BioMEMS. It can be used in lumbar puncture surgery to measure intracranial pressure. Miniaturization is key for lumbar puncture surgery because the sensor must be small enough to allow it be placed in the reagent chamber of the lumbar puncture needle. The size of the sensor is decided by the size of the sensor chip and package. Our sensor chip is based on silicon piezoresistive effect and the size is 400 × 400 μm 2 . It is much smaller than the reported polymer intracranial pressure sensors such as liquid crystal polymer sensors. In terms of package, the traditional dual in-line package obviously could not match the size need, the minimal size of recently reported MEMS-based intracranial pressure sensors after packaging is 10 × 10 mm 2 . In this work, we are the first to introduce a quad flat no-lead package as the package form of piezoresistive intracranial pressure sensors, the whole size of the sensor is minimized to only 3 × 3 mm 2 . Considering the liquid measurement environment, the sensor is gummed and waterproof performance is tested; the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.9 × 10 −2 mV/kPa. (paper)

  4. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  5. Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging of Smart Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Allan; Temple, Dorota S.

    2016-01-01

    The reach and impact of the Internet of Things will depend on the availability of low-cost, smart sensors—“low cost” for ubiquitous presence, and “smart” for connectivity and autonomy. By using wafer-level processes not only for the smart sensor fabrication and integration, but also for packaging, we can further greatly reduce the cost of sensor components and systems as well as further decrease their size and weight. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the wafer-level vacuum packaging...

  6. Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System for Aircraft Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a packaged silicon carbide (SiC) based MEMS pressure sensor system designed specifically for a conventional turbofan engine. The electronic circuit is based on a Clapp-type oscillator that incorporates a 6H-SiC MESFET, a SiCN MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, titanate MIM capacitors, wirewound inductors, and thick film resistors. The pressure sensor serves as the capacitor in the LC tank circuit, thereby linking pressure to the resonant frequency of the oscillator. The oscillator and DC bias circuitry were fabricated on an alumina substrate and secured inside a metal housing. The packaged sensing system reliably operates at 0 to 350 psi and 25 to 540C. The system has a pressure sensitivity of 6.8 x 10E-2 MHzpsi. The packaged system shows negligible difference in frequency response between 25 and 400C. The fully packaged sensor passed standard benchtop acceptance tests and was evaluated on a flight-worthy engine.

  7. A fully packaged micromachined single crystalline resonant force sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalloni, C.; Gnielka, M.; Berg, J. von [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Haueis, M.; Dual, J. [ETH Zuerich, Inst. of Mechanical Systems, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buser, R. [Interstate Univ. of Applied Science Buchs, Buchs (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    In this work a fully packaged resonant force sensor for static load measurements is presented. The working principle is based on the shift of the resonance frequency in response to the applied load. The heart of the sensor, the resonant structure, is fabricated by micromachining using single crystalline silicon. To avoid creep and hysteresis and to minimize temperature induced stress the resonant structure is encapsulated using an all-in-silicon solution. This means that the load coupling, the excitation of the microresonator and the detection of the oscillation signal are integrated in only one single crystalline silicon chip. The chip is packaged into a specially designed housing made of steel which has been designed with respect to application in harsh environments. The unloaded sensor has an initial frequency of about 22,5 kHz. The sensitivity amounts to 26 Hz/N with a linearity error significantly less than 0,5%FSO. (orig.)

  8. Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging of Smart Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Allan; Temple, Dorota S

    2016-10-31

    The reach and impact of the Internet of Things will depend on the availability of low-cost, smart sensors-"low cost" for ubiquitous presence, and "smart" for connectivity and autonomy. By using wafer-level processes not only for the smart sensor fabrication and integration, but also for packaging, we can further greatly reduce the cost of sensor components and systems as well as further decrease their size and weight. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the wafer-level vacuum packaging technology of smart sensors. We describe the processes needed to create the wafer-scale vacuum microchambers, focusing on approaches that involve metal seals and that are compatible with the thermal budget of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. We review choices of seal materials and structures that are available to a device designer, and present techniques used for the fabrication of metal seals on device and window wafers. We also analyze the deposition and activation of thin film getters needed to maintain vacuum in the ultra-small chambers, and the wafer-to-wafer bonding processes that form the hermetic seal. We discuss inherent trade-offs and challenges of each seal material set and the corresponding bonding processes. Finally, we identify areas for further research that could help broaden implementations of the wafer-level vacuum packaging technology.

  9. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package.

  10. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package. PMID:26999142

  11. Packaging of silicon sensors for microfluidic bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimberger-Friedl, Reinhold; Prins, Menno; Megens, Mischa; Dittmer, Wendy; Witz, Christiane de; Nellissen, Ton; Weekamp, Wim; Delft, Jan van; Ansems, Will; Iersel, Ben van

    2009-01-01

    A new industrial concept is presented for packaging biosensor chips in disposable microfluidic cartridges to enable medical diagnostic applications. The inorganic electronic substrates, such as silicon or glass, are integrated in a polymer package which provides the electrical and fluidic interconnections to the world and provides mechanical strength and protection for out-of-lab use. The demonstrated prototype consists of a molded interconnection device (MID), a silicon-based giant magneto-resistive (GMR) biosensor chip, a flex and a polymer fluidic part with integrated tubing. The various processes are compatible with mass manufacturing and run at a high yield. The devices show a reliable electrical interconnection between the sensor chip and readout electronics during extended wet operation. Sandwich immunoassays were carried out in the cartridges with surface functionalized sensor chips. Biological response curves were determined for different concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the packaged biosensor, which demonstrates the functionality and biocompatibility of the devices. The new packaging concept provides a platform for easy further integration of electrical and fluidic functions, as for instance required for integrated molecular diagnostic devices in cost-effective mass manufacturing

  12. Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging of Smart Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Hilton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The reach and impact of the Internet of Things will depend on the availability of low-cost, smart sensors—“low cost” for ubiquitous presence, and “smart” for connectivity and autonomy. By using wafer-level processes not only for the smart sensor fabrication and integration, but also for packaging, we can further greatly reduce the cost of sensor components and systems as well as further decrease their size and weight. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the wafer-level vacuum packaging technology of smart sensors. We describe the processes needed to create the wafer-scale vacuum microchambers, focusing on approaches that involve metal seals and that are compatible with the thermal budget of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS integrated circuits. We review choices of seal materials and structures that are available to a device designer, and present techniques used for the fabrication of metal seals on device and window wafers. We also analyze the deposition and activation of thin film getters needed to maintain vacuum in the ultra-small chambers, and the wafer-to-wafer bonding processes that form the hermetic seal. We discuss inherent trade-offs and challenges of each seal material set and the corresponding bonding processes. Finally, we identify areas for further research that could help broaden implementations of the wafer-level vacuum packaging technology.

  13. Packaging of active fiber composites for improved sensor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnykowycz, M; Barbezat, M; Koller, R; Brunner, A J

    2010-01-01

    Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between two interdigitated electrodes provide a thin and flexible smart material device which can act as a sensor or actuator. The thin profiles of AFC make them ideal for integration in glass or carbon fiber composite laminates. However, due to the low tensile limit of the PZT fibers, AFC can fail at strains below the tensile limit of many composites. This makes their use as a component in an active laminate design somewhat undesirable. In the current work, tensile testing of smart laminates composed of AFC integrated in glass fiber laminates was conducted to assess the effectiveness of different packaging strategies for improving AFC sensor performance at high strains relative to the tensile limit of the AFC. AFC were encased in carbon fiber, silicon, and pre-stressed carbon fiber to improve the tensile limit of the AFC when integrated in glass fiber laminates. By laminating AFC with pre-stressed carbon fiber, the tensile limit and strain sensor ability of the AFC were significantly improved. Acoustic emission monitoring was used and the results show that PZT fiber breakage was reduced due to the pre-stressed packaging process

  14. Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is

  15. Ceramic thermal wind sensor based on advanced direct chip attaching package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lin; Qin Ming; Chen Shengqi; Chen Bei

    2014-01-01

    An advanced direct chip attaching packaged two-dimensional ceramic thermal wind sensor is studied. The thermal wind sensor chip is fabricated by metal lift-off processes on the ceramic substrate. An advanced direct chip attaching (DCA) packaging is adopted and this new packaged method simplifies the processes of packaging further. Simulations of the advanced DCA packaged sensor based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model show the sensor can detect wind speed and direction effectively. The wind tunnel testing results show the advanced DCA packaged sensor can detect the wind direction from 0° to 360° and wind speed from 0 to 20 m/s with the error less than 0.5 m/s. The nonlinear fitting based least square method in Matlab is used to analyze the performance of the sensor. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Package-friendly piezoresistive pressure sensors with on-chip integrated packaging-stress-suppressed suspension (PS3) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    An on-chip integrated packaging-stress-suppressed suspension (PS 3 ) technology for a packaging-stress-free pressure sensor is proposed and developed. With a MIS (microholes interetch and sealing) micromachining process implemented only from the front-side of a single-side polished (1 1 1) silicon wafer, a compact cantilever-shaped PS 3 is on-chip integrated surrounding a piezoresistive pressure-sensing structure to provide a packaging-process/substrate-friendly method for low-cost but high-performance sensor applications. With the MIS process, the chip size of the PS 3 -enclosed pressure sensor is as small as 0.8 mm × 0.8 mm. Compared with a normal pressure sensor without PS 3 (but with an identical pressure-sensing structure), the proposed pressure sensor has the same sensitivity of 0.046 mV kPa −1 (3.3 V) −1 . However, without using the thermal compensation technique, a temperature coefficient of offset of only 0.016% °C −1 FS is noted for the sensor with PS 3 , which is about 15 times better than that for the sensor without PS 3 . Featuring effective isolation and elimination of the influence from packaging stress, the PS 3 technique is promising to be widely used for packaging-friendly mechanical sensors. (paper)

  17. Thermal micropressure sensor for pressure monitoring in a minute package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S. N.; Mizuno, K.; Fujiyoshi, M.; Funabashi, H.; Sakata, J.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal micropressure sensor suitable for pressure measurements in the range from 7x10 -3 to 1x10 5 Pa has been fabricated by forming a titanium (Ti) thin-film resistor on a floating nondoped silica glass membrane, with the sensing area being as small as 60 μmx60 μm. The sensor performance is raised by: (1) increasing the ratio of gaseous thermal conduction in the total thermal conduction by sensor structure design; (2) compensating the effect of ambient-temperature drift by using a reference resistor located close to the sensing element but directly on the silicon substrate; and (3) utilizing an optimized novel constant-bias Wheatstone bridge circuit. By choosing a proper bias voltage, which can be found by simple calculation, the circuit extracts information on gaseous thermal conduction from the directly measurable total heat loss of the heated sensing element. The sensor was enclosed in a metal package with a capacity of about 0.5 ml by projection welding and was successfully applied to monitoring the pressure in the minute space

  18. The Packaging Technology Study on Smart Composite Structure Based on The Embedded FBG Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhong; Chang, Xinlong; Zhang, Xiaojun; He, Xiangyong

    2018-03-01

    It is convenient to carry out the health monitoring of the solid rocket engine composite shell based on the embedded FBG sensor. In this paper, the packaging technology using one-way fiber layer of prepreg fiberglass/epoxy resin was proposed. The proposed packaging process is simple, and the packaged sensor structure size is flexible and convenient to use, at the mean time, the packaged structure has little effect on the pristine composite material structure.

  19. Twenty-One at TREC-8: using Language Technology for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-8. The Twenty-One group participated in the Ad-hoc, CLIR, Adaptive Filtering and SDR tracks. The main focus of our experiments is the development and evaluation of retrieval methods that are motivated by natural language

  20. Twenty-One at TREC-7: ad-hoc and cross-language track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-7. The Twenty-One group participated in the ad-hoc and the cross-language track and made the following accomplishments: We developed a new weighting algorithm, which outperforms the popular Cornell version of BM25 on the ad-hoc

  1. Direct media exposure of MEMS multi-sensor systems using a potted-tube packaging concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Birkelund, Karen; Janting, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    in the filling material is measured. The packaging concept is used to encapsulate a microfabricated multi-sensor (measuring temperature, water conductivity, pressure and light intensity). The direct exposure of the sensors results in high sensitivity and fast response time. The design of an elongated multi-sensor......A packaging concept for Data Storage Tags is presented. A potted-tube packaging concept, using a polystyrene tube and different epoxies as filling material that allows for direct sensor exposure is investigated. The curing temperature, water uptake and the diffusion coefficient for water...... is described and effectiveness of the packaging is demonstrated with the precise measurement of water conductivity using the packaged multi-sensor. The packaging concept is very promising for high accuracy measurements in harsh environments....

  2. Packaging Technologies for 500C SiC Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Various SiC electronics and sensors are currently under development for applications in 500C high temperature environments such as hot sections of aerospace engines and the surface of Venus. In order to conduct long-term test and eventually commercialize these SiC devices, compatible packaging technologies for the SiC electronics and sensors are required. This presentation reviews packaging technologies developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors to address both component and subsystem level packaging needs for high temperature environments. The packaging system for high temperature SiC electronics includes ceramic chip-level packages, ceramic printed circuit boards (PCBs), and edge-connectors. High temperature durable die-attach and precious metal wire-bonding are used in the chip-level packaging process. A high temperature sensor package is specifically designed to address high temperature micro-fabricated capacitive pressure sensors for high differential pressure environments. This presentation describes development of these electronics and sensor packaging technologies, including some testing results of SiC electronics and capacitive pressure sensors using these packaging technologies.

  3. Sensor Fish: an autonomous sensor package for characterizing complex flow fields and fish passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Lu, Jun

    2016-10-04

    Fish passing through dams or other hydraulic structures may be injured or killed despite advances in turbine design, project operations, and other fish bypass systems. The Sensor Fish (SF) device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditions and stressors to which fish are exposed during passage through hydro facilities. It was designed to move passively as a neutrally buoyant object through severe hydraulic environments, while collecting high-resolution sensor data. Since its first generation1, the SF device has been successfully deployed in many fish passage studies and has evolved to be a major tool for characterizing fish passage conditions during fish passage in the Columbia River Basin. To better accelerate hydropower development, the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program provided funding to develop a new generation (Gen 2 SF) to incorporate more capabilities and accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. The Gen 2 SF (Figure 1) is approximately the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt and is nearly neutrally buoyant. It contains three-dimensional (3D) rotation sensors, 3D linear acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, a 3D orientation sensor, a radiofrequency (RF) transmitter, and a recovery module2. A low-power microcontroller collects data from the sensors and stores up to 5 min of data on internal flash memory at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. The recovery module makes the SF positively buoyant after a pre-programmed period of time, causing it to float to the surface for recovery.

  4. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  5. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  6. ATTIRE (analytical tools for thermal infrared engineering): A sensor simulation and modeling package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering' - ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Equivalent Radiance (NER), Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters.

  7. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  8. First-time demonstration of measuring concrete prestress levels with metal packaged fibre optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeeman, I.; Fusiek, G.; Perry, M.; Johnston, M.; Saafi, M.; Niewczas, P.; Walsh, M.; Khan, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the first large-scale demonstration of metal packaged fibre Bragg grating sensors developed to monitor prestress levels in prestressed concrete. To validate the technology, strain and temperature sensors were mounted on steel prestressing strands in concrete beams and stressed up to 60% of the ultimate tensile strength of the strand. We discuss the methods and calibration procedures used to fabricate and attach the temperature and strain sensors. The use of induction brazing for packaging the fibre Bragg gratings and welding the sensors to prestressing strands eliminates the use of epoxy, making the technique suitable for high-stress monitoring in an irradiated, harsh industrial environment. Initial results based on the first week of data after stressing the beams show the strain sensors are able to monitor prestress levels in ambient conditions.

  9. Systematic study of packaging designs on the performance of CMOS thermoresistive micro calorimetric flow sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Gao, Bo; Xu, Kun; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Pan, Liang; Chiu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    We systematically study the effect of two packaging configurations for the CMOS thermoresistive micro calorimetric flow (TMCF) sensors: S-type with the sensor chip protrusion-mounted on the flow channel wall and E-type with the sensor chip flush-mounted on the flow channel wall. Although the experimental results indicated that the sensitivity of the S-type was increased by more than 30%; the corresponding flow range as compared to the E-type was dramatically reduced by 60% from 0–11 m s −1 to 0–4.5 m s −1 . Comprehensive 2D CFD simulation and in-house developed 3D numerical simulations based on the gas-kinetic scheme were applied to study the flow separation of these two packaging designs with the major parameters. Indeed, the S-type design with the large protrusion would change the local convective heat transfer of the TMCF sensor and dramatically decrease the sensors’ performance. In addition, parametric CFD simulations of the packaging designs provide inspiration to propose a novel general flow regime map (FRM), i.e. normalized protrusion d * versus reduced chip Reynolds number Re * , where the critical boundary curve for the flow separation of TMCF sensors was determined at different channel aspect ratios. The proposed FRM can be a useful guideline for the packaging design and manufacturing of different micro thermal flow sensors. (paper)

  10. System-in Package of Integrated Humidity Sensor Using CMOS-MEMS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2015-10-01

    Temperature/humidity microchips with micropump were fabricated using a CMOS-MEMS process and combined with ZigBee modules to implement a sensor system in package (SIP) for a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) and/or a wireless communication system. The current of a diode temperature sensor to temperature and a normalized current of FET humidity sensor to relative humidity showed linear characteristics, respectively, and the use of the micropump has enabled a faster response. A wireless reception module using the same protocol as that in transmission systems processed the received data within 10 m and showed temperature and humidity values in the display.

  11. Vacuum-packaged piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters: damping contributions and autonomy for a wireless sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfrink, R; Renaud, M; Kamel, T M; De Nooijer, C; Jambunathan, M; Goedbloed, M; Hohlfeld, D; Matova, S; Pop, V; Caballero, L; Van Schaijk, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of thin-film MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on aluminum nitride as piezoelectric material. A record output power of 85 µW is measured. The parasitic-damping and the energy-harvesting performances of unpackaged and packaged devices are investigated. Vacuum and atmospheric pressure levels are considered for the packaged devices. When dealing with packaged devices, it is found that vacuum packaging is essential for maximizing the output power. Therefore, a wafer-scale vacuum package process is developed. The energy harvesters are used to power a small prototype (1 cm 3 volume) of a wireless autonomous sensor system. The average power consumption of the whole system is less than 10 µW, and it is continuously provided by the vibration energy harvester

  12. Development of High Temperature SiC Based Hydrogen/Hydrocarbon Sensors with Bond Pads for Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liangyu; Biagi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Ward, Benjamin J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Lampard, Peter S.; Artale, Michael A.; Hampton, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes efforts towards the transition of existing high temperature hydrogen and hydrocarbon Schottky diode sensor elements to packaged sensor structures that can be integrated into a testing system. Sensor modifications and the technical challenges involved are discussed. Testing of the sensors at 500 C or above is also presented along with plans for future development.

  13. Construction of a Chemical Sensor/Instrumentation Package Using Fiber Optic and Miniaturization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research was to construct a chemical sensor/instrumentation package that was smaller in weight and volume than conventional instrumentation. This reduction in weight and volume is needed to assist in further reducing the cost of launching payloads into space. To accomplish this, fiber optic sensors, miniaturized spectrometers, and wireless modems were employed. The system was evaluated using iodine as a calibration analyte.

