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Sample records for twenty-one air-dried glazes

  1. Nondestructive determination of lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C. [Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Quantitation capabilities of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RXRFS) for determining lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes were investigated. Twenty-one air-dried glazes and 85 fired glazes on test tiles were analyzed by using {sup 109}Cd and {sup 57}Co excitation sources. Accurate Pb determinations, with limits of detection (LODs) of about 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} for 5 min counting times, were achieved by using the 75 keV {Kappa}{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} X-ray photopeak and a Pb foil calibration procedure. Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba concentrations were determined with LODs from about 0.5 to 1.5 mg/cm{sup 2}. For Pb and Ba, results obtained by using absorption corrections based only on element concentrations determined by RXRFS and an iterative approach led to analytical biases of {le}4% relative to results obtained by using corrections based on known total element compositions. Biases were more severe for Cd, Sn, and Sb because lower X-ray energies were involved and sensitivities varied as a function of matrix Pb content. Pb concentrations were above LODs (1.3-40 mg/cm{sup 2}) in 39 of 47 fired {open_quotes}food-safe{close_quotes} glazes and in 33 of the other 38 fired glazes (0.4-39 mg/cm{sup 2}). 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  3. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  4. Electrochromic glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of large-area electrochromic glazing is reviewed with respect to device configuration and materials employed. Device configurations including electrochromic solutions and solid state electrochromic layers are discussed as well as novel user-controlled photochromic and gasochromic devices.

  5. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Jong, de Franciska; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  6. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  7. High strength air-dried aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  8. Drier for air-drying coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Oostveen, E.A.; Linde, van der R.; Haveren, van J.

    2003-01-01

    The invention pertains to a drier composition for air-drying alkyd-based coatings, inks, or floor coverings, comprising a combination of the following components: a) a transition metal salt with the formula: (Me )( X )m in which Me is the transition metal; X represents a coordinating ligand; and k-

  9. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... the space heating demand in residential buildings. The U-value of the glazing can be designed to meet the required value by increasing the monolithic silica aerogel thickness without the need for additional layers of glass. An aerogel glazing with 20 mm glass distance can reach a U-value below 0.5 W/(m(2) K...

  10. Clinical effects of glazing denture acrylic resin bases using an ultraviolet curing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budtz-Jörgensen, E; Kaaber, S

    1986-12-01

    Control of denture plaque accumulation is essential to obtain and maintain a healthy oral mucosa in denture wearers. The present study was designed to study the effect on denture plaque accumulation and denture stomatitis of coating the fitting denture surface by a glaze. Twenty-one subjects wearing complete dentures participated in the study. Glazing of the denture surface was performed using a Perma Cure System. Plaque accumulation was studied clinically and using a semiquantitative microbiologic technique. Plaque accumulation on the glazed and the non-glazed halves of the fitting denture surface was compared after 1 wk. There was significantly less plaque on the glazed half of the denture (P less than 0.001), and the calculated number of CFU of bacteria/cm2 was significantly lower from the test area of the glazed half than from the test area of the non-glazed half of the denture (P less than 0.001). When the patients were re-examined 1 month after the entire fitting denture surface had been glazed plaque scores, yeast scores and number of CFU of bacteria/cm2 were not significantly different from those observed before glazing. There was a reduction of the erythema of the palatal mucosa in 14/19 patients with denture-induced stomatitis. The study indicates that coating of the fitting denture surface by a glaze may be a means to improve denture cleanliness; however, the present glazing system should be further developed to produce a more uniform glazing.

  11. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Sargin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity. Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiological analysis were also applied.

  12. Intelligent Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad

    Glazed facades are becoming an increasingly dominant choice of facades for office buildings. Glass has always been attractive and intriguing and has been a symbol of power, money and prestige. The façade is a means of communicating an image of prestige and power. However the glazed suffers tremen...

  13. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  14. Phenome data - Air-drying stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Phenome data - Air-drying stress Data detail Data name Phenome data - Air-drying stress... DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-007 Description of data contents Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to air-drying stres...h plays a role in vacuolar acidification. To determine the role of vacuolar acidification in air-drying stres...aintain intracellular pH homeostasis, which is affected by air-drying stress. To determine the effects of air-drying stres...s on mitochondria, we analyzed the mitochondrial membrane potential under air-drying stres

  15. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  16. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  17. Twenty-One: cross-language disclosure and retrieval of multimedia documents on sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, ter W.G.; Beijert, J.-H.; Bruin, de G.; Gent, van J.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Netter, K.; Smart, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Twenty-One project brings together environmental organisations, technology providers and research institutes from several European countries. The main objective of the project is to make documents on environmental issues—in particular, on the subject of sustainable development—available on CD-RO

  18. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for white light. Obtaining such fringes in a Michelson interferometer is not a trivial task.1 The interferometer is typically illuminated with a monochroma...

  19. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...... of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  20. Air-drying kinetics affect yeast membrane organization and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetais, Guillaume; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) is a key structure for the survival of cells during dehydration. In this study, we focused on the concomitant changes in survival and in the lateral organization of the PM in yeast strains during desiccation, a natural or technological environmental perturbation that involves transition from a liquid to a solid medium. To evaluate the role of the PM in survival during air-drying, a wild-type yeast strain and an osmotically fragile mutant (erg6Δ) were used. The lateral organization of the PM (microdomain distribution) was observed using a fluorescent marker related to a specific green fluorescent protein-labeled membrane protein (Sur7-GFP) after progressive or rapid desiccation. We also evaluated yeast behavior during a model dehydration experiment performed in liquid medium (osmotic stress). For both strains, we observed similar behavior after osmotic and desiccation stresses. In particular, the same lethal magnitude of dehydration and the same lethal kinetic effect were found for both dehydration methods. Thus, yeast survival after progressive air-drying was related to PM reorganization, suggesting the positive contribution of passive lateral rearrangements of the membrane components. This study also showed that the use of glycerol solutions is an efficient means to simulate air-drying desiccation.

  1. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  2. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  3. Gas-filled double glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goesele, K.; Schuele, W.; Lakatos, B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the results of experiments the sonar and thermal properties of insulated double glazing filled with gas are tested. The sound insulation properties of double glazing can be improved by introducing a gas of a heavy specific weight, such as CO/sub 2/ or SF/sub 6/ into the hollow space. Even gases with a light specific weight produce an improvement in sound insulation; light gases diffuse outwards much more rapidly, however, and can thus be eliminated for practical purposes. The combination of a gas-filled space between the panes and the use of sufficiently heavy compound panes were tested. The thermal properties of insulated double glazing filled with specifically heavy gas gave favourable results with a lower heat transition coefficient. The use of gas to fill double glazing has a particularly favourable effect if the panes are given a heat-reflecting coating in synthetic frames.

  4. Characterization of Thin Layer Hot Air Drying of Celery Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hot air drying characteristics of celery root were evaluated in a laboratory scale dryer at the drying temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80°C. The effect of hot air drying on drying time, drying rate, moisture content, moisture ratio and effective moisture diffusivity of celery root was investigated. Fifteen thin layer drying models were fitted by using experimental drying data. The fitting effect of model predictions was evaluated by using the values of coefficient of determination, sum squared error, root mean square error and chi-square. The results showed fitting accuracy of model 15 (Hii et al.,2009 gave a better fit for all drying conditions applied. The average values of effective moisture diffusivities of celery root ranged from 1.957×10-9 to 9.016×10-9 within the given drying temperature range. With in a certain temperature range (50-70°C, the average effective moisture diffusivities of celery root increased with increased temperature. The activation energy was estimated as 21.817 KJ/mol using an exponential expression based on the Arrhenius equation.

  5. Technology reviews: Glazing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology; determine the performance range of available technologies; identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances; examine market forces and market trends; and develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fag into that class.

  6. Twenty-one years of child advocacy: an editorial retrospective of the Teuscher years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D W

    1990-01-01

    On the eleventh anniversary of his Editorship of JDC, Dr. George Teuscher took stock of the state of the Journal, noting progress made and challenges ahead, writing that, "A good journal cannot ride on its reputation... Constant effort to improve, resourcefulness, and prolific reading and study are required of the editor of a prestigious journal." He has written extensively on the importance of writing and effective communication in the face of an information explosion, stating that, "The journal is still the best means of presenting new information to the professions." Writing a note of encouragement to the editor of a new dental journal, he observed, "Of course the dental and medical literature can boast of some great editors, who earned their reputations because they were able to apply intelligence, writing ability, knowledge of the scientific method, and imagination to a new undertaking." After twenty-one years, it is safe to say that Dr. Teuscher is such an Editor; he has filled our minds with knowledge and our hearts with wisdom; he has reminded us of the best that is in us; he has helped us to feel the anguish of the afflicted and oppressed; he has brought knowledge and skill to help the infirm: and he has taught us to stand in awe before the mystery of being.

  7. Structural glazing - solar facade; Structural Glazing - Solar-Fassade. Praxisbeispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehg, U. [Greschbach Industrie- und Verwaltungsbau GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Leithold, W. [Solare System Technik GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    In the area of facades photovoltaic elements have attained such a level of technology that they are not only used for environmental and aestetic reasons but also for economic reasons. This article describes an administration building in so-called structural-glazing construction. Developments in this area are presented. (BWI) [Deutsch] Photovoltaikelemente im Fassadenbereich sind heute so weit entwickelt, dass sie nicht aus Gruenden der Umweltschonung und Aesthetik, sondern auch aus wirtschaftlichen Ueberlegungen in Frage kommen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt ein Verwaltungsgebaeude in der sog. Structural Glazing-Technik vor. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt Entwicklungen in diesem Bereich vor. (BWI)

  8. Malignant ovarian tumors complicating pregnancy:a clinicopathological study of twenty-one cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xue-ying; Huang Hui-fang; Lian Li-juan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinicopathological characters of malignant ovarian tumors during pregnancy. The rationale for appropriate management was discussed.Methods: Twenty-one cases of malignant ovarian tumors complicating pregnancy treated between 1985 and 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. In reference with the reports from the current literatures, the rationale of the treatment for the best outcome of both mother and child was discussed.Results:In the patients reviewed, 9 were found with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary, 6 with low malignant potential tumors, 4 with invasive epithelial tumors, and 2 with sex cord-stromal tumors. Sixteen (76.2 %) of the patients diagnosed in stage I, and all had achieved complete response to the treatment. Three of the four patients in advanced stage died, of which two were invasive epithelial cancers and one stage Ⅳ endodermal sinus tumor. All patients had surgery, and fourteen of them got conservative surgery. All sixteen patients accepted for chemotherapy took adjuvant chemotherapies after abortions or deliveries. Fourteen healthy live births were recorded in this group and there were no documented birth defects, but one died of respiratory distress syndrome.Conclusion: The managements of malignant ovarian cancers during pregnancy differed in different histological types. In ovarian borderline tumors and malignant germ cell tumors including stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ, surgery can be conservative. For advanced epithelial cancers, aggressive surgery should be instituted. Chemotherapy could be considered for the malignant germ cell tumor during the second and third trimester. Ovarian borderline tumors should not take chemotherapy.Epithelial cancer should be given combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Hysterectomy during pregnancy is rarely indicated unless it contributes significantly to tumor debulking, and pregnancy often could be allowed to continue until near-term.

  9. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    of the method is the vacuum chamber in which the aerogel glazing is prior to mounting of the last glass pane. This glass pane is kept above the rest of the glazing while the chamber is evacuated. When the desired gas pressure is reached the glazing is assembled and the chamber is ventilated. Due to the fast...

  10. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  11. Smart glazing in architecture: A paper on innovative glazing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolarakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. In recent time, smart materials, materials with changeable properties, are developed, also in the glazing industry. Still, many of the technologies are still unattractive for large-scale projects and mass production

  12. Climate and energy use in glazed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.

    1996-11-01

    One objective of the thesis has been to elucidate the relationship between building design and the climate, thermal comfort and energy requirements in different types of glazed spaces. Another object has been to study the effect of the glazed spaces on energy requirements in adjacent buildings. It has also been the object to develop a simple calculation method for the assessment of temperatures and energy requirements in glazed spaces. The research work has mainly comprised case studies of existing buildings with glazed spaces and energy balance calculations using both the developed steady-state method and a dynamic building energy simulation program. Parameters such as the geometry of the building, type of glazing, orientation, thermal inertia, airtightness, ventilation system and sunshades have been studied. These parameters are of different importance for each specific type of glazed space. In addition, the significance of each of these parameters varies for different types of glazed spaces. The developed calculation method estimates the minimum and mean temperature in glazed spaces and the energy requirements for heating and cooling. The effect of the glazed space on the energy requirement of the surrounding buildings can also be estimated. It is intended that the method should be applied during the preliminary design stage so that the effect which the design of the building will have on climate and energy requirement may be determined. The method may provide an insight into how glazed spaces behave with regard to climate and energy. 99 refs

  13. ANALYSES AND INFLUENCES OF GLAZED BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical study of the functioning of glazing at two different yet interacting levels: at the level of the building as a whole, and at that of glazing as a building element. At the building level, analyses were performed on a sample of high-rise business buildings in Slovenia, where the glazing"s share of the building envelope was calculated, and estimates of the proportion of shade provided by external blinds were made. It is shown that, especially in the case of modern buildings with large proportions of glazing and buildings with no shading devices, careful glazing design is needed, together with a sound knowledge of energy performance. In the second part of the article, the energy balance values relating to selected types of glazing are presented, including solar control glazing. The paper demonstrates the need for a holistic energy approach to glazing problems, as well as how different types of glazing can be methodically compared, thus improving the design of sustainability-orientated buildings.

  14. Effect of Turmerin on Endothelial Denudation by Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Markov

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study is to determine if arterial endothelial injury can be attenuated by local application of 80 μg/ml turmerin at the site of injury and by oral administration of the same dose. Anesthetized Lewis rats (n =12 weighing 200 ± 4.0 gms randomly were assigned to two groups. After 5 min of air drying a segment of right carotid artery, six rats were treated locally 80μg/ml with turmerin and the rest were treated with 0.9% NaCl. Turmerin was then administered by gavage (80 μg every 24 hrs for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed on day 14 and the carotid artery removed from the injured site for histological analysis and serum collected for lipid peroxidation analysis by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated dienes. This study showed no proliferation in the intima of one rat out of six rats treated with turmerin while there was significant variation between the treated rats and the controls. MDA for control was 0.593±0.02 nanomoles/ml while turmerin was 0.187±0.04 (p≤0.01; conjugated diene for control was 0.402±0.03 nanomoles/ml while turmerin was 0.212±0.04 nanomoles/ml (p ≤0.05. Although there was significant reduction in serum peroxidation activity, the histological findings indicate that attenuation of carotid artery injury may involve other factors than decreased lipid peroxidation.

  15. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of focus on concrete surface’s aesthitic potential, both globally and locally. World famous architects such as Herzog De Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Richard Meyer and David Chippenfield challenge the exposure of concrete in their architecture. At home, this trend can be seen...... existing buildings in and around Copenhagen that are covered with mosaic tiles or glazed tiles; buildings such as Nanna Ditzel’s House in Klareboderne, Arne Jacobsen’s gas station, Erik Møller’s Industriens Hus, Bent Helweg Møller’s Berlingske Hus, Arne Jacobsen’s Stellings Hus and Toms Chocolate Factories...... and finally Lene Tranberg and Bøje Lungård’s Elsinore water purification plant. These buildings have qualities that I would like applied, perhaps transformed or most preferably, if possible, interpreted anew, for the large glazed concrete panels I shall develop. The article is ended and concluded...

  16. Effect of air drying on speciation of heavy metals in flooded rice paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Wang; Biao Huang; Yan Bing Qi; Wen You Hu; Wei Xia Sun

    2012-01-01

    Flooded soil samples were collected in the typical area of the Yangtze Delta Region; fractions of heavy metals in flooded and air dried samples were measured with BCR sequential extraction method and atomic absorption spectrometry.In flooded soils,fractions of heavy metals increased in the order of acid soluble < oxidizable < reducible < residual.The acid soluble and reducible fractions significantly decreased but residual fraction significantly increased when the samples were air dried.The data obtained from air dried soil samples could not accurately represent the speciation of heavy metals in flooded field conditions.

  17. Determination of arsenic leaching from glazed and non-glazed Turkish traditional earthenware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henden, Emur, E-mail: emur.henden@ege.edu.tr; Cataloglu, Rengin; Aksuner, Nur

    2011-07-01

    Glazed and non-glazed earthenware is traditionally and widely used in Turkey and most of the Mediterranean and the Middle East countries for cooking and conservation of foodstuff. Acid-leaching tests have been carried out to determine whether the use of glazed and non-glazed earthenware may constitute a human health hazard risk to the consumers. Earthenware was leached with 4% acetic acid and 1% citric acid solutions, and arsenic in the leachates was measured using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic concentrations in the leach solution of non-glazed potteries varied from 30.9 to 800 {mu}g L{sup -1}, while the glazed potteries varied generally from below the limit of detection (0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}) to 30.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, but in one poorly glazed series it reached to 110 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Therefore, the risk of arsenic poisoning by poorly glazed and non-glazed potteries is high enough to be of concern. It appears that this is the first study reporting arsenic release from earthenware into food. - Research highlights: {yields} Non-glazed and poorly glazed earthenware may cause a serious arsenic release into food, and drinking water. {yields} Good glazing can avoid or greatly reduce arsenic leaching into food. {yields} Leaching of arsenic from earthenware may cause serious health risk. {yields} This is a pioneering work showing arsenic risk due to earthenware.

  18. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  19. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  20. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  1. Drying characteristics of ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, YUNHONG; Sun, Yue; Miao, Shuai; Li, Fang; Luo, Denglin

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae was investigated in this study. The effects of drying parameters such as ultrasonic radiation distance, ultrasonic power and drying temperature on drying characteristics were discussed. The results showed that ultrasound application has positive and significant effects on hot air drying. Shortening ultrasonic radiation distance is beneficial to improve both ultrasonic energy efficiency and drying rate. Higher ultrasonic power had more posit...

  2. Robust Vacuum-/Air-Dried Graphene Aerogels and Fast Recoverable Shape-Memory Hybrid Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenwei; Qiu, Ling; Zhang, Baoqing; Li, Dan; Liu, Chen-Yang

    2016-02-17

    New graphene aerogels can be fabricated by vacuum/air drying, and because of the mechanical robustness of the graphene aerogels, shape-memory polymer/graphene hybrid foams can be fabricated by a simple infiltration-air-drying-crosslinking method. Due to the superelasticity, high strength, and good electrical conductivity of the as-prepared graphene aerogels, the shape-memory hybrid foams exhibit excellent thermotropical and electrical shape-memory properties, outperforming previously reported shape-memory polymer foams.

  3. Comparing the VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Scots pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Anne-Marja; Pasanen, Pertti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air-dried Scots pine wood and from heat-treated Scots pine wood were compared with GC-MS analysis. Air-dried wood blocks released about 8 times more total VOCs than heat-treated (24 h at 230°C) ones. Terpenes were clearly the main compound group in the air-dried wood samples, whereas aldehydes and carboxylic acids and their esters dominated in the heat-treated wood samples. Only 14 compounds out of 41 identified individual compounds were found in both wood samples indicating considerable changes in VOC emission profile during heat-treatment process. Of individual compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and hexanal were the most abundant ones in the air-dried wood. By contrast, in the heat-treated wood 2-furancarboxaldehyde, acetic acid and 2-propanone were the major compounds of VOC emission. Current emission results reveal that significant chemical changes have occurred, and volatile monoterpenes and other low-molecular-weight compounds have evaporated from the wood during the heat-treatment process when compared to air-dried wood. Major chemical changes detected in VOC emissions are explained by the thermal degradation and oxidation of main constituents in wood. The results suggest that if heat-treated wood is used in interior carpentry, emissions of monoterpenes are reduced compared to air-dried wood, but some irritating compounds might be released into indoor air.

  4. Chapter Twenty One

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In this paper I approach art through some literary expositions of Uche Okeke. ... as universal truth emerged from conceptions of producers of knowledge is well taken. ... one may pander to Abercrombie's view that “different groups can generate ...

  5. Pseudodementia in a twenty-one-year-old with bipolar disorder and vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S D

    2000-12-01

    A twenty-one-year-old female known to suffer from bipolar type I disorder developed features of a pseudodementia. Following prompt initial response to treatment with antidepressants, there was an early recurrence of cognitive impairment. Blood investigations confirmed a macrocytic anaemia and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. There was dramatic resolution of cognitive impairment after vitamin replacement. This suggested the occurrence of a reversible nutritional dementia and reinforced the need to rule out secondary organic causes of psychiatric symptoms even in patients previously diagnosed with a primary psychiatric disorder.