  14. Micro digital sun sensor: system in a package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, C.W. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Duivenbode, L.M.H. van; Heiden, N. van der

    2004-01-01

    A novel micro Digital Sun Sensor (μDSS) is under development in the frame of a micro systems technology (MST) development program (Microned) from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Use of available micro system technologies in combination with the implementation of a dedicated solarcell for

  15. An Universal packaging technique for low-drift implantable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert; Powell, Charles R; Ziaie, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring bodily pressures provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. In particular, long-term measurement through implantable sensors is highly desirable in situations where percutaneous access can be complicated or dangerous (e.g., intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic patients). In spite of decades of progress in the fabrication of miniature solid-state pressure sensors, sensor drift has so far severely limited their application in implantable systems. In this paper, we report on a universal packaging technique for reducing the sensor drift. The described method isolates the pressure sensor from a major source of drift, i.e., contact with the aqueous surrounding environment, by encasing the sensor in a silicone-filled medical-grade polyurethane balloon. In-vitro soak tests for 100 days using commercial micromachined piezoresistive pressure sensors demonstrate a stable operation with the output remaining within 1.8 cmH2O (1.3 mmHg) of a reference pressure transducer. Under similar test conditions, a non-isolated sensor fluctuates between 10 and 20 cmH2O (7.4-14.7 mmHg) of the reference, without ever settling to a stable operation regime. Implantation in Ossabow pigs demonstrate the robustness of the package and its in-vivo efficacy in reducing the baseline drift.

  16. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Niina; Kilpijärvi, Joni; Sobocinski, Maciej; Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Hassinen, Antti; Prakash, Someshekar B; Möller, Peter; Abshire, Pamela; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Lloyd Spetz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC) microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  17. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Halonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  18. Sensors and packages based on LTCC and thick-film technology for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reliable operation in harsh environments such as high temperatures, high pressures, aggressive media and space, poses special requirements for sensors and packages, which usually cannot be met using polymer-based technologies. Ceramic technologies, especially LTCC (Low-Temperature Cofired Ceramic), offer a ...

  19. Demonstration of a Prototype Hydrogen Sensor and Electronics Package - Progress Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Amanda S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brosha, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This is the second progress report on the demonstration of a prototype hydrogen sensor and electronics package. It goes into detail about the five tasks, four of which are already completed as of August 2016, with the final to be completed by January 26, 2017. Then the budget is detailed along with the planned work for May 27, 2016 to July 27, 2016.

  20. Parylene-on-oil packaging for long-term implantable pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Aubrey M; Liu, Yang; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports and analyzes the feasibility study of a parylene-on-oil encapsulation packaging method of pressure sensors targeted for long-term implantation. Commercial barometric digital-output pressure sensors are enclosed in silicone oil and then encapsulated in situ with parylene-C or -D (PA-C, PA-D) chemical vapor deposition. Experimentally, sensors encapsulated with 30,000 cSt silicone oil and 27 μm PA-D show good performance for 6 weeks in 77 °C saline with >99 % of original sensitivity, corresponding to an extrapolated lifetime of around 21 months in 37 °C saline. This work shows that, with proper designs, such a packaging method can preserve the original pressure sensor sensitivity without offset, validated throughout accelerated lifetime tests. In experiments, wires on the prototypes are used for external electronics but it is found that they contributed to early failures, which would be absent in real wireless versions, indicating a potential for even longer lifetimes. Finally, a verified model is presented to predict the pressure sensor sensitivity of parylene-on-oil packaging with and without the presence of a bubble in the oil.

  1. Perinatal occipital lobe injury in children: analysis of twenty-one cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Mei; Yang, Chang-Shuan; Hou, Yu; Ma, Xiu-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Chun; Liao, Yu-Zhen

    2012-12-01

    This study used magnetic resonance imaging to analyze causes and clinical courses of pediatric occipital lobe injury. Patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging for suspected bilateral occipital lobe injury at our Neurodevelopmental Department between July 2007 and June 2011 were included. We evaluated magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, clinical courses, electroencephalogram monitoring, and Denver Development Screen Test scores. Twenty-one infants were examined. Of these, 10 had been born preterm. Thirteen patients demonstrated hypoglycemia. Perinatal period hypoglycemia comprised the most common cause (71.4%) of occipital brain injury. Visual abnormalities were evident in 18 patients. Seventeen (80.9%) patients manifested epilepsy. Infantile spasms were observed in 13 cases (76.5%). According to Denver Development Screen Test assessment, 17 patients demonstrated delayed motor development. Motor function and language improved in 10 patients after effective control of their seizures. Hypoglycemia constitutes the most common cause of occipital injury in infants. Visual impairment, startle episodes, infantile spasms, and motor developmental delay comprise the most common complications, whereas language function is usually spared. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. New recording package for VACM provides sensor flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Worrilow, S. E.; Fucile, S. E.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    For the past three decades, the VACM has been a standard for ocean current measurements. A VACM is a true vector-averaging instrument that computes north and east current vectors and averages temperature continuously over a specified interval. It keeps a running total of rotor counts, and records one-shot samples of compass, vane position and time. Adding peripheral sensors to the data stream was easy. In today's economy, it seems imperative that operational centers concentrate on upgrading present inventory rather than purchasing newer instruments that often fall short of the flexible measurement platforms with high data capacities required by most researchers today. PCMCIA cards are rapidly becoming an industry standard with a wide range of storage capacities. By upgrading the VACM to a PCMCIA storage system with a flexible microprocessor, the VACM should continue to be a viable instrument into the next century

  3. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  4. Analytical tools for thermal infrared engineerig: a thermal sensor simulation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Sandeep

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration. To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering'--ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as SNR, NER, NETD etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters. In addition, ATTIRE can be used as a tutorial for understanding the distribution of thermal flux or solar irradiance over selected bandwidths of the spectrum. This spectrally distributed incident flux can then be analyzed as it propagates through the subsystems that constitute the entire sensor. ATTIRE provides a variety of functions ranging from plotting black-body curves for varying bandwidths and computing the integral flux, to performing transfer function analysis of the sensor system. The package runs from a menu- driven interface in a PC-DOS environment. Each sub-system of the sensor is represented by windows and icons. A user-friendly mouse-controlled point-and-click interface allows the user to simulate various aspects of a sensor. The package can simulate a theoretical sensor system. Trade-off studies can be easily done by changing the appropriate parameters and monitoring the effect of the system performance. The package can provide plots of system performance versus any system parameter. A parameter (such as the entrance aperture of the optics) could be varied and its effect on another parameter (e.g., NETD) can be plotted. A third parameter (e.g., the

  5. A GENERIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUE USING FLUIDIC ISOLATION FOR LOW-DRIFT IMPLANTABLE PRESSURE SENSORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A; Powell, C R; Ziaie, B

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on a generic packaging method for reducing drift in implantable pressure sensors. The described technique uses fluidic isolation by encasing the pressure sensor in a liquid-filled medical-grade polyurethane balloon; thus, isolating it from surrounding aqueous environment that is the major source of baseline drift. In-vitro tests using commercial micromachined piezoresistive pressure sensors show an average baseline drift of 0.006 cmH 2 O/day (0.13 mmHg/month) for over 100 days of saline soak test, as compared to 0.101 cmH 2 O/day (2.23 mmHg/month) for a non-fluidic-isolated one soaked for 18 days. To our knowledge, this is the lowest reported drift for an implantable pressure sensor.

  6. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  7. Demonstration of a Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System Suitable for Jet Turbofan Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Meredith, Roger D.; Harsh, Kevin; Pilant, Evan; Usrey, Michael W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the development and characterization of a packaged pressure sensor system suitable for jet engine health monitoring is demonstrated. The sensing system operates from 97 to 117 MHz over a pressure range from 0 to 350 psi and a temperature range from 25 to 500 deg. The sensing system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator that is fabricated on an alumina substrate and is comprised of a Cree SiC MESFET, MIM capacitors, a wire-wound inductor, chip resistors and a SiCN capacitive pressure sensor. The pressure sensor is located in the LC tank circuit of the oscillator so that a change in pressure causes a change in capacitance, thus changing the resonant frequency of the sensing system. The chip resistors, wire-wound inductors and MIM capacitors have all been characterized at temperature and operational frequency, and perform with less than 5% variance in electrical performance. The measured capacitive pressure sensing system agrees very well with simulated results. The packaged pressure sensing system is specifically designed to measure the pressure on a jet turbofan engine. The packaged system can be installed by way of borescope plug adaptor fitted to a borescope port exposed to the gas path of a turbofan engine.

  8. LIGHT-WEIGHT SENSOR PACKAGE FOR PRECISION 3D MEASUREMENT WITH MICRO UAVS E.G. POWER-LINE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-D. Kuhnert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new sensor package for micro or mini UAVs and one application that has been successfully implemented with this sensor package. It is intended for 3D measurement of landscape or large outdoor structures for mapping or monitoring purposes. The package can be composed modularly into several configurations. It may contain a laser-scanner, camera, IMU, GPS and other sensors as required by the application. Also different products of the same sensor type have been integrated. Always it contains its own computing infrastructure and may be used for intelligent navigation, too. It can be operated in cooperation with different drones but also completely independent of the type of drone it is attached to. To show the usability of the system, an application in monitoring high-voltage power lines that has been successfully realised with the package is described in detail.

  9. A software package for evaluating the performance of a star sensor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mathew, Joice; Sreejith, A. G.; Nirmal, K.; Ambily, S.; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a low-cost off-the-shelf component star sensor ( StarSense) for use in minisatellites and CubeSats to determine the attitude of a satellite in orbit. StarSense is an imaging camera with a limiting magnitude of 6.5, which extracts information from star patterns it records in the images. The star sensor implements a centroiding algorithm to find centroids of the stars in the image, a Geometric Voting algorithm for star pattern identification, and a QUEST algorithm for attitude quaternion calculation. Here, we describe the software package to evaluate the performance of these algorithms as a star sensor single operating system. We simulate the ideal case where sky background and instrument errors are omitted, and a more realistic case where noise and camera parameters are added to the simulated images. We evaluate such performance parameters of the algorithms as attitude accuracy, calculation time, required memory, star catalog size, sky coverage, etc., and estimate the errors introduced by each algorithm. This software package is written for use in MATLAB. The testing is parametrized for different hardware parameters, such as the focal length of the imaging setup, the field of view (FOV) of the camera, angle measurement accuracy, distortion effects, etc., and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the performance of such algorithms in any star sensor. For its hardware implementation on our StarSense, we are currently porting the codes in form of functions written in C. This is done keeping in view its easy implementation on any star sensor electronics hardware.

  10. Multilingual domain modeling in Twenty-One: automatic creation of a bi-directional translation lexicon from a parallel corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    1998-01-01

    Within the project Twenty-One, which aims at the effective dissemination of information on ecology and sustainable development, a sytem is developed that supports cross-language information retrieval in any of the four languages Dutch, English, French and German. Knowledge of this application domain

  11. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  12. Metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating sensor based on ultrasonic welding for strain-insensitive temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Yumin; Dong, Mingli; Lou, Xiaoping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor characterized by a strain insensitive design is demonstrated. The sensor is fabricated by the one-step ultrasonic welding technique using type-II fiber Bragg grating combined with an aluminum alloy substrate. Finite element analysis is used to perform theoretical evaluation. The result of the experiment illustrates that the metallic-packaging temperature sensor is insensitive to longitudinal strain. The sensor's temperature sensitivity is 36 pm/°C over the range of 50-110 °C, with the correlation coefficient (R2) being 0.999. The sensor's temporal response is 40 s at a sudden temperature change from 21 °C to 100 °C. The proposed sensor can be applied on reliable and precise temperature measurement.

  13. A membrane film sensor with encapsulated fluorescent dyes towards express freshness monitoring of packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryukhin, Maxim V; Lau, Hooi Hong; Goh, Seok Hong; Teh, Cathleen; Korzh, Vladimir; Sadovoy, Anton

    2018-05-15

    A new Membrane Film Sensor (MFS) has been developed to measure pH of fluids. MFS comprises a polyelectrolyte multilayer film with uniformly distributed compartments (microchambers) where a fluorescent sensing dye is encapsulated. Fabricated film is sealed onto a polyethylene film for a future use. MFS was applied to report changes in golden pomfret fillet upon its storage at 5 °C. MFS pH readings were correlated to bacteriological analysis of fish samples. A hike in pH of fish juices happens after 10 days of storage signaling bacterial spoilage of fish. The design of developed MFS allows easy integration with transparent packaging materials for future development of "SMART" packaging sensing food freshness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of metal-packaged fiber Bragg grating sensor by one-step ultrasonic welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhu, Lianqing; Luo, Fei; Dong, Mingli; Ding, Xiangdong; He, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A metallic packaging technique of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is developed for measurement of strain and temperature, and it can be simply achieved via one-step ultrasonic welding. The average strain transfer rate of the metal-packaged sensor is theoretically evaluated by a proposed model aiming at surface-bonded metallic packaging FBG. According to analytical results, the metallic packaging shows higher average strain transfer rate compared with traditional adhesive packaging under the same packaging conditions. Strain tests are performed on an elaborate uniform strength beam for both tensile and compressive strains; strain sensitivities of approximately 1.16 and 1.30 pm/μɛ are obtained for the tensile and compressive situations, respectively. Temperature rising and cooling tests are also executed from 50°C to 200°C, and the sensitivity of temperature is 36.59 pm/°C. All the measurements of strain and temperature exhibit good linearity and stability. These results demonstrate that the metal-packaged sensors can be successfully fabricated by one-step welding technique and provide great promise for long-term and high-precision structural health monitoring.

  15. A packaged, low-cost, robust optical fiber strain sensor based on small cladding fiber sandwiched within periodic polymer grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Chin; Li, Chein-Hsing

    2014-06-02

    In the present study, a novel packaged long-period fiber grating (PLPFG) strain sensor is first presented. The MEMS process was utilized to fabricate the packaged optical fiber strain sensor. The sensor structure consisted of etched optical fiber sandwiched between two layers of thick photoresist SU-8 3050 and then packaged with poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer material to construct the PLPFG strain sensor. The PDMS packaging material was used to prevent the glue effect, wherein glue flows into the LPFG structure and reduces coupling strength, in the surface bonding process. Because the fiber grating was packaged with PDMS material, it was effectively protected and made robust. The resonance attenuation dip of PLPFG grows when it is loading. This study explored the size effect of the grating period and fiber diameter of PLPFG via tensile testing. The experimental results found that the best strain sensitivity of the PLPFG strain sensor was -0.0342 dB/με, and that an R2 value of 0.963 was reached.

  16. Conformal Thin Film Packaging for SiC Sensor Circuits in Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Karnick, David A.; Ponchak, George E.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for 24 hours, in BOE for 24 hours, and in an O2 plasma etch for one hour. The adhesion strength of the thin film was measured by a pull test before and after the chemical immersion, which indicated that the film has an adhesion strength better than 10(exp 8) N/m2; this is similar to the adhesion of the gold layer to the alumina wafer. MIM capacitors are used to determine the dielectric constant, which is dependent on the SiC anneal temperature. Finally, to demonstrate that the SiC, conformal, thin film may be used to package RF circuits and sensors, an LC resonator circuit was fabricated and tested with and without the conformal SiC thin film packaging. The results indicate that the SiC coating adds no appreciable degradation to the circuits RF performance. Index Terms Sputter, silicon carbide, MIM capacitors, LC resonators, gold etchants, BOE, O2 plasma

  17. Chapter Twenty One

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In this paper I approach art through some literary expositions of Uche Okeke. ... importance of Igbo forklore to the creative enterprise, as exemplified by ... mature thinker, I concluded that Uche Okeke was a master artist whose ideas have ...

  18. The corrosion rate of copper in a bentonite test package measured with electric resistance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Kuhar, Viljem; Legat, Andraz [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-15

    LOT1 test parcel A2 was exposed for six years in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, which offers a realistic environment for the conditions that will prevail in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The test parcel contained copper electrodes for real-time corrosion monitoring in bentonite ring 36, where the temperature was 24 deg C, and copper coupons in bentonite rings 22 and 30, where the temperature was higher. After retrieval of the test parcel in January 2006, a bentonite test package consisting of bentonite rings 35 - 37 was placed in a container and sealed with a thick layer of paraffin. Later the same year new copper electrodes were installed in the test package. In January 2007 electric resistance (ER) sensors of pure copper with a thickness of 35 {mu}m were also installed in the test package mainly to facilitate the interpretation of the results from the real-time corrosion monitoring with electrochemical techniques. The ER measurements have shown that the corrosion rate of pure copper exposed in an oxic bentonite/ saline groundwater environment at room temperate decreases slowly with time to low but measurable values. The corrosion rates estimated from the regularly performed EIS measurements replicate the ER data. Thus, for this oxic environment in which copper acquires corrosion potentials of the order of 200 mV (SHE) or higher, electrochemical measurements provide believable data. Comparing the recorded ER data with an estimate of the average corrosion rate based on comparing cross-sections from exposed and protected sensor elements, it is obvious that the former overestimates the actual corrosion rate, which is understandable. It seems as if electrochemical measurements can provide a better estimate of the corrosion rate; however, this is quite dependent on the use of proper measuring frequencies and evaluation methods. In this respect ER measurements are more reliable. It has been shown that real-time corrosion

  19. The corrosion rate of copper in a bentonite test package measured with electric resistance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosborg, Bo; Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Kuhar, Viljem; Legat, Andraz

    2012-12-01

    LOT1 test parcel A2 was exposed for six years in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, which offers a realistic environment for the conditions that will prevail in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The test parcel contained copper electrodes for real-time corrosion monitoring in bentonite ring 36, where the temperature was 24 deg C, and copper coupons in bentonite rings 22 and 30, where the temperature was higher. After retrieval of the test parcel in January 2006, a bentonite test package consisting of bentonite rings 35 - 37 was placed in a container and sealed with a thick layer of paraffin. Later the same year new copper electrodes were installed in the test package. In January 2007 electric resistance (ER) sensors of pure copper with a thickness of 35 μm were also installed in the test package mainly to facilitate the interpretation of the results from the real-time corrosion monitoring with electrochemical techniques. The ER measurements have shown that the corrosion rate of pure copper exposed in an oxic bentonite/ saline groundwater environment at room temperate decreases slowly with time to low but measurable values. The corrosion rates estimated from the regularly performed EIS measurements replicate the ER data. Thus, for this oxic environment in which copper acquires corrosion potentials of the order of 200 mV (SHE) or higher, electrochemical measurements provide believable data. Comparing the recorded ER data with an estimate of the average corrosion rate based on comparing cross-sections from exposed and protected sensor elements, it is obvious that the former overestimates the actual corrosion rate, which is understandable. It seems as if electrochemical measurements can provide a better estimate of the corrosion rate; however, this is quite dependent on the use of proper measuring frequencies and evaluation methods. In this respect ER measurements are more reliable. It has been shown that real-time corrosion

  20. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-06-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging.

  1. Twenty-One Genome Sequences from Pseudomonas Species and 19 Genome Sequences from Diverse Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere and Endosphere of Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Martin, Stanton [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome we generated draft genome sequences for twenty one Pseudomonas and twenty one other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Burkholderia, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium and Variovorax were generated.

  2. Packaging Effects on RadFET Sensors for High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mekki, J; Glaser, M; Guatelli, S; Moll, M; Pia, M G; Ravotti, F

    2009-01-01

    RadFETs in customized chip carrier packages are installed in the LHC Experiments as radiation monitors. The package influence on the dose measurement in the complex LHC radiation environment is evaluated using Geant4 simulations and experimental data.