  6. Effects of heating the inlet air with a burner when natural air drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, W.F.; Lischynski, D.E.; Wassermann, J.D.; Frehlich, G.E.; Sokhansanj, S.

    1987-03-01

    During the 1985 and 1986 harvest seasons in Saskatchewan, cool and humid conditions reduced the performance of natural air drying systems for grains. This prompted many producers to consider supplemental heat when natural air drying. Research was conducted to investigate the implications of supplemental heating during grain drying and to develop recommendations about adding supplemental heat. Field tests were performed to compare drying time, energy consumption, quality of work, and ease of operation with different supplemental heat strategies. A computer model was developed to simulate adding supplemental heat during natural air drying, and the simulation was verified by comparing the computer simulation results with those obtained in the field tests. Natural air drying without heat was found to be more economical than with heat in the early fall. In late fall, drying costs by both methods were nearly equal but higher than in early fall. It is therefore recommended to attempt to complete all drying in early fall using natural air. If the harvest is delayed to late fall, natural air drying or supplemental heat drying can both be used. However, by adding supplemental heat, there is a very good chance of completing drying in the fall. Drying by natural air would likely have to be completed in the spring. 30 refs., 15 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Effects of Air-Drying on the Inorganic Phosphorus Forms in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ke; TANG Yan; WANG Xiao-li; LU Hai-ming; ZHAO Hai-tao

    2005-01-01

    After 90 day's cultivation of five different plants (rye grass, lupin, buckwheat, rape and amaranth) in three soils (Yellow brown soil, Paddy soil and Red soil), fresh soil samples were collected and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) fractions were measured before and after air-drying. The results clearly indicated that the total Pi and their composition differed significantly among soil types. The air-drying process increased the total Pi in yellow brown soil and in paddy soil, while decreased that in red soil. The total Pi could vary to 70% of that before air-drying. The Pi forms in different soils changed to different extent after air-drying. As to yellow brown soil, Al-P decreased, while O-P and Ca-P increased; as to paddy soil, Al-P and Ca-P increased, while Fe-P and O-P remained; as to red soil, Al-P and Fe-P increased, Ca-P remained and O-P reduced obviously. Growth of different plants in soils had effects on Pi forms during the process of air-drying. Therefore, for chemical study of soil phosphorus, application of fresh soil samples can provide more reliable results.

  8. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  9. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous...... and built, and by mean of this six aerogel glazings have been made and four of those can be considered as fully succeeded. The reasons for the failure of the two glazings are perhaps due to the foil applied in the rim seal.The project serves a the Danish input to a current EU project, in which one...

  10. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE AND AIR DRYING CONDITIONS OF QUINCE (CYDONIA OBLONGA, MILLER USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Baltacioglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of slice thickness of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller , microwave incident power and air drying temperature on antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of quince were investigated during drying in microwave and air drying. Optimum conditions were found to be: i for microwave drying, 285 W and 4.14 mm thick (maximum antioxidant activity and 285 W and 6.85 mm thick (maximum total phenolic content, and ii for air drying, 75 ºC and 1.2 mm thick (both maximum antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Drying conditions were optimized by using the response surface methodology. 13 experiments were carried out considering incident microwave powers from 285 to 795 W, air temperature from 46 to 74 ºC and slice thickness from 1.2 to 6.8 mm.

  12. Ceramic tile glazes: design, trends and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredini, T. [Modena Univ. (Italy). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to describe the state of the art of glazes for applications in ceramic tile industry. A glaze for application in ceramic tile industry must satisfy certain requirements, which may be divided into two large groups, one in relation to its preparation and industrial utilisation and the other specific of the product utilisation. In order to design glaze compositions certain aspects must be taken into account. Viscosity and surface tension of the melt matching the body requirements, linear thermal expansion, nucleation and crystal growth processes occurring during firing, durability and optical properties must be designed and adjusted in the industrial practice. Glass-ceramic systems are the more suitable compositions for innovative glazes for fast firing of wall and floor tiles. (orig.)

  13. Advanced connection systems for architectural glazing

    CERN Document Server

    Afghani Khoraskani, Roham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a detailed study to explore the behavior of architectural glazing systems during and after an earthquake and to develop design proposals that will mitigate or even eliminate the damage inflicted on these systems. The seismic behavior of common types of architectural glazing systems are investigated and causes of damage to each system, identified. Furthermore, depending on the geometrical and structural characteristics, the ultimate horizontal load capacity of glass curtain wall systems is defined based on the stability of the glass components. Detailed attention is devoted to the incorporation of advanced connection devices between the structure of the building and the building envelope system in order to minimize the damage to glazed components. An innovative new connection device is introduced that results in a delicate and functional system easily incorporated into different architectural glazing systems, including those demanding maximum transparency.

  14. STUDY ON THE BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PROTEINS WITH HYPOTENSIVE PROPERTIES FROM AIR-DRIED BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kovaleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines an effect of starter culture incorporation into the technology of air-dried beef products on a degree of protein hydration and solubility. The processes of the protein macromolecule hydrolysis on dipeptides, polypeptides and free amino acids are described. It was shown air-dried beef products that contain starter cultures had the high biological value. It was noticed that microorganisms being constituents of starter cultures had the high proteolytic activity and accelerated the biochemical transformation of meat proteins upon curing, which resulted in higher rates of biochemical processes. The molecular weight distribution of protein fractions was determined. The derivatives of meat proteins, peptides, which can have a physiological effect on the body, are the most promising for studying. This study presents an assessment of a protein complex of air-dried beef products made according to different technologies of air drying and shows that the majority of protein spectra in the air-dried beef products with starter cultures are in the zones of proteins with potential hypotensive properties (medium and light zones with molecular weights of 50 kDa — 70 kDa and 5 kDa — 20 kDa, respectively. It is shown that when using the traditional technology of air drying, an accumulation of the protein spectra in meat was observed in the zone of heavy fractions with a molecular weight of 85 кDа — 100 кDа, the medium and light fractions were poorly pronounced. The highest rate of hydrolysis of the air-dried meat products with starter cultures by the enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract makes it possible to predict in a greater degree a level of protein utilization by the human body. It was established that the highest growth indicators were in the laboratory animals, which diet was supplemented with air-dried products that contained starter cultures. A live weight gain over a 30 day period of feeding was 14.37 g and 12.82 g

  15. Research on Air-dried Density and Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo from Different Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to further research bamboo cultivation and expand its application field, air-dried density and mechanical properties of Moso bamboo from the 2 plantations under the same site condition were measured and analyzed by using the national standard The Testing Methods for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (GB / T 15780-1995). And the single linear regression analysis was carried out. The results showed that air-dried density and mechanical properties of the 2 kinds of Moso bamboo increase with...

  16. Twenty-One Genome Sequences from Pseudomonas Species and 19 Genome Sequences from Diverse Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere and Endosphere of Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Martin, Stanton [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome we generated draft genome sequences for twenty one Pseudomonas and twenty one other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Burkholderia, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium and Variovorax were generated.

  17. Application of Dry Air Drying Techniques on West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJianguo; XieLigong; DaiZongyu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the pre-eommissioning requirements of gas pipeline, the basic principles and influential factors of dry air drying adopted in long distance gas pipelines, and states in detail the technological flow and the equipment required, etc. are introduced, which will have practical significance in drying operation on gas pipeline.

  18. A computer-controlled continuous air drying and flask sampling system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, R.E.M.; Spijkervet, L.L.; Schut, J.K.; Been, H.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    A computer-controlled continuous air drying and flask sampling system has been developed and is discussed here. This system is set up for taking air samples automatically at remote places. Twenty glass flasks can be connected one by one or in pairs, and they can be filled at preset times, after

  19. Microencapsulation using an oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin O; Weaver, Jonathan V M; Wang, Weixing; Spiller, David G; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2011-08-07

    We describe the first example of a tri-phasic oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'. The method combines highly stable oil-in-water emulsions prepared using branched copolymer surfactants, with aqueous droplet encapsulation using 'dry water' technology.

  20. Microwave assisted air drying of osmotically treated pineapple with variable power programmes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, GE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable power programmes for microwave assisted air drying of pineapple were studied. The pineapple pieces were pre-treated by osmotic dehydration in a 55º Brix sucrose solution at 40ºC for 90 minutes. Variable power output programmes were designed...

  1. Polymer glazing for silver mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidlinger, H H; Schissel, P

    1985-07-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation and modification of polymeric glazings to protect silver mirrors. The mirrors were made using Corning 7809 glass as a substrate onto which a thin silver film is deposited. The modified polymeric films are then cast from solution onto the silver. The mirrors were characterized by measuring the hemispherical reflectance and the specular reflectance at 660 nm and selected acceptance angles (7.5 mrad or 3.5 mrad). The mirrors were exposed to environmental degradation using accelerated weathering devices and outdoor exposure. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that polymethylmethacrylate is a stable polymer in a terrestrial environment, but the polymer does not provide adequate protection for the silver reflector. The crucial role in degradation played by ultraviolet (uv) light is shown by several experimental results. It has been demonstrated that uv stabilizers added to the polymer improve the weatherability of mirrors. The relative effectiveness of different stabilizers will be discussed in terms of the weathering modes, retention of optical properties, and effectiveness of the additives. The process for silver deposition influences the reflectance of silver mirrors, and the optical properties depend on subtle relationships between the metallization and the dielectric (polymeric) films that are in contact with the silver.

  2. Effect of different air-drying periods on microtensile bond strength of an adhesive to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Daneshkazemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Today, use of adhesive systems is the most common materials in restorative dental procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different air-drying periods on the microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin using adhesive.   Materials and Methods: 15 sound molar teeth were selected. The an occlusal surfaces of teeth were removed with silicon carbide disks (3M/USA to reach flat surface of dentin. Then according to the air drying of solvent, the teeth were divided to five groups. After 5 sec etching and rinsing for 15 sec , the teeth were air dried for 3 sec . Then Singlebond (3M was used with different air-drying times (0s, 2s, 5s, 10s, 30s and cured. Then after insertion and curing of Saremco (microhybrid low shrinkage/Switzerland composite, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. Then hour glass slabs with 1 mm2 interface was created. Specimens were then subjected to µTBS force until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests.   Results: Statistical tests showed that there were significant differences between bond strength of groups (P=0.002. The mean of µTBS for the 2 Sec and 30 Sec evaporating time was the most and the least vawes, respectively.   Conclusion: An optimum air-drying time for solvent evaporation was the lowest time recommended by the manufacturer. Over and under evaporation time decreased µTBS significantly.

  3. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content.

  4. Twenty-One New Light Curves of OGLE-TR-56b: New System Parameters and Limits on Timing Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, E R; Elliot, J L; Seager, S; Osip, D J; Holman, M J; Winn, J N; Hoyer, S; Rojo, P

    2011-01-01

    Although OGLE-TR-56b was the second transiting exoplanet discovered, only one light curve, observed in 2006, has been published besides the discovery data. We present twenty-one light curves of nineteen different transits observed between July 2003 and July 2009 with the Magellan Telescopes and Gemini South. The combined analysis of the new light curves confirms a slightly inflated planetary radius relative to model predictions, with R_p = 1.378 +/- 0.090 R_J. However, the values found for the transit duration, semimajor axis, and inclination values differ significantly from the previous result, likely due to systematic errors. The new semimajor axis and inclination, a = 0.01942 +/- 0.00015 AU and i = 73.72 +/- 0.18 degrees, are smaller than previously reported, while the total duration, T_14 = 7931 +/- 38 s, is 18 minutes longer. The transit midtimes have errors from 23 s to several minutes, and no evidence is seen for transit midtime or duration variations. Similarly, no change is seen in the orbital period...

  5. New glazing choices for architectural daylighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milburn, D. I.

    2000-07-01

    An overview of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) translucent insulating glazing panels and honeycomb insulated translucent insulation-between-glass technologies for diffuse architectural daylighting is provided. The suitability of this type of translucent glazing units (TGUs) for various daylighting applications is assessed. The overview includes a discussion of advantages and limitation of both types of glazing panels and their performance characteristics. In general, FRP glazing panels are lightweight, economical and aesthetically pleasing, but they are susceptible to UV-initiated breakdown, limited light transmittance and are not easily recycled. TGU glazing units on the other hand have good light-diffusing properties, aesthetic appearance, superior insulation values, are not subject to fading or yellowing and are easily recycled. The typical glass TGU would break down into 99 per cent of recyclable materials. Although a TGU system would command approximately a 10 per cent price advantage over an FRP system, the unique qualities of TGUs make them an ideal choice for providing the highest quality diffuse daylighting in general buildings applications. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Next generation structural silicone glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Clift

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced engineering evaluation, using nonlinear analysis of hyper elastic material that provides significant improvement to structural silicone glazing (SSG design in high performance curtain wall systems. Very high cladding wind pressures required in hurricane zones often result in bulky SSG profile dimensions. Architectural desire for aesthetically slender curtain wall framing sight-lines in combination with a desire to reduce aluminium usage led to optimization of silicone material geometry for better stress distribution.To accomplish accurate simulation of predicted behaviour under structural load, robust stress-strain curves of the silicone material are essential. The silicone manufacturer provided physical property testing via a specialized laboratory protocol. A series of rigorous curve fit techniques were then made to closely model test data in the finite element computer analysis that accounts for nonlinear strain of hyper elastic silicone.Comparison of this advanced design technique to traditional SSG design highlights differences in stress distribution contours in the silicone material. Simplified structural engineering per the traditional SSG design method does not provide accurate forecasting of material and stress optimization as shown in the advanced design.Full-scale specimens subject to structural load testing were performed to verify the design capacity, not only for high wind pressure values, but also for debris impact per ASTM E1886 and ASTM E1996. Also, construction of the test specimens allowed development of SSG installation techniques necessitated by the unique geometry of the silicone profile. Finally, correlation of physical test results with theoretical simulations is made, so evaluation of design confidence is possible. This design technique will introduce significant engineering advancement to the curtain wall industry.

  7. Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.; Luís, H.; Franco, N.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Cruz, J.; Galaviz, D.; Fernandes, N.; Vieira, P.; Ribeiro, J. P.; Jesus, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis performed on the chemical composition of two golden glazes available in the market using the PIGE and PIXE techniques at the ITN ion beam laboratory. The analysis of the light elements was performed using the Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA) code, a standard-free method for PIGE analysis on thick samples. The results were compared to those obtained on an old glaze. Consistently high concentrations of lead and sodium were found in all analyzed golden glazes. The analysis of the samples pointed to Mo and Co as the specific elements responsible of the gold colour at the desired temperature, and allowed Portuguese ceramists to produce a golden glaze at 997 °C. Optical reflection spectra of the glazes are given, showing that the produced glaze has a spectrum similar to the old glaze. Also, in order to help the ceramists, the unknown compositions of four different types of frits (one of the components of glazes) were analysed.

  8. Serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and response to citalopram in terminally ill cancer patients: report of twenty-one cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzo, Maria Anna; Schillani, Giulia; Aguglia, Eugenio; De Vanna, Maurizio; Grassi, Luigi; Conte, Maria Anna; Giraldi, Tullio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the SSRI antidepressant drug citalopram on anxiety, depression and mental adjustment to cancer in terminally ill cancer patients, considering also the 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism. A group of twenty-one consecutive patients admitted to the hospice of the Casa di Cura Pineta del Carso (Trieste, Italy) with different types of advanced cancer, who were clinically judged to require treatment with an antidepressive drug, was treated with citalopram for two weeks. The response was determined and related to 5-HTTLPR. Citalopram significantly reduced the scores on the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). When the effects of citalopram were analyzed in relation to the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, the HADS depression score was significantly decreased only in patients with the "l/l" allelic variant of the serotonin transporter conferring high functional activity, while the score of the Mini-MAC fatalism scale was significantly increased in patients carrying at least one "s" allele. These preliminary findings seem to indicate that two weeks of treatment with citalopram are effective in reducing depressive symptoms in terminally ill cancer patients. Moreover, the effects of citalopram on fatalism as a strategy of mental adaptation to cancer, and on depressive symptoms depend on the allelic variants of the 5-HTTLPR genotype of the patients. These results seem to encourage the examination of a larger patient sample and of different treatment schedules, as well as a more thorough characterization of fatalism as a coping strategy in cancer patients.

  9. Monolithic Silica aerogel in superinsulating glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1988-01-01

    Silica aerogel is an open-pored porous transparent material with optical and thermal properties that makes the material very interesting as an insulation material in windows. A number of different aerogels have been investigated for their optical and thermal performance. High thermal resistance....... This phenomenon is considered being the main obstacle to incorporate the material in clear glazings but a significant improvement of the optical quality of aerogel has been observed during the last five years. A number of prototypical evacuated 500x500x28 mm aerogel double glazed units employing a new edge seal...

  10. Study on Longitudinal Gas Permeability of Air-dried Masson Pine Sapwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhuqiang; ZHANG Lifei; GUAN Ning; CHEN Guihua

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of the longitudinal gas permeability was made for air-dried sapwood specimens from Masson pine(Pinus massoniana).Results showed that air-dried Masson pine sapwood was one of the most permeable softwoods.The investigated specimens had an average longitudinal gas permeability of 4.60 ×10-13m3/m.and the permeability ranged from 1.06×10-13 to 1.12 ×10-12m3/m.The Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that,generally,there was no correlation between the longitudinal gas permeability and the trees from which specimens were prepared,and tree height had no significant effect on the longitudinal gas permeability.

  11. Effects of warm air-drying and spreading on resin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, D; Williams, P T; Kasloff, Z

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on resin-to-enamel bonding produced by warm air from a hair dryer, and to correlate changes in resin bond strength with resin tag structure. Herculite-XR resin composite and Bondlite bonding resin were used. The three technique variables were the type of air used for drying, air dryer distance, and drying and spreading time. Control samples were dried and the bonding resin spread with a dental air syringe, whereas warm air from a hair dryer was used on the experimental samples. The bond strength (MPa) was determined in shear at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Following bond strength evaluation, the teeth were immersed in 10% HCl for enamel dissolution and the resin tag structure was examined with the SEM. ANOVA analyses of shear bond strengths were performed. Warm air-drying and spreading for 15 seconds at 6 cm and 5 seconds at 6 cm respectively, produced statistically greater shear bond strengths (x = 20.4 +/- 4.4 MPa, P less than 0.05). The other drying time/distance combinations, including the control (x = 14.4 +/- 3.3 MPa), were not statistically different. Differences in resin tag structure were qualitatively evident under the SEM, with sharp tags produced by the warm air-drying and spreading techniques, compared to the blunt tags created by syringe air-drying and spreading. Warm air-drying and spreading significantly improved the bond strength. No apparent correlation exists between bond strength and tag length.

  12. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  13. [Possible mechanisms of aftereffects of GSM electromagnetic radiation on air-dry seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A

    2012-01-01

    Some physical treatments, such as microwave- and gamma-radiation and magnetic field, induce long-term transition of air-dry seeds from the fraction of strong seeds into the weak seed fraction, due to non-enzymatic hydrolysis ofbiomacromolecules. These physical factors make water molecules more active, which is followed by the release of water molecules from the hydration layer, disturbance of this layer structure, further activation of water molecules by means of the "domino effect," and accumulation of hydrolysis products.

  14. Effects of Soil and Air Drying Methods on Soil Plasticity of Different Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashan Ijaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atterberg Limits were initially defined in 1911, by Albert Atterberg, a Swedish scientist. Their purposes are to classifying cohesive soils and determine engineering properties of soils. According to ASTM, all the soils tested by Atterberg limits should be oven dried, it is because drying the soils in different degree will alter their properties significantly. Some of the physical properties of soils will undergo changes that appear to be permanent. Therefore, the soil samples should be in natural or air-dried form. However, in reality, due to time constraint and other factors, many will run the tests by using soil samples that are prepared by oven drying method. They assumed that there is no difference between the results of two types of drying method. However, in reality, the properties of soil will be affected and thus give a misleading result. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of two drying methods, air-drying method and oven drying method, on the soil plasticity. Six soil samples from different cities were tested. These tests include sieve analysis, specific gravity test, hydrometer analysis, Plastic limit and liquid limit test. Conclusively, the oven drying method could not replace the air-drying method in soil preparation for both Atterberg limits tests.