  3. Intelligent Packaging Systems: Sensors and Nanosensors to Monitor Food Quality and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Fuertes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology in different areas of food packaging is an emerging field that will grow rapidly in the coming years. Advances in food safety have yielded promising results leading to the development of intelligent packaging (IP. By these containers, it is possible to monitor and provide information of the condition of food, packaging, or the environment. This article describes the role of the different concepts of intelligent packaging. It is possible that this new technology could reach enhancing food safety, improving pathogen detection time, and controlling the quality of food and packaging throughout the supply chain.

  4. A novel fibre Bragg grating sensor packaging design for ultra-high temperature sensing in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Amir; Liang, Richard; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce a novel packaging of conventional Corning SMF-28™ single-mode fibre Bragg grating sensors for ultra-high temperature sensing. The package is in a cylindrical shape made of yttria-stabilized zirconia tubes. The fibre optic sensor is epoxied to one end inside the tube to be protected from high external temperatures and also harsh environments. Highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite tube with an exceptional anisotropic thermal conductivity with higher conductivity in transverse than radial direction is positioned around the fibre to protect it from high temperatures. Air cooling system is also provided from the other end to dissipate the transferred heat from inside the tube. The shift in the Bragg wavelength is influenced by the thermal expansion of the package and internal temperature variations, which translates into thermal expansion of the fibre. The modelling and experimental results revealed that the Bragg wavelength shift increases to 1.4 pm °C-1 at higher temperatures with linear behaviour at temperatures above 600 °C. The finite element modelling and the experimental results are also in good proximity indicating the similar trend for the shift in the Bragg wavelength.

  5. Low Cost, Vacuum Packaging of GN&C Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS)-based gyroscopes, accelerometers and rate sensors are essential to miniaturizing the guidance, navigation and control...

  6. Low-Power Radio and Image-Sensor Package, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most effective sensor modalities for situational awareness is imagery. While typically high bandwidth and relegated to analog wireless communications,...

  7. Effects of Cyclic Thermal Load on the Signal Characteristics of FBG Sensors Packaged with Epoxy Adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heonyoung; Kang, Donghoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Fiber optics sensors that have been mainly applied to aerospace areas are now finding applicability in other areas, such as transportation, including railways. Among the sensors, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have led to a steep increase due to their properties of absolute measurement and multiplexing capability. Generally, the FBG sensors adhere to structures and sensing modules using adhesives such as an epoxy. However, the measurement errors that occurred when the FBG sensors were used in a long-term application, where they were exposed to environmental thermal load, required calibration. For this reason, the thermal curing of adhesives needs to be investigated to enhance the reliability of the FBG sensor system. This can be done at room temperature through cyclic thermal load tests using four types of specimens. From the test results, it is confirmed that residual compressive strain occurs to the FBG sensors due to an initial cyclic thermal load. In conclusion, signals of the FBG sensors need to be stabilized for applying them to a long-term SHM.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of a metal-packaged regenerated fiber Bragg grating strain sensor for structural integrity monitoring of high-temperature components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yun; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the structural integrity of components operating at high temperatures requires the development of novel sensors to measure strain. A metal-packaged regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) sensor is developed for measurement of strain using titanium–silver magnetron sputtering and nickel electroplating. The strain response of the sensor mounted onto a flat tensile specimen by spot welding is evaluated by uniaxial tensile tests at constant temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 °C. Similar tests are performed on a bare RFBG sensor for comparison. The metal-packaged RFBG strain sensor exhibits higher strain sensitivity than that of the bare RFBG sensor, as well as good linearity, stability and repeatability of strain measurements. A three-dimensional finite element model of the sensor is established to predict the strain sensitivity based on the sensing principle of the fiber Bragg grating. Comparisons of the experimental results with the numerical predictions for the strain sensitivity show a satisfactory agreement. These results demonstrate that the metal-packaged RFBG strain sensors can be successfully fabricated by combining magnetron sputtering with electroplating, and provide great promise for structural integrity monitoring of high-temperature components. (paper)

  9. Self-assembled micro-structured sensors for food safety in paper based food packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakovirta, M., E-mail: marko.hakovirta@storaenso.com; Aksoy, B.; Hakovirta, J.

    2015-08-01

    Natural self-assembled microstructured particles (diatomaceous earth) were used to develop a gas sensor paper with detection mechanism based on visible and distinct color changes of the sensor paper when exposed to volatile basic nitrogen compounds. The coating formulation for paper was prepared by applying diatomites, polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and pH sensitive dyes on acidic paper substrate. The surface coating was designed to allow a maximum gas flow through the diatomite sensors. The produced sensor paper was tested for sensitivity using different ammonia concentrations and we observed a sensitivity lower limit at 63 ppm. As a comparison, the results show comparable sensitivity levels to carbon nanotube based sensor technologies reported in literature. - Highlights: • Novel sensor paper was developed using micro-structured diatomaceous earth and pH sensitive dye. • The functionality is based on pH sensitive dye to indicate spoilage of meat or fish by color change. • Diatomaceous earth was successfully immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol coating. • The coating was engineered to maximize the exposure of the diatom morphology. • The sensor paper achieved very high sensitivities for ammonia gas detection.

  10. Self-assembled micro-structured sensors for food safety in paper based food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakovirta, M.; Aksoy, B.; Hakovirta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural self-assembled microstructured particles (diatomaceous earth) were used to develop a gas sensor paper with detection mechanism based on visible and distinct color changes of the sensor paper when exposed to volatile basic nitrogen compounds. The coating formulation for paper was prepared by applying diatomites, polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and pH sensitive dyes on acidic paper substrate. The surface coating was designed to allow a maximum gas flow through the diatomite sensors. The produced sensor paper was tested for sensitivity using different ammonia concentrations and we observed a sensitivity lower limit at 63 ppm. As a comparison, the results show comparable sensitivity levels to carbon nanotube based sensor technologies reported in literature. - Highlights: • Novel sensor paper was developed using micro-structured diatomaceous earth and pH sensitive dye. • The functionality is based on pH sensitive dye to indicate spoilage of meat or fish by color change. • Diatomaceous earth was successfully immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol coating. • The coating was engineered to maximize the exposure of the diatom morphology. • The sensor paper achieved very high sensitivities for ammonia gas detection

  11. Sensors and packages based on LTCC and thick-film technology for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After deposition, drying removes the solvent in the vehicle, allowing the part to be ... In addition to the standard LTCC dielectric materials, compatible tapes with high electric ... For jet engine eddy current radial position sensors, the severe.

  12. Vacuum-packaged piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters: Damping contributions and autonomy for a wireless sensor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, R.; Renaud, M.; Kamel, T.M.; Nooijer, C. de; Jambunathan, M.; Goedbloed, M.; Hohlfeld, D.; Matova, S.; Pop, V.; Caballero, L.; Schaijk, R. van

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of thin-film MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on aluminum nitride as piezoelectric material. A record output power of 85 μW is measured. The parasitic-damping and the energy-harvesting performances of unpackaged and packaged devices are investigated.

  13. Simulations on the prediction of cod (Gadus morhua) freshness from an intelligent packaging sensor concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method that monitors changes in the freshness status of packed cod fillets has potential for the development of an intelligent packaging concept. The method is based on monitoring volatile compounds that dissolve and dissociate in the sensing aqueous phase. A mathematical model was

  14. Liquid-Phase Packaging of a Glucose Oxidase Solution with Parylene Direct Encapsulation and an Ultraviolet Curing Adhesive Cover for Glucose Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Seiichi Takamatsu; Hisanori Takano; Nguyen Binh-Khiem; Tomoyuki Takahata; Eiji Iwase; Kiyoshi Matsumoto; Isao Shimoyama

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a package for disposable glucose sensor chips using Parylene encapsulation of a glucose oxidase solution in the liquid phase and a cover structure made of an ultraviolet (UV) curable adhesive. Parylene was directly deposited onto a small volume (1 μL) of glucose oxidase solution through chemical vapor deposition. The cover and reaction chamber were constructed on Parylene film using a UV-curable adhesive and photolithography. The package was processed at room temperature to ...

  15. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Development of Physics Package Sensors Final Report CRADA No. TC02094.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpenko, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salmon, J. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The goal of this project was to work together through the project phases to conceive, demonstrate, and produce concepts for detecting, locating, tracking, imaging, and assessing emissions passively or actively. The initial Sensor Concept Exploration Phase was postulated and assessed concepts at a first-order level to ascertain whether the parties’ concepts (either separately developed or jointly developed) had merit for missile defense and homeland security applications

  17. Batch fabrication of polymer microfluidic cartridges for QCM sensor packaging by direct bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Niklas; Zandi Shafagh, Reza; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2017-12-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensing is an established technique commonly used in laboratory based life-science applications. However, the relatively complex, multi-part design and multi-step fabrication and assembly of state-of-the-art QCM cartridges make them unsuited for disposable applications such as point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics. In this work, we present the uncomplicated manufacturing of QCMs in polymer microfluidic cartridges. Our novel approach comprises two key innovations: the batch reaction injection molding of microfluidic parts; and the integration of the cartridge components by direct, unassisted bonding. We demonstrate molding of batches of 12 off-stoichiometry thiol-ene epoxy polymer (OSTE+) polymer parts in a single molding cycle using an adapted reaction injection molding process; and the direct bonding of the OSTE+  parts to other OSTE+  substrates, to printed circuit boards, and to QCMs. The microfluidic QCM OSTE+  cartridges were successfully evaluated in terms of liquid sealing as well as electrical properties, and the sensor performance characteristics are on par with those of a commercially available QCM biosensor cartridge. The simplified manufacturing of QCM sensors with maintained performance potentializes novel application areas, e.g. as disposable devices in a point of care setting. Moreover, our results can be extended to simplifying the fabrication of other microfluidic devices with multiple heterogeneously integrated components.

  18. A high performance micro-pressure sensor based on a double-ended quartz tuning fork and silicon diaphragm in atmospheric packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Li, Cun; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Bo; Tian, Bian

    2015-01-01

    A resonant micro-pressure sensor based on a double-ended quartz tuning fork (DEQTF) and bossed silicon diaphragm in atmospheric packaging is presented. To achieve vacuum-free packaging with a high quality factor, the DEQTF is designed to resonate in an anti-phase vibration mode in a plane that is under the effect of slide-film damping. The feasibility is demonstrated by theoretical analysis and a finite element simulation. The dimensions of the DEQTF and diaphragm are optimized in accordance with the principles of improving sensitivity and minimizing energy dissipation. The sensor chip is fabricated using quartz and silicon micromachining technologies, and simply packaged in a stainless steel shell with standard atmosphere. The experimental setup is established for the calibration, where an additional sensor prototype without a pressure port is introduced as a frequency reference. By detecting the frequency difference of the tested sensor and reference sensor, the influences of environmental factors such as temperature and shocks on measuring accuracy are eliminated effectively. Under the action of a self-excitation circuit, static performance is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 299 kHz kPa −1 in the operating range of 0–10 kPa at room temperature. Testing results shows a nonlinearity of 0.0278%FS, a hysteresis of 0.0207%FS and a repeatability of 0.0375%FS. The results indicate that the proposed sensor has favorable features, which provides a cost-effective and high-performance approach for low pressure measurement. (paper)

  19. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging. PMID:24953037

  20. On Packaging of MEMS. Simulation of Transfer Moulding and Packaging Stress and their Effect on a Family of piezo-resistive Pressure Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Krondorfer, Rudolf H.

    2004-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) produced to date include IR detectors, accelerometers, pressure sensors, micro lenses, actuators, chemical sensors, gear drives, RF devices, optical processor chips, micro robots and devices for biomedical analysis. The track for tomorrow has already been set and products like 3D TV, physician on a chip, lab on a chip, micro aircraft and food safety sensors will be developed when the technology matures and the market is ready. Todays MEMS fabricatio...

  1. Cardiac abnormalities in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study with a clinical-pathological correlation in twenty-one adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdy Gesmar Volga Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the cardiac abnormalities and their evolution during the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as to correlate clinical and pathological data. METHODS - Twenty-one patients, admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were prospectively studied and followed until their death. Age ranged from 19 to 42 years (17 males. ECG and echocardiogram were also obtained every six months. After death, macro- and microscopic examinations were also performed. RESULTS - The most frequent causes of referral to the hospital were: diarrhea or repeated pneumonias, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis or Kaposi sarcoma. The most frequent findings were acute or chronic pericarditis (42% and dilated cardiomyopathy (19%. Four patients died of cardiac problems: infective endocarditis, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, bacterial myocarditis and infection by Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSION - Severe cardiac abnormalities were the cause of death in some patients. In the majority of the patients, a good correlation existed between clinical and anatomical-pathological data. Cardiac evaluation was important to detect early manifestations and treat them accordingly, even in asymptomatic patients.

  2. One Hundred Twenty-One Resected Solid Pseudopapillary Tumors of the Pancreas: An 8-Year Single-Institution Experience at Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Zhao, Guochao; Pu, Ning; Nuerxiati, Abulimiti; Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Rong, Yefei; Lou, Wenhui; Wang, Dansong; Kuang, Tiantao; Xu, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenchuan

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce our experience with treating patients with pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) and to investigate the clinical risk factors for recurrence of SPTs because no consensus has been established to date. One hundred twenty-one patients underwent surgical resection from January 2008 to December 2015 in our institution. Clinical data were collected from the standardized reports. Of the 121 patients, 93 (76.9%) were women, 28 (23.1%) were men, and the mean age at diagnosis was 33.7 years (range, 11-68 years). Sixty patients were subjected to short-term complications, and 8 patients experienced long-term complications, some of whom may require surgery. The tumor located in the distal pancreas (P = 0.02), and a Ki-67 index value > 1.5 (P = 0.01) indicated malignancy according to the World Health Organization 2000 classification. One hundred three patients responded to follow-up, and 3 cases (2.9%) were subject to liver metastases. Recurrence was more frequently observed in tumors classified as high-grade malignancies according to the World Health Organization 2010 classification (P = 0.013), synchronous metastases (P < 0.001), peripancreatic fat infiltration (P = 0.018), and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001). Evaluating the risk of the recurrence of SPTs still requires systematic and multicenter trials in the future, even some pathological features showed statistical differences.

  3. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binda Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.. One taxon (Borago officinalis in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having

  4. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging' is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein. PMID:28134243

  5. Liquid-Phase Packaging of a Glucose Oxidase Solution with Parylene Direct Encapsulation and an Ultraviolet Curing Adhesive Cover for Glucose Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Takamatsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a package for disposable glucose sensor chips using Parylene encapsulation of a glucose oxidase solution in the liquid phase and a cover structure made of an ultraviolet (UV curable adhesive. Parylene was directly deposited onto a small volume (1 μL of glucose oxidase solution through chemical vapor deposition. The cover and reaction chamber were constructed on Parylene film using a UV-curable adhesive and photolithography. The package was processed at room temperature to avoid denaturation of the glucose oxidase. The glucose oxidase solution was encapsulated and unsealed. Glucose sensing was demonstrated using standard amperometric detection at glucose concentrations between 0.1 and 100 mM, which covers the glucose concentration range of diabetic patients. Our proposed Parylene encapsulation and UV-adhesive cover form a liquid phase glucose-oxidase package that has the advantages of room temperature processing and direct liquid encapsulation of a small volume solution without use of conventional solidifying chemicals.

  6. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  7. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino (Rutgers); (LBNL); (Connecticut); (TJU); (MSU)

    2017-01-30

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid’) built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging’ is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.

  8. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron–Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG fabricated in hydrogen (H2-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

  9. A fully packaged self-powered sensor based on near-field electrospun arrays of poly(vinylidene fluoride nano/micro fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-K. Fuh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting devices based on the triboelectric and piezoelectric principles have been widely developed to scavenge wasteful and tiny mechanical energy into usable electrical energy. In particular, triboelectric energy harvesting generators with relatively simpler structure and piezoelectric fiber-based counterpart with extremely light weight compositions showed a very promising application in the self-powered sensors. In this paper, a novel hybridization of graphenebased piezoelectric generator (GBPG and graphene-PET triboelectric generator (GPTG were simultaneously packaged. The integrated structure, graphene-based hybridized self-powered sensor (GHSPS, was demonstrated to be optically transparent and mechanically robust. For the piezoelectrically harvesting device, an in-situ poling and direct-write near-field electrospinning (NFES Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF piezoelectric fibers were fabricated and integrated with a single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD grown graphene. On the other hand for GPTG counterpart, two composite layers of a single layer graphene/PET simultaneously served as triboelectrically rubbing layers as well as bottom/top electrode. This GHSPS successfully superimposed both piezoelectric and triboelectric electricity and the synergistically higher output voltage/current/power were measured as ~6 V/280 nA/172 nW in one press-and-release cycle of finger induced motion. The proposed GHSPS showed a promising application in the field of self-powered sensors to be ubiquitously implemented in the future Industry 4.0 scenarios.

  10. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ?procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: a...

  11. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  12. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  13. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  15. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  16. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  17. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  18. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  19. Direitos sociais na constituição cidadã: um balanço de 21 anos Social rights in the citizen Constitution: a balance of twenty-one years of existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz um balanço dos direitos sociais previstos na Constituição de 1988, destacando seus avanços e limitações ao longo destes últimos 21 anos. Começando pelos direitos dos trabalhadores e, em seguida, pelos dispositivos relativos à Seguridade Social, o trabalho busca compreender as motivações do legislador constituinte e o histórico de constantes disputas no interior da sociedade, em torno da regulamentação, manutenção e aprimoramento desses direitos ao longo dos anos.This paper is an attempt to make a balance of the social rights forseen in the Brazilian 1988 Constitution, stressing its advances and limitations during the last twenty one years. Beginning with the labour rights and following with the Social Security articles, it is an effort to understand both the motivations of the legislators and the historic of permanent disputes within the Brazilian society around the regulation, maintenance and improvement of these rights along the years.

  20. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  1. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  2. The growing disconnect between food prices and wages in Europe: cross-national analysis of food deprivation and welfare regimes in twenty-one EU countries, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Stuckler, David

    2017-06-01

    Food insecurity has been rising across Europe following the Great Recession, but to varying degrees across countries and over time. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, nor are what factors might protect people's access to food. Here we test the hypothesis that an emerging gap between food prices and wages can explain increases in reported inability to afford protein-rich foods and whether welfare regimes can mitigate its impact. We collected data in twenty-one countries from 2004 to 2012 using two databases: (i) on food prices and deprivation related to food (denoted by reported inability to afford to eat meat, chicken, fish or a vegetarian equivalent every second day) from EuroStat 2015 edition; and (ii) on wages from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 edition. After adjusting for macroeconomic factors, we found that each 1 % rise in the price of food over and above wages was associated with greater self-reported food deprivation (β=0·060, 95 % CI 0·030, 0·090), particularly among impoverished groups. However, this association also varied across welfare regimes. In Eastern European welfare regimes, a 1 % rise in the price of food over wages was associated with a 0·076 percentage point rise in food deprivation (95 % CI 0·047, 0·105) while in Social Democratic welfare regimes we found no clear association (P=0·864). Rising prices of food coupled with stagnating wages are a major factor driving food deprivation, especially in deprived groups; however, our evidence indicates that more generous welfare systems can mitigate this impact.

  3. GRIP LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field sensors along with a central computer to record and monitor the instruments....