  15. Study on lycopene and antioxidant contents variations in tomatoes under air-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C-H; Liu, Y-C

    2007-11-01

    Effects of factors such as tomato cultivars, drying temperatures (40, 80, and 120 degrees C), and drying time (0 to 240 min) on tomato lycopene and the major antioxidant contents (MACs, herein as the sum of total phenolics and total flavonoids) during an air-drying process were investigated. The results showed that lycopene contents increased under all the drying temperatures during the first 60 min. However, the red tomato cultivars, that is, HR, SN, and TTL, exhibited a significant decrease in lycopene contents under 120 degrees C after drying for 75 min. According to the experimental data, an MAC threshold value of 500 mg/100 g dry matter of tomato is proposed. When the MAC is lower than this value during air-drying, lycopene contents in all tomato cultivars would drop rapidly. In addition, the tomatoes in yellow color group, containing more MACs initially and retaining more MACs under air-drying at 40 to 80 degrees C, are proposed to be the proper tomato cultivars for thermal processing.

  16. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  17. A Novel Infrared Radiant Glaze Exhibiting Antibacterialand Antifungal Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Infrared radiant powder was synthesized by conventional ceramic processing techniques by using Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, Co2O3 and kaolin as raw materials. A novel infrared radiant glaze was developed by introducing the infrared radiant powder into glazing as a functional additive. Infrared radiant characteristics of the powder and the glaze were investigated. The optimum content of infrared radiant powder in glazing was ascertained to be 5%. The infrared radiant glaze exhibits significant antibacterial and antifungal functions due to the thermal effect of infrared radiation. Antibacterial percentages of the glaze reach 91%-100% when Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis are used as model bacterium respectively, while antifungal percentage of the glaze exceeds 95% when Penicillum citrinum is used as model fungus.

  18. Cooling load across glazed building surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinli, S.; Krochmann, J. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Lichttechnik)

    1980-05-01

    It is only possible to build favourably with regard to costs and energy requirements, if the windows which are required for the direct visual contact between the inner and outer space are favourably selected with regard to the thermal loading of the internal space during the summer months and the heat losses during the cold season of the year. To achieve this an exact calculation of the partial cooling load is required, which is caused by the solar radiation entering into the inner space through the glazed building surfaces. Described are the items for the calculation of the magnitude of the radiation which defines this part of the cooling load on to any inclined surface and the influence of the properties of the glazing.

  19. Possible roles of vacuolar H+-ATPase and mitochondrial function in tolerance to air-drying stress revealed by genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Jun; Ando, Akira; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to air-drying stress during dried yeast production processes. To clarify the genes required for air-drying tolerance, we performed genome-wide screening using the complete deletion strain collection of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screening identified 278 gene deletions responsible for air-drying sensitivity. These genes were classified based on their cellular function and on the localization of their gene products. The results showed that the genes required for air-drying tolerance were frequently involved in mitochondrial functions and in connection with vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, which plays a role in vacuolar acidification. To determine the role of vacuolar acidification in air-drying stress tolerance, we monitored intracellular pH. The results showed that intracellular acidification was induced during air-drying and that this acidification was amplified in a deletion mutant of the VMA2 gene encoding a component of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, suggesting that vacuolar H(+)-ATPase helps maintain intracellular pH homeostasis, which is affected by air-drying stress. To determine the effects of air-drying stress on mitochondria, we analysed the mitochondrial membrane potential under air-drying stress conditions using MitoTracker. The results showed that mitochondria were extremely sensitive to air-drying stress, suggesting that a mitochondrial function is required for tolerance to air-drying stress. We also analysed the correlation between oxidative-stress sensitivity and air-drying-stress sensitivity. The results suggested that oxidative stress is a critical determinant of sensitivity to air-drying stress, although ROS-scavenging systems are not necessary for air-drying stress tolerance. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Fast Air-dry Dropping Chromosome Preparation Method Suitable for FISH in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Ma, Lu; Houben, Andreas

    2015-12-16

    Preparation of chromosome spreads is a prerequisite for the successful performance of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Preparation of high quality plant chromosome spreads is challenging due to the rigid cell wall. One of the approved methods for the preparation of plant chromosomes is a so-called drop preparation, also known as drop-spreading or air-drying technique. Here, we present a protocol for the fast preparation of mitotic chromosome spreads suitable for the FISH detection of single and high copy DNA probes. This method is an improved variant of the air-dry drop method performed under a relative humidity of 50%-55%. This protocol comprises a reduced number of washing steps making its application easy, efficient and reproducible. Obvious benefits of this approach are well-spread, undamaged and numerous metaphase chromosomes serving as a perfect prerequisite for successful FISH analysis. Using this protocol we obtained high-quality chromosome spreads and reproducible FISH results for Hordeum vulgare, H. bulbosum, H. marinum, H. murinum, H. pubiflorum and Secale cereale.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Hot Air Drying Kinetics of Momordica Charantia Slices and Its Color Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the drying characteristics of fresh Momordica Charantia slices at different drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80°C and different thicknesses (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 cm. Three mathematical models including Page, Henderson and Pabis and Wang and Singh equations were compared and discussed. The results showed that the Page model provided the best correlation capacity with the decision coefficient R2 of 0.998. The color change of Momordica Charantia slices during hot air drying at different temperatures were also studied by the measuring of color parameters such as the values of Hunter L* (whiteness/darkness, a* (redness/greenness and b* (yellowness/blueness. The total color change (ΔE of the samples was observed to increase as drying temperature increased. The results show that the color ofMomordica Charantia slices changed sharply when temperature was higher than about 70°C. The study could provide theoretical bases of the equipment design and process optimization for hot air drying of Momordica Charantia

  2. Influence of alumina characteristics on glaze properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrufat, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium oxide is a synthetic raw material manufactured from bauxite by the Bayer process, whose Al2O3 content typically exceeds 99%. Four main types of alumina can be defined, depending on the processing used: hydrargillite Al(OH3, boehmite AlOOH, transition aluminas (calcined at low temperatures, 1000 °C, with an intermediary crystallographic structure between hydrates and alpha alumina, and α-Al2O3 (calcined at high temperatures, >1100 °C. In glaze manufacturing, α-Al2O3 is the main type of alumina used. This raw material acts as a matting agent: the matt effect depends on alumina particle size and content in the glaze. This study examines the effect of the degree of alumina calcination on glaze technical and aesthetic properties. For this purpose, aluminas with different degrees of calcination were added to a glaze formulated with a transparent frit and kaolin, in order to simplify the system to be studied. The results show that, depending on the degree of calcination, alumina particles can react with the glaze components (SiO2, CaO, and ZnO to form new crystalline phases (anorthite and gahnite. Both crystallisations extract CaO and ZnO from the glassy phase, increasing glassy phase viscosity. The variation in crystalline phases and glassy phase viscosity yields glazes with different technical and aesthetic properties.

    El óxido de aluminio es una materia prima sintética fabricada a partir de la bauxita por medio del proceso Bayer, cuyo contenido de Al2O3 supera, por regla general, el 99%. Se pueden definir cuatro tipos de alúmina, en función del tipo de proceso usado: hidrargilita Al(OH3, boehmita AlOOH, alúminas de transición (calcinadas a bajas temperaturas, 1000 °C, con una estructura cristalográfica intermedia entre los hidratos y la alfa alúmina, y la α-Al2O3 (calcinada a

  3. Industrial through-air drying of nonwovens and paper: Basic principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzi, A.; Rueckert, M. [Fleissner GmbH and Co., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The requirements for drying and thermobonding equipment working on the basis of the hot air flow-through system vary considerably due to the large variety of nonwovens qualities, production methods and required production speeds. It is therefore necessary to construct diverse drying systems in order to be able to offer appropriate machines for the desired purposes. Optimum heat and mass transfer from the penetrating air to the permeable material to be dried is ensured by through-air drying. Following Hans Fleissner`s invention of the through-air system for drying of textiles and its practical application in the perforated drum dryer for more than 50 years a second engineering breakthrough for the paper and nonwovens industry has been achieved by Gerold Fleissner with the high-tech through-air drum. This paper presents various possibilities of air flow through the material and provide criteria to facilitate selection of the proper drying system.

  4. Empirical Modeling on Hot Air Drying of Fresh and Pre-treated Pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkankit Yardfon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study drying kinetics and determine empirical model of fresh pineapple and pre-treated pineapple with sucrose solution at different concentrations during drying. 3 mm thick samples were immersed into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution before hot air drying at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C. The empirical models to predict the drying kinetics were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content decreased when increasing the drying temperatures and times. Increase in sucrose concentration led to longer drying time. According to the statistical values of the highest coefficients (R2, the lowest least of chi-square (χ2 and root mean square error (RMSE, Logarithmic model was the best models for describing the drying behavior of soaked samples into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution.

  5. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  6. Transmission of Curing Light through Moist, Air-Dried, and EDTA Treated Dentine and Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uusitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study measured light transmission through enamel and dentin and the effect of exposed dentinal tubules to light propagation. Methods. Light attenuation through enamel and dentin layers of various thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm was measured using specimens that were (1 moist and (2 air-dried (n=5. Measurements were repeated after the specimens were treated with EDTA. Specimens were transilluminated with a light curing unit (maximum power output 1869 mW/cm2, and the mean irradiance power of transmitting light was measured. The transmission of light through teeth was studied using 10 extracted intact human incisors and premolars. Results. Transmitted light irradiance through 1 mm thick moist discs was 500 mW/cm2 for enamel and 398 mW/cm2 for dentin (p<0.05. The increase of the specimen thickness decreased light transmission in all groups (p<0.005, and moist specimens attenuated light less than air-dried specimens in all thicknesses (p<0.05. EDTA treatment increased light transmission from 398 mW/cm2 to 439 mW/cm2 (1 mm dentin specimen thickness (p<0.05. Light transmission through intact premolar was 6.2 mW/cm2 (average thickness 8.2 mm and through incisor was 37.6 mW/cm2 (average thickness 5.6 mm. Conclusion. Light transmission through enamel is greater than that through dentin, probably reflecting differences in refractive indices and extinction coefficients. Light transmission through enamel, dentin, and extracted teeth seemed to follow Beer-Lambert’s law.

  7. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL03 Federal Motor Vehicle.... The changes proposed in this NPRM to the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on glazing...

  8. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other...

  9. Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, M., E-mail: mmfonseca@itn.pt [Dept. Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Luis, H., E-mail: heliofluis@itn.pt [Dept. Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N., E-mail: nfranco@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Reis, M.A., E-mail: mareis@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Chaves, P.C., E-mail: cchaves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Taborda, A., E-mail: galaviz@cii.fc.ul.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Cruz, J., E-mail: jdc@fct.unl.pt [Dept. Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Galaviz, D., E-mail: ataborda@itn.pt [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dept. Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2011-12-15

    We present the analysis performed on the chemical composition of two golden glazes available in the market using the PIGE and PIXE techniques at the ITN ion beam laboratory. The analysis of the light elements was performed using the Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA) code, a standard-free method for PIGE analysis on thick samples. The results were compared to those obtained on an old glaze. Consistently high concentrations of lead and sodium were found in all analyzed golden glazes. The analysis of the samples pointed to Mo and Co as the specific elements responsible of the gold colour at the desired temperature, and allowed Portuguese ceramists to produce a golden glaze at 997 Degree-Sign C. Optical reflection spectra of the glazes are given, showing that the produced glaze has a spectrum similar to the old glaze. Also, in order to help the ceramists, the unknown compositions of four different types of frits (one of the components of glazes) were analysed.

  10. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used...

  11. Impact of Different Methodologies on the Detection of Point Mutations in Routine Air-dried Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, C; Münz, S; Krogdahl, A

    2013-01-01

    promising approach for molecular FNA diagnostics. The objective of this methodological study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations from routine air-dried thyroid FNA smears, and to find an optimal method for detecting these mutations in FNA samples. DNA...... was extracted from 110 routine air-dried FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The presence of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations was assessed by real-time PCRs and high resolution melting analysis, and/or pyrosequencing in comparison to real-time PCRs...

  12. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  13. Effect of different air-drying time on the microleakage of single-step self-etch adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horieh Moosavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three different air-drying times on microleakage of three self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Class I cavities were prepared for 108 extracted sound human premolars. The teeth were divided into three main groups based on three different adhesives: Opti Bond All in One (OBAO, Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB, Bond Force (BF. Each main group divided into three subgroups regarding the air-drying time: without application of air stream, following the manufacturer's instruction, for 10 sec more than manufacturer's instruction. After completion of restorations, specimens were thermocycled and then connected to a fluid filtration system to evaluate microleakage. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-test (α = 0.05. Results The microleakage of all adhesives decreased when the air-drying time increased from 0 sec to manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. The microleakage of BF reached its lowest values after increasing the drying time to 10 sec more than the manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. Microleakage of OBAO and CSB was significantly lower compared to BF in all three drying time (p < 0.001. Conclusions Increasing in air-drying time of adhesive layer in one-step self-etch adhesives caused reduction of microleakage, but the amount of this reduction may be dependent on the adhesive components of self-etch adhesives.

  14. A model on the effect of temperature and moisture on pollen longevity in air-dry storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Buitink, J.; Walters, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Crane, J.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the survival of pollen ofTypha latifoliaL. stored for up to 261 d over seven different saturated salt solutions (providing 0.5 to 66% relative humidity) and six different constant temperatures (from −5 to +45 °C) were analysed to quantify the effect of air-dry storage environment on pollen l

  15. Interaction of color glazes with Japanese ceramic pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kazuhide; Kato, Takafumi

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of penetration activation energies of the traditional glazes, such as 'Te stu-Aka (Iron-Red)' and 'Wara-Jiro (Straw-White)', into the ceramic body were made on certain Japanese brand clay samples at the glaze-firing process. The observed values ranged from 35 kj/mol of 'Imari-Straw White' combination to 240 k/mol of 'Karatsu White-Iron Red' combination. Next, the manifestation of copper green color of an experimental glaze, mounted on the 'Imari White' test pieces, was examined after firing at 1300 degree C under various atmospheres. Air produced green, while N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmospheres made the same glaze rather colorless and a CO atmosphere produced a faintly pink color. On the basis of the 1976 CIE L*a*b* color three-dimensional system, it has been discovered that an addition of 2 wt % CuCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O to the 'Wara-Jiro' glaze produced an optimal greenness in air. Also, by comparing a series of pottery works glazed with 'Oribe' green glaze, it has been revealed that there are many types of greenness derived from the difference in Value (L*) as well as in Chroma (C*). A commercially available 'Kutani' sake cup possessed an almost pure green color. (author)

  16. Effect of microwave and air drying of parboiled rice on stabilization of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk, Laila F.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Giza 175 (short grain and Giza 181 (long grain were partDoiled by soaking the grains at room temperature for 20 hours and steaming for 15 min then dried either at room temperature or by microwave. The results indicated that air and microwave drying significantly increased oil extraction in both rice bran varieties. Parboiling followed by air or microwave drying produced a slight change on protein, fiber and ash content of rice bran and reduced the development of free fatty acids (F.F.A. In oil bran. Microwave samples have less F.F.A. content than the corresponding samples air dried. Oils from the cold stored rice bran presented lower F.F.A. than the corresponding oil bran stored at room temperature. The ratio between total unsaturated fatty acids and total saturated ones (Tu/Ts decreased after air and microwave drying. Results also show that air drying increased the ratio of total hydrocarbons and total sterols (Tu/Ts in both varieties while microwave decreased it.

    Dos variedades de arroz, Giza 175 (grano corto y Giza 181 (grano largo se precocieron mediante la puesta en remojo de los granos a temperatura ambiente durante 20 horas y cocimiento al vapor durante 15 minutos, luego se secaron a temperatura ambiente o por microondas. Los resultados indicaron que el secado al aire y en microondas aumentó significativamente la extracción del aceite en ambas variedades de salvado de arroz. El precocido seguido del secado al aire o en microondas produjo un cambio pequeño en el contenido en proteína, fibra y ceniza y redujo el desarrollo de ácidos grasos libres (F.F.A. en el aceite de salvado. Las muestras secadas en microondas tuvieron un menor contenido en F.F.A. que las muestras correspondientes al secado en aire. Aceites de salvado de arroz almacenado en frió presentaron menor F.F.A. que los almacenados a temperatura ambiente. La relación entre ácidos grasos insaturados totales y los saturados totales (Tu/Ts disminuy

  17. EFFECT OF AIR-DRYING ON DEMINERALIZED AND ON SOUND CORONAL HUMAN DENTIN - A STUDY ON DENSITY AND ON LESION SHRINKAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARENDS, J; RUBEN, J

    1995-01-01

    Recently, several papers investigated the linear dimensional changes in dentine after air-drying. This paper pertains to weight changes, volume changes, and density changes caused by air-drying of sound and demineralized intact dentine. The densities of sound and artificially demineralized human cor

  18. Noise insulation of triple glazing. Schalldaemmung von Dreifachverglasungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, S.; Lakatos, B.

    1984-01-01

    If the hollow space in double glazing is filled with a heavy gas or a gas mixture, and the intermediate space is divided by a third pane, the thermal insulation is increased. At the same time, the gas filling and the additional pane have acoustic effects. With suitable design, better heat transmission coefficients can be achieved, without the sound insulation of such glazing being less than that of double glazing of the same total thickness and with an intermediate space of the same size filled with air. (orig.).

  19. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... renovation due to damage of the glazing from the presence of salts. These tiles were severely contaminated with both chlorides and nitrates, and one of the tiles also contained sulphates though at a low concentration. The charge transfer was too low in the experiments to obtain full desalination...

  20. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollini, R. [Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Viale Druso 1, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Danza, L.; Meroni, I. [ITC-CNR, Construction Technologies Institute - Italian National Research Council, Via Lombardia, 49 - 20098 San Giuliano Milanese (MI) (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  1. Effects of warm air-drying on intra-pulpal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, D; Kasloff, Z; Williams, P T

    1991-08-01

    This study was designed to determine what effects different warm air-drying conditions have on the intra-pulpal temperature (IPT), with or without chamber preparation and with or without an acid-etching treatment of the enamel. Four human maxillary centrals and four cuspids had lingual access openings prepared to accommodate a thermal sensor probe. Half of the specimens received a labial chamber preparation and half were acid-etched. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C prior to testing. Labial aspects were positioned at 2 cm and 6 cm from the nozzle of a 500W hair dryer and IPTs were recorded after 15, 30, 45, and 60-second exposures. Exposure times for the acid-etched samples were modified to 10 seconds at 2 cm and 15 seconds at 6 cm. Results showed that for unetched teeth, increases in the IPT were greater at the 2 cm/15-second exposure (a 10.4-12.0 degrees C increase) than at the 6 cm/15-second exposure (a 3.9-6.6 degrees C increase). Even greater temperature changes were seen as the exposure times were increased to 30, 45, and 60 seconds. When the teeth were acid-etched, IPT rises of 5.6-10.1 degrees C and 5.8-8.7 degrees C were measured at 2 cm/10 seconds and at 6 cm/15 seconds, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-03-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln(D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  3. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln( D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  4. Mathematical Modeling and Effect of Various Hot-Air Drying on Mushroom (Lentinus edodes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-hui; XIA Chun-yan; TAN Yu-rong; CHEN Long; MING Jian

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine the characteristics and drying process of mushroom (Lentinus edodes) by 6 different hot-air drying methods namely isothermal drying, uniform raise drying, non-uniform raise drying, uniform intermittent drying, non-uniform intermittent drying and combined drying. The chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein, crude fat, total sugars, dietary ifber, and energy), color parameters (L, a*, b*, c*, and h0) and rehydration capacities were determined. Among all the experiments, non-uniform intermittent drying reached a better comprehensive results due to the higher chemical composition, better color quality associated with high bright (26.381±5.842), high color tone (73.670±2.975), low chroma (13.349±3.456) as well as the highest rehydration (453.76%weigh of dried body). Nine kinds of classical mathematical model were used to obtained moisture data and the Midili-kucuk model can be described by the drying process with the coefifcient (R2 ranged from 0.99790 to 0.99967), chi-square (χ2 ranged from 0.00003 to 0.00019) and root mean square error (RMSE ranged from 0.000486 to 0.0012367).

  5. Variation in ultrasonic frequency and time as pre-treatments to air-drying of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ekow Abano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable drying is an alternative method to curb post harvest decay of vegetables and a process to produce dried vegetables, which can be directly consumed or used as ingredients for the preparation of soups, stews, baby foods, cakes, puddings, and many other foods. In this study, the effect of ultrasound frequency and sonication time as pre-treatment prior to air drying at 70°C at an air velocity of 0.5 m/s, on carrot drying kinetics, flavour, colour, and non-enzymatic browning was investigated using a 3-level factorial response surface method. The result showed that an increase in sonication frequency and time did not significantly increase moisture diffusivity but in comparison with the control, water diffusivity increased after ultrasound application and the overall drying time was reduced. Application of the ultrasound pre-treatment in distilled water resulted in water gain and sugar loss, indicating that the ultrasonic pre-treatment can be an important step to produce low sugar content dried products. The brightness and redness to yellowness values of the ultrasonically pre-treated dried carrots were better than those without ultrasound application. In comparison with the flavour of the control, the ultrasound pre-treated samples recorded higher flavour response signals, indicating that the application of ultrasound improved the flavour of the dried carrot. The variation in sonication frequency and time did not significantly affect the non-enzymatic browning index of the dried products but were better than the control.