  4. RASPLAV package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  5. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  6. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  7. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  8. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  9. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  10. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  11. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  12. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  13. Invisible magnetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach-Batlle, Rosa; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2018-04-01

    Sensing magnetic fields is essential in many applications in biomedicine, transportation, or smart cities. The distortion magnetic sensors create in response to the field they are detecting may hinder their use, for example, in applications requiring dense packaging of sensors or accurately shaped field distributions. For sensing electromagnetic waves, cloaking shells that reduce the scattering of sensors have been introduced. However, the problem of making a magnetic sensor undetectable remains unsolved. Here, we present a general strategy on how to make a sensor magnetically invisible while keeping its ability to sense. The sensor is rendered undetectable by surrounding it with a spherical shell having a tailored magnetic permeability. Our method can be applied to arbitrary shaped magnetic sensors in arbitrary magnetic fields. The invisibility can be made exact when the sensor is spherical and the probed field is uniform. A metasurface composed of superconducting pieces is presented as a practical realization of the ideal invisibility shell.

  14. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  15. Reliability of industrial packaging for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Christensen, Carsten; Weichel, Steen

    1998-01-01

    . Protective coatings of amorphous silicon carbide and tantalum oxide are suitable candidates with etch rates below 0.1 Angstrom/h in aqueous solutions with pH II at temperatures up to 140 degrees C. Si-Ta-N films exhibit etch rates around 1 Angstrom/h. Parylene C coatings did not etch but peeled off after......Packaging concepts for silicon-based micromachined sensors exposed to harsh environments are explored. By exposing the sensors directly to the media and applying protection at the wafer level the packaging and assembly will be simplified as compared to conventional methods of fabrication...

  16. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  17. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limb, Scott J. [Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  18. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  19. Twenty-one lectures on complex analysis a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Isaev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    At its core, this concise textbook presents standard material for a first course in complex analysis at the advanced undergraduate level. This distinctive text will prove most rewarding for students who have a genuine passion for mathematics as well as certain mathematical maturity. Primarily aimed at undergraduates with working knowledge of real analysis and metric spaces, this book can also be used to instruct a graduate course. The text uses a conversational style with topics purposefully apportioned into 21 lectures, providing a suitable format for either independent study or lecture-based teaching. Instructors are invited to rearrange the order of topics according to their own vision. A clear and rigorous exposition is supported by engaging examples and exercises unique to each lecture; a large number of exercises contain useful calculation problems. Hints are given for a selection of the more difficult exercises. This text furnishes the reader with a means of learning complex analysis as well as a subtl...

  20. Isolation and characterization of twenty-one polymorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of genetic diversity, population genetic structure and genetic resource ..... Schizothoracinae species, which may help in the effective conservation of these ... how the computer program CERVUS accommodates genotyping error increases ...

  1. Travel to, and use of, twenty-one Michigan trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E; Reed, Julian A; Grost, Lisa; Harvey, Christina; Mantinan, Karah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined trail use among 857 trail users on 21 trails in Michigan from 2008 to 2011 using a valid and reliable intercept survey. Most of the 857 participants traveled to the trail from their home (92.6%), lived within 15 min of the trails (74.8%), and used active transport to travel to the trails 69.7%. The odds of active transport to the trails were greater among those who had not graduated high school (OR=3.49; 95% CI=1.02, 11.99) and high school graduates (OR=7.432; 95% CI=2.02, 27.30) compared to college graduates. Whites and adults also had greater odds of active transport than non-Whites (OR=3.160, 95% CI: 1.65, 6.05), and older adults (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.54). The majority of respondents (89.7%) reported using trails for recreational purposes. A significantly greater proportion of females (73.3%) compared to males (64.7%) reported using the trail with others. The findings from this study might enable health and parks and recreation professionals to better promote physical activity on trails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TCSP ER-2 LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 7 rotating vane type electric field sensors and a two channel conductivity probe along with a central...

  3. Realtime 3D stress measurement in curing epoxy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hyldgård, A.; Birkelund, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to characterize stress in microsystem packaging. A circular p-type piezoresistor is implemented on a (001) silicon chip. We use the circular stress sensor to determine the packaging induced stress in a polystyrene tube filled with epoxy. The epoxy curing process...

  4. Integrated microsystems packaging approach with LCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, Paul; Shacklette, Lawrence W.

    2006-05-01

    Within the government communication market there is an increasing push to further miniaturize systems with the use of chip-scale packages, flip-chip bonding, and other advances over traditional packaging techniques. Harris' approach to miniaturization includes these traditional packaging advances, but goes beyond this level of miniaturization by combining the functional and structural elements of a system, thus creating a Multi-Functional Structural Circuit (MFSC). An emerging high-frequency, near hermetic, thermoplastic electronic substrate material, Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP), is the material that will enable the combination of the electronic circuit and the physical structure of the system. The first embodiment of this vision for Harris is the development of a battlefield acoustic sensor module. This paper will introduce LCP and its advantages for MFSC, present an example of the work that Harris has performed, and speak to LCP MFSCs' potential benefits to miniature communications modules and sensor platforms.

  5. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  6. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  7. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  8. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  9. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  10. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  11. MEMS packaging: state of the art and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossche, Andre; Cotofana, Carmen V. B.; Mollinger, Jeff R.

    1998-07-01

    Now that the technology for Integrated sensor and MEMS devices has become sufficiently mature to allow mass production, it is expected that the prices of bare chips will drop dramatically. This means that the package prices will become a limiting factor in market penetration, unless low cost packaging solutions become available. This paper will discuss the developments in packaging technology. Both single-chip and multi-chip packaging solutions will be addressed. It first starts with a discussion on the different requirements that have to be met; both from a device point of view (open access paths to the environment, vacuum cavities, etc.) and from the application point of view (e.g. environmental hostility). Subsequently current technologies are judged on their applicability for MEMS and sensor packaging and a forecast is given for future trends. It is expected that the large majority of sensing devices will be applied in relative friendly environments for which plastic packages would suffice. Therefore, on the short term an important role is foreseen for recently developed plastic packaging techniques such as precision molding and precision dispensing. Just like in standard electronic packaging, complete wafer level packaging methods for sensing devices still have a long way to go before they can compete with the highly optimized and automated plastic packaging processes.

  12. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  13. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  14. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  15. Intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality: a case study on fresh fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background

    Foods are prone to quality degradation in the whole supply chain, but the possibilities for monitoring the quality of foods inside the package are limited. When sensors of quality indicators are included into the package of a food, the package can become an

  16. Airborne Sensor Thermal Management Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    The customer wants to outfit aircraft (de Havilland Twin Otter) with optical sensors. In previous product generations the sensor line-of-sight direction was fixed – the sensor’s direction relied on the orientation of the aircraft. The next generation sensor will be packaged in a rotatable turret so that the line-of-sight is reasonably independent of the aircraft’s orientation. This turret will be mounted on a boom protruding from the side of the aircraft. The customer wants to outfit aircraft (de Havilland Twin Otter) with optical sensors. In previous product generations the sensor line-of-sight direction was fixed – the sensor’s direction relied on the orientation of the aircraft. The next generation sensor will be packaged in a rotatable turret so that the line-of-sight is reasonably independent of the aircraft’s orientation. This turret will be mounted on a boom protruding from the side of the aircraft.

  17. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  18. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  19. Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package for UMRR Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2014-10-14

    An apparatus, system, and method for Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package radar sensor. The sensor includes a substrate and an integrated circuit coupled to the substrate, where the integrated circuit is configured to transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) signals. An antenna may be coupled to the integrated circuit and a lens may be coupled to the antenna. The lens may be configured to enhance the gain of the sensor.

  20. Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package for UMRR Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul; Khalid, Muhammad Umair; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package radar sensor. The sensor includes a substrate and an integrated circuit coupled to the substrate, where the integrated circuit is configured to transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) signals. An antenna may be coupled to the integrated circuit and a lens may be coupled to the antenna. The lens may be configured to enhance the gain of the sensor.

  1. 3D packaging of a microfluidic system with sensory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Anthony; Kelly, Gerard; Alderman, John C.

    1997-09-01

    Among the main benefits of microsystem technology are its contributions to cost reductio, reliability and improved performance. however, the packaging of microsystems, and particularly microsensor, has proven to be one of the biggest limitations to their commercialization and the packaging of silicon sensor devices can be the most costly part of their fabrication. This paper describes the integration of 3D packaging of a microsystem. Central to the operation of the 3D demonstrator is a micromachined silicon membrane pump to supply fluids to a sensing chamber constructed about the active area of a sensor chip. This chip carries ISFET based chemical sensors, pressure sensors and thermal sensors. The electronics required for controlling and regulating the activity of the various sensors ar also available on this chip and as other chips in the 3D assembly. The demonstrator also contains a power supply module with optical fiber interconnections. All of these modules are integrated into a single plastic- encapsulated 3D vertical multichip module. The reliability of such a structure, initially proposed by Val was demonstrated by Barrett et al. An additional module available for inclusion in some of our assemblies is a test chip capable of measuring the packaging-induced stress experienced during and after assembly. The packaging process described produces a module with very high density and utilizes standard off-the-shelf components to minimize costs. As the sensor chip and micropump include micromachined silicon membranes and microvalves, the packaging of such structures has to allow consideration for the minimization of the packaging-induced stresses. With this in mind, low stress techniques, including the use of soft glob-top materials, were employed.

  2. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  3. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Gehl, A. C.; Allman, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors probably tens of sensors in a sensor package to achieve sel...... microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10 s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications. © 2007 American Institute of Physics....

  4. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  5. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  6. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  7. MARS software package status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  8. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  9. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  10. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  11. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  12. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  13. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  14. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  15. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  16. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  17. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  18. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described

  19. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  20. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  1. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  2. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  3. Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, J P; O'Grady, M N; Hogan, S A

    2006-09-01

    Interest in the use of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into packaging systems with the aim of maintaining or extending meat product quality and shelf-life. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents and anti-microbial packaging technologies. Intelligent packaging systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage. The potential of sensor technologies, indicators (including integrity, freshness and time-temperature (TTI) indicators) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are evaluated for potential use in meat and meat products. Recognition of the benefits of active and intelligent packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.

  4. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  5. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  6. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  7. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  8. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  9. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  10. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  11. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  12. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  13. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  14. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  15. BCRA R Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCRA is an R package that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  16. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Hempel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15% was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa (30% CO2/70% N2 settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days. This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS, bacon slices (BA, and meat and potato pies (PP. Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

  17. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  18. Energy and packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustead, I; Hancock, G F

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on the energy and raw materials required in the production and use of containers used to package beer, cider, and carbonated soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Topics covered include: methodology of energy analysis, primary and secondary fuels, transport, packaging materials, including glass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tinplate, container production, including plastic bottles, distribution of empty containers, filling and packing, distribution, and disposal. (LEW)

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  20. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  1. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  2. Image Fusion Technologies In Commercial Remote Sensing Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Kalyankar, N. V.

    2013-01-01

    Several remote sensing software packages are used to the explicit purpose of analyzing and visualizing remotely sensed data, with the developing of remote sensing sensor technologies from last ten years. Accord-ing to literature, the remote sensing is still the lack of software tools for effective information extraction from remote sensing data. So, this paper provides a state-of-art of multi-sensor image fusion technologies as well as review on the quality evaluation of the single image or f...

  3. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  5. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  6. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  7. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  9. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  10. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  11. Advanced Image Processing Package for FPGA-Based Re-Programmable Miniature Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ovod, Vladimir I; Baxter, Christopher R; Massie, Mark A; McCarley, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    .... An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical background...

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  13. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  14. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  15. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Waste package characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented.

  17. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  18. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  19. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  20. Nirex - The complete package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, N.A.; Rarok, M.

    2002-01-01

    Through continuous interaction with its customers, Nirex had identified the need for a comprehensive range of waste containers, reflecting the variety of wastes and operational undertakings. The current range consists of five standard containers. Standardisation is introduced across all waste packages to enable the safe and efficient operation of future waste management facilities. The practical lessons learned during the development of standard containers are in turn reflected in the container design work that Nirex has undertaken. They are also fed into the advice given to customers during evaluation of waste packaging proposals. (author)

  1. Ada Namelist Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  2. NOVA integrated alignment/diagnostic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under Contract 3772003 to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Aerojet ElectroSystems Company has investigated a number of alignment system design topics for the NOVA and SHIVA upgrade lasers. Prior reports dealt with the Main Beam Alignment System, and with Multipass Amplifier Alignment Concepts. This report, which completes the contract, examines ways in which the Return Beam Diagnostic (RBD) package and Incident Beam Diagnostic (IBD) packages may be reconfigured to a more integrated package. In particular, the report shows that the RBD optics may be directly integrated in the Pointing Focus and Centering (PFC) sensor, and that the IBD optics may use the same basic common configuration as the PFC/RBD package

  3. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  4. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  5. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  6. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  7. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  8. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  9. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  10. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  11. Packaging LLW and ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.; Owen, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Low level waste (LLW) accounts for 70-80% by volume of all radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. It has low specific activity, negligible actinide content and requires little, if any, shielding to protect workers. Volume reduction for LLW of high volume but low density may be achieved by incineration and compaction as appropriate, before packaging for disposal by near surface burial. Intermediate level waste (ILW) is treated and packed to convert it into a stable form to minimize any release of activity and make handling easier. The matrix chosen for immobilization, usually cement, polymers or bitumen, depends on the nature of the waste and the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. The special case of LLW and ILW which will arise from reactor decommissioning is discussed. Packaging methods adopted by individual countries are reviewed. The range of costs involved for packaging ILW is indicated. There is no international consensus on the performance required from packaged waste to ensure its suitability both for interim storage and final disposal. (UK)

  12. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  13. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  14. Printer Graphics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  15. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  16. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  17. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  18. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  19. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  20. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  1. Study of robust thin film PT-1000 temperature sensors for cryogenic process control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, R.; Boguhn, D.; Fillinger, H.; Schlachter, S. I.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    In some cryogenic process measurement applications, for example, in hydrogen technology and in high temperature superconductor based generators, there is a need of robust temperature sensors. These sensors should be able to measure the large temperature range of 20 - 500 K with reasonable resolution and accuracy. Thin film PT 1000 sensors could be a choice to cover this large temperature range. Twenty one sensors selected from the same production batch were tested for their temperature sensitivity which was then compared with different batch sensors. Furthermore, the sensor's stability was studied by subjecting the sensors to repeated temperature cycles of 78-525 K. Deviations in the resistance were investigated using ice point calibration and water triple point calibration methods. Also the study of directional oriented intense static magnetic field effects up to 8 Oersted (Oe) were conducted to understand its magneto resistance behaviour in the cryogenic temperature range from 77 K - 15 K. This paper reports all investigation results in detail.

  2. Dual Use Packaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  3. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  4. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su; Bilal, Rana Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor

  5. A Review of Patents for the Smart Packaging of Meat and Muscle-based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin; Kerry, Joseph P; Hopkins, David L

    2017-10-31

    Meat packaging once acted primarily as an inert barrier to protect its contents against contamination and this function has shifted. Packaging now includes complementary functions that improve product quality, longevity and customer/retail appeal. The devices and methods applied to achieve these functions may be categorised as smart packaging, which includes intelligent packaging, devised to monitor and communicate packaged content status, and active packaging, to provide passive adjustment of in-pack conditions from its interactions with the packaged meat. Smart packaging examples already available from recent patents include antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging coatings and inserts; sensors or indicators that identify spoilage and freshness; functional engineering customisations; improvements to packaging integrity; leak or tamper detectors; and, environmentally sustainable options. Together, these inventions respond to industry and customer demands for meat packaging and are therefore the focus of this review, in which we discuss their applications and limitations in meat packaging. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  7. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  8. Package materials, waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR (section) 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  10. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  11. Technology transfer packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  12. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  13. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  14. The CASA Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    CASA is the standard science data analysis package for ALMA and VLA but it can also be used for the analysis of data from other observatories. In this talk, I will give an overview of the structure and features of CASA, who develops it, and the present status and plans, and then show typical analysis workflows for ALMA data with special emphasis on the handling of single dish data and its combination with interferometric data.

  15. The Ettention software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  16. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  17. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  18. Portable Radiation Package (PRP) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R Michael [Remote Measurements and Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    The Portable Radiation Package (PRP) was developed to provide basic radiation information in locations such as ships at sea where proper exposure is remote and difficult, the platform is in motion, and azimuth alignment is not fixed. Development of the PRP began at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1990s and versions of it were deployed on ships in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Nauru-99 project. The PRP was deployed on ships in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sensor Intercomparison for Marine Biological and Interdisciplinary Ocean Studies (SIMBIOS) program. Over the years the measurements have remained the same while the post-processing data analysis, especially for the FRSR, has evolved. This document describes the next-generation Portable Radiation Package (PRP2) that was developed for the DOE ARM Facility, under contract no. 9F-31462 from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The PRP2 has the same scientific principles that were well validated in prior studies, but has upgraded electronic hardware. The PRP2 approach is completely modular, both in hardware and software. Each sensor input is treated as a separate serial stream into the data collection computer. In this way the operator has complete access to each component of the system for purposes of error checking, calibration, and maintenance. The resulting system is more reliable, easier to install in complex situations, and more amenable to upgrade.

  19. Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

    2008-02-01

    Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

  20. Data simulation in machine olfaction with the R package chemosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ziyatdinov

    Full Text Available In machine olfaction, the design of applications based on gas sensor arrays is highly dependent on the robustness of the signal and data processing algorithms. While the practice of testing the algorithms on public benchmarks is not common in the field, we propose software for performing data simulations in the machine olfaction field by generating parameterized sensor array data. The software is implemented as an R language package chemosensors which is open-access, platform-independent and self-contained. We introduce the concept of a virtual sensor array which can be used as a data generation tool. In this work, we describe the data simulation workflow which basically consists of scenario definition, virtual array parameterization and the generation of sensor array data. We also give examples of the processing of the simulated data as proof of concept for the parameterized sensor array data: the benchmarking of classification algorithms, the evaluation of linear- and non-linear regression algorithms, and the biologically inspired processing of sensor array data. All the results presented were obtained under version 0.7.6 of the chemosensors package whose home page is chemosensors.r-forge.r-project.org.

  1. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  2. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  3. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  4. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  5. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  6. AMA Conferences 2015. SENSOR 2015. 17th international conference on sensors and measurement technology. IRS2 2015. 14th international conference on infrared sensors and systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This meeting paper contains presentations of two conferences: SENSOR 2015 and IRS 2 (= International conference on InfraRed Sensors and systems). The first part of SENSOR 2015 contains the following chapters: (A) SENSOR PRINCIPLES: A.1: Mechanical sensors; A.2: Optical sensors; A.3: Ultrasonic sensors; A.4: Microacoustic sensors; A.5: Magnetic sensors; A.6: Impedance sensors; A.7: Gas sensors; A.8: Flow sensors; A.9: Dimensional measurement; A.10: Temperature and humidity sensors; A.11: Chemosensors; A.12: Biosensors; A.13: Embedded sensors; A.14: Sensor-actuator systems; (B) SENSOR TECHNOLOGY: B.1: Sensor design; B.2: Numerical simulation of sensors; B.3: Sensor materials; B.4: MEMS technology; B.5: Micro-Nano-Integration; B.6: Packaging; B.7: Materials; B.8: Thin films; B.9: Sensor production; B.10: Sensor reliability; B.11: Calibration and testing; B.12: Optical fibre sensors. (C) SENSOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION: C.1: Sensor electronics; C.2: Sensor networks; C.3: Wireless sensors; C.4: Sensor communication; C.5: Energy harvesting; C.6: Measuring systems; C.7: Embedded systems; C.8: Self-monitoring and diagnosis; (D) APPLICATIONS: D.1: Medical measuring technology; D.2: Ambient assisted living; D.3: Process measuring technology; D.4: Automotive; D.5: Sensors in energy technology; D.6: Production technology; D.7: Security technology; D.8: Smart home; D.9: Household technology. The second part with the contributions of the IRS 2 2015 is structured as follows: (E) INFRARED SENSORS: E.1: Photon detectors; E.2: Thermal detectors; E.3: Cooled detectors; E.4: Uncooled detectors; E.5: Sensor modules; E.6: Sensor packaging. (G) INFRARED SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS: G.1: Thermal imaging; G.2: Pyrometry / contactless temperature measurement; G.3: Gas analysis; G.4: Spectroscopy; G.5: Motion control and presence detection; G.6: Security and safety monitoring; G.7: Non-destructive testing; F: INFRARED SYSTEM COMPONENTS: F.1: Infrared optics; F.2: Optical modulators; F.3

  7. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  8. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  9. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  10. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  11. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  12. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.; Cruse, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    To provide uniform packaging of hazardous materials on an international level, the United Nations has developed packaging recommendations that have been implemented worldwide. The United Nations packaging recommendations are performance oriented, allowing for a wide variety of package materials and systems. As a result of this international standard, efforts in the United States are being directed toward use of performance-oriented packaging and elimination of specification (designed) packaging. This presentation will focus on trends, design evaluation, and performance testing of radioactive material packaging. The impacts of US Department of Transportation Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A on specification and low-specific activity radioactive material packaging requirements are briefly discussed. The US Department of Energy's program for evaluating radioactive material packings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A requirements, is used as the basis for discussing low-activity packaging performance test requirements. High-activity package testing requirements are presented with examples of testing performed at the Hanford Site that is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  14. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  15. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, H.

    1978-01-01

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  16. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  18. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  19. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  20. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  2. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in 3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a k eff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  3. System issues for multichip packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Maurice G.; Hartley, Neil

    1991-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that the performance of an electronic system is governed by the choice of packaging technology. Never before have the technical and financial implications of a packaging technology choice been more critical and never before has technology interdependence or industry globalisation made the choice more difficult. This paper is aimed at examining the choices available and the system issues resulting from the move from single chip to multichip packaging.

  4. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  5. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  6. Packaging of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  7. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository

  8. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  9. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  10. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents

  11. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  12. ORNL's DCAL software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has released its Dose and Risk Calculation software, DCAL. DCAL, developed with the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, consists of a series of computational modules, driven in either an interactive or a batch mode for computation of dose and risk coefficients from intakes of radionuclides or exposure to radionuclides in environmental media. The software package includes extensive libraries of biokinetic and dosimetric data that represent the current state of the art. The software has unique capability for addressing intakes of radionuclides by non-adults. DCAL runs as 32-bit extended DOS and console applications under Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. It is intended for users familiar with the basic elements of computational radiation dosimetry. Components of DCAL have been used to prepare U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Reports 12 and 13 and several publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  13. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  14. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  15. Open architecture of smart sensor suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wilmuth; Kuwertz, Achim; Grönwall, Christina; Petersson, Henrik; Dekker, Rob; Reinert, Frank; Ditzel, Maarten

    2017-10-01

    Experiences from recent conflicts show the strong need for smart sensor suites comprising different multi-spectral imaging sensors as core elements as well as additional non-imaging sensors. Smart sensor suites should be part of a smart sensor network - a network of sensors, databases, evaluation stations and user terminals. Its goal is to optimize the use of various information sources for military operations such as situation assessment, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, target recognition and tracking. Such a smart sensor network will enable commanders to achieve higher levels of situational awareness. Within the study at hand, an open system architecture was developed in order to increase the efficiency of sensor suites. The open system architecture for smart sensor suites, based on a system-of-systems approach, enables combining different sensors in multiple physical configurations, such as distributed sensors, co-located sensors combined in a single package, tower-mounted sensors, sensors integrated in a mobile platform, and trigger sensors. The architecture was derived from a set of system requirements and relevant scenarios. Its mode of operation is adaptable to a series of scenarios with respect to relevant objects of interest, activities to be observed, available transmission bandwidth, etc. The presented open architecture is designed in accordance with the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF). The architecture allows smart sensor suites to be part of a surveillance network, linked e.g. to a sensor planning system and a C4ISR center, and to be used in combination with future RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems) for supporting a more flexible dynamic configuration of RPAS payloads.

  16. Documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Model 9977 packages at NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.

    2009-01-01

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  17. Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

  18. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  19. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  20. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  1. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  2. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  3. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions. (a) Package size limitation. Due to the toxicity associated with fluoride active ingredients, the... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package size...

  4. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  5. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  6. The Sensor Irony: How Reliance on Sensor Technology is Limiting Our View of the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    operations; quite the contrary. “History is littered with prophesies of technical and scientific inadequacy, such as Lord Kelvin’s famous retort , ‘Heavier...U.S. Air Force, Factsheets, RQ-4 Global Hawk. designed with the potential to carry a Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) package in lieu of its SAR...discussed in the Predator sensor package , and adds an additional image-intensifying TV camera.4 The Reapers’ GTMI/SAR capability is best represented

  7. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  8. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  9. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  10. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  11. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages

  12. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations

  13. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  14. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  15. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  16. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  17. Sentinel Wraps: Real-Time Monitoring of Food Contamination by Printing DNAzyme Probes on Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hanie; Ali, M Monsur; Su, Hsuan-Ming; Filipe, Carlos D M; Didar, Tohid F

    2018-04-24

    Here, we report the development of a transparent, durable, and flexible sensing surface that generates a fluorescence signal in the presence of a specific target bacterium. This material can be used in packaging, and it is capable of monitoring microbial contamination in various types of food products in real time without having to remove the sample or the sensor from the package. The sensor was fabricated by covalently attaching picoliter-sized microarrays of an E. coli-specific RNA-cleaving fluorogenic DNAzyme probe (RFD-EC1) to a thin, flexible, and transparent cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) film. Our experimental results demonstrate that the developed (RFD-EC1)-COP surface is specific, stable for at least 14 days under various pH conditions (pH 3-9), and can detect E. coli in meat and apple juice at concentrations as low as 10 3 CFU/mL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our sensor is capable of detecting bacteria while still attached to the food package, which eliminates the need to manipulate the sample. The developed biosensors are stable for at least the shelf life of perishable packaged food products and provide a packaging solution for real-time monitoring of pathogens. These sensors hold the potential to make a significant contribution to the ongoing efforts to mitigate the negative public-health-related impacts of food-borne illnesses.

  18. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  19. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  20. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  1. Packaging the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newson, Roy; Lewis, Meriel

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Traditionally, when the nuclear industry produces a brochure or video programme, the platform of our arguments is reasoned, factual, abstract, far-sighted and convoluted. It is all about things and processes: energy plants, machinery, numbers and percentages. Yet we know that people are interested only in people, in emotions, in reality, and in basic values about next week or next month. And this is probably the biggest incongruity. Our painstaking, in-depth research backed by technical evidence and statistics is no match for the other side's anecdotal speech making. Our perfectly designed graphics cannot compete against those visual cliches that can give instant life to an abstract idea. In the UK, pioneering work for the British Nuclear Forum's, the Nuclear Industry Education Programme (NIEP) breaks through the traditional approach, allowing passion and feeling to stimulate debate. Material about nuclear power produced for young people often promotes knowledge acquisition about particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle without conceptual or value change. NIEP materials build on the experience of developing packages that fully meet curriculum objectives, follow educational best practice, and place nuclear power in a real energy context. But they also make a positive contribution to the meaning a young person attaches to a concept such as radiation. Essentially, the materials are in tune with the way young people make sense of their experience of the real world and the issues in it. For further information about AEA Technology's public acceptance programmes, contact: Roy Newson or Meriel Lewis on +44 235 433650, fax +44 235 432123. (author)

  2. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  3. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  4. Development and Performance Evaluation of Optical Sensors for High Temperature Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, G.; Varga, D.; Floyd, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses fiber optic sensors designed and constructed to withstand extreme temperatures of aircraft engine. The paper describes development and performance evaluation of fiber optic Bragg grating based sensors. It also describes the design and presents test results of packaged sensors subjected to temperatures up to 1000 C for prolonged periods of time.

  5. Production Method that Leads to TiO2 Nanofibrous Structure Usable in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovář Radovan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Burned inorganic nanofibers most often occur in the nature in two forms: rutile and anatase. Today, the production of rutile is about to end, while anatase provides more application possibilities. The resulting fiber structure is determined by calcination. It is necessary to find the optimal temperature as well as time, during which the fibers must withstand temperature load. For such method of calcination, it is necessary to create a special design of continuous furnace. Anatase has application in food packaging. Packages containing anatase are used for: food safety, improved packaging for spoilage reduction, sensors for detection of pathogens and spoilage, disinfectants and antimicrobial surfaces.

  6. Sensor Placement Optimization using Chama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology and Engineering Dept.; Nicholson, Bethany L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Discrete Math and Optimization Dept.; Laird, Carl Damon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Discrete Math and Optimization Dept.

    2017-10-01

    Continuous or regularly scheduled monitoring has the potential to quickly identify changes in the environment. However, even with low - cost sensors, only a limited number of sensors can be deployed. The physical placement of these sensors, along with the sensor technology and operating conditions, can have a large impact on the performance of a monitoring strategy. Chama is an open source Python package which includes mixed - integer, stochastic programming formulations to determine sensor locations and technology that maximize monitoring effectiveness. The methods in Chama are general and can be applied to a wide range of applications. Chama is currently being used to design sensor networks to monitor airborne pollutants and to monitor water quality in water distribution systems. The following documentation includes installation instructions and examples, description of software features, and software license. The software is intended to be used by regulatory agencies, industry, and the research community. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the Python Programming Language. References are included for addit ional background on software components. Online documentation, hosted at http://chama.readthedocs.io/, will be updated as new features are added. The online version includes API documentation .

  7. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  8. Dual Use Packaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  9. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  10. CompareTests-R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    CompareTests is an R package to estimate agreement and diagnostic accuracy statistics for two diagnostic tests when one is conducted on only a subsample of specimens. A standard test is observed on all specimens.

  11. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. de.

    1983-01-01

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  13. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  14. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  15. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  16. TRU waste transportation package development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakes, R.G.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures

  17. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  18. Thermal Flow Sensors for Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vivekananthan; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Dao, Dzung Viet; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2017-09-08

    Flow sensing in hostile environments is of increasing interest for applications in the automotive, aerospace, and chemical and resource industries. There are thermal and non-thermal approaches for high-temperature flow measurement. Compared to their non-thermal counterparts, thermal flow sensors have recently attracted a great deal of interest due to the ease of fabrication, lack of moving parts and higher sensitivity. In recent years, various thermal flow sensors have been developed to operate at temperatures above 500 °C. Microelectronic technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI), and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) have been used to make thermal flow sensors. Thermal sensors with various heating and sensing materials such as metals, semiconductors, polymers and ceramics can be selected according to the targeted working temperature. The performance of these thermal flow sensors is evaluated based on parameters such as thermal response time, flow sensitivity. The data from thermal flow sensors reviewed in this paper indicate that the sensing principle is suitable for the operation under harsh environments. Finally, the paper discusses the packaging of the sensor, which is the most important aspect of any high-temperature sensing application. Other than the conventional wire-bonding, various novel packaging techniques have been developed for high-temperature application.

  19. Thermal Flow Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekananthan Balakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flow sensing in hostile environments is of increasing interest for applications in the automotive, aerospace, and chemical and resource industries. There are thermal and non-thermal approaches for high-temperature flow measurement. Compared to their non-thermal counterparts, thermal flow sensors have recently attracted a great deal of interest due to the ease of fabrication, lack of moving parts and higher sensitivity. In recent years, various thermal flow sensors have been developed to operate at temperatures above 500 °C. Microelectronic technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI, and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS have been used to make thermal flow sensors. Thermal sensors with various heating and sensing materials such as metals, semiconductors, polymers and ceramics can be selected according to the targeted working temperature. The performance of these thermal flow sensors is evaluated based on parameters such as thermal response time, flow sensitivity. The data from thermal flow sensors reviewed in this paper indicate that the sensing principle is suitable for the operation under harsh environments. Finally, the paper discusses the packaging of the sensor, which is the most important aspect of any high-temperature sensing application. Other than the conventional wire-bonding, various novel packaging techniques have been developed for high-temperature application.

  20. Packagings in the silicon era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Mione, A.; Orsini, A.; Forasassi, G.

    1993-01-01

    ENEA is studying, with the collaboration of the DCMN of the Pisa University, a new packaging to collect wastes in various facilities while proceeding to find a final disposal. Following a survey on the wastes that could be transported in the future, it was agreed to design a packaging able to contain an industrial drum, with a maximum capacity of 220 litres and a total weight less than 4000 N, previously filled with solid wastes in bulk or in a solid binding material. The packaging, to be approved as a Type B in agreement with the IAEA Regulations, will be useful to transport not only radioactive wastes but any kind of dangerous goods and also those not in agreement with the UNO Regulations. The 1/2 scale model of the packaging is formed by two concentric vessels of mild steel obtained by welding commercial shells to cylindrical walls and joined through a flange. The new packaging under development presents features that seem to be proper for its envisaged waste collection main use such as construction simplicity, relatively low cost, time and use endurance, low maintenance requirements. The design analysis and testing program ongoing at present allowed for the preliminary definition of the packaging geometry and confirmed the necessity of further investigations in some key areas as the determination of actual behaviour of the silicon foam, used as energy absorbing/thermal insulating material, in the specific conditions of interest. (J.P.N.)

  1. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  2. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanotechnology for Food Packaging and Food Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marco; Passeri, Daniele; Sinibaldi, Alberto; Angjellari, Mariglen; Tamburri, Emanuela; Sorbo, Angela; Carata, Elisabetta; Dini, Luciana

    Nanotechnology has paved the way to innovative food packaging materials and analytical methods to provide the consumers with healthier food and to reduce the ecological footprint of the whole food chain. Combining antimicrobial and antifouling properties, thermal and mechanical protection, oxygen and moisture barrier, as well as to verify the actual quality of food, e.g., sensors to detect spoilage, bacterial growth, and to monitor incorrect storage conditions, or anticounterfeiting devices in food packages may extend the products shelf life and ensure higher quality of foods. Also the ecological footprint of food chain can be reduced by developing new completely recyclable and/or biodegradable packages from natural and eco-friendly resources. The contribution of nanotechnologies to these goals is reviewed in this chapter, together with a description of portable devices ("lab-on-chip," sensors, nanobalances, etc.) which can be used to assess the quality of food and an overview of regulations in force on food contact materials. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Scott, Brian [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Zhihao [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. This project was completed in three phases, each with a separate focus. Phase I of the program, from October 1999 to April 2002, was devoted to development of sensing schema for use in high temperature, harsh environments. Different sensing designs were proposed and tested in the laboratory. Phase II of the program, from April 2002 to April 2009, focused on bringing the sensor technologies, which had already been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensors could be deployed in harsh industrial environments and eventually become commercially viable through a series of field tests. Also, a new sensing scheme was developed and tested with numerous advantages over all previous ones in Phase II. Phase III of the program, September 2009 to December 2013, focused on development of the new sensing scheme for field testing in conjunction with materials engineering of the improved sensor packaging lifetimes. In Phase I, three different sensing principles were studied: sapphire air-gap extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors; intensity-based polarimetric sensors; and broadband polarimetric sensors. Black body radiation tests and corrosion tests were also performed in this phase. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. At the beginning of Phase II, in June 2004, the BPDI sensor was tested at the Wabash River coal gasifier

  5. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the...

  6. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products...

  7. 76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... design qualification test and each periodic retest on a packaging, a test report must be prepared. The... where the design qualification tests are conducted, for as long as the packaging is produced and for at... report; (5) Manufacturer of the packaging; (6) Description of the packaging design type (e.g. dimensions...

  8. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  9. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  10. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 711 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition2. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of energy (DOE) Order 5480.33 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.94 and 7.10.5

  11. Safety analysis report - packages 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1997-10-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B( ), 9968 B( ), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B(), 9968 B(), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.3 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.9 and 7.10

  12. Reference waste package environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of ∼230 0 C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment

  13. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory philosophies, one based on 'specification' packaging standards and the other based on 'performance' packaging standards, currently define the hazmat packaging certification process. A main concern when setting performance standards is determining the appropriate standards necessary to assure adequate public protection. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration. In this project, the current bulk packagings (larger than 2000 gallons) for transporting Materials Extremely Toxic By Inhalation (METBI) are being evaluated and performance standards will be recommended. A computer software system, HazCon, has been developed which can calculate the dispersion of dense, neutral, and buoyant gases. HazCon also has a database of thermodynamic and toxicity data for the METBI materials, a user-friendly menu-driven format for creating input data sets for calculating dispersion of the METBI in the event of an accidental release, and a link between the METBI database and the dense gas dispersion code (which requires thermodynamic properties). The primary output of HazCon is a listing of mass concentrations of the released material at distances downwind from the release point. (J.P.N.)

  14. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  15. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  16. Function Package for Computing Quantum Resource Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a function package for to calculate quantum resource measures and dynamics of open systems. Our package includes common operators and operator lists, frequently-used functions for computing quantum entanglement, quantum correlation, quantum coherence, quantum Fisher information and dynamics in noisy environments. We briefly explain the functions of the package and illustrate how to use the package with several typical examples. We expect that this package is a useful tool for future research and education.