  6. Changes in viscoelastic properties of longan during hot-air drying in relation to its indentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatuphong Varith

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in viscoelastic properties are related to the indentation of whole longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. in the drying process. The objective of this research is to determine parameters from a creep test to characterise the viscoelastic properties of on-progress dried longan. During 65C hot-air drying, the whole longan was sampled every 2 hours to perform the creep test with a constant stress of 44 kPa using a texture analyser. Viscoelastic properties, viz. retardation time (ret, instantaneous compliance (J0, retarded compliance (J1, creep compliance (J, Newtonian viscosity (0, and modulus of elasticity (E were analysed using the four-element Burger’s model. The ret and E decreased linearly as the moisture content decreased from approximately 70% to 64-57%, then they linearly increased as the moisture content further decreased to 11%. The J and J1 increased linearly and then decreased linearly as the moisture content decreased, showing the transition moisture content of 64%. The J0 decreased as the moisture content decreased. There was no marked change in , thus it was not involved in the indentation of dried longan. The moisture content of 64-57% was found to be the critical range leading to the indentation of longan during the drying process.

  7. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  8. Air-drying of cells, the novel conditions for stimulated synthesis of triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Shiratake

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the

  9. Air-drying of cells, the novel conditions for stimulated synthesis of triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratake, Takuma; Sato, Atsushi; Minoda, Ayumi; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Sato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w), relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w), relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the algal species.

  10. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Ji-Young; Jung, Hyo-Kyung; Choi, Il-Kyung; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau) disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control), polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometr...

  11. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  12. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  13. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  14. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%).

  15. PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangement detection is feasible in routine air dried fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the "indeterminate" category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular carcinomas (FTC) and papillary carcinomas (PTC), their detection...... as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine-air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with RT-PCR. Methods: A new method for RNA extraction......). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. Conclusion: These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET...

  16. A novel method for air drying aloe leaf slices by covering with filter papers as a shrink-proof layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Baek, J H; Lee, S J; Choi, S Y; Hur, W; Lee, S Y

    2009-01-01

    To prevent the shrinkage of aloe vera slices during air drying, a method utilizing a shrink-proof layer was developed. The sample was configured of whole leaf aloe slices, where 1 side or both sides were covered with filter papers as shrink-proof layers. After air drying by varying the air temperature and the slice thickness, the drying characteristics, as well as several quality factors of the dried aloe vera leaf slices, were analyzed. In the simulation of the drying curves, the modified Page model showed the best fitness, representing a diffusion-controlled drying mechanism. Nonetheless, there was a trace of a constant-rate drying period in the samples dried by the method. Shrinkage was greatly reduced, and the rehydration ratios increased by approximately 50%. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that the surface structure of original fibrous form was well sustained. FT-IR characteristics showed that the dried samples could sustain aloe polysaccharide acetylation. Furthermore, the functional properties of the dried slices including water holding capacity, swelling, and fat absorption capability were improved, and polysaccharide retention levels increased by 20% to 30%. Therefore, we concluded that application of shrink-proof layers on aloe slices provides a novel way to overcome the shrinkage problems commonly found in air drying, thereby improving their functional properties with less cost. Practical Application: This research article demonstrates a novel air drying method using shrink-proof layers to prevent the shrinkage of aloe slices. We analyzed extensively the characteristics of shrinkage mechanism and physical properties of aloe flesh gels in this drying system. We concluded that this method can be a beneficial means to retain the functional properties of dried aloe, and a potential alternative to freeze drying, which is still costly.

  17. Variation in tensile properties and relationship between tensile properties and air-dried density for moso bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Benhua FEI; Haiqing REN; Zehui JIANG; Xinge LIU

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the variation in tensile properties and the relationship between the tensile properties and the air-dried density for the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by sampling at different heights and radial positions. Results showed that the variation of the longitudinal tensile properties in the radial direction was greater than that in the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal tensile modules of elasticity (MOE) ranged from 8.49 to 32.49 GPa. MOE for the outermost layer was 3-4 times as high as that for the innermost layer. The longitudinal tensile strength (MOR) ranged from 115.94 to 328.15 MPa. MOR for the outermost layer is 2-3 times as high as that for the innermost layer. Linear and curvilinear regressions were done from tested data of MOE, MOR and air-dried density in this paper. The linear equation worked a little better than the curvilinear one to predict the longitudinal MOR and MOE from air-dried density.

  18. Optimization of Microwave-Osmotic Pretreatment of Apples with Subsequent Air-Drying for Preparing High-Quality Dried Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Azarpazhooh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prepared apple (Red Gala cylinders were subjected to microwave-osmotic dehydration treatment under continuous flow medium spray (MWODS conditions and then air-dried to a final 20% moisture content. The dried samples were evaluated for color and textural properties, and rehydration capacity. The MWODS pretreatments were based on a central composite rotatable design and a response surface methodology using five levels of sucrose concentration, temperature, and contact time at a constant flow rate of 2800 mL/min. The air-drying was carried out at 60°C, 15±1% relative humidity, and 0.64±0.02 m/s air velocity. The results were compared to untreated air-dried (AD (worst-case scenario and freeze-dried (FD (best-case scenario apples without the MWODS treatment. Color properties were affected regardless of the type of treatment. Conventional AD apples were darker in color, whereas MWODS-treated samples were lighter with higher L∗ and b∗ values, higher Hue and Chroma values but lower a∗ value and ΔE. Further the color parameters of MWODS-treated samples were closer or equal to the FD apples. The texture properties were also affected by the osmotic variables with MWODS treatment resulting in softer and chewier products. The AD samples were hard, and FD apples were brittle.

  19. Influence of warm air-drying on enamel bond strength and surface free-energy of self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Koji; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Furuichi, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    We examined the effect of warm air-drying on the enamel bond strengths and the surface free-energy of three single-step self-etch adhesives. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and then wet ground with #600 silicon carbide (SiC) paper. The adhesives were applied according to the instructions of the respective manufacturers and then dried in a stream of normal (23°C) or warm (37°C) air for 5, 10, and 20 s. After visible-light irradiation of the adhesives, resin composites were condensed into a mold and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then the bond strengths were measured. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. The enamel bond strengths varied according to the air-drying time and ranged from 15.8 to 19.1 MPa. The trends for the bond strengths were different among the materials. The value of the γS⁺ component increased slightly when drying was performed with a stream of warm air, whereas that of the γS⁻ component decreased significantly. These data suggest that warm air-drying is essential to obtain adequate enamel bond strengths, although increasing the drying time did not significantly influence the bond strength.

  20. Leaching heavy metals from the surface soil of reclaimed tidal flat by alternating seawater inundation and air drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Zhen-Ling; Li, Qu-Sheng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Li-Li; He, Bao-Yan; Xu, Zhi-Min; Ye, Jin-Shao; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Leaching experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to simulate seawater leaching combined with alternating seawater inundation and air drying. We investigated the heavy metal release of soils caused by changes associated with seawater inundation/air drying cycles in the reclaimed soils. After the treatment, the contents of all heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu), except Zn, in surface soil significantly decreased (P removal rates ranging from 10% to 51%. The amounts of the exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, and oxidizable fractions also significantly decreased (P heavy metals. Measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films indicated that seawater inundation significantly increased the re-mobility of heavy metals. During seawater inundation, iron oxide reduction induced the release of heavy metals in the reducible fraction. Decomposition of organic matter, and complexation with dissolved organic carbon decreased the amount of heavy metals in the oxidizable fraction. Furthermore, complexation of chloride ions and competition of cations during seawater inundation and/or leaching decreased the levels of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. By contrast, air drying significantly enhanced the concentration of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. Therefore, the removal of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction can be enhanced during subsequent leaching with seawater.

  1. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P  0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  2. Essential oil composition of the aerial parts of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Barhoumi, Lina M; Abaza, Ismail F; Afifi, Fatma U

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The essential oils of fresh and air-dried S. palaestina were mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.66% and 65.98%, respectively). The major component detected in the oils of fresh and dry S. palaestina was germacrene D (21.18% and 26.02%, respectively). Air drying resulted in a general increase of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and a great decrease in the percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons.

  3. Cardiac abnormalities in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study with a clinical-pathological correlation in twenty-one adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdy Gesmar Volga Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the cardiac abnormalities and their evolution during the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as to correlate clinical and pathological data. METHODS - Twenty-one patients, admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were prospectively studied and followed until their death. Age ranged from 19 to 42 years (17 males. ECG and echocardiogram were also obtained every six months. After death, macro- and microscopic examinations were also performed. RESULTS - The most frequent causes of referral to the hospital were: diarrhea or repeated pneumonias, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis or Kaposi sarcoma. The most frequent findings were acute or chronic pericarditis (42% and dilated cardiomyopathy (19%. Four patients died of cardiac problems: infective endocarditis, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, bacterial myocarditis and infection by Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSION - Severe cardiac abnormalities were the cause of death in some patients. In the majority of the patients, a good correlation existed between clinical and anatomical-pathological data. Cardiac evaluation was important to detect early manifestations and treat them accordingly, even in asymptomatic patients.

  4. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-12-08

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed.

  5. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  6. Cobalt-Blue Decoration Painted on Early Islamic White Glazed Wares

    OpenAIRE

    波頭, 桂

    1998-01-01

    White glazed ware with cobalt-blue decoration and white glazed ware with cobalt-blue and copper-green decoration, produced in Mesopotamia during the Abbasid period, are objects of this paper. Sherds of these types

  7. Effects of production methods and protective ingredients on the viability of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 in air-dried alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Arcand, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use a microencapsulation technology to prepare air-dried concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011. The cultures were microencapsulated in alginate beads, which were added to a growth medium to allow cell multiplication inside the matrix; the beads were recovered, dipped in protective solutions, and air-dried. The effects of fermentation technology and of the composition of the protective solutions on subsequent survival during air-drying were examined. The cells prepared under a constant pH of 6.2 had only 2.5% survival to air-drying at 25 °C when the protective solution was composed of sucrose and phosphate. Allowing the pH to drop to 4.2 during the biomass production step and using a protective medium composed of glycerol, maltodextrin, yeast extract, and ascorbate increased survival to 20%. If the ingredients of the protective medium at the beginning of drying were concentrated at a water activity of 0.96 rather than 0.98, survival during air-drying increased further to 56%. This rate was similar to that of a traditional freeze-drying process. These data suggest that applying a combination of acid and osmotic stresses to L. rhamnosus R0011 cells improves their subsequent stability during the air-drying process. Dried microencapsulated cultures having 2.6 × 10(11) CFU·g(-1) were obtained.

  8. Study on the energy performance of glazing surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia MOGA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A proper thermal design of the building envelope represents an important factor for the energy economics. Glazing surfaces represent one of the important elements in the hygrothermal design activity of a building envelope. The window’s thermal performance has also a strong influence on the thermal performance of the opaque area of the wall. This fact imposed the research of the real interaction, of cooperation and of mutual influences of the characteristics between the two components of the wall of the building envelope, respectively the opaque and the glazing area. Optimal constructive details for the opaque and glazing area of the wall need to be properly designed in order to achieve the required thermal and energy performances imposed for new types of buildings, e.g. passive houses, zero energy buildings.

  9. CFD analysis of heat collection in a glazed gallery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Maria Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio Jose; Pistono, Jorge; Blanco, Eduardo [Universidad de Oviedo, EDZE (Energia), Campus de Viesques, 33271 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    A glazed gallery in most old buildings is a space located on the first floor (and/or higher floors), facing south and almost fully glazed. As a result of the large glazed area and the orientation of the gallery, its temperature is warmer than the exterior and, in cold weather, it is used both as a space to insulate the adjacent rooms and as a leisure area, among other applications. In the framework of the ARFRISOL project (Bioclimatic Architecture and Solar Cooling), a demonstration container has been constructed in northern Spain (Asturias) which includes, among other bioclimatic elements, a glazed gallery. This gallery is considered as an element of Bioclimatic Architecture that enables solar radiation to be collected and the energy obtained to be used to support the building's air conditioning system. It consists of a south-facing glazed exterior wall, an intermediate space or passage and a partially glazed interior wall. Dampers located in the floor and ceiling of the intermediate space and connected to the air ducts enable the air circulating inside the gallery to be heated or cooled, depending on the season of the year, before it is further conditioned and conveyed to the rooms. This paper focuses on the three-dimensional numerical simulation of the airflow inside the gallery. The aim is to obtain a model to evaluate the thermal energy obtained in this architectural feature, integrating the effect of certain variables, such as the incident solar irradiation, the outdoor temperature and the air flow rate circulating in the gallery. (author)

  10. Comparative study of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying and isothermal heat treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Amdadul; Aldred, Peter; Chen, Jie; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-11-15

    The extent and nature of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying environments was measured and analysed using single droplet drying. A custom-built, single droplet drying instrument was used for this purpose. Single droplets having 5±0.1μl volume (initial droplet diameter 1.5±0.1mm) containing 10% (w/v) WPI were dried at air temperatures of 45, 65 and 80°C for 600s at constant air velocity of 0.5m/s. The extent and nature of denaturation of WPI in isothermal heat treatment processes was measured at 65 and 80°C for 600s and compared with those obtained from convective air drying. The extent of denaturation of WPI in a high hydrostatic pressure environment (600MPa for 600s) was also determined. The results showed that at the end of 600s of convective drying at 65°C the denaturation of WPI was 68.3%, while it was only 10.8% during isothermal heat treatment at the same medium temperature. When the medium temperature was maintained at 80°C, the denaturation loss of WPI was 90.0% and 68.7% during isothermal heat treatment and convective drying, respectively. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction of WPI was found to be more stable in the convective drying conditions than β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin, especially at longer drying times. The extent of denaturation of WPI in convective air drying (65 and 80°C) and isotheral heat treatment (80°C) for 600s was found to be higher than its denaturation in a high hydrostatic pressure environment at ambient temperature (600MPa for 600s).

  11. Method and apparatus for an insulating glazing unit and compliant seal for an insulating glazing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, IV, William H.; Freebury, Gregg E.; Beidleman, Neal J.; Hulse, Michael

    2016-05-03

    A Vacuum Insulating Glazing Unit (VIGU) comprises two or more glass lites (panes) spaced apart from one another and hermetically bonded to an edge seal assembly therebetween. The resulting cavity between the lites is evacuated to create at least one insulating vacuum cavity within which are disposed a plurality of stand-off members to maintain separation between the lites. The edge seal assembly is preferably compliant in the longitudinal (i.e., edgewise) direction to allow longitudinal relative motion between the two lites (e.g., from thermal expansion). The longitudinal compliance may be obtained by imprinting a three-dimensional pattern into the edge seal material. The edge seal assembly is preferably bonded to the lites with a first bond portion that is hermetic and a second bond portion that is load-resistant. Methods for producing VIGUs and/or compliant edge seal assemblies and VIGU and edge seal apparatus are disclosed.

  12. Mössbauer spectroscopic study on glaze of pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kazutoyo; Haruta, Hiroshi; Honda, Chikako; Katada, Motomi; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakada, Masami; Saeki, Masakatsu; Aratono, Yasuyuki

    1994-12-01

    Iron-barium glaze was prepared from commercially available materials for ceramic arts and from chemical reagents, and investigated by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy and an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Mössbauer spectra showed a doublet of paramagnetic high-spin Fe(II) and Fe(III) incorporated into aluminosilicate, and the magnetically-split hyperfine structures of hematite and magnetite, depending on the iron content and firing conditions. The EPMA indicated striped patterns on the secondary electron images, and the fluorescent X-ray analysis proved that the patterns are due to the heterogeneous distribution of elements in the glaze.

  13. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardini, Maria Pia; Carli, Marco; del Vecchio, Nicola; Rovati, Ariele; Cova, Ottavia; Valigi, Francesco; Agnetti, Gaia; Macconi, Martina; Adamo, Daniela; Traina, Mario; Laudini, Francesco; Marcheselli, Ilaria; Caruso, Nicolò; Gedda, Tiziano; Donati, Fabio; Marzadro, Alessandro; Russi, Paola; Spaggiari, Caterina; Bianco, Marcella; Binda, Riccardo; Barattieri, Elisa; Tognacci, Alice; Girardo, Martina; Vaschetti, Luca; Caprino, Piero; Sesti, Erika; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Coletto, Erika; Belzer, Gabriele; Pieroni, Andrea

    2007-05-04

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis) in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having a continued effort on

  14. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binda Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.. One taxon (Borago officinalis in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having

  15. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sai; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Chen, Guo-Feng; Qian, Kun; Gao, Hong-Hao; Guan, Wei; Shi, Jin-Long; Liu, An-Qi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Bian-Hong; Li, Yong-Hui; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML. By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells, we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML. Methods: Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines. Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4. Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region. The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, and clonogenic assay. Results: EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells, compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells, respectively. We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases. Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines. We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis of Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target

  16. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai Huang; Meng-Meng Jiang; Guo-Feng Chen; Kun Qian; Hong-Hao Gao; Wei Guan; Jin-Long Shi

    2016-01-01

    Background:The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML 1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML.By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells,we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML.Methods:Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR),quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR),and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines.Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4.Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region.The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation,apoptosis,and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8,flow cytometry,and clonogenic assay.Results:EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells,compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells,respectively.We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases.Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines.We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis ofKasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control,respectively.Conclusions:Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene.In addition,we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target and a potential candidate

  17. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... intersection of the windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.205 Standard No. 205, Glazing materials. S1. Scope. This...

  18. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety...

  19. Intelligent Glazed Facades for Fulfilment of Future Energy Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2010-01-01

    This project aims at testing technologies for control of heat transfer, irradiation, mass transport and energy storage in order to investigate the potential of a intelligent dynamic glazed facade. Furthermore a development of algorithms for control of the technologies included in the facade...

  20. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Rigid Plastics. Safety plastics materials that comply with Tests Nos. 10, 13, 16, 19, 20, 21,and 24 of... lens paper. After this procedure, the arithmetic means of the percentage of light scattered by the... Procedures for Item 4A—Rigid Plastic for Use in Side Windows Rearward of the C” Pillar. (a) Glazing...

  1. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...... of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... glass panes and a specific rim seal. A heat treatment phase (after the supercritical CO2 drying) of the aerogel is currently being developed in order to improve its optical quality. This step increases the solar transmittance about 6 percent points. For glazing prototypes with an aerogel thickness...

  2. Copper red glazes: a coating with two families of particles

    CERN Document Server

    Cuvelier, Pierre-Antoine; Chaudanson, Damien; Lafait, Jacques; Nitsche, S; 10.1007/s00339-011-6707-3

    2013-01-01

    In order to explain the origin of the deep red color of copper glazes on ceramics, a ceramist has elaborated, by firing under reducing atmosphere, a significant number of tiles. The analysis of the structure and composition of a representative sample by TEM and EELS, followed by an optical characterization and an optical modeling using the radiative transfer approach (four-flux model) have enabled a comprehensive explanation of the origin of the color in these glazes. The presence of two families of copper nanoparticles in the vitreous matrix. The first, purely absorbing, of diameter 10-50 nm, essentially creates color by a substractive process. The second, due to its larger diameter, 100 nm or more, mainly acts on color by scattering of the visible light. Both act competitively in the layer. A color chart of all the hues which can be reached by this technique has eventually been theoretically calculated.

  3. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  4. Optical properties of glazing materials at normal incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Powles, R.

    2001-10-01

    Measurements of spectral transmittance T and reflectance R at normal incidence continue to be the most common and accurate source of energy performance data for glazing materials. Prediction of these radiometric properties from more fundamental materials data is often confounded by the complexity and uncertainty of coating structures. Angle-dependent radiometric properties of coated glazing will probably be predicted from normal-incidence data rather than being measured at many angles. The general error level demonstrated in round-robin tests is on the order 1-2%; it is often necessary to achieve better levels of performance. Based on results obtained following the round-robin tests, it is expected that accuracy of better than 0.5% can be generally achieved. A new type of absolute standard reference is described and tested with promising results.

  5. Detailed Modeling of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Shemelin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis of flat plate solar collectors with a vacuum glazing is presented. Different configurations of the collector have been investigated by a detailed theoretical model based on a combined external and internal energy balance of the absorber. Performance characteristics for vacuum flat plate collector alternatives have been derived. Subsequently, annual energy gains have been evaluated for a selected variant and compared with state-of-the-art vacuum tube collectors. The results of modeling indicate that, in the case of using advanced vacuum glazing with optimized low-emissivity coating (emissivity 0.20, solar transmittance 0.85, it is possible to achieve efficiency parameters similar to or even better than vacuum tube collectors. The design presented in this paper can be considered promising for the extension of the applicability range of FPC and could be used in applications, which require low-to-medium temperature level.

  6. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    glass panes and a specific rim seal. A heat treatment phase (after the supercritical CO2 drying) of the aerogel is currently being developed in order to improve its optical quality. This step increases the solar transmittance about 6 percent points. For glazing prototypes with an aerogel thickness...... of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  7. Characterization of Ice Roughness Variations in Scaled Glaze Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Because of the significant influence of surface tension in governing the stability and breakdown of the liquid film in flooded stagnation regions of airfoils exposed to glaze icing conditions, the Weber number is expected to be a significant parameter governing the formation and evolution of ice roughness. To investigate the influence of the Weber number on roughness formation, 53.3-cm (21-in.) and 182.9-cm (72-in.) NACA 0012 airfoils were exposed to flow conditions with essentially the same Weber number and varying stagnation collection efficiency to illuminate similarities of the ice roughness created on the different airfoils. The airfoils were exposed to icing conditions in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Following exposure to the icing event, the airfoils were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger (2013) to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The roughness characteristics on each airfoil were then compared using the relative geometries of the airfoil. The results indicate that features of the ice shape and roughness such as glaze-ice plateau limits and maximum airfoil roughness were captured well by Weber number and collection efficiency scaling of glaze icing conditions. However, secondary ice roughness features relating the instability and waviness of the liquid film on the glaze-ice plateau surface are scaled based on physics that were not captured by the local collection efficiency variations.

  8. Gas impermeable glaze for sealing a porous ceramic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Scott T.; Stone, Ronald G.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Trudell, Daniel E.; Thoma, Steven G.

    2004-04-06

    A process for fabricating a gas impermeable seal on a porous ceramic surface using a thin, glass-based, pinhole free glaze. The process can be used to fabricate gas impermeable end seals on porous alumina tubes used as filter media. The porous alumina tubes can have an inorganic microporous thin film separation membrane on the inner surface, which can be used for high temperature gas separation processes.

  9. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  10. Application of cetylpyridinium chloride in dispersion of antibacterial ceramic glaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-yuan; CHENG Ming-ming; PENG Bing; HUANG Yi; ZHANG Xiao-fei

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC) onto a ceramic glaze mixture composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz,kaolin, and antibacterial agent was studied. Both adsorption isothermals and the average particle zeta potential were investigated in order to understand the suspension stability as a function of pH, ionic strength, and surfactant concentration. The results show that under the optimal conditions such as pH value of 7 or 9, 0.01 mol/L of ionic strength and around critical micelle concentration(CMC)of surfactant, antibacterial ceramic glaze acquires fine dispersion stability. The adsorption of CPC on ceramic glaze particles is in accordance with Langmuir model in 0.01mol/L at pH=7 and pH=9. The adsorption of small amounts of cationic CPC onto the primarily negatively charged surfaces of the particles in the pH range of 7-9 produces strong attraction and flocculation due to hydrophobic interactions. High concentration of surfactant under 0.01 mol/L of salt provides high zeta potential, which produces a high stability.

  11. Development of ceramic glaze with photocatalytic activity; Desenvolvimento de vidrado ceramico com atividade fotocatalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezza, V.B.; Uggioni, E.; Carrera, A.A. Duran; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.net [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos e Vitreos

    2011-07-01

    Glazes were developed by adding anatase in commercial ceramic plates as an agent of photocatalysis. The glazes were coated on ceramic tiles, which were fired between 800 and 1000°C. The formulations were characterized (SEM, XRD), and the wettability was determined by measuring the water contact angle. The microstructural analysis (SEM) showed that the anatase particles can disperse properly in the glaze matrix. The X-ray diffraction shows that from 1000°C, the glaze becomes very reactive, and particles of anatase are transformed into titanite or rutile, depending on the glaze used. The determination of the contact angle shows the clear influence of the glaze type and sintering temperature on the wettability characteristics of the obtained layer. (author)

  12. Investigation on surface figuration and microstructure of laser glazed nanostructure zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Binghua; WANG Hongying; HAO Yunfei; TANG Weijie

    2009-01-01

    CO2 continuous wave laser beam had been applied to the laser glazing of plasma sprayed nanostructure zirconia thermal barrier coatings. The effects of luser glazing processing parameters on the surface figuration and microstructure change had been carried out, the microstructure and phase composition of the coatings had been evaluated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM observation indicates that the microstructure of the as-glazed coating could be altered from single columnar structure to a combination of the columnar grain and fine equiaxed grain with the different laser glazing conditions. XRD analysis illustrates that the predominance phase of the as-glazed coating is the metastable tetragonal phase, and the glazed coating with the single columnar structure has shown the clear orientation in (220) and (400) peaks while the other coatings do not show that.

  13. Human semen can be air-dried prior to testing for sperm DNA fragmentation with the Halosperm® G2 kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kailin Yap; Phillip Matson

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore a method of semen storage prior to assessment of spermDNA fragmentation. Methods:This study examined a simplified alternative of air-drying semen on a microscope slide and reconstituting in seminal plasma prior to assessment of spermDNA fragmentation using the halosperm®G2 kit.Results:It showed that semen could be air-dried and stored overnight at room temperature with no detrimental effect onDNA quality.A significant correlation between results existed for20 semen samples both air-dried and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen(r=0.982, P=0.000).A mean difference between the results of only -1.98% confirmed the effectiveness of air-drying compared to snap-freezing.Conclusions:Future studies to refine this technique are required on the effect of extrinsic factors such as the choice of reconstituting medium, and stability over an extended time-frame at different temperatures.

  14. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus Spores on Red Chili Peppers Using a Combined Treatment of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide and Hot-Air Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Songyi; Lee, Huyong; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Hoikyung

    2017-08-01

    The effect of a combined treatment using aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) and hot-air drying to inactivate Bacillus cereus spores on red chili peppers was evaluated. Ten washed and dried pepper samples, each comprising half of a single pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), were inoculated with B. cereus spore suspension. The inoculated samples were washed with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) or ClO2 (50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) solution for 1 min and then air-dried (25 ± 1 °C, 47 ± 1% relative humidity), which was followed by drying with hot air at 55 °C for up to 48 h. The spore populations on the samples were enumerated and their aw and chromaticity values were measured. The spore numbers immediately after treatment with NaOCl and ClO2 were not significantly different. A more rapid reduction in spore numbers was observed in the samples treated with ClO2 than those treated with NaOCl during drying. A combined treatment of ClO2 and hot-air drying significantly reduced the spore populations to below the detection limit (1.7 log CFU/sample). B. cereus spores on chili peppers were successfully inactivated by washing with ClO2 solution followed by hot-air drying whereas the pepper color was maintained. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Chemical durability of glaze on Zsolnay architectural ceramics (Budapest, Hungary) in acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; May, Zoltán; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Zsolnay glazed architectural ceramics are among the most famous Hungarian ceramics, however, there is no profound knowledge about the deterioration of these building materials. The present study aims to reveal the influence of acidic solutions in the deterioration of Zsolnay ceramics. The studied ceramics are glazed roof tiles, which originate from two buildings in Budapest: one is located in the densely built-up city centre with high traffic rate and another one is in a city quarter with moderate traffic and more open space. The roof tiles represent the construction and the renovation periods of the buildings. The ceramics were mainly covered by lead glazes in the construction period and mainly alkali glazes in the renovation periods. The glaze of the tiles were coloured with iron (for yellow glaze) or chromium/copper/iron (for green glazes) in the case of the building located in the city centre, whereas cobalt was used as colorant and tin oxide as opacifier for the blue glaze of the ceramics of the other building. Six tiles were selected from each building. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solutions of pH2 and pH4 were used to measure the durability of the glazes up to 14 days at room temperature. The surfaces of the glazed ceramics after the treatment were measured by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS techniques to determine the precipitated phases on the surface of the glaze. Electron microprobe analysis was used to quantitatively characterise phases found and to determine the chemical composition of the treated glaze. The recovered sulphuric acid solutions were measured with ICP-OES technique in order to quantify the extent of the ion exchange between the glaze and the solutions. There is a significant difference in the dissolution rates in the treatments with sulphuric acid solutions of pH2 and pH4, respectively. The solution of pH2 induced greater ion exchange (approx. 7-10 times) from the glaze compared to the solution of pH4. Alkali and alkali earth

  16. Comparison of porcelain surface and flexural strength obtained by microwave and conventional oven glazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil; Davis, Elaine L; Brewer, Jane D

    2009-01-01

    Although the superior qualities of microwave technology are common knowledge in the industry, effects of microwave glazing of dental ceramics have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface roughness and flexural strength achieved by glazing porcelain specimens in a conventional and microwave oven. Thirty specimens of each type of porcelain (Omega 900 and IPS d.Sign) were fabricated and sintered in a conventional oven. The specimens were further divided into 3 groups (n=10): hand polished (using diamond rotary ceramic polishers), microwave glazed, and conventional oven glazed. Each specimen was evaluated for surface roughness using a profilometer. The flexural strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine. A 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc analysis were used to determine significant intergroup differences in surface roughness (alpha=.05). Flexural strength results were also analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and the Weibull modulus was determined for each of the 6 groups. The surfaces of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for cracks and porosities using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A significant difference in surface roughness was found among the surface treatments (P=.02). Follow-up tests showed a significant difference in surface roughness between oven-glazed and microwave-glazed treatments (P=.02). There was a significant difference in flexural strength between the 2 porcelains (Pmicrowave-glazed group was the highest (1.9) as compared to the other groups. The surface character of microwave-glazed porcelain was superior to oven-glazed porcelain. Omega 900 had an overall higher flexural strength than IPS d.Sign. Weibull distributions of flexural strengths for Omega 900 oven-glazed and microwave-glazed specimens were similar. SEM analysis demonstrated a greater number of surface voids and imperfections in IPS d. Sign as compared to Omega 900.

  17. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation.

  18. Experimental Study of Cowpeas Hot Air Drying%豇豆热风干燥实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段罗佳; 赵士杰; 杜文亮; 周超

    2015-01-01

    通过对豇豆进行恒温干燥与变温干燥这两种不同的干燥方式,研究了豇豆在不同预处理方式、温度和风速下的热风干燥特性,并绘制了湿基含水率曲线和干燥速率曲线。结果表明:恒温干燥时,温度及风速是影响干燥的主要因素,长度影响干燥程度较小;变温干燥时,豇豆色泽及表面质量比恒温干燥时要好。%The experiments were carried out cowpea drying with variable temperature and thermostat drying .Under different pretreatments, temperature and wind speed ,researching of cowpea hot air drying characteristics and drawing wet basis moisture content and drying rate curves .The results showed that:at a constant temperature drying , temperature and wind speed on the drying effects of greater , but length the impact is relatively small .When the variable temperature dr-ying , color and surface quality is better than constant dry .

  19. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M. [ed.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  20. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kwak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control, polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S. Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10. Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p < 0.05. For AA-Z, most of the adhesive remained on the bracket. Conclusions For bracket bonding to glazed zirconia, a simple application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed.

  1. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  2. 釉灰新证%A New Study of Glaze Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦大树

    2001-01-01

    The use of glaze ash was an important technique in ancient Chinese ceramics-making.In 1987, through excavation at the Guantai kiln-site of Cizhou ware in Cixian county, Hebei, a ruined kiln (designated No. 1) was found to be the vestiges of a kiln for firing glaze ash as )udged by its structure and the remaining deposits of the firewood and slaked lime alternately piled in it. This discovery transferred the reliable date of the first use of glaze ash in China to an earlier period, i.e. to Emperor Huizong' s reign, Northern Song dynasty. The application of glaze ash greatly expanded the limits of selecting raw materials for making glaze. At the Cizhou Kilns, the glaze made by means of glaze ash must have imitated that on the white porcelain of Ding ware. The firewood used for formulating glaze ash was in great variety, reflecting the initial form without the standardization of material selection. In addition, the discovery evidences that there was certain division of labor in the production at the Cizhou Kilns of the late Northern Song period.

  3. Experimental investigation of flame impingement on vertical and inclined glazing facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Breakage and fallout of glazing systems create openings in an enclosure that affect the fire growth and the development of post flashover flames emerging outside of the openings. The behaviour of glazing is the result of its thermally induced stress response to the heat fluxes from the fire in an enclosure. In recent times building façade designs have evolved and now incorporate many different shapes, orientations and materials. The conventional single and double glazing panels have been surpassed by composite type glazing systems which include glazing and transparent resins. This paper presents experimental testing of these composite glazing panels subjected to localized fires, which have the same fire load. The effect of localized fire on the materials tested as seen in the final char patterns on both glazing systems is note-worthy. The paper also includes details of comparative calculations with EN 1991-1-2. Furthermore, results of detailed material analysis testing of the intermediate transparent resin within the glazing sandwich panels are included.

  4. Cleanability evaluation of ceramic glazes with nanometer far-infrared materials using contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Liang, Jinsheng; Di, Xingfu; Tang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    The cleanability of easy-to-clean ceramic glazes doped with nanometer far-infrared materials was compared with that of some high-quality household ceramic glazes from the market. The cleanability was evaluated by the contact angle measurement using a sessile drop method with a Dataphysics OCA-30 contact angle analyzer. The results showed that the difference of contact angles of water on the glazes before soiling and after cleaning could be used as a parameter for evaluating the cleanability of the glazes. The relationship between cleanability and surface properties, such as surface free energy and surface topography, was investigated. The surface free energy of the samples and their components were calculated using van Oss acid-base approach. By measuring advancing and receding contact angles, the contact angle hysteresis of the ceramic glazes due to the surface topography was investigated. It was shown that the cleanability of ceramic glazes containing nanometer far-infrared materials (NFIM) is better than that of household ceramic glazes from market, due to a higher ratio of electron-acceptor parameter to electron-donor parameter, which led to the effect of water hydration as well as better hydrophilic property and increased smoothness. The contact angle measurement not only accurately evaluates the cleanability of the ceramic glazes, but also has a contribution to the study of cleanability theory. Moreover, this method is simple, convenient and less sample-consumption.

  5. Energy-Efficient Measures to Avoid Downdraft from Large Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Overby, H.; Bjørn, Erik

    Glazed facades may cause thermal discomfort due to downdraft. Convectors placed close to the facade can prevent downdraft but can cause an increase in the energy consumption. The objective of this research was to investigate whether the structural system of a glazed facade can be used to reduce d...

  6. Characterization of Low Firing Temperature Ceramic Glaze Using Phuket MSW and Soda Lime Cullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketboonruang, P.; Jinawat, S.; Kashima, D. P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Sujaridworakun, P.; Buggakuptav, W.; Traipol, N.; Jiemsirilers, S.

    2011-10-01

    The normal firing temperature of ceramic products is around 1200 °C. In order to reduce firing temperature, industrial wastes were utilized in ceramic glaze. Phuket municipal solid waste (MSW), soda lime cullet, and borax were used as raw materials for low firing temperature glazes. The glaze compositions were designed using a triaxial diagram. Stoneware ceramic body was glazed then fired at 1000 and 1150 °C for 15 minutes. Morphology and phase composition of glazes were analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal expansion compatibility of Stoneware body and glazes were investigated using a dilatometer. Melting behaviour of selected glaze was analyzed by heating stage microscopy. Phuket MSW and Soda lime glass cullet can be used in high percentage as major raw materials for low firing temperature ceramic glaze that show good texture and vitrified at lower firing temperature without using any commercial ceramic frits. The firing temperature can be reduced up to 150 °C in this study.

  7. Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried fine needle aspiration smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Precht Jensen, Eva Magrethe; Bösenberg, Eileen; Narz, Frank; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Paschke, Ralf; Eszlinger, Markus

    2012-10-01

    The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), their detection in FNA smears could improve the FNA diagnosis. To date, these rearrangements have never been analyzed in routine air-dried FNA smears, but only in frozen tissue, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and in fresh FNA material. Fixed routine air-dried FNA samples have hitherto been judged as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A new method for RNA extraction from routine air-dried FNA smears was established, which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). To assess RNA quality, an intron-spanning PAX8 cDNA was amplified. Acceptable RNA quality was obtained from 95% of the FNA samples and 92% of the FFPE samples. PAX8/PPARG was detected in 4 of 96 FFPEs and in 6 of 96 FNAs. PAX8/PPARG was present in 4 of 10 FTCs and in 3 of 42 follicular adenomas (FAs). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements with RT-qPCR. These promising methodological advances, if confirmed in larger series of FNA and FFPE samples, may lead to the introduction of molecular analysis

  8. [Mass Spectrometric Methods for Colorative Mechanism Analysis of Yaozhou Porcelain Glaze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuan-fang; He, Miao-hong; Zhang, Shu-di; Hang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    An in-house-built femtosecond laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (fs-LI-TOFMS) has been applied to the multi-elemental analysis of porcelain glaze from Yaozhou kiln. The samples are selected representing products of different dynasties, including Tang, Five, Song, Jin, and Ming Dynasty. For exploring the colorative mechanism of Yaozhou porcelain through the elemental analysis of the glaze, the effects of all potential coloring elements, especially transition elements, were considered. There was a speculation that the typical Co-Cr-Fe-Mn recipe was used in the fabrication of Yaozhou black glaze; the low content of Fe and high content of Ni resulted in the porcelain of white glaze; an increase content of P could lead the porcelain to be yellow-glazed. Undoubtedly, this research is an important supplement to the study of the colorative mechanism of the Yaozhou porcelain system.

  9. A Simplified Measurement Method of Solar-Optical Properties of Multi-Pane Glazing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolun Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient windows with double- or triple-pane glazing units are currently widely utilized in building applications. The solar-optical properties of glazing units can greatly affect their energy and daylighting performance. However, it is generally difficult to measure the solar-optical properties of glazings using the current ISO standards, especially for multi-pane units. This paper presents a simplified test method suitable for multi-pane glazing. Three sets of double-pane Low-Emissivity (LOW-E glazing units were tested under ISO standard and proposed methods. Good agreement between the two testing methods was obtained. However, the simplified method required much less experimental time and labor..

  10. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  11. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazing; Evakuering og samling af aerogelruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.I.