  17. AMA Conferences 2015. SENSOR 2015. 17th international conference on sensors and measurement technology. IRS{sup 2} 2015. 14th international conference on infrared sensors and systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This meeting paper contains presentations of two conferences: SENSOR 2015 and IRS{sup 2} (= International conference on InfraRed Sensors and systems). The first part of SENSOR 2015 contains the following chapters: (A) SENSOR PRINCIPLES: A.1: Mechanical sensors; A.2: Optical sensors; A.3: Ultrasonic sensors; A.4: Microacoustic sensors; A.5: Magnetic sensors; A.6: Impedance sensors; A.7: Gas sensors; A.8: Flow sensors; A.9: Dimensional measurement; A.10: Temperature and humidity sensors; A.11: Chemosensors; A.12: Biosensors; A.13: Embedded sensors; A.14: Sensor-actuator systems; (B) SENSOR TECHNOLOGY: B.1: Sensor design; B.2: Numerical simulation of sensors; B.3: Sensor materials; B.4: MEMS technology; B.5: Micro-Nano-Integration; B.6: Packaging; B.7: Materials; B.8: Thin films; B.9: Sensor production; B.10: Sensor reliability; B.11: Calibration and testing; B.12: Optical fibre sensors. (C) SENSOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION: C.1: Sensor electronics; C.2: Sensor networks; C.3: Wireless sensors; C.4: Sensor communication; C.5: Energy harvesting; C.6: Measuring systems; C.7: Embedded systems; C.8: Self-monitoring and diagnosis; (D) APPLICATIONS: D.1: Medical measuring technology; D.2: Ambient assisted living; D.3: Process measuring technology; D.4: Automotive; D.5: Sensors in energy technology; D.6: Production technology; D.7: Security technology; D.8: Smart home; D.9: Household technology. The second part with the contributions of the IRS{sup 2} 2015 is structured as follows: (E) INFRARED SENSORS: E.1: Photon detectors; E.2: Thermal detectors; E.3: Cooled detectors; E.4: Uncooled detectors; E.5: Sensor modules; E.6: Sensor packaging. (G) INFRARED SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS: G.1: Thermal imaging; G.2: Pyrometry / contactless temperature measurement; G.3: Gas analysis; G.4: Spectroscopy; G.5: Motion control and presence detection; G.6: Security and safety monitoring; G.7: Non-destructive testing; F: INFRARED SYSTEM COMPONENTS: F.1: Infrared optics; F.2: Optical

  18. Twenty-one Ways to Develop Esprit De Corps Among Your Student Officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalakides, Nick

    Student officials for intramural sports can be given special training to enhance their aptitude in the field, but their attitude is more difficult to develop. This paper suggests 21 ways to develop attitude among student officials. Some of the suggestions are: Athletic departments should emphasize the role of the official in the intramural…

  19. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  20. Twenty-one year old female with an iris tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, G.; Kurtaran, A.; Dudczak, R.; Maca, S.; Barisani, T.; Horvat, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 21-year-old female with multiple granulomas an the right iris with concomitant therapy refractive panuveitis was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology to exclude an ocular malignancy. The patient had a history of minimal change glomerulonephritis and cutaneous granulomas at the age of six years that were successfully treated with cyclophosphamide. Her visual acuity initially already reduced to 30 % decreased rapidly to 'counting fingers'. A clinical work-up including chest x-ray, spiral computed tomography of the lungs and a detailed serological examination including angiotensin converting enzyme showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. Planar scintigraphy 24 hours after administration of 185 MBq Gallium-67 citrate demonstrated an intense tracer accumulation in both lacrimal glands. Salivary gland uptake was normal and there was only a faint accumulation in the mediastinum interpreted as normal. A biopsy of the right iris revealed a granulomatous non caseating inflammation diagnosed as sarcoidosis. A systemic combination treatment with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 months could not control the inflammation. After therapy was changed to cyclosporine the inflammation decreased and visual acuity decreased to 60 %. Neither a 'lambda sign' (characteristic uptake of Ga-67 in intrathoracic lymph nodes resembling the Greek letter lambda) nor a typical 'panda sign' (bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67) commonly present in sarcoidosis were seen in our patient. This case demonstrates that in individual patients with sarcoidosis, lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67 may be the only significant noninvasive finding. (author)

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Twenty-One Leadership Responsibilities and Quality Management in the Context of Educational Baldrige Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibach, Kimberly L.

    2014-01-01

    This body of work presents the summary of findings; explanation of implications; discussion of conclusions; and recommendations about practice, policy and future research regarding principal leadership in school districts recognized as national Baldrige Award winners. This study widened the scope and definition of quality management in education…

  3. Response of Microtermes mycophagus (Isoptera: Termitidae to twenty one wood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Iqbal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21 ± 5.09% and 68.38 ± 7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02 ± 1.65% and 91.69 ± 2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus.

  4. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  5. A study of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    -frequency tinnitus. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants, and the complainants were exposed to these in blind test listening experiments. Furthermore, the low-frequency hearing function of the complainants was investigated, and characteristics of the annoying sound was matched. The results...... showed that some of the complainants are annoyed by a physical sound (20-180 Hz), while others suffer from low-frequency tinnitus (perceived frequency 40-100 Hz). Physical sound at frequencies below 20 Hz (infrasound) is not responsible for the annoyance - or at all audible - in any of the investigated...... cases, and none of the complainants has extraordinary hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. For comparable cases of low-frequency noise complaints in general, it is anticipated that physical sound is responsible in a substantial part of the cases, while lowfrequency tinnitus is responsible in another...

  6. COMPLICATIONS OF NON-ENDOSCOPIC DISCECTOMY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TWENTY-ONE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Felipe Ramírez León

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report and compare the number and grade of major complications presented with non-endoscopic thermal discectomy and nucleoplasty for the treatment of discogenic axial lumbar pain using laser and radiofrequency. Methods: A 21 years retrospective study was conducted of the clinical charts of patients whose reason for consultation was axial lumbar pain from degenerative disc disease, and who underwent surgery using non-endoscopic discectomy and nucleoplasty (NEDN. Two groups were established; the first, NEDN with laser, and second, NEDN with radiofrequency. The number and types of complications reported in the case-series were counted, and their statistical differences determined. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 643 of the medical charts. 26 complications were reported, the most common being radiculitis (n=12. Statistically significant differences were found between the complications occurring in the two groups (p=0.01. Conclusion: The number of complications showed statistically significant difference. The severity of the complications and adverse outcomes provide an argument for choosing one technology over the other. Training and the learning curve stage are important factors to be taken into account, to avoid complications.

  7. Twenty-one Asteroid Lightcurves at Asteroids Observers (OBAS) - MPPD: Nov 2016 - May 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Vicente; Fornas, G.; Lozano, Juan; Rodrigo, Onofre; Fornas, A.; Carreño, A.; Arce, Enrique; Brines, Pedro; Herrero, David

    2018-01-01

    We report on the analysis of photometric observations of 21 main-belt asteroids (MBA) done by Asteroids Observers (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database task that was initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as some additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions.

  8. Twenty-One Reasons to Care about the Psychological Basis of Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Ross, Hildy

    2011-01-01

    Within psychology, most aspects of ownership have received scant attention or have been overlooked completely. In this chapter, the authors outline 21 reasons why it will be important (and interesting) to understand the psychological basis of ownership of property, including its developmental origins: (1) Daily life; (2) A human universal, and…

  9. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste

  10. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Hutter, F.; Edelhaeuser, R.

    1992-01-01

    WO 2010040565 A1 UPAB: 20100506 NOVELTY - The integrated optical sensor comprises a first waveguide (4), a second waveguide (5) optically coupled to the first waveguide via a directional coupler, a substrate, which carries the first and the second waveguides, a single waveguide coupled with a light source, and an output waveguide coupled with a light-sensitive element. The sensor has a functional surface in the region of the directional coupler for depositing or deposition of the substance to...

  11. Wireless sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  12. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  13. Radiation sterilization and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beams offers a number of benefits to be consumer and to the food industry. Low doses can delay fruit ripening while higher doses can reduce or eliminate pathrogenic microorganisms and control insect infestation. However, ionizing radiations are known to have an effect on the plastics used for food packaging, especially PVC and polyethylene. This chapter looks at food irradiation generally, including legislation on the irradiation of food packaging materials. The effect on specific polymers (PVC, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamides and flexible laminates) is then considered. It is concluded that few of the plastics used for food packaging are significantly affected by an overall average dose of 10KGy, the maximum likely for the irradiation of prepackaged food in the United Kingdom. (UK)

  14. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  15. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  16. Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices: reliability, testing, and characterization aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Tolga; Ngo, Ha-Duong; Wittler, Olaf; Bouhlal, Bouchaib; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-02-01

    The last decade witnessed an explosive growth in research and development efforts devoted to MEMS devices and packaging. The successfully developed MEMS devices are, for example inkjet, pressure sensors, silicon microphones, accelerometers, gyroscopes, MOEMS, micro fuel cells and emerging MEMS. For the next decade, MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice based products will penetrate into IT, telecommunications, automotive, defense, life sciences, medical and implantable applications. Forecasts say the MEMS market to be $14 billion by 2012. The packaging cost of MEMS/MOEMS products in general is about 70 percent. Unlike today's electronics IC packaging, their packaging are custom-built and difficult due to the moving structural elements. In order for the moving elements of a MEMS device to move effectively in a well-controlled atmosphere, hermetic sealing of the MEMS device in a cap is necessary. For some MEMS devices, such as resonators and gyroscopes, vacuum packaging is required. Usually, the cap is processed at the wafer level, and thus MEMS packaging is truly a wafer level packaging. In terms of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging, there are still many critical issues need to be addressed due to the increasing integration density supported by 3D heterogeneous integration of multi-physic components/layers consisting of photonics, electronics, rf, plasmonics, and wireless. The infrastructure of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices and their packaging is not well established yet. Generic packaging platform technologies are not available. Some of critical issues have been studied intensively in the last years. In this paper we will discuss about processes, reliability, testing and characterization of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging.

  17. CRRES microelectronics test package (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package

  18. Project monitoring package (PMP) : A package for project activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Kannan, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1987-01-01

    A package for preparing PERT/CPM network diagrams has been written for PDP-11/34. The program uses PLOT-10 library calls for device interfacing. The package is essentially non-interactive in nature, and reads input data in the form of activity description and duration. It calculates the critical path time and performs time scaling of the events. The report gives a brief outline of the logic used, a sample plot and tabular output for reference. An additional facility for performing project activity monitoring has also been implemented. Activity monitoring generally requires various reports such as feed back reports from various group co-ordinators, information report for project co-ordinator and brief periodical reports for management. A package 'DATATRIEVE' (DTR) on PDP-11/34 system is utilized for generating the above mentioned reports. As DTR can also use normal sequential files, an interfacing program has been written which reformats the files accepted by PERT program acceptable to DTR. Various types of reports as generated by DTR are included. However this part of the package is not transportable and can be implemented only on systems having DTR. 6 figures. (author)

  19. A packaging solution utilizing adhesive-filled TSVs and flip–chip methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfield, David; Moussa, Walied A; Lou, Edmond

    2012-01-01

    A compact packaging solution for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices is presented. The 3D-integrated packaging solution was designed for the instrumentation of a spinal screw with a wireless sensor array, but may be adapted for a variety of applications. To achieve the compact package size, an unobtrusive through-silicon via (TSV) design was added to the microfabrication process flow for the MEMS sensor. These TSVs allowed vertical integration of the MEMS devices onto flexible printed circuit boards (FPCBs) using a flip–chip system. Ohmic connections with resistance values below 1 Ω have been achieved for 100 µm TSVs in 300 and 500 µm substrates. This paper describes the design and microfabrication process flow for the TSVs, and provides details on the flip–chip techniques used to electrically and structurally connect the MEMS devices to the FPCBs. (paper)

  20. IR panoramic alerting sensor concepts and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2003-09-01

    During the last decade, protection of military and civilian operational platforms against weapons like guns, grenades, missiles, Unmanned Combat Aerial (and surface) Vehicles (UCAV's) and mines, has been an issue of increased importance due to the improved kill-probability of these threats. The standard countermeasure package of armour, guns, decoys, jammers, camouflage nets and smokes is inadequate when not accompanied by a suitable sensor package, primarily consisting of an alerting device, triggering consecutive steps in the countermeasure-chain. In this process of alert four different detection techniques are considered: pre-alert, giving the directions of possible attack, detection of an action of attack, identification of the threat and finally the precise localization (3-D). The design of the alerting device is greatly depending on the platform, on which it will be used, the associated and affordable cost and the nature of the threat. A number of sensor packages, considered, developed and evaluated at TNO-FEL is presented for simple, medium size and large and expensive platforms. In recent years the requirements for these sensors have become more and more strigent due to the growing number of scenarios. The attack can practically be from any direction, implying the need for a large Field of Regard (FOR), the attack range can vary considerably and the type of threat can be very diverse, implying great flexibility and dynamic range and rapid response of the sensor. Especially the localization at short ranges is a challenging issue. Various configurations including advantages and drawbacks are discussed.

  1. Woven electrochemical fabric-based test sensors (WEFTS): a new class of multiplexed electrochemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tripurari; Rajamanickam, G P; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2015-05-07

    We present textile weaving as a new technique for the manufacture of miniature electrochemical sensors with significant advantages over current fabrication techniques. Biocompatible silk yarn is used as the material for fabrication instead of plastics and ceramics used in commercial sensors. Silk yarns are coated with conducting inks and reagents before being handloom-woven as electrodes into patches of fabric to create arrays of sensors, which are then laminated, cut and packaged into individual sensors. Unlike the conventionally used screen-printing, which results in wastage of reagents, yarn coating uses only as much reagent and ink as required. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic yarns are used for patterning so that sample flow is restricted to a small area of the sensor. This simple fluidic control is achieved with readily available materials. We have fabricated and validated individual sensors for glucose and hemoglobin and a multiplexed sensor, which can detect both analytes. Chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to detect glucose and hemoglobin, respectively. Industrial quantities of these sensors can be fabricated at distributed locations in the developing world using existing skills and manufacturing facilities. We believe such sensors could find applications in the emerging area of wearable sensors for chemical testing.

  2. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  3. A silicon-based flexible tactile sensor for ubiquitous robot companion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kunnyun; Lee, Kang Ryeol; Lee, Dae Sung; Cho, Nam-Kyu; Kim, Won Hyo; Park, Kwang-Bum; Park, Hyo-Derk; Kim, Yong Kook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We present the fabrication process and characteristics of a 3-axes flexible tactile sensor available for normal and shear mode fabricated using Si micromachining and packaging technologies. The fabrication processes for the 3 axes flexible tactile sensor were classified in the fabrication of sensor chips and their packaging on the flexible PCB. The variation rate of resistance was about 2.1%/N and 0.5%/N in applying normal and shear force, respectively. Because this tactile sensor can measure the variations of resistance of the semiconductor strain gauge for normal and shear force, it can be used to sense touch, pressure, hardness, and slip

  4. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  5. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  6. Continuous liquid level monitoring sensor system using fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipankar; Kishore, Putha

    2014-01-01

    The design and packaging of simple, small, and low cost sensor heads, used for continuous liquid level measurement using uniformly thinned (etched) optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are proposed. The sensor system consists of only an FBG and a simple detection system. The sensitivity of sensor is found to be 23 pm/cm of water column pressure. A linear optical fiber edge filter is designed and developed for the conversion of Bragg wavelength shift to its equivalent intensity. The result shows that relative power measured by a photo detector is linearly proportional to the liquid level. The obtained sensitivity of the sensor is nearly -15 mV/cm.

  7. Application of a sensor fusion algorithm for improving grasping stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Hyun Suck; Moon, Hyung Pil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo Ja Choon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A robot hand normally employees various sensors that are packaged in small form factor, perform with delicately accurate, and cost mostly very expensive. Grasping operation of the hand relies especially on accuracy of those sensors. Even with a set of advanced sensory systems embedded in a robot hand, securing a stable grasping is still challenging task. The present work makes an attempt to improve force sensor accuracy by applying sensor fusion method. An optimal weight value sensor fusion method formulated with Kalman filters is presented and tested in the work. Using a set of inexpensive sensors, the work achieves a reliable force sensing and applies the enhanced sensor stability to an object pinch grasping.

  8. Application of a sensor fusion algorithm for improving grasping stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Hyun Suck; Moon, Hyung Pil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo Ja Choon

    2015-01-01

    A robot hand normally employees various sensors that are packaged in small form factor, perform with delicately accurate, and cost mostly very expensive. Grasping operation of the hand relies especially on accuracy of those sensors. Even with a set of advanced sensory systems embedded in a robot hand, securing a stable grasping is still challenging task. The present work makes an attempt to improve force sensor accuracy by applying sensor fusion method. An optimal weight value sensor fusion method formulated with Kalman filters is presented and tested in the work. Using a set of inexpensive sensors, the work achieves a reliable force sensing and applies the enhanced sensor stability to an object pinch grasping.

  9. Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Each May, the Continuing Education Division of the T.J.Watson School of Engineering, Applied Science and Technology at the State University of New York at Binghamton sponsors an Annual Symposium in Electronics Packaging in cooperation with local professional societies (IEEE, ASME, SME, IEPS) and UnlPEG (the University-Industry Partnership for Economic Growth.) Each volume of this Electronics Packaging Forum series is based on the the preceding Symposium, with Volume Two based on the 1990 presentations. The Preface to Volume One included a brief definition of the broad scope of the electronics packaging field with some comments on why it has recently assumed such a more prominent priority for research and development. Those remarks will not be repeated here; at this point it is assumed that the reader is a professional in the packaging field, or possibly a student of one of the many academic disciplines which contribute to it. It is worthwhile repeating the series objectives, however, so the reader will be cle...

  10. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  11. The taste of desserts' packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeeke, C J; Peters, M E

    1991-10-01

    This article reports an experiment on expressing the behavioural meaning of designed objects. Can a designer express the taste of a desert in the form of its packaging and can consumers match these forms when tasting the desserts? Analysis of responses of 12 adults indicates positive answers to these questions.

  12. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  13. Improved switch-resistor packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  14. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  15. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  16. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  17. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  18. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  19. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  20. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  1. The impact of packaging on product competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect important factors, which are influencing competitive advantage. The proposed model of this paper uses sampling technique to measure characteristics of society. There are eight independent variables for the proposed study of this paper including packaging endurance, easy distribution, customer promotion through packaging, packaging structure, packaging as silent advertiser, diversity of packaging, clean and healthy packaging and innovation in packaging. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to either accept or reject all hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The population of this study includes all managers and experts who are involved in packaging products. We used simple sampling technique and chooses 300 from a population of 450 people who are considered as the population of this survey. Cronbach alpha was determined as 0.732, which is above the minimum acceptable level. The results confirm that all mentioned factors influence competitiveness, effectively.

  2. GRIP LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset was collected by the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP), which consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field...

  3. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  4. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of apples. ...

  5. Containers and Packaging: Product-Specific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web page provide numbers on the different containers and packaging products in our municipal solid waste. These include containers of all types, such as glass, steel, plastic, aluminum, wood, and other types of packaging

  6. Integrated Approach to Industrial Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article reviews studies in the field of industrial packaging design. The major factors which influence technological, ergonomic, economic and ecological features of packaging are established. The main modern trends in packaging design are defined, the principles of marketing communications and their influence on consumers’ consciousness are indicated, and the function of packaging as a transmitter of brand values is specified. Peculiarities of packaging technology and printing techniques in modern printing industry are considered. The role of designers in the stage-by-stage development of the construction, form and graphic design concept of packaging is defined. The examples of authentic packaging are given and the mention of the tetrahedron packaging history is made. At the end of the article, conclusions on the key research aspects are made.

  7. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  8. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in combination...

  9. Multimedia package for LRFD concrete bridge design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This Project developed a Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) multimedia package to provide a practical introduction and an in-depth understanding of the technological advances in the design of concrete bridges. This package can be used to train ...

  10. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Fu, Hui-Chun

    2017-01-01

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures

  11. Transport packages for nuclear material and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)

  12. The portal protein plays essential roles at different steps of the SPP1 DNA packaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidro, Anabela; Henriques, Adriano O.; Tavares, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    A large number of viruses use a specialized portal for entry of DNA to the viral capsid and for its polarized exit at the beginning of infection. These families of viruses assemble an icosahedral procapsid containing a portal protein oligomer in one of its 12 vertices. The viral ATPase (terminase) interacts with the portal vertex to form a powerful molecular motor that translocates DNA to the procapsid interior against a steep concentration gradient. The portal protein is an essential component of this DNA packaging machine. Characterization of single amino acid substitutions in the portal protein gp6 of bacteriophage SPP1 that block DNA packaging identified sequential steps in the packaging mechanism that require its action. Gp6 is essential at early steps of DNA packaging and for DNA translocation to the capsid interior, it affects the efficiency of DNA packaging, it is a central component of the headful sensor that determines the size of the packaged DNA molecule, and is essential for closure of the portal pore by the head completion proteins to prevent exit of the DNA encapsidated. Functional regions of gp6 necessary at each step are identified within its primary structure. The similarity between the architecture of portal oligomers and between the DNA packaging strategies of viruses using portals strongly suggests that the portal protein plays the same roles in a large number of viruses

  13. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  14. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  15. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  16. The development of a packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook, dealing with the development of packagings designed to carry radioactive material, is being written for DOE's Transportation and Packaging Safety Division. The primary goal of the Handbook is to provide sufficient technical information and guidance to improve the quality of Safety Analysis Reports on Type B Packagings (SARPs) that are submitted to DOE for certification. This paper provides an update on the status of the Handbook

  17. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Dobrucka; Ryszard Cierpiszewski; Andrzej Korzeniowski

    2015-01-01

    Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packa...