    1999-07-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazing will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous EU project a promising method was proposed, so the time for evacuation could be reduced from several hours to a few minutes. This report describes the background and the building of an apparatus for evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazing up to 60 cm x 60 cm based on the above mentioned method. The key element of the method is the vacuum chamber in which the aerogel glazing is prior to mounting of the last glass pane. This glass pane is kept above the rest of the glazing while the chamber is evacuated. When the desired gas pressure is reached the glazing is assembled and the chamber is ventilated. Due to the fast process, it can be considered as semi-online, and especially the capital cost is significantly lower for this method in comparison with a true online process. So hereby, a major obstacle is overcome with respect to a first industrial production of aerogel glazing. By means of the apparatus, six aerogel glazing have been made and four of those can be considered as fully succeeded. The reasons for the failure of the two glazing are perhaps due to the foil applied in the rim seal. The project serves a Danish input to a current EU project, in which one of the main objectives is to develop a complete process for aerogel glazing of 60 cm x 60 cm covering both the aerogel and the glazing production. (au)

  12. Biomassa microbiana em amostras de solos secadas ao ar e reumedecidas Microbial biomass in air dried and rewetted soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Samarão Gonçalves

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade do condicionamento de amostras como terra fina secada ao ar (TFSA por curto período, para a determinação do carbono da biomassa microbiana (BMS-C, pelo método da fumigaçãoextração, e verificar a respiração microbiana basal (RB do solo. O condicionamento como TFSA, procedendo-se à fumigação para a análise da BMS-C imediatamente ou 24 horas após o reumedecimento, proporcionou valores de BMS-C para os solos Podzólicos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico e Orgânico, semelhantes aos valores dos seus controles. Os solos Glei Pouco Húmico e Vertissolo apresentaram valores de BMS-C similares aos do controle a partir de 24 horas de incubação; o solo Planossolo arenoso apresentou valores similares aos do controle com 72 horas, e a Rendizina, com 168 horas de incubação. Na maioria dos solos, a RB determinada na TFSA apresentou valores maiores do que os do tratamento-controle, quando avaliada imediatamente ou 24 horas após o reumedecimento a 60% da capacidade máxima de retenção de água, seguida de queda e manutenção em níveis semelhantes ao do controle nos períodos subseqüentes. O précondicionamento, de curta duração, como TFSA, é promissor para a determinação da BMS-C, quando níveis e períodos adequados de reumedecimento são adotados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of short term air dried soil samples in a determination of soil microbial biomass (SMB-C, by a fumigationextraction method, and soil microbial basal respiration (BR. Zero time or 24 hours rewetting incubation period before fumigation procedure gave values of SMB-C similar to those of the control for the Podzolic soils, Allic RedYellow Latosol and Organic soil. Low Humic Gley and Vertisol soils gave values of SMB-C similar to those of the control for periods of incubation equal or higher than 24 hours. Planosol (sandy soil and Rendzina soils gave values of SMB-C similar to the

  13. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ji-Young; Jung, Hyo-Kyung; Choi, Il-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau) disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control), polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z) or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S) was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S). Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10). Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa) and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed. PMID:27200278

  14. Simultaneous decay of contact-angle and surface-tension during the rehydration of air-dried root mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arye, Gilboa; Chen, Fengxian

    2016-04-01

    Plants can extract or exude water and solutes at their root surface. Among the root exudates, the mucilage exhibits a surfactant like properties - depressing the surface-tension (ST, mN/m) at the water-air interface. The amphipathic nature of some of the mucilage molecules (e.g. lipids) is thought to be the reason for its surfactant like behavior. As the rhizosphere dries out, re-orientation and/or re-configuration of amphipathic molecules at the solid-air interface, may impart hydrophobic nature to the rhizosphere. Our current knowledge on the ST of natural and/or model root mucilage is based on measurements of the equilibrium ST. However, adsorption of amphipathic molecules at the water-air interface is not reached instantaneously. The hydrophobic nature of the rhizosphere was deduced from the initial advancing CA, commonly calculated from the first few milliseconds up to few seconds (depending on the method employed). We hypothesized that during the rehydration of the root mucilage; both quantities are dynamic. Processes such as water absorbance and dissolution, may vary the interfacial tensions as a function of time. Consequently, simultaneous reduction of both CA and ST as a function of time can be expected. The main objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the extent, persistency and dynamic of the CA and ST during rehydration of air-dried root mucilage. The study was involved with measurements of dynamic and equilibrium ST using the pedant drop or Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. Glass slides were coated with naturally occurring or model root mucilage and the CA of a sessile drop was measured optically, as a function of time. The results were analyzed based on the Young-Dupré and Young-Laplace equations, from which the simultaneous decay of CA and ST was deduced. The implication for the wettability and water flow in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  15. Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC Rearrangements Is Feasible in Routine Air-Dried Fine Needle Aspiration Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs...... as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT......-PCR). Methods: A new method for RNA extraction from routine air-dried FNA smears was established, which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real...

  16. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

    2010-12-01

    Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

  17. Basaltic scorias from Romania - complex building material us for concrete, glazing tiles, ceramic glazes, glass ceramics, mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marica, S.; Cetean, V. [PROCEMA S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The most spectacular deposit of basaltic scoria from Romania is the Heghes Hill from Racos, locality situated in the central part of country. This deposit emerged as grains of various dimensions, as volcanic ash with specific porosity up to 30% and vacuolar basaltic rocks. All types of basaltic scorias have specific vacuolar appearance, red- brick or blackish - grey coloured, scoria textures and similar chemical composition with others basalts of the world. The physical and mechanical characteristics determined included the scorias in the Heghes Hill in the following categories : light rocks (2,98 g/ dmc), porous(11,04%), similar to expanded slag, slightly absorbing rocks (3,86%), with low compression strengths (1700 daN/cmp). Basaltic scoria from Heghes is a very good row material for the manufacture of concrete, for obtain decorative cutting tiles glazing with ceramic and basaltic glazes (up to 40%) varied the range of colours and for obtaining glass ceramic, mineral wool, crushing sand for road maintenance, heat -insulating bricks and shid -proof material. (orig.)

  18. Linear thermal transmittance of the assembly of the glazing and the frame in windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Kragh, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The thermal transmittance or U-value of windows can be found by calculation according to the standards EN ISO 10077-1/2 (CEN,2000). The window U-value is calculated from the U-value of the glazing and the frame as well as the linear thermal transmittance of the assembly of the glazing and the frame....... The U-value of the glazing and the frame can be calculated separately while the calculation of the linear thermal transmittance includes the design of the edge construction of the glazing unit but also the design of the frame and the glazing unit. The edge construction of glazing units is made up...... by use of an equivalent thermal conductivity of a box of a fictive material that replaces the detailed spacer profile. A number of typical spacer profile products have been used in a test of the methodology where the linear thermal transmittance of the assembly of the glazing and the frame was calculated...

  19. [Mechanism of injury of air-dry pea seeds under the influence of low doses of gamma-radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine which processes in air-dry seeds result in bimodal changes of the pea seed quality under the influence of low doses of gamma-radiation. Pea seeds (cv. "Nemchinovsky-85", harvest 2006, 82% germination persentage) were exposed to gamma-radiation at doses of 3, 10 and 100 Gy The germination percentage decreased to 45% four days after irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy, rised up to 87% at doses of 10 Gy, while the dose of 100 Gy killed the most part of seeds. Seed fractions differing in quality were selected using the metod of Room temperature phosphorecsence (RTP): strong seed frasction I from non-irradiated seeds; weak seed fraction II from the seeds irradiated at a dose of 3 Gy; dead seeds from the seeds irradiated at a dose of 100 Gy. ThermoChemiLuminecnsece (TCL) of seed powders and cotyledons was used. It was shown that the increase of the TCL level in the temperature range from 50 to 110 degreesC was associated with the lipid peroxidation products. The TCL level of seeds subjected to gamma-irradiation at a dose of 3 Gy was similar to that of non-irradiated seeds in the temperature range 50 to 100 degreesC. Therefore, lipid peroxidation was not the cause of the abnormal seedling appearance. The TCL level within this temperature range was increased only in seeds subjected to y-irradiation at a dose of 100 Gy. The TCL level at 150 degreesC was in proportion with the exogenous glucose amount. The increased TCL level of seeds subjected to y-irradiation at a dose of 3 Gy at 150 degreesC resulted from the increase of the glucose content. This means that the transition from the fraction of strong seeds into the fraction of weak ones was the result of the activation of hydrolysis processes. Decrease in the water content of seeds testified to utilization of bound water in this process. The decrease of the glucose content in the "improved" seeds subjected to gamma-irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy most probably indicates the participation of

  20. Refurbishment of single and double-glazed windows; Sanierung von einfach- und doppeltverglasten Fenstern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Erb, M.

    2001-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the research program on the efficient use of energy in buildings takes a look at the refurbishment of single and double-glazed windows. Topics examined include the assessment of window frame condition and the addition of seals as a cost-effective measure. Replacement of the window panes with various single and double glazing as well the installation of such glazing with special coatings is discussed. Further topics examined include the grey energy involved and noise protection aspects.

  1. Analysis of Phase Change Material in Glazing Systems in Future Zero-Energy-Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2016-01-01

    the thermal storage capacity of the glazed facade by using phase change material (PCM), in the glazing cavity, reduces the cooling demand. When wanting to use this technology under colder weather conditions, the pane can potentially reduce the heat loss of the pane thereby minimizing energy demand for heating.......When designing glazed constructions, this often results in thermally light constructions, with a low time constant. In order for these buildings to improve the redistribution of loads between night and day, solutions such as active slabs and exposed concrete cores are often used. However...

  2. THE EFFECT OF LASER GLAZING PROCESS ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASMA SPRAYED THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyid Fehmi DİLTEMİZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs are widely used by aero and land based gas turbines to protect hot section parts from oxidation and reducing component temperature thereby increase life. TBCs aregenerally a combination of multiple layers of coating (usually two with each layer having a specific function [Aktaa et al., 2005]. In this study air plasma sprayed TBCs were deposited on 304 stainlesssteel substrates then ceramic surfaces were glazed using Nd-YAG laser. Both glazed and as-coated samples were subjected to metallographic examination to investigate microstructural changes inglazed ceramic layer. Laser glazing provides a remelting and subsequent solidification of the surface, resulting on new top layer microstructure.

  3. Glazed PVT Collector with Polysiloxane Encapsulation of PV Cells: Performance and Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a new concept of glazed PVT collector based on temperature resistant polysiloxane encapsulation material is presented together with the results from experimental testing and modelling. Performance and economic analysis in 4 different European climates has been done to derive the competitive price of the PVT collector concepts with main focus on the glazed PVT collector under development. Results have shown that specific market price 400 to 500 EUR/m2 for the glazed PVT collector should not be exceeded in order to become competitive with conventional combination of photothermal and photovoltaic collectors.

  4. Experimental studies on PCM filled Flat Plate Solar Water Heater without and with Fresnel lens glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flat Plate Solar Water Heater (FPSWH is commonly used to harvest solar energy. Solar concentration techniques help to achieve higher temperatures of energy. The aim of this article is to compare the performance of a Fresnel lens glazed Flat Plate Solar Water Heater with Phase Change Material (PCM with that provided with an ordinary glazing. The effect of solar concentration using Fresnel lens on energy storage in PCM and heat gained by water are studied and compared with that having an ordinary glazing. Experiments showed 47% improvements in the heat gained by water.

  5. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Glaze is lost from tiles in tile panels due to presence of soluble salts and this means loss of important heritage. The present paper discusses the possibility to apply electro-desalination. An in-situ test has not been performed yet, but encouraging results have been obtained with different parts...... of the system. Single tiles, a variety of porous stones and the mortar on the back of a tile have all been electro-desalinated successfully in laboratory scale. Thus individually, all parts of the wall with tile panel can be electro-desalinated. The interface between mortar and tile can be problematic....... In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...

  6. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    The first main objective deals with “aerogel process optimisation”. The general goal was to demonstrate that the elaboration process, developed during the recent HILIT project, permitted to obtain a significant amount of light transmitting, insulating and transparent 15-20 mm monolithic and crack...... insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance above 85% and a U-value of 0.7 W/m2 K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m2K....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  7. Developing Ceramic Textured Matt Glazes Using Omani Plant Ash: The Contributions of Art Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADAR ALMAMARI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that ready-made glazes are hugely expensive, in spite of their widespread availability in Oman. Most students of ceramic art, at various levels of education, depend on foreign materials rather than local materials, which has resulted in high production costs. As an environmentally diverse country, Oman has great potential to take advantage of local crop waste plant waste by using it to make attractive ceramic glazes. Ann experimental study conducted at the ceramic studio in Sultan Qaboos University (SQU led to the development of some excellent recipes for ceramic glazes using 20% to 30% ash. This study has helped to convert Omani plant waste into textured matt ceramic glazes, which are otherwise expensive to procure for educational and commercial purposes.

  8. Effect of dust on the transmittance of low density polyethylene glazing in a tropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastekbayeva, G.A.; Kumar, S. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Energy Program, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2000-07-01

    The performance of solar systems (thermal or photovoltaic) is influenced by the ability of the glazing to transmit solar radiation to the collection surface, besides other factors, such as, incident radiation, tilt of collector, properties of materials, operating strategy, surroundings, etc. This paper discusses the influence of dust on the transmittance of a 0.2-mm-thick low-density polyethylene (LDPE) glazing used commonly in solar air heaters. The reduction in transmittance due to various dust deposition densities of Bangkok clay (size 53-75 {mu}m) has been measured and a correlation relating the dust deposition density and the transmittance given. Experimental observations of natural dust accumulation on an inclined (15deg) LDPE glazing at a tropical climatic condition during a 30-day period indicates a dust accumulation of 3.72 g/m{sup 2} and is found to reduce the global transmittance of the glazing from about 87.9% to 75.8%. (Author)

  9. Microstructured glazing for daylighting, glare protection, seasonal thermal control and clear view

    OpenAIRE

    Kostro, André Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate choice of glazing in a facade depends on many factors. They include amongst other criteria: location, orientation, climatic condition, energetic efficiency, usage of the building, required user comfort, and the architectural concept. On the south facade of high-rise buildings in particular, it is a challenge to have simultaneously large glazed area, no glare, no excessive cooling loads, a clear view and sufficient natural light flux. In Switzerland, electric lighting, heating ...

  10. 柠檬热风干燥特性及数学模型%Hot-air drying characteristics and mathematical model of lemon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳斌; 郑优; 陈海桥; 李颖; 陈厚荣

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics hot-air drying of lemon and its mathematical model were studied with taking the fresh lemon as raw material. Effects of different factors which were lemon slice of thickness, hot-air temperature and wind speed,on the hot-air drying characteristics of lemon were studied to get lemon drying of drying characteristics of curve,drying rate curve. The experimental data was processed base on the SAS8.0 software to establish the drying mathematical model of lemon. Results showed that the hot-air temperature and the lemon slice of thickness had a greater impact on drying rate,while the wind speed on drying rate was less affected. And the hot-air drying model of lemon agreed with Page model.%以新鲜柠檬为原料,研究其热风干燥特性及数学模型。以柠檬片厚度、热风温度、热风风速为因素,分析其对柠檬热风干燥特性的影响,建立柠檬热风干燥的干燥特性曲线、干燥速率曲线,并利用SAS8.0软件对试验数据进行拟合,构建柠檬热风干燥数学模型。结果表明:热风温度、柠檬片厚度对柠檬热风干燥的速率有较大影响,而热风风速对干燥速率的影响较小;柠檬热风干燥符合Page模型。

  11. Do Glazed Ceramic Pots in a Mexico-US Border City Still Contain Lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Medina, Ana M; Osuna-Leal, Angel I; Martinez-Cervantes, Maria Elena; Castillo-Fregoso, Maria Carmen; Vazquez-Erlbeck, Martha; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the presence of lead in glazed ceramic pots in a Mexico-US border city, 41 clay pots were sampled. The pots were purchased in several establishments located in different geographical areas of the city. The presence of lead was determined using LeadCheck Swabs. Most (58.5%) of the pots were from the State of Jalisco and 24.4% were of unknown origin. Only 4 pots did not contain varnish and were lead-negative. Thirty-seven (81.1%) of the glazed pots were lead positive. Among the lead-negative pots, 4 showed the label "this pot is lead-free." Thus, if we consider the remaining 33 glazed pots without the "Lead-Free" label, 90.9% were lead-positive and only 9.1% were lead-negative. We also found that earthenware glazed utensils without the "Lead-Free" label were 1.6 times more likely to contain lead (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), P = 0.003. We concluded that lead was detected in almost all acquired food containers. Government interventions in Mexico have focused on training manufacturers to make lead-free glazed ceramics but it has been difficult to eradicate this practice. Educational interventions to make and acquire lead-free glazed ceramics should be targeted to both sellers and buyers.

  12. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  13. Nature of organo-mineral particles across density fractions in a volcanic-ash soil: air-drying and sonication effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, R.; Kajiura, M.; Shirato, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions of plant- and microbially-derived organic matter with mineral phases exert significant controls on the stabilization of organic matter (OM) as well as other biogeochemical processes in soil. Density fractionation techniques have been successful in distinguishing soil organo-mineral particles of different degrees of microbial alteration, turnover rate of C, mineral associations. A major methodological difference among the density fractionation studies is the choice of sample pre-treatment. Presence or absence of sonication to disrupt and disperse soil particles and aggregates is a particularly important choice which could significantly alter the nature and distribution of organo-mineral particle and thus the resultant elemental concentration in each density fraction. Soil moisture condition (air-dry vs. field-moist) may also have strong impact especially for soils rich in Fe oxides/hydroxides and/or poorly-crystalline minerals that are prone for (possibly irreversible) aggregation. We thus tested these two effects on the concentration and distribution of C, N, and extractable phases of Fe and Al (by pyrophosphate and acid oxalate) across six density fractions (from 2.5 g/cm^3) using a surface-horizon of volcanic-ash soil which contained large amounts of poorly-crystalline minerals and organo-metal complexes. Compared to field-moist sample, air-drying had little effects on the elemental concentration or distribution across the fractions. In contrast, sonication on air-dried sample at each density cutoff during fractionation process caused significant changes. In addition to well-known increase in low-density material due to the liberation of plant detritus upon aggregate disruption, we found clear increase in C, N, and metals in 2.0-2.3 g/cm^3 fraction, which was largely compensated by the reduction in 1.8-2.0 g/cm^3 and, to a less extent, 2.3-2.5 g/cm^3 particles. Overall, sonication led to the redistribution of C and N by 15-20% and that of poorly

  14. 核桃花干制加工工艺研究%Experimental Researches on Air Drying of Walnut Male Anthotaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞秀玲; 侯小玲

    2012-01-01

    The blanching treatment and air drying were optimized to improve quality of walnut male anthotaxy. The best treatment was blanching walnut male anthotaxy at 90℃,20 s in solution which contained NaC1. Dried products showed better quality via stage temperature control.%对核桃雄花序烫漂、热风干燥条件进行研究,结果表明烫漂温度为90℃、烫漂时间为20S,NaCI组成的护色液护色,分段控温干燥较好。

  15. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Aberra Melesse; Degnet H/Meskel; Sandip Banerjee; Aster Abebe; Amsalu Sisay

    2015-01-01

    The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL) as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live ...

  16. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Arsi-Bale goats supplemented with different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Aberra Melesse; Sandip Banerjee; Degnet H/Meskel; Aster Abebe; Amsalu Sisay

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL) supplementation on carcass components and meat quality in Arsi-Bale goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with initial body weight of 13.6+/-0.25 kg were randomly divided into four treatments with six goats each. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g head^(−1) d^(−1) concentrate. The treatment diets contain a control diet without supplementation (T1) and diets supplement...

  17. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  18. Change in color and other fruit quality characteristics of tomato cultivars after hot-air drying at low final-moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashebir, Dereje; Jezik, Karoline; Weingartemann, Herbert; Gretzmacher, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the drying quality of three tomato cultivars (Amoroso, Berlinto and Messina) at low final-moisture content. Tomatoes were cut into slices and hot-air-dried from 92% (wet basis) to 12% final moisture content at 55 degrees C, 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C at 1.5 m/sec air flow. Color, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) and ascorbic acid (AA) content were measured in both fresh and dried tomatoes. Brightness of the dried tomato slices was significantly decreased, while intensity of the red and yellow colors and brightness of the red color (a*/b*) increased. Low overall color change (DeltaE) was obtained at the lowest drying temperature (55 degrees C). Messina and Amoroso showed a higher a* value and lower DeltaE, respectively. The TSS content was increased, while the TA and AA contents were decreased through drying. This study shows that it is possible to hot-air dry tomato slices to a final moisture content of 12% maintaining quality that is comparable with studies where the final-moisture content was higher (15% or more).

  19. Effects of applying lactic acid bacteria to the fermentation on a mixture of corn steep liquor and air-dried rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the fermentation quality of a mixture of corn steep liquor (CSL (178 g/kg wet basis and air-dried rice straw (356 g/kg wet basis after being treated with inoculants of different types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The treatments included the addition of no LAB additive (control, which was deionized water; homo-fermentative LAB alone (hoLAB, which was Lactobacillus plantarum alone, and a mixture of homo-fermentative and hetero-fermentative LAB (he + hoLAB, which were L. plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus buchneri. The results showed that the inoculation of the mixture of CSL and air-dried rice straw with he + hoLAB significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid compared with the control (P 372 h. The control group was the first to spoil, whereas the silage treated with he + hoLAB remained stable throughout the 372 h period of monitoring. The results demonstrated that the he + hoLAB could effectively improve the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of the silage.