  18. Multi-Parameter Aerosol Scattering Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Fischer, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This work relates to the development of sensors that measure specific aerosol properties. These properties are in the form of integrated moment distributions, i.e., total surface area, total mass, etc., or mathematical combinations of these moment distributions. Specifically, the innovation involves two fundamental features: a computational tool to design and optimize such sensors and the embodiment of these sensors in actual practice. The measurement of aerosol properties is a problem of general interest. Applications include, but are not limited to, environmental monitoring, assessment of human respiratory health, fire detection, emission characterization and control, and pollutant monitoring. The objectives for sensor development include increased accuracy and/or dynamic range, the inclusion in a single sensor of the ability to measure multiple aerosol properties, and developing an overall physical package that is rugged, compact, and low in power consumption, so as to enable deployment in harsh or confined field applications, and as distributed sensor networks. Existing instruments for this purpose include scattering photometers, direct-reading mass instruments, Beta absorption devices, differential mobility analyzers, and gravitational samplers. The family of sensors reported here is predicated on the interaction of light and matter; specifically, the scattering of light from distributions of aerosol particles. The particular arrangement of the sensor, e.g. the wavelength(s) of incident radiation, the number and location of optical detectors, etc., can be derived so as to optimize the sensor response to aerosol properties of practical interest. A key feature of the design is the potential embodiment as an extremely compact, integrated microsensor package. This is of fundamental importance, as it enables numerous previously inaccessible applications. The embodiment of these sensors is inherently low maintenance and high reliability by design. The novel and

  19. 40 CFR 262.30 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packaging. 262.30 Section 262.30... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.30 Packaging. Before... the waste in accordance with the applicable Department of Transportation regulations on packaging...

  20. 7 CFR 58.640 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 58.640 Section 58.640 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.640 Packaging. The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which will in...

  1. 9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or may bear any official identification or any abbreviation...

  2. READDATA: a FORTRAN 77 codeword input package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A new codeword input package has been produced as a result of the incompatibility between different dialects of FORTRAN, especially when character variables are passed as parameters. This report is for those who wish to use a codeword input package with FORTRAN 77. The package, called ''Readdata'', attempts to combine the best features of its predecessors such as BINPUT and pseudo-BINPUT. (author)

  3. ICT and the paperboard and packaging industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Sanna Kallioranta; Richard Vlosky

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the reasons for the development of ICT and e-business systems in the paper and paperboard packaging industry and to discuss future scenarios that may serve to guide forest- sector research in this topical area. The paper and paperboard packaging industry encompasses producers of primary paper and paperboard packaging materials...

  4. 19 CFR 134.53 - Examination packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination packages. 134.53 Section 134.53... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.53 Examination packages. (a) Site of marking—(1) Customs custody. Articles (or containers) in examination packages may be marked by...

  5. Developments in the active packaging of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, L.; Devlieghere, F.; Beest, M. van; Kruijf, N. de; Debevere, J.

    1999-01-01

    Active packaging is one of the innovative food packaging concepts that has been introduced as a response to the continuous changes in current consumer demands and market trends. Major active packaging techniques are concerned with substances that absorb oxygen, ethylene, moisture, carbon dioxide,

  6. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of section..., from the packaging supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the... distinguishing brand name or code designation appearing on the packaging material shipping container; must...

  7. 7 CFR 905.140 - Gift packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift packages. 905.140 Section 905.140 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.140 Gift packages. Any handler..., ship any varieties for the following purpose and types of shipment: (a) To any person gift packages...

  8. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  9. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  10. Best practices and recommendations on policy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fearnley, Nils; Longva, Frode; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2011-01-01

    . This report gives practical and general advice for each of these stages: 1. Define objectives and targets 2. Create an inventory of measures, identify potential primary measures and detect causal relationships 3. Assess policy package 4. Modify package 5. Package implementation 6. Evaluate effects, introduce...

  11. Fire testing for package approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.; Fry, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Transport Regulations require packaging systems for radioactive material to survive transport accidents without a significant increase in hazard to members of the public. Tests used to demonstrate this include a fire or 'thermal' test which may be a practical demonstration or based on calculations. Work at Winfrith, involving the development of computer models and pool fire techniques, has given an improved understanding of physical processes. This has been used to improve computer models and pool fire techniques. The paper covers the regulatory requirements for fire testing, the basic physics of fires, practical tests, computer modelling and their applications to package design. We have confidence in our ability to predict temperatures and other conditions in accident situations and can illustrate the important features of fires with experimental evidence. (author)

  12. The particle tracking package Kassiopeia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Stefan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Kassiopeia particle tracking framework is an object-oriented software package utilizing modern C++ techniques, written originally to meet the needs of the Katrin collaboration. Kassiopeia's target consists of simulating particle trajectories governed by arbitrarily complex differential equations of motion, continuous physics processes that may in part be modeled as terms perturbing that equation of motion, stochastic processes that occur in flight such as bulk scattering and decay, and potentially stochastic surface processes occurring at interfaces, including transmission and reflection effects. This entire set of computations takes place against the backdrop of a fully-featured geometry package which serves a variety of roles, including initialization of electromagnetic field simulations, gas flow simulations, and the support of state-dependent algorithm-swapping and behavioral changes. Kassiopeia has been well validated and widely used within the Katrin collaboration, playing a primary role in many theses and refereed publications.

  13. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haoliang; Li Jinggang; Zhu Ya'nan; Bai Ning

    2012-01-01

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  14. Wafer level packaging of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Wafer level packaging plays many important roles for MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), including cost, yield and reliability. MEMS structures on silicon chips are encapsulated between bonded wafers or by surface micromachining, and electrical interconnections are made from the cavity. Bonding at the interface, such as glass–Si anodic bonding and metal-to-metal bonding, requires electrical interconnection through the lid vias in many cases. On the other hand, lateral electrical interconnections on the surface of the chip are used for bonding with intermediate melting materials, such as low melting point glass and solder. The cavity formed by surface micromachining is made using sacrificial etching, and the openings needed for the sacrificial etching are plugged using deposition sealing methods. Vacuum packaging methods and the structures for electrical feedthrough for the interconnection are discussed in this review. (topical review)

  15. Magnetic Package data quality overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qamili, Enkelejda; Ottavianelli, Giuseppe; Olsen, Nils

    The ESA Swarm satellites, launched in November 2013, carry on-board instuments devoted to measure extremely accurate data necessary to improve our understanding of Earth’s magnetic field. The Swarm instrument package is made by two magnetometers (one vector and one scalar), one Electric field...... Instrument (EFI), one Accelerometer and one GPS reciever. This presentation aims at providing an extensive overview of the magnetic instrument status, magnetic data availability and quality....

  16. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE's mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin

  17. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  18. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  19. Generalized waste package containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Package and Assisted Travel Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ordinary legislative procedure before the European Parliament and the Council, there is a proposal of the European Commission for the adoption of a new directive that would bring the regulation of the contract on organized tours into line with current market development of organized trips. The proposal is intended to regulate the various combinations of travel services that are today offered to passengers, particularly online, which are identical or comparable to the travel services provided in a classic pre-arranged package. The subject of the paper are the provisions of the proposal of the directive which govern the field of application of the proposed directive, in particular the proposed changes regarding the concept of "package" contained in the European Commission proposal and amendments of the European Parliament, as well as the analysis of the proposed new concept of "assisted travel arrangements." The paper also critically refers to the method of targeted maximum harmonization as a proposed new intensity of the harmonization. The conclusion is that, despite the welcome updating of an outdated text of the directive on package travel which is line with the current market needs, the proposed text of the new directive is burdened with technical and complex definitions that could lead to significant difficulties in their transposition into the provisions of national law of the Member States.

  1. Solidified package-storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Masahide

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification products such as high level radioactive liquid wastes are contained in a solidification package. A containing tube for vertically containing the solidification packages in multi-stages is disposed such that it passes through a ceiling slab. A shielding plug for preventing leakage of radiation from the solidification packages is fitted to an upper opening thereof. A lid of the containing tube is fitted above the plug. The lid is a carbon steel plate having a thickness of 10cm or more. A heat insulation layer comprising glass wool or rock wool is formed on the lower surface of the ceiling slab. A radiation shielding layer comprising such as an iron plate is formed on the lower surface of the heat insulation layer. Then, deterioration of the ceiling slug by heat can be prevented by the heat insulation layer even if high temperature cooling air flown from the upper opening of a ventilation tube should reach the lower surface of the ceiling slab. (I.N.)

  2. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  3. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  5. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report

  6. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  7. Metal Oxide Nanostructures in Food Applications: Quality Control and Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Galstyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide materials have been applied in different fields due to their excellent functional properties. Metal oxides nanostructuration, preparation with the various morphologies, and their coupling with other structures enhance the unique properties of the materials and open new perspectives for their application in the food industry. Chemical gas sensors that are based on semiconducting metal oxide materials can detect the presence of toxins and volatile organic compounds that are produced in food products due to their spoilage and hazardous processes that may take place during the food aging and transportation. Metal oxide nanomaterials can be used in food processing, packaging, and the preservation industry as well. Moreover, the metal oxide-based nanocomposite structures can provide many advantageous features to the final food packaging material, such as antimicrobial activity, enzyme immobilization, oxygen scavenging, mechanical strength, increasing the stability and the shelf life of food, and securing the food against humidity, temperature, and other physiological factors. In this paper, we review the most recent achievements on the synthesis of metal oxide-based nanostructures and their applications in food quality monitoring and active and intelligent packaging.

  8. Options for reducing food waste by quality-controlled logistics using intelligent packaging along the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, Jenneke K; Claassen, G D H; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-10-01

    Optimising supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This paper describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on quality-controlled logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate with the critical quality attribute of a food product. The information on the quality of each individual packaged food item that is provided by the intelligent packaging can be used for QCL. In a conceptual approach it is explained that monitoring food quality by intelligent packaging sensors makes it possible to obtain information about the variation in the quality of foods and to use a dynamic expiration date (IP-DED) on a food package. The conceptual approach is supported by quantitative data from simulations on the effect of using the information of intelligent packaging in supply chain management with the goal to reduce food waste. This simulation shows that by using the information on the quality of products that is provided by intelligent packaging, QCL can substantially reduce food waste. When QCL is combined with dynamic pricing based on the predicted expiry dates, a further waste reduction is envisaged.

  9. Best Practice in Policy Package Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Florian; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable focuses on the identification and analysis of best practice examples of policy package design. For this purpose a methodology is developed that allows the systematic analysis of both national and EU policy packages. Eight packages were selected and analysed, highlighting...... the factors which supported the design and implementation process in each case. The results of the analysis show which factors led to these cases to be considered best practice. In addition, factors are identified which are not yet part of the generic policy packaging framework presented in earlier OPTIC...... Deliverables. The consideration of these factors will help to further improve the framework in the subsequent work packages....

  10. The environmental effects of taxes on packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroten, A.; Nelissen, D.; Bergsma, G.C.; Blom, M.J.

    2010-08-01

    The results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts of taxes for packages are presented, differentiated for greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation used a qualitative analysis of information from eighteen depth-interviews with experts in the packaging market, foreign experiences, relevant price elasticities and 'expert guesses'. It appears that tax package so far had a limited effect on the packaging market. For the longer term (ten years) larger, but probably also limited, effects are expected. The environmental impact of packaging tax can be increased if the taxes are substantially increased. [nl

  11. Perspectives on the Elements of Packaging Design : A Qualitative Study on the Communication of Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alervall, Viktoria; Saied, Juan Sdiq

    2013-01-01

    Background: In today’s markets almost all products we buy come packaged. We use packaging to protect, contain and identify products. Furthermore if this is executed in a skillful way consumers often choose products based on packaging. The work of a designer and marketer is therefore extremely valuable when it comes to the design of a package. Problem: How are packages used to communicate marketing information? Purpose: The focus of this thesis is to identify differences and similarities of a ...

  12. Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Thomazy, David; Tittel, Frank K.

    2011-01-01

    A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based multi-gas sensor was developed to quantify concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in ambient air. The sensor consists of a compact package of dimensions 25cm x 25cm x 10cm and was designed to operate at atmospheric pressure. The HCN, CO2, and HCl measurement channels are based on cw, C-band telecommunication-style packaged, fiber-coupled diode lasers, while the CO channel uses a TO can-packaged Sb diode laser as an excitation source. Moreover, the sensor incorporates rechargeable batteries and can operate on batteries for at least 8 hours. It can also operate autonomously or interact with another device (such as a computer) via a RS232 serial port. Trace gas detection limits of 7.74ppm at 4288.29cm-1 for CO, 450ppb at 6539.11 cm-1 for HCN, 1.48ppm at 5739.26 cm-1 for HCl and 97ppm at 6361.25 cm-1 for CO2 for a 1sec average time, were demonstrated.

  13. Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekharan, V; Floros, J D

    1997-10-01

    Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion and thermodynamics are utilized to describe the mathematics of migration and sorption. Mathematical models are developed from first principles, and their applicability is illustrated using numerical simulations and published data. Simulations indicate that available models are system (polymer-penetrant) specific. Furthermore, some models best describe the early stages of migration/sorption, whereas others should be used for the late stages of these phenomena. Migration- and/or sorption-related problems with respect to glass, metal, paper-based and polymeric packaging materials are discussed, and their importance is illustrated using published examples. The effects of migrating and absorbed components on food safety, quality, and the environment are presented for various foods and packaging materials. The impact of currently popular packaging techniques such as microwavable, ovenable, and retortable packaging on migration and sorption are discussed with examples. Analytical techniques for investigating migration and sorption phenomena in food packaging are critically reviewed, with special emphasis on the use and characteristics of food-simulating liquids (FSLs). Finally, domestic and international regulations concerning migration in packaged foods, and their impact on food packaging is briefly presented.

  14. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  15. Overview of the DOE packaging certification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kapoor, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and weapons components, nor for naval nuclear propulsion. The overview will emphasize Type B packagings and the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review that parallels the NRC packaging review. Other important elements in the DOE packaging certification program, such as training, methods development, data bases, and technical assistance, are also emphasized, because they have contributed significantly to the improvement of the certification process since DOE consolidated its packaging certification function in 1985. The paper finishes with a discussion of the roles and functions of the DOE Packaging Safety Review Steering Committee, which is chartered to address issues and concerns of interest to the DOE packaging and transportation safety community. Two articles related to DOE packaging certification were published earlier on the SARP review procedures and the DOE Packaging Review Guide. These articles may be consulted for additional information.

  16. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  17. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...

  18. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  19. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  20. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  1. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  2. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Fischer, A.

    1995-01-01

    An optical sensor (1) comprising an integrated optical arrangement has a waveguide (4) and at least one defraction grating (5) arranged in this waveguide. Light can launched into the waveguide via the defraction grating. In the reflection area of defraction grating, part of the light is dispersed through the waveguide at the beam angle for which the launch conditions and thus the defraction in the waveguide are fulfilled, so that, at this angle, a dark line (14) occurs whose position is evalu...

  3. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  4. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-08-27

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  5. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif; Tarr, Nicholas Garry; Roy, Langis

    2013-01-01

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  6. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  7. Qualification of package units; Qualifizierung von Package Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, M.; Walter, U. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The use of package units in pharmaceutical plants is increasing. If they are involved in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and have an influence on the quality of the end product, the user is required to validate the processes used. Parallel to the growing demands with respect to the automation of these units, the importance of PCS equipment has increased and with this the necessity for its qualification. Experience to date shows that the manufacturer's awareness of these requirements can be heightened still further. This paper describes approaches for improving the present situation and should be interpreted not as criticism but as providing an opportunity to increase the knowledge base and work together to define solutions which satisfy the guidelines. (orig.) [German] Der Einsatz von Package Units in Pharma-Anlagen erfaehrt zunehmende Verbreitung. Wenn sie an der Herstellung von Arzneimitteln beteiligt sind und auf die Qualitaet des Endprodukts Einfluss nehmen, unterliegen sie der Validierungspflicht, die der Anwender zu gewaehrleisten hat. Entsprechend den wachsenden Anforderungen an die Automatisierung dieser Einheiten ist auch der Stellenwert der PLT-Ausruestung angestiegen und mit ihm die Notwendigkeit von deren Qualifizierung. Die bisherige Praxis zeigt, dass die Sensbilitaet der Hersteller diesen Anforderungen gegenueber noch besser entwickelt werden kann. Der Beitrag zeigt Wege auf, um die derzeitige Situation zu verbessern und sollte nicht als Kritik sondern als Chance aufgefasst werden, den Wissensstand auszugleichen und gemeinsam zu richtliniengerechten Loesungen zu kommen. (orig.)

  8. A MEMS SOI-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, B.; Li, H. F.; Yang, H.; Song, D. L.; Bai, X. W.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor is presented; the presented flow sensor mainly consists of a nylon sensing head, stainless steel cantilever beam, SOI sensor chip, printed circuit board, half-cylinder gasket, and stainless steel shell. The working principle of the sensor and some detailed contrastive analysis about the sensor structure were introduced since the nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam have distinct influence on the sensor performance; the structure of nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam is also discussed. The SOI sensor chip was fabricated using micro-electromechanical systems technologies, such as reactive ion etching and low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The designed fluid sensor was packaged and tested; a calibration installation system was purposely designed for the sensor experiment. The testing results indicated that the output voltage of the sensor is proportional to the square of the fluid flow velocity, which is coincident with the theoretical derivation. The tested sensitivity of the sensor is 3.91 × 10-4 V ms2/kg.

  9. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large Packaging standards. (a) Each Large Packaging.... Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant. (b) All...

  10. Pressure-Sensor Assembly Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzan, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) recently developed an ultrathin data acquisition system for use in turbomachinery testing at NASA Glenn Research Center. This system integrates a microelectromechanical- systems- (MEMS-) based absolute pressure sensor [0 to 50 psia (0 to 345 kPa)], temperature sensor, signal-conditioning application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), microprocessor, and digital memory into a package which is roughly 2.8 in. (7.1 cm) long by 0.75 in. (1.9 cm) wide. Each of these components is flip-chip attached to a thin, flexible circuit board and subsequently ground and polished to achieve a total system thickness of 0.006 in. (0.15 mm). Because this instrument is so thin, it can be quickly adhered to any surface of interest where data can be collected without disrupting the flow being investigated. One issue in the development of the ultrathin data acquisition system was how to attach the MEMS pressure sensor to the circuit board in a manner which allowed the sensor s diaphragm to communicate with the ambient fluid while providing enough support for the chip to survive the grinding and polishing operations. The technique, developed by NEAR and Jabil Technology Services Group (San Jose, CA), is described below. In the approach developed, the sensor is attached to the specially designed circuit board, see Figure 1, using a modified flip-chip technique. The circular diaphragm on the left side of the sensor is used to actively measure the ambient pressure, while the diaphragm on the right is used to compensate for changes in output due to temperature variations. The circuit board is fabricated with an access hole through it so that when the completed system is installed onto a wind tunnel model (chip side down), the active diaphragm is exposed to the environment. After the sensor is flip-chip attached to the circuit board, the die is underfilled to support the chip during the subsequent grinding and polishing operations. To prevent this

  11. Assessing Information on Food Packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Smith, Viktor; Zlatev, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    -store decisions and other needs like high quality or low price. This calls for further research. Practical implications: The topic is important for food companies and it might become a priority in managing brand equity, combining consumer preferences, loyalty, and communicative fairness. Originality/value: Using......Purpose: This paper presents an experimental study which aims at assessing the potentially misleading effect of graphic elements on food packaging. We call these elements potentially misleading elements (PMEs) as they can give customers false expectations. They are either (a) highlighted numerical...