  20. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Soule, D.E. (Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. 奥沙利铂联合卡培他滨治疗晚期胃癌的21例临床探讨%Combination of oxaliplatin and capecitabine in treatment of twenty-one advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐满珍; 李小兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy and side efferts of oxalipatin plus capecitabine for the treatment of ad-vanced gastric cancer Methods: Twenty-one cases of patients . Oxaliplatin was given at a dose of 130mg/m2 by intravenous injection at day 1; Cape citabine was orally given at a dose of 2500 mg/m2, twice a day for two weeks. Twenty-one days was one cycle.Results: Among 21 patients , the response rate (CR+PR) was 57.1% with 2CR, 10PR, 3SD,6PD. MST was 9 months, mttp was 7 months. The major side effects were hand-foot syn-drome in 7(33.3%), newel toxity 12(57.1%), diarrhea 14 .conclusion: oxaplatin cornbined with capecitabine is a good chernother-appy with high clinical remission rate and could signiticartly improve life quality .And side effects could be tolerable.%目的观察奥沙利铂联合卡培他滨治疗晚期胃癌的疗效和安全性。方法21例晚期胃癌患者,静脉滴注奥沙利铂130mg/m2,d1;卡培他滨2500 mg/m2,分早晚2次口服,d1-14,21天为1周期。结果21例患者中,CR 2例,PR10例,SD3例,PD6例,近期有效率(CR+PR)为57.1%,中位生存期9个月,中位疾病进展时间为7个月。不良反应为手足综合征、神经毒性,多为Ⅰ-Ⅱ度。结论奥沙利铂联合卡培他滨化疗方案,缓解率高,能提高生活质量,毒副反应小,患者易耐受。

  2. Air-drying Models for New-built Offshore Gas Pipelines%新建海底天然气管道干空气干燥模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学文; 王立洋; 林宗虎

    2005-01-01

    Drying (conditioning) is an important procedure to prevent hydrate formation during gas pipeline gas-up and to protect pipelines against corrosion. The air-drying method is preferred in offshore gas pipelines pre-commissioning. The air-drying process of gas pipelines commonly includes two steps, air purging and soak test. The mass conservation and the phase equilibrium theory are applied to setting up the mathematical models of air purging, which can be used to simulate dry airflow rate and drying time. Fick diffusion law is applied to setting up the mathematical model of soak test, which can predict the water vapor concentration distribution. The results calculated from the purging model and the soak test model are in good agreement with the experimental data in the DF1-1 offshore production pipeline conditioning. The models are verified to be available for the air-drying project design of offshore gas pipelines. Some proposals for air-drying engineering and operational procedures are put forward by analyzing the air-drying process of DF1-1 gas-exporting pipelines.

  3. Mullite glass-ceramic glazes synthesized through a sol-gel and ceramic mixed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, I.; Hohemberger, J.M.; Carda, J.B. [Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain). Dept. Quimica Inorganica y Organica; Jovani, M.A.; Nebot, A. [Colorobbia Espana S.A. Villafames, Castellon (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The main objective of the present work is the development of a glass-ceramic glaze with similar properties to the mullite crystalline phase. We have developed new glass-ceramic materials, which are formed through devitrification of mullite. The synthesis process combines the traditional ceramic method and the more innovative sol-gel methodologies. Amorphous precursors for the glass-ceramic glazes were obtained through precalcination of previously synthesized gels. These amorphous materials served as crystallization nuclei when introduced in the enamel composition. Gels were synthesized by the polymeric sol-gel method using AlCl{sub 3}, t-BuOH and TEOS as precursors. Composition of frit was optimized in such a way that a frit rich in aluminum and silicon would have the adequate physical and chemical characteristics for the desired application. Microstructure and structure of all the obtained materials were characterized. DTA-TG profiles and mechanical, chemical and optical properties were evaluated. On the other hand, the glass-ceramic glazes were compared first to glass-crystalline mullite glazes, which were obtained by addition of mullite crystals to the frit and then, to the glaze derived of just the frit. (orig.)

  4. Energy Labelling of Glazings and Windows in Denmark: Calculated and Measured Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Svend; Mogensen, Morten Møller

    2002-01-01

    The influence of windows on the energy consumption in buildings is well known and in order to encourage the development and the appropriate use of high performance glazings and windows in Denmark, an Energy Labelling and Rating system is being developed. During this work a need for establishing a...... in three different programmes (FRAME, THERM and WinIso). The comparison indicates that all investigated programmes are qualified for calculating energy labelling data for glazings and windows......The influence of windows on the energy consumption in buildings is well known and in order to encourage the development and the appropriate use of high performance glazings and windows in Denmark, an Energy Labelling and Rating system is being developed. During this work a need for establishing...... a common and well-defined method to characterise the performance of glazings and windows on the Danish market has been recognised. This paper gives a short description of the Danish Energy Labelling and Rating system for glazings and windows, which was put into operation during 2000. Furthermore...

  5. Direitos sociais na constituição cidadã: um balanço de 21 anos Social rights in the citizen Constitution: a balance of twenty-one years of existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz um balanço dos direitos sociais previstos na Constituição de 1988, destacando seus avanços e limitações ao longo destes últimos 21 anos. Começando pelos direitos dos trabalhadores e, em seguida, pelos dispositivos relativos à Seguridade Social, o trabalho busca compreender as motivações do legislador constituinte e o histórico de constantes disputas no interior da sociedade, em torno da regulamentação, manutenção e aprimoramento desses direitos ao longo dos anos.This paper is an attempt to make a balance of the social rights forseen in the Brazilian 1988 Constitution, stressing its advances and limitations during the last twenty one years. Beginning with the labour rights and following with the Social Security articles, it is an effort to understand both the motivations of the legislators and the historic of permanent disputes within the Brazilian society around the regulation, maintenance and improvement of these rights along the years.

  6. Development of air - drying novolac epoxy vinyl resin%气干性酚醛环氧乙烯基树脂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭君岐; 孙友梅; 马晓燕

    2011-01-01

    采用交联共聚法合成了气干性酚醛环氧乙烯基树脂。研究了物料配比、阻聚剂用量、反应温度对反应的影响,测试了树脂的耐腐蚀性、气干性和力学性能。结果表明,酯化过程最佳工艺条件为:反应温度110—115℃,反应时间2.5h,醇、酸物质的量比1.1:2,阻聚剂质量分数0.05%,催化剂质量分数0.3%。交联聚合过程最佳工艺条件为:反应温度75~85℃反应时间2.0h,改性剂(甲苯二异氰酸酯)加入质量5%。合成的树脂的弯曲强度为101MPa,弯曲模量3.66GPa,冲击强度11.4kJ/m^2,气干性、韧性、固化性能均%The air - drying novolac epoxy vinyl resin was synthesized by crosslinking copolymerization. The effects of raw material ratio, inhibitor amount, reaction temperature on the reaction were investigated. The corrosion resistance , air dry and mechanical properties of the resin were tested. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the esterification process were as followed : reaction temperature 110 - 115℃, reaction time 2.5 h, molar ratio of alcohol to acid 1.1 : 2, inhibitor amount 0. 05 % , catalyst amount 0.3 %. The optimal cross - linking polymerization conditions were as followed : reaction temperature 75 - 85 ℃ reaction time 2.0 h, modifier ( toluene diisocya- nate) amount 5%. The bending strength, bending modulus and impact strength of product resin were 101 MPa, 3.66 GPa and 11.4 kJ/m^2. The air dry, toughness and curing properties of the procucts were better than that of other similar resins. The product could be used for high temperature and strong corrosion occasions and used as sur- face coatings, heat resistant putty matrix resins and self- leveling resins.

  7. Substantiation of 25 kGy radiation sterilization dose for banked air dried amniotic membrane and evaluation of personnel skill in influencing finished product bioburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsit, Nagi; Dwejen, Samira; Saad, Ibrahim; Abdalla, Sedigh; Shaab, Arej; Salem, Salma; Khanfas, Enas; Hasan, Anas; Mansur, Mohamed; Abdul Sammad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Preparation of amniotic membrane (AM) by air drying method followed by radiation sterilization is simple and valuable approach; sterility and quality of the final AM product are depending on the quality management system at the tissue bank. Validation and substantiation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) for tissue allografts is an essential step for the development and validation of the standard operating procedures (SOP). Application of SOP is perfectly relying on trained staff. Skills differences among personnel involved in AM preparation could have an effect on microbiological quality of the finished product and subsequently on the RSD required. AM were processed by four different couples of the tissue bank technicians. The AM grafts were randomly selected and subjected to bioburden test to validate and substantiate the 25 kGy RSD. Bioburden test for AM grafts were also useful to evaluate the skill of the tissue bank technicians and thus, to validate the current SOP for air dried AM. Moreover, the effect of placental source on bioburden counts on AM grafts was assessed. Substantiation of the 25 kGy RSD at a sterility assurance level of 10(-1), and sample item portion = 1, was carried out using Method VD max (25) of the International Organization for Standardization, document no. 11137-2 (ISO in Sterilization of healthcare products-radiation-part 2: establishing the sterilization dose, Method VDmax-substantiation of 25 kGy or 15 kGy as the sterilization dose, International Standard Organization, 2006). The results showed that there were no significant differences in the bioburdens of the four batches (α = 1 %), this means no significant differences in the skill of the four couples of the tissue bank technicians in terms of their ability to process AM according to the air dried AM SOP. The 25 kGy RSD was validated and substantiated as a valid sterilization dose for the AM prepared with the current established SOP at the Biotechnology Research Center

  8. Analysis of annual cooling energy requirements for glazed academic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S.A. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hassan, A.H. [Vinyl Chloride Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Terengganu (Malaysia). Dept. of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia experienced rapid increase in energy consumption in the last decade due to its high economic growth and increase in the standard living of household. Energy is becoming more costly and the situation is worsened by the global warming as a result of greenhouse gas emission. A more efficient energy usage and significant reduction in the released emission is therefore required. Space cooling with the use of air conditioners is practiced all year round in Malaysia and this accounts for 42% of total electricity energy consumption for commercial buildings and 30% of residential buildings. Reduction in the energy used for cooling in the built environment is a vital step to energy conservation in Malaysia. The objective of the present study was to analyze the annual cooling energy of highly glazed academic buildings which are located in a university in Malaysia. The outcome of the study would enable further remedial actions in reducing the energy consumption of the buildings' air conditioning system. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software to calculate the cooling energy of a selected building or area. Comparison is made against the rated equipment load (i.e., the air handling unit) installed in the buildings. Since the buildings in the present study are not constructed parallel to each other the effect of building orientations with respect to the sun positions are also studied. The implications of shades such as venetian blind on the cooling energy are investigated in assessing their effectiveness in reducing the cooling energy, apart from providing thermal comfort to the occupants. In the aspect of operation, the present study includes the effects of reducing the set point air temperature and infiltration of outdoor air due to doors that are left open by the occupants. It is found from the present study that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  9. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    . No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...... material. Due to the low density, the acoustic impedance of aerogel could help boost the efficiency of piezoelectric transducers. • Waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc.......The first main objective deals with “aerogel process optimisation”. The general goal was to demonstrate that the elaboration process, developed during the recent HILIT project, permitted to obtain a significant amount of light transmitting, insulating and transparent 15-20 mm monolithic and crack...

  10. New glazed extensions in older blocks of flats; Nye glastilbygninger i aeldre etageboligbyggeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, O.; Wittchen, K.B.

    1998-12-01

    This publication contains descriptions and analyses of nine examples of new, glazed extensions, constructed during the renovation of older blocks of flats which are typically to be found in the inner suburbs of Copenhagen. The purposes of this research project are to give an account of how it is possible, in addition to building improvements and low maintenance costs, to achieve energy savings. Such an account can be instrumental in making future glazed extensions even better. The research project comprises descriptions and analyses of glazed extension constructions, as well as their energy aspects and economy. As something special, the report also comprises a questionnaire examination of how the residents have evaluated the utility value of the outdoor rooms and an evaluation of the architecture carried out by a panel of writers specialising in architecture. In the following, reference is made to some of the main conclusions of the report. (au) EFP-96. 33 refs.

  11. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  12. USAGE OF ÇANAKKALE ECEABAT CLAY IN LOW TEMPARATURE BORAX ADDED GLAZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Karagül

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we aimed to work on the the probability of the usage of low fired ceramic glazes (1020 OC as natural raw material of Çanakkale, the renkown city for its ceramic. As well as theoretical research and laboratory studies were studied on this subject. Especially these glazes were planned to have some specialities, which are highly important for native ceramic producers and potters. Because of this, usage of Eceabat clay will be economic solutions, as a flux for glaze and body material. On the other hand, Ezine region calsit and Atikhisar clay also has other properties as a usage of native raw materials. The resaults of the research will be important steps as a relationsip for university and industry.

  13. Simulation of complex glazing products; from optical data measurements to model based predictive controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds, fritted glass and woven shades require more detailed optical and thermal input data for their components than specular non light-redirecting glazing systems. Various methods for measuring these data sets are described in this paper. These data sets are used in multiple simulation tools to model the thermal and optical properties of complex glazing systems. The output from these tools can be used to generate simplified rating values or as an input to other simulation tools such as whole building annual energy programs, or lighting analysis tools. I also describe some of the challenges of creating a rating system for these products and which factors affect this rating. A potential future direction of simulation and building operations is model based predictive controls, where detailed computer models are run in real-time, receiving data for an actual building and providing control input to building elements such as shades.

  14. Influence of kiln and air drying on redistribution of low-molecular sugars and nitrogenous compounds in scots pine (`pinus sylvestris l.`) and consequences for mould susceptibility. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, N.

    1994-12-31

    Drying of wood is linked up with the transport of free and bound water and will be of major importance for the redistribution of water soluble substances. Therefore this study treats the influence of drying on the redistribution of soluble sugars and nitrogen, including both transport- and chemical processes. Moreover the study deals with durability aspects: the influence of different kiln drying schedules and their parameters on the redistribution of low-molecular sugars and nitrogenous compounds--as a widely used method in practice air drying is also included in the study; investigation of the effect of different drying treatments on susceptibility to mold growth; and an attempt to shed light on the migration of water soluble substances above and under the fiber saturation point.

  15. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  16. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  17. Influence of glazed zirconia on dual-cure luting agent bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, T A; Borges, G A; Borges, L H; Platt, J A; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of a novel surface treatment that uses a low-fusing porcelain glaze for promoting a bond between zirconia-based ceramic and a dual-cure resin luting agent. Bond strengths were compared with those from airborne particle abrasion, hydrofluoric acid etching, and silanization-treated surfaces. Twenty-four yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Cercon Smart Ceramics, Degudent, Hanau, Germany) discs were fabricated and received eight surface treatments: group 1: 110 μm aluminum oxide air-borne particle abrasion; group 2: 110 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 3: 50 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; group 4: 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 5: glaze and hydrofluoric acid;group 6: glaze, hydrofluoric acid, and silane;group 7: glaze and 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; and group 8: glaze,50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane. After treatment, Enforce resin cement (Dentsply, Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) was used to fill an iris cut from microbore Tygontubing that was put on the ceramic surface to create 30 cylinders of resin cement in each treatment group (n=30). Micro shear bond test-ing was performed at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. One-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were made using Tukey's test (phydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to groups that utilized conventional airborne particle abrasion treatments with 50 or 110 pm aluminum oxide (phydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to remaining groups (p<0.001). Treatment of zirconia ceramic surfaces with a glaze of low-fusing porcelain significantly increased the bond strength of a dual-cure resin luting agent to the ceramic surface.

  18. Soft tissue adhesion of polished versus glazed lithium disilicate ceramic for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunot-Gohin, C; Duval, J-L; Azogui, E-E; Jannetta, R; Pezron, I; Laurent-Maquin, D; Gangloff, S C; Egles, C

    2013-09-01

    Ceramics are widely used materials for prosthesis, especially in dental fields. Despite multiple biomedical applications, little is known about ceramic surface modifications and the resulting cell behavior at its contact. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological response of polished versus glazed surface treatments on lithium disilicate dental ceramic. We studied a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max(®) Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) with 3 different surface treatments: raw surface treatment, hand polished surface treatment, and glazed surface treatment (control samples are Thermanox(®), Nunc). In order to evaluate the possible modulation of cell response at the surface of ceramic, we compared polished versus glazed ceramics using an organotypic culture model of chicken epithelium. Our results show that the surface roughness is not modified as demonstrated by equivalent Ra measurements. On the contrary, the contact angle θ in water is very different between polished (84°) and glazed (33°) samples. The culture of epithelial tissues allowed a very precise assessment of histocompatibility of these interfaces and showed that polished samples increased cell adhesion and proliferation as compared to glazed samples. Lithium disilicate polished ceramic provided better adhesion and proliferation than lithium disilicate glazed ceramic. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time, how it is possible to use simple surface modifications to finely modulate the adhesion of tissues. Our results will help dental surgeons to choose the most appropriate surface treatment for a specific clinical application, in particular for the ceramic implant collar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamics of thin layer hot-air drying of lagenaria leucantha rusby%瓠瓜薄层热风干燥动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸爱士; 夏凯

    2011-01-01

    为掌握瓠瓜薄层热风干燥特性,研究了一定条件下风温与风速对瓠瓜薄层热风干燥过程的影响,拟合了干燥曲线方程,计算了对流传热系数α与传质系数KH等动力学参数.结果表明:风温、风速均对干燥速度影响较大,以75℃、1.04 m/s为宜;干燥方程符合Page模型:随风速增大α与KH均增大,但风温对两者影响不大.结果可以为瓠瓜干制工业化生产和控制提供理论依据.%In order to master the thin layer hot-air drying character of lagenaria leucantha rusby, the influences of the wind temperature and speed on the drying process of thin layer hot-air drying of the lagenaria leucantha rusby under certain condition were studied. The equations of drying curve were fitted, and the dynamics parameters such as convective heat-transfer coefficient a, and quality transmission coefficient kH, were calculated. The results showed that the wind temperature and speed had greater influence on the dehydrating rate, and 75℃、 1.04 m/s were suitable parameters. The drying procedure could accurately be described by the Page model. With the wind speed rising, a and kH increased, but the wind temperature had a little effect on the two coefficients. The results can provide a theoretical basis for industrialization production and control of drying lagenaria leucantha rusby.

  20. 高硬度全抛釉的研究%Development of High Hardness Glaze for Fully Polished Ceramic Tiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况学成; 殷敏; 张明珠

    2015-01-01

    At present, the problems with fully polished glazed ceramic tiles are mainly low hardness and poor wear resistance. On the basis of the existing body and surface glaze formulas, the composition of surface glaze was optimized, and then through test and trial the glaze for fully polished glazed ceramic tiles with good wear resistance and high hardness was developed, which could effectively improve the quality of the products.%针对目前全抛釉砖产品存在的硬度低、耐磨性差问题,在已知工厂坯体和底釉配方的基础上优化面釉的配方组成,并进行归纳分析,研制出耐磨性好、硬度高的全抛釉。

  1. Effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3 mm × 16.4 mm × 2.0 mm) were fabricated and divided into 5 groups according to the number of A2-coloring liquid applications (Group I to V). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to the method of surface treatments (n=3): N: no treatment; P: polishing; G: glazing. Color a...

  2. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  3. Highly insulating glazing in new multi-storey buildings; Hoejisolerende glaspartier i nye etageboliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, K.; Schmidt, H.; Aggerholm, S.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate how highly insulating types of glazing can be used in multi-storey buildings for housing in new ways. These are energy efficient and provide good indoor climate and also satisfy requirements to high architectural quality. The project has resulted in a number of design proposal demonstrating how new types of glazing can be fitted into multi-storey buildings and how new facade expressions, space and lighting effects can be obtained by using highly insulating glass areas. The project is collaboration between the architects Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg's Tegnestue, KAB Bygge og Boligadministration and Danish Building and Urban Research. Calculations of heat demand suggest that it is possible to meet the targets outlined in the Danish Government's action plan for energy. Energy 21 by using new types of highly insulating glazing in new buildings. Another 33% reduction of the heating demand is targeted in relation to existing requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 1995 (BR 95) and the Danish Building Regulations for Small Dwellings 1998 (BR-S 98). The project builds on experience gained from 'High-insulated Glass House' (Wittchen and Aggerholm, 1999) built on the housing estage Egebjerggaard in Ballerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. Examples of existing multi-storey buildings with glass facades show extensive use of glazing as early as 1830 in Spain. Walls preceding the curtain wall were built from wood and glass and rested on stone corbels at about 1 m from the load-bearing facade. The first multi-storey buildings with facades entirely made from glass date from the 1920s. The architect Le Corbusier was the first to create a building system that facilitated the construction of non-loadbearing facades. Various conditions must be especially considered at the design of facades with highly insulating glass areas, i.a. type of glass and glazing, solar shadings, frame constructions and airtightness

  4. Do Glazed Ceramic Pots in a Mexico-US Border City Still Contain Lead?

    OpenAIRE

    Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Osuna-Leal, Angel I.; Martinez-Cervantes, Maria Elena; Castillo-Fregoso, Maria Carmen; Vazquez-Erlbeck, Martha; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the presence of lead in glazed ceramic pots in a Mexico-US border city, 41 clay pots were sampled. The pots were purchased in several establishments located in different geographical areas of the city. The presence of lead was determined using LeadCheck Swabs. Most (58.5%) of the pots were from the State of Jalisco and 24.4% were of unknown origin. Only 4 pots did not contain varnish and were lead-negative. Thirty-seven (81.1%) of the glazed pots were lead positive. Among...

  5. Characterization of the glaze and in-glaze pigments of the nineteenth-century relief tiles from the Pena National Palace, Sintra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Veiga, J. P.; Alves, L. C.; Mirão, J.; Dias, L.; Lima, A. M.; Muralha, V. S.; Macedo, M. F.

    2016-07-01

    The glaze and in-glaze pigments of the historical nineteenth-century glazed tiles from the Pena National Palace (Sintra, Portugal) were characterized using a multi-analytical approach. Chemical composition and microstructural characterization were ascertained by µ-PIXE, µ-Raman, optical microscopy and VP-SEM-EDS. The manufacturing technique and colour palette in these tiles were found to be close to the ceramic pigments used in traditional majolica. The blue and purple colours derive from cobalt oxide and manganese oxide, respectively. A mixture of Pb-Sn-Sb yellow with cobalt oxide and iron oxide was used for green and dark yellow, respectively, while grey tonalities consist of a complex mixture of cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and Pb-Sn-Sb yellow in different proportions. Results obtained allowed the determination of the oxides and elements used in pigments as well as production techniques, resorting to traditional majolica manufacture, although the tiles were produced by the end of the nineteenth century.

  6. Condensation on the outdoor surface of window glazing — Calculation methods, key parameters and prevention with low-emissivity coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gläser, Hans Joachim, E-mail: glaesergm@arcor.de [Paul-Ehrlich-Str 10, 51643 Gummersbach (Germany); Ulrich, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.ulrich@ist.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The market share of thermally insulating, triple glazing installed as window glazing increased to nearly 50% in Germany in 2011 and is continuing to rise in 2012. Dew and frost on the outdoor surface of insulating glazing units with thermal transmittance values U{sub g} below 1.0 W/(m{sup 2}K) present a severe problem, because unimpeded visual contact, one of the essential features of glazing, is disturbed. The report describes calculation methods to determine the occurrence and prevention of outdoor condensation and the key parameters influencing it. From this parameter study, it follows that condensation on the outdoor surface of window glazing in the form of frost and dew is prevented for all the glazing by low-emissivity (low-e) coatings with a certain thermal emissivity value ε{sub o} between 0 and 1 on the outdoor surface if the outdoor air temperature t{sub o} is lower than the room temperature t{sub i}, normally given for buildings in the Central European climate when outdoor condensation occurs. However, today weather resistant low-e coatings with sufficient transmittance applied on outdoor surfaces of window glazing can only be manufactured on the basis of indium tin oxide with ε{sub o} ≈ 0.2. The study shows that with such low-e coatings frost can be prevented as well as the frequency of dew occurrence can be reduced on all vertically installed glazing with thermal transmittance values U{sub g} ≥ 0.47 W/(m{sup 2}K) and on the outside of skylight glazing with U{sub g} ≥ 0.70 W/(m{sup 2}K). This is sufficient for all window glazing marketed nowadays. Weather-resistant, cost-effective coatings on glass with ε{sub o} < 0.2, which are required for energy-neutral glazing with U{sub g} values < 0.5 W/(m{sup 2}K), are the subject of ongoing development. - Highlights: ► Condensation on the outside of highly insulating window glazing ► Calculation methods for the occurrence of this condensation ► Prevention with low-e coating on the outdoor of

  7. Oil and the Translucent. Varnishing and glazing in practice, recipes and historiography, 1100-1600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, M.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies for the first time the history of varnishing and glazing in relation to the use of drying oils in the workshop of the medieval painter until the late sixteenth century. Results from technical research and historical reconstructions will be combined with an analysis of medie

  8. The use of micro-XRD for the study of glaze color decorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradell, T.; Molina, G. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Castelldefels (Spain); Molera, J.; Pla, J. [Universitat de Vic, GRTD, Escola Politecnica Superior, Vic (Spain); Labrador, A. [BM16-ESRF, LLS, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Lund University, MAX IV Laboratory, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compounds responsible for the colors and decorations in glass and glazed ceramics include: coloring agents (transition-metal ions), pigments (micro- and nanoprecipitates of compounds that either do not dissolve or recrystallize in the glassy matrix) and opacifiers (microcrystalline compounds with high light scattering capability). Their composition, structure and range of stability are highly dependent not only on the composition but also on the procedures followed to obtain them. Chemical composition of the colorants and crystallites may be obtained by means of SEM-EDX and WDX. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction (SR-micro-XRD) has a small beam size adequate (10 to 50 microns footprint size) to obtain the structural information of crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition, in glass decorations the crystallites often appear forming thin layers (from 10 to 100 micrometers thick) and they show a depth-dependent composition and crystal structure. Their nature and distribution across the glass/glaze decorations gives direct information on the technology of production and stability and may be related to the color and appearance. A selection of glass and glaze coloring agents and decorations are studied by means of SR-micro-XRD and SEM-EDX including: manganese brown, antimony yellow, red copper lusters and cobalt blue. The selection includes Medieval (Islamic, and Hispano Moresque) and Renaissance tin-glazed ceramics from the 10th to the 17th century AD. (orig.)

  9. Obstacles, an Energy-Efficient Method to Reduce Downdraught from Large Glazed Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Heiselberg, Per

    Thermal discomfort due to downdraught from glazed surfaces are often met by convectors placed close to the surface, but this may lead to increased energy consumption. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of a horizontal obstacle on the boundary layer flow at a high cold ver...

  10. New milarite/osumilite-type phase formed during ancient glazing of an Egyptian scarab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, G.; Angelini, I.; Nestola, F.

    2013-02-01

    A scarab found in grave 25 of the Monte Prama necropolis, near Cabras, Oristano, Sardinia, is of special importance for the archaeological interpretation and dating of this important archaeological site. The object has been misinterpreted in the past as composed by bone: recent archaeometric analyses showed that it is a glazed steatite of Egyptian origin and that the altered surface contains interesting phases crystallized during the high-temperature interaction of the Mg-rich talc core with the alkali-rich glass used for glazing. A novel single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the phases indicates that it is a new compound having the milarite-osumilite structure type, with a peculiar composition close to (Na1.52K0.12□0.36)(Mg3)(Mg1.72Cu0.16Fe0.12)(Si11.4Al0.6)O30, not reported for naturally occurring minerals. The structural and crystal chemical features of the compound, together with the known high-temperature stability of the series, allow a complete interpretation of the glazing process and conditions, based on direct application of the glaze on the steatite core with subsequent treatment at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  11. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  12. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for complex glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Four different complex glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET.The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements and to perform measurements and corrections according to a method developed in the ALTSET project...

  13. Comparison of Electrical and Thermal Performances of Glazed and Unglazed PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT collectors combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receives solar radiation and produces electricity and heat simultaneously. PVT collectors can produce more energy per unit surface area than side-by-side PV modules and solar thermal collectors. There are two types of liquid-type flat-plate PVT collectors, depending on the existence of glass cover over PV module: glass-covered (glazed PVT collectors, which produce relatively more thermal energy but have lower electrical yield, and uncovered (unglazed PVT collectors, which have relatively lower thermal energy with somewhat higher electrical performance. In this paper, the experimental performance of two types of liquid-type PVT collectors, glazed and unglazed, was analyzed. The electrical and thermal performances of the PVT collectors were measured in outdoor conditions, and the results were compared. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the glazed PVT collector is higher than that of the unglazed PVT collector, but the unglazed collector had higher electrical efficiency than the glazed collector. The overall energy performance of the collectors was compared by combining the values of the average thermal and electrical efficiency.

  14. Surface laser-glazing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, C. [University of Minho, Physics Department, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Portinha, A. [University of Minho, Physics Department, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ribeiro, R.M. [University of Minho, Physics Department, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)]. E-mail: ricardo@fisica.uminho.pt; Teixeira, V. [University of Minho, Physics Department, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Costa, M.F. [University of Minho, Physics Department, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Oliveira, C.R. [Instituto de Desenvolvimentoe Inovacao Tecnologica (IDIT), 4520-102 Santa Maria da Feira (Portugal); University Lusiada, 4760-108 Vila Nova de Famalicao (Portugal)

    2005-07-15

    Atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) ZrO{sub 2}-8%WtY{sub 2}O{sub 3} thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were subjected to a CO{sub 2} continuous wave laser-glazing process in order to generate an external dense layer produced by different processing parameters. For that purpose, different beam scanning speeds and track overlapping were chosen. Surface roughness has been reduced significantly after laser-glazing. Despite the surface crack network, all laser-glazed specimens presented a fully dense and porous free external layer with a columnar microstructure. Surface cracks along the densified layer were found to have tendency to be oriented in two perpendicular directions, one in the direction of the laser beam travel, the other perpendicular to it. Moreover, the cracks parallel to the beam moving direction are found to be on the overlapping zone, coinciding with the edge of the subsequent track. The cracks along the densified layer are vertical and tend to branch and deviate from the vertical direction within the porous PS coating. The largest overlapping allied to the smallest amount of irradiated energy generated the most uniform layer with the shortest crack branches within the PS coating. For the as-sprayed coating, the XRD results revealed mainly t' non-transformable tetragonal zirconia with a small percentage of residual monoclinic zirconia. All glazed coatings presented only t' non-transformable tetragonal zirconia with some variations on preferable crystal orientation.

  15. Report of seminal vesiculoscopy performed on twenty- one patients with intractable hematospermia%精囊镜治疗21例顽固性血精的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李碧君; 王在盛; 叶亲永; 黎鼎荣; 车斯策; 钟世强; 王剑敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical application of seminal vesiculoscopy on patients with intractable hematospermia that do not respond to conservative treatments. Methods From October 2011 to February 2013, twenty- one patients with intractable hematospermia underwent seminal vesiculoscopy in the Second Affriliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College. Before admission to hospital, all these patients have suffered hematospermia over half a year and received both western medicine and traditional medications as well as physical treatments. However the patients′ symptoms of hematospermia still reoccurred over and again. After admission to hospital, B-mode ultrasound and CT scans were conducted on the patients to rule out the possibility of prostate tumor. Examination of seminal vesiculoscopy with Wolf 7.5 F rigid ureteroscope was further performed. After surgical operations, the patients received intravenous infusion of antibiotics and wore indwelling catheters. Results All surgical operations were successfully performed on the above twenty-one patients. Among the patients, 4 patients needed to have their seminal colliculuses cut open through resectoscope to have their ejaculatory ducts exposed. The surgical operations lasted for 20 to 43 minutes(25 minutes average). After undergoing surgical operations, one of the patients experienced fever but did not develop any complications such as epididymitis, urethral trauma, anorectal injury, or retrograde ejaculation etc; sixteen patients′ hematospermia is completely cured within three months after receiving treatments with seminal vesiculoscopy; three patients′ hematospermia disappeared after undergoing surgical operations and having auxiliary treatments of traditional Chinese medicines and antibiotics; two patients still have reoccurring hematospermia. Conclusions Seminal vesiculoscopy is an effective approach on diagnosis and therapies in patients suffering hematospermia for long periods. It can be used to confirm the

  16. 风鸭的腌制发酵工艺研究%Procesing Technology of Pickled and Fermented Air-drying Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海祥; 杨士章; 施帅; 吴明亮

    2012-01-01

    Complex microbial agents were studied for air-drying duck in this experiment. Conditions of the best curing for the duck were determined according to orthogonal design. The curing parameters were salt 8%, sucrose 3%, compound condiment (Chinese prickly ash-illicium verum ratio, 1:1) 1.5% and curing hours 12 h. The best fermentation conditions of fermented salted duck were studied with single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment design successively. The experimental results showed that the best proportion of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Mcrococcus varians, Dabaryanyces hansenula was 1:2:1:2. The optimum inoculation amount of complex microbial agents, fermentation temperature and time were 1.5%, 22 ℃ and 73 h, respectively. Under these conditions, the air-drying duck is processed with pH of 5.18 and N content of amino acid being of 0.75%.%本试验研究了用复合发酵剂生产风鸭的工艺条件.通过正交试验确定了鸭胚腌制的最佳条件为食盐浓度8%,蔗糖3%,复合香辛料(花椒八角1∶1混合)1.5%,腌制时间12h.通过单因素试验与正交试验确定了最佳的发酵条件:植物乳杆菌、戊糖乳杆菌、变异微球菌与汉逊德巴利氏酵母菌之间的菌种比例1∶2∶1∶2,接种量1.5%,发酵温度22℃,发酵时间73h,所得风鸭pH值为5.18,氨基酸态氮含量为0.75%.

  17. 康乃馨热风干燥特性研究%Research on hot-air drying characteristics of carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚晶; 杨薇

    2012-01-01

    选取康乃馨为研究对象,以热风温度、风速、装载量为试验因素进行单因素试验,分析各个因素对干燥特性的影响.结果表明,3个因素对康乃馨的干燥特性影响均显著,温度越高,风速越大,装载量越少,康乃馨达到安全水分所用的时间就越短.采用3种常用的干燥模型单项扩散模型、指数模型、Page模型对试验数据进行线性回归分析和模型的拟合,得出Page模型适合描述康乃馨的干燥进程,并建立康乃馨的干燥模型.通过试验验证,Page模型的预测值与实测值的最大误差仅为6.7%,很好地描述了康乃馨的干燥进程.%Hot-air temperature, wind velocity and loading weight were taken as experimental factors to study the drying characteristics of carnation. Experimental results showed that all of the three factors significantly influence the drying characteristics of carnation. It was favorable to strengthen the drying process by increasing drying temperature and wind velocity. But the increase of loading weight could reduce drying rate. The experimental datum was simulated with different mathematical models. The results also showed that Page model was fitted to the hot-air drying curves of carnation. The change regulation of hot-air drying of carnation could be described and predicted very well by Page model according to the comparison of experimental and calculated values.

  18. The Analysis of Needs for Heating and Cooling Energy in the Administrative Building with Big Glazing Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilūnė Pikelytė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the influence of big glazing facades on the needs for heating and cooling energy.Three ways of modelling the needs for energy were chosen. The influence of the orientation of the glazing facade and different heat – optical features of glazing on energy needs was established. The paper analyzed the influence of the measures of passive energy saving on the needs for heating and cooling.A comparison of calculation results applying two methods suggesting the needs for cooling energy was made and energy costs of actual and normal heating were examined.Article in Lithuanian

  19. The Effect of ZnO Addition on Microstructure, Phase and Color Developments of Copper Reduction Glaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. NayebPashaee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of Zn on microstructure and color developments of the copper reduction glaze were investigated. Structural and colorimetric characteristics of the glaze surface are examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and Telespectrophotometery. Results indicate in samples consisted of more than 7 % of zinc amount, crystalline structures containing Willemite and synthesized copper. XRD indicate that, 14 wt% of zinc oxide is enough to form Willemite. In all samples, duration of process was sufficient to form the metallic particles. SEM images confirm presence of copper nanosphere-laths of Willemite and surrounding glaze.

  20. Effects of Glazing, Packaging and Phosphate Treatments on Drip Loss in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) During Frozen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Turan; Kaya, Yalçın; ERKOYUNCU, İbrahim

    2003-01-01

    Fresh rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) were frozen with different pre-freezing treatments in an air blast freezer (-35oC) and stored at -25oC for 12 months. The treatments were done using 10% sodium polyphosphate and 3% sodium metaphosphate with 4% NaCl solutions and glazing + packaging to prevent drip loss in the frozen fish. The effect of glazing + packaging treatment on drip loss during frozen storage was significant (p0.05). In other words, neither phosphate usage nor glazing ...

  1. An analysis of the benefits of photovoltaic-coated glazing on owning and operating costs of high rise commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Keith Everette

    Energy efficient glazing is necessary to reduce heat gains or losses that contribute to the high-energy use of buildings. However, high-rise commercial buildings that use energy efficient glazing are still consumptive. To reduce their energy use further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. With limited light transmittance due to their required production of electricity, photovoltaic glazed windows can be developed with thermal properties similar to Low-E coatings. Consequently, these window systems can reduce operating costs of buildings without reducing the human satisfaction of the built environment. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this study investigates the effects of photovoltaic glazed windows on energy use of large commercial buildings and includes an assessment of the overall human satisfaction of the workers within photovoltaic glazed office spaces. This study targets high-rise commercial buildings and their occupants in urban centers of the four census regions---North, Northeast, South, and Midwest. A prototypical building was used to develop the base case simulations for the DOE-2 energy simulation program and the PV F-Chart photovoltaic analysis program. By substituting the appropriate variable in the base case simulation for each site, building was simulated to evaluate the impact of the PV glazing on the building's heat loss/gaining as well as the amount of electricity that could be expected from the PV. To test for human satisfaction, a survey was performed to assess the overall preference of the subjects to the office spaces using the photovoltaic glazed windows. An analysis of the variance was also conducted to test for significantly different treatment means. Overall, the findings of this study show that photovoltaic windows significantly decrease the energy used by high-rise commercial buildings. Payback periods 11 to 20 years

  2. Non-destructive Analysis of Material Detachments from Polychromatically Glazed Terracotta Artwork by THz Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügener, Kirsti; Busch, Stefan F.; Soltani, Amin; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Koch, Martin; Viöl, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The damage caused by the environment to exposed glazed terracotta objects is usually not externally visible. For instance, the detachment of the glaze owing to subsurface crack formation or whole cavities in the area of the terracotta cannot be located visually. In this article, we demonstrate that terahertz time-of-flight spectroscopy is suitable to locate and measure the air gaps under the glaze detachments which could only be done by X-ray axial tomography before. This tool will be very useful to guide the restoration process, particularly for pieces that are still attached to buildings or other structures that cannot be transported to a tomography facility.

  3. Evaluation of browning ratio in an image analysis of apple slices at different stages of instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot-air drying (AD-DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Jinfeng; Yi, Jianyong; Wu, Xinye; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Xueyuan; Liu, Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis systems are widely used in food processing to evaluate quality changes. They are able to objectively measure the surface colour of various products since, providing some obvious advantages with their objectivity and quantitative capabilities. In this study, a computer vision-based image analysis system was used to investigate the colour changes of apple slices dried by instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air drying (AD-DIC). The CIE L* value and polyphenol oxidase activity in apple slices decreased during the entire drying process, whereas other colour indexes, including CIE a*, b*, ΔE and C* values, increased. The browning ratio calculated by image analysis increased during the drying process, and a sharp increment was observed for the DIC process. The change in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and fluorescent compounds (FIC) showed the same trend with browning ratio due to Maillard reaction. Moreover, the concentrations of 5-HMF and FIC both had a good quadratic correlation (R(2)  > 0.998) with the browning ratio. Browning ratio was a reliable indicator of 5-HMF and FIC changes in apple slices during drying. The image analysis system could be used to monitor colour changes, 5-HMF and FIC in dehydrated apple slices during the AD-DIC process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon.

  5. Energy and thermal analysis of glazed office buildings using a dynamic energy simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirazis, H.; Blomsterberg, A. [Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Building Design

    2005-07-01

    Although highly glazed buildings have more access to daylight than traditional buildings their energy efficiency is sometimes questionable. This paper presented energy and indoor climate simulations of single skin office buildings in Sweden with the use of a dynamic energy simulation tool. An analysis of building alternatives with 30, 60 and 100 per cent window areas were investigated. Parameters concerning the buildings' orientation, plan type, control set points and facade type were varied in the simulations. A virtual reference building was created as representative of Swedish office buildings constructed in the late 1990s. The design was determined by various Swedish agencies. Detailed performance specifications for energy and indoor climate were established and typical construction methods were determined. System descriptions and drawings were prepared. A validation of the simulated performance of the building showed that the performance specifications were accurate. A parametric study of energy use and indoor climate was conducted. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and control systems were described in detail. Orientation, plan type, control set points, and facade elements were changed while other parameters such as the shape of the building and occupant activity levels remained the same. A sensitivity analysis was conducted regarding occupant comfort levels and the energy used for operating the building. It was concluded that the energy efficiency of a building depends on facade construction. It was suggested that highly glazed buildings will benefit through the use of advanced simulation tools during the design stage. It was also noted that the main aim when designing glazed buildings should be to avoid a high cooling demand. The impact of control set points on heating and cooling is also crucial for energy use, as well as the orientation of rooms. It was suggested that an increase in glazing area does not necessarily mean higher

  6. 乌金釉的试制%Preparation of mirror black glaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董伟霞; 包启富; 梁铁生

    2016-01-01

    以K2O-CaO-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2系统制备基础釉。通过加入色剂(如:Co2O3,MnO2,Fe2O3,Cr2O3等),制备乌金釉。采用正交实验法和单因素实验考察色剂的含量、球磨细度和釉层厚度等工艺因素对釉面效果的影响规律。实验结果表明:在基础釉中加入氧化铁为3.44%wt,氧化铬为2.64%wt,氧化钴1.6%wt,二氧化锰加入量为0.32%wt,釉层厚度在1.0 mm