  12. Surgical packages for laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Packages′ are in fashion today for most surgical procedures in various corporate hospitals and this has included laparoscopic procedures too. A package system enables the hospitals to get cost settlements done more easily. Also, it is more convenient for the patients who are aware upfront of the charges. The principal disadvantages seems to be for the surgeon, who may face displeasure of the patient, hospital or insurance agencies apart from forfeiting his personal charges if (a he is a novice in laparoscopic surgery and takes extra time to complete a procedure, (b unforeseen problems occur during surgery, or (c new pathologies are discovered on exploration.

  13. PIV Data Validation Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

  14. The Innovative Approaches to Packaging – Comparison Analysis of Intelligent and Active Packaging Perceptions in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucanova Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has always served a practical function - to hold goods together and protect it when moving toward the customer through distribution channel. Today packaging is also a container for promoting the product and making it easier and safer to use. The sheer importance of packaging functions is still growing and consequently the interest of the company is to access to the packaging more innovative and creative. The paper deals with the innovative approaches to packaging resulting in the creation of packaging with interactive active features in the form of active and intelligent packaging. Using comparative analysis, we monitored the perception of the active packaging functions in comparison to intelligent packaging function among different age categories. We identified the age categories which are most interested in these functions.

  15. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  16. Packaging and transportation occurrence reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needels, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1 calls for the maintenance of a database for all unclassified occurrence reports (ORs). ORS provide DOE with notice of incidents and accidents that endanger the public, workers, or DOE facility operations. To fulfill this policy, the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) was established to require DOE facilities to report and process information concerning such events. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides DOE with data and analysis of occurrence related to packaging and transportation (P and T) safety. This program produces annual reports, lessons learned bulletins, and information for the packaging and transportation home page on the Internet. The analysis and reports provided can be used as a tool for oversight and a means for DOE sites to be proactive and anticipate problems through shared knowledge and lessons learned. To illustrate, some observable trends based on 3 years of the program are given. In summary, this program shows potential problem areas that need correcting, and possible breakdowns of safety

  17. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  18. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  19. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes

  20. Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding

  1. On-chip photonic particle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Robin; Ma, Danhao; Agarwal, Anu; Anthony, Brian

    2018-02-01

    We propose an on-chip photonic particle sensor design that can perform particle sizing and counting for various environmental applications. The sensor is based on micro photonic ring resonators that are able to detect the presence of the free space particles through the interaction with their evanescent electric field tail. The sensor can characterize a wide range of the particle size ranging from a few nano meters to micron ( 1 micron). The photonic platform offers high sensitivity, compactness, fast response of the device. Further, FDTD simulations are performed to analyze different particle-light interactions. Such a compact and portable platform, packaged with integrated photonic circuit provides a useful sensing modality in space shuttle and environmental applications.

  2. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY07 maturation activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Jack E.; Blecke, Jill; Mitchell, John Anthony; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Crowson, Douglas A.; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Epp, David S.; Baker, Michael Sean

    2008-08-01

    This report describes activities conducted in FY07 to mature the MEMS passive shock sensor. The first chapter of the report provides motivation and background on activities that are described in detail in later chapters. The second chapter discusses concepts that are important for integrating the MEMS passive shock sensor into a system. Following these two introductory chapters, the report details modeling and design efforts, packaging, failure analysis and testing and validation. At the end of FY07, the MEMS passive shock sensor was at TRL 4.

  3. Waste package performance allocation system study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memory, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Package Performance Allocation system study was performed in order to provide a technical basis for the selection of the waste package period of substantially complete containment and its resultant contribution to the overall total system performance. This study began with a reference case based on the current Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) baseline design and added a number of alternative designs. The waste package designs were selected from the designs being considered in detail during Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). The waste packages considered were multi-barrier packages with a 0.95 cm Alloy 825 inner barrier and a 10, 20, or 45 cm thick carbon steel outer barrier. The waste package capacities varied from 6 to 12 to 21 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The vertical borehole and in-drift emplacement modes were also considered, as were thermal loadings of 25, 57, and 114 kW/acre. The repository cost analysis indicated that the 21 PWR in-drift emplacement mode option with the 10 cm and 20 cm outer barrier thicknesses are the least expensive and that the 12 PWR in-drift case has approximately the same cost as the 6 PWR vertical borehole. It was also found that the cost increase from the 10 cm outer barrier waste package to the 20 cm waste package was less per centimeter than the increase from the 20 cm outer barrier waste package to the 45 cm outer barrier waste package. However, the repository cost was nearly linear with the outer barrier thickness for the 21 PWR in-drift case. Finally, corrosion rate estimates are provided and the relationship of repository cost versus waste package lifetime is discussed as is cumulative radionuclide release from the waste package and to the accessible environment for time periods of 10,000 years and 100,000 years

  4. actuar: An R Package for Actuarial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Dutang, Christophe; Goulet, Vincent; Pigeon, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    actuar is a package providing additional Actuarial Science functionality to the R statistical system. The project was launched in 2005 and the package is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network since February 2006. The current version of the package contains functions for use in the fields of loss distributions modeling, risk theory (including ruin theory), simulation of compound hierarchical models and credibility theory. This paper presents in detail but with few technical terms t...

  5. Light Barrier for Non-Foil Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    foil and all-plastic materials were retorted and a second set of all-plastic packaged entrees were Microwave Sterilized on the Washington State...Copolymers for Retort Applications; SPE Polyolefins and Flexible Packaging Conference: Society of Plastics Engineers. Newtown. CT, 43pp. Thellen C...Final Scientific Report Light Barrier for Non-Foil Packaging Contract No. W911QY-08-C-0132 Final Scientific Report Contract No. W911QY-08-C-0132

  6. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists

  7. Emergency response packaging: A conceptual outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Bennett, P.C.; Wheeler, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Packaging and Transportation Needs in the 1990's (PATN) component of the Transportation Assessment and Integration (TRAIN) program (DOE Nov. 1991) was designed to survey United States Department of Energy programs, both ongoing and planned, to identify needs for packaging and transportation services over the next decade. PATN also identified transportation elements that should be developed by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE EM) Transportation Management Program (TMP). As a result of the predominant involvement of the TMP in radioactive material shipment issues and DOE EM's involvement with waste management issues, the primary focus of PATN was on waste packaging issues. Pending DOE regulations will formalize federal guidelines and regulations for transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials within the boundaries of DOE reservations and facilities and reflect a growing awareness of concern regarding safety environmental responsibility activities on DOE reservations. Future practices involving the transportation of radioactive material within DOE reservations will closely parallel those used for commercial and governmental transportation across the United States. This has added to the perceived need for emergency recovery packaging and emergency response features on primary packaging, for both on-site shipments and shipments between DOE facilities (off-site). Historically, emergency response and recovery functions of packaging have not been adequately considered in packaging design and construction concepts. This paper develops the rationale for emergency response packaging, including both overpack concepts for repackaging compromised packaging and primary packaging redesign to facilitate the recovery of packages via mobile remote handling equipment. The rationale will examine concepts for determination of likely use patterns to identify types of shipments where recovery packaging may have the most favorable payoff

  8. Influence of packaging materials on Kashkaval quality

    OpenAIRE

    Talevski, Goce; Srbinovska, Sonja; Santa, Dushica; Mateva, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the influence of 4 different packaging materials (A - the control, B - polymer emulsion, C - wax and D - polymer foil) on the quality of Kashkaval cheese. The lowest pH value had the sample protected by wax, which is most probably related to the retention of the formed organic acids and gases from the packaging material. A significant influence of the tested packaging materials (p

  9. ANTIMICROBIALS USED IN ACTIVE PACKAGING FILMS

    OpenAIRE

    Dıblan, Sevgin; Kaya, Sevim

    2017-01-01

    Active packaging technology is one of the innovativemethods for preserving of food products, and antimicrobial packaging films is amajor branch and promising application of this technology. In order to controlmicrobial spoilage and also contamination of pathogen onto processed or fresh food,antimicrobial agent(s) is/are incorporated into food packaging structure.Polymer type as a carrier of antimicrobial can be petroleum-based plastic orbiopolymer: because of environmental concerns researcher...

  10. Spent fuel packaging and its safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Kimitaka; Nakaoki, Kozo; Tamamura, Tadao; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukudome, Kazuyuki

    1983-01-01

    An all stainless steel B(U) type packaging is proposed to transport spent fuels discharged from research reactors and other radioactive materials. The package is used dry and provided with surface fins to absorb drop shock and to dissipate decay heat. Safety was analyzed for structural, thermal, containment shielding and criticality factors, and the integrity of the package was confirmed with the MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, and KENO computer codes. (author)

  11. Use of EVOH for Food Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gavara, Rafael; Catalá Moragrega, Ramón; López Carballo, Gracia; Cerisuelo, Josep Pascual; Domínguez, Irene; Muriel Galet, Virginia; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH) are a family of thermoplastic polymers with application in many industrial sectors including packaging and, especially, food packaging. The main characteristic of EVOH copolymers for packaging applications is their outstanding barrier to gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, …) and organic vapors (food aroma). EVOH is applied in multilayer structures for bags, trays, cups, bottles, squeezable tubes or jars to protect oxygen-sensitive products. However, the hy...

  12. Vibration monitoring for aircraft wing model using fiber Bragg grating array packaged by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Xiaolong; He, Wei; Dong, Mingli; Zhu, Lianqing

    2017-09-01

    For the improvement of monitoring accuracy, a vibration monitoring for aircraft wing model using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array packaged by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is proposed. The working principle of the vibration monitoring using FBG array has been explained, which can theoretically support the idea of this paper. VARTM has been explained in detail, which is suitable for not only the single FBG sensor but also the FBG array within a relatively large area. The calibration experiment has been performed using the FBG sensor packaged by VARTM. The strain sensitivity of the VARTM package is 1.35 pm/μɛ and the linearity is 0.9999. The vibration monitoring experiment has been carried out using FBG array packaged by VARTM. The measured rate of strain changes across the aluminum test board used to simulate the aircraft wing is 0.69 μɛ/mm and the linearity is 0.9931. The damping ratio is 0.16, which could be further used for system performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that the vibration monitoring using FBG sensors packaged by VARTM can be efficiently used for the structural health monitoring. Given the validation and great performance, this method is quite promising for in-flight monitoring and holds great reference value in other similar engineering structures.

  13. Deriving 3d point clouds from terrestrial photographs comparison of different sensors and software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Mokros, Martin; Lange, Julia

    2016-01-01

    and its derivatives.We compare five different sensors as well as four different state-of-the-art software packages for a single application, the modelling of a vegetated rock face. The five sensors represent different resolutions, sensor sizes and price segments of the cameras. The software packages used...... are: (1) Agisoft PhotoScan Pro (1.16), (2) Pix4D (2.0.89), (3) a combination of Visual SFM (V0.5.22) and SURE (1.2.0.286), and (4) MicMac (1.0). We took photos of a vegetated rock face from identical positions with all sensors. Then we compared the results of the different software packages regarding...

  14. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  15. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1988-08-01

    This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)

  16. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  17. Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/ Packaging Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/Packaging laboratories provide research level semiconductor processing equipment and facilities that do not require a full...

  18. actuar: An R Package for Actuarial Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dutang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available actuar is a package providing additional Actuarial Science functionality to the R statistical system. The project was launched in 2005 and the package is available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network since February 2006. The current version of the package contains functions for use in the fields of loss distributions modeling, risk theory (including ruin theory, simulation of compound hierarchical models and credibility theory. This paper presents in detail but with few technical terms the most recent version of the package.

  19. Safety analysis of spent fuel packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Tai, Hideto

    1987-01-01

    Many types of spent fuel packagings have been manufactured and been used for transport of spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plant. These spent fuel packagings need to be assesed thoroughly about safety transportation because spent fuels loaded into the packaging have high radioactivity and generation of heat. This paper explains the outline of safety analysis of a packaging, Safety analysis is performed for structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, KENO, etc computer codes are used for such analysis. (author)

  20. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this overview is twofold: first, to outline the theory and basic elements of numerical optimization; and second, to show how numerical optimization can be applied to the transportation packaging industry and used to increase efficiency and safety of radioactive and hazardous material transportation packages. A more extensive review of numerical optimization and its applications to radioactive material transportation package design was performed previously by the authors (Witkowski and Harding 1992). A proof-of-concept Type B package design is also presented as a simplified example of potential improvements achievable using numerical optimization in the design process

  1. Future Perspective : Design Process of Perfume Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    In a world where technology develops at a rapid speed a packaging designer should have the ability to adapt to the challenges in a world where the packaging landscape might look far more different from today. This thesis will look at possible future scenarios relating to resources, infrastructure and consumer behaviour in the year 2050. It will then go on to discuss the emergence of new packaging materials pitted to replace plastic, as well as take a look at printed electronics in packaging a...

  2. Safkeg - a modern family of packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The SAFKEG family of package were developed specifically to replace existing fissile material packages designs which are based on 30 year old design concepts. The SAFKEG replaces 2 design concepts: the wood cadmium rectilinear packages used in the UK and 6M drum packages commonly used in the USA. The design principles used in the SAFKEG are relatively novel, but were adopted specifically to provide a large design margin at a reasonable cost. The design features were chosen to facilitate the licensing process and to provide operational convenience. The current designs, including those just about to be brought into service, are summarized. (authors)

  3. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor node is connected to the internet for remote monitoring and has the capability of localization. The paper presents the design of antenna-on-package as well as details of the communication and localization system. Fabrication challenges unique to 3D printing and integration of electronics on 3D printed circuit board are also discussed. Finally, the paper presents measurement results of antenna radiation pattern, return loss, localization accuracy and accuracy of sensing parameters.

  4. Sensors for Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  5. Sensors for Entertainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Lamberti; Andrea Sanna; Jon Rokne

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on ?Sensors for Entertainment?, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  6. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Moreno, G.

    2010-04-27

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the overall package thermal performance over a range of power semiconductor packaging configurations. The results provide insight into the trade-offs associated with cooling technologies and package configurations. The approach provides a method for comparing new developments in power semiconductor packages and identifying potential thermal control technologies for the package. The results can help users select the appropriate combination of packaging configuration and cooling technology for the desired application.

  7. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  8. Radiation emitter-detector package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.T.; Limm, A.C.; Nyul, P.; Tassia, V.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Mounted on the metallic base of a radiation emitter-detector is a mounting block is a first projection, and a second projection. A radiation detector is on the first projection and a semiconductor electroluminescent device, i.e., a radiation emitter, is on the second projection such that the plane of the recombination region of the electroluminescent device is perpendicular to the radiation incident surface of the radiation detector. The electroluminescent device has a primary emission and a secondary emission in a direction different from the primary emission. A radiation emitter-detector package as described is ideally suited to those applications wherein the secondary radiation of the electroluminescent device is fed into a feedback circuit regulating the biasing current of the electroluminescent device

  9. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  10. Grandfathering of competent authority approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, N.L.

    2004-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency transportation regulations are reviewed and revised on a periodic basis as new technical and scientific information becomes available. The 1996 Edition of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in TS-R-1 includes provisions for the use of package designs approved to previous editions of the regulations. This assures that there is no disruption of transport when the regulations are updated and revised. The revision of package design standards may make certain designs obsolete, though not necessarily unsafe. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the agency in the United States that certifies transportation packages for Type B and fissile materials. NRC regulations include grandfathering provisions that are comparable to and compatible with the IAEA standards. NRC staff is promoting a new system that would eliminate the need to grandfather package designs. Under the new method, any new or revised provision of the regulations that affects package standards would include its own transitional arrangements. In this way, each change would be evaluated for its safety importance. Changes in the package standards that are important to safety would be implemented immediately upon the regulations coming into force. Other changes, that do not significantly affect safety, would have longer implementation periods. In this way, all packages in use would be compatible with the regulations in force, and no specific grandfathering provisions for older designs would be needed. NRC staff has concluded that the package design standards are mature and have been shown to be protective over the past 40 years of shipping experience. We predict that future changes in package design standards will not be substantive in terms of resulting in significant changes in physical performance of a package in transport, including actual transportation accidents. The benefits of the new system would be a more predictable regulatory structure

  11. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Dhiman, Romika; Rokana, Namita; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  12. Wireless sensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  13. Mechanism for and method of biasing magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, David R.

    2007-12-04

    A magnetic sensor package having a biasing mechanism involving a coil-generated, resistor-controlled magnetic field for providing a desired biasing effect. In a preferred illustrated embodiment, the package broadly comprises a substrate; a magnetic sensor element; a biasing mechanism, including a coil and a first resistance element; an amplification mechanism; a filter capacitor element; and an encapsulant. The sensor is positioned within the coil. A current applied to the coil produces a biasing magnetic field. The biasing magnetic field is controlled by selecting a resistance value for the first resistance element which achieves the desired biasing effect. The first resistance element preferably includes a plurality of selectable resistors, the selection of one or more of which sets the resistance value.

  14. K Basin sludge packaging design criteria (PDC) and safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) approval plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the Packaging Design Crieteria for the K Basin Sludge Transportation System and the Associated on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. The transportation system addressed in the subject documents will be used to transport sludge from the K Basins using bulk packaging

  15. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Summary report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1). This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volume 1

  16. Healthy package, healthy product? Effects of packaging design as a function of purchase setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Deterink, Florien; Fenko, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by research testifying to the influence of visual packaging appearance and meaning portrayal on food evaluation, here it is argued that effects of packaging design vary depending on purchase context. Realistic packaging variants for a fictitious yoghurt brand varying in health connotation

  17. RF sensor for multiphase flow measurement through an oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, S. R.; Shaw, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2006-08-01

    We have developed, in conjunction with Solartron ISA, an electromagnetic cavity resonator based sensor for multiphase flow measurement through an oil pipeline. This sensor is non-intrusive and transmits low power (10 mW) radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 100-350 MHz and detects the pipeline contents using resonant peaks captured instantaneously. The multiple resonances from each captured RF spectrum are analysed to determine the phase fractions in the pipeline. An industrial version of the sensor for a 102 mm (4 inch) diameter pipe has been constructed and results from this sensor are compared to those given by simulations performed using the electromagnetic high frequency structure simulator software package HFSS. This paper was presented at the 13th International Conference on Sensors and held in Chatham, Kent, on 6-7 September 2005.

  18. The power of symbolic packaging cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, I.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Packaging can be considered as an element of communication in the marketplace. By communicating through packaging, marketers are able to appeal to consumers at the most crucial moment in the consumer decision journey: the point of sale. At the point of sale, consumers are able to consider the

  19. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, J R; Clark, D M; Pollay, R W

    2002-06-15

    To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  20. Material Efficiency in Dutch Packaging Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; van Sluisveld, M.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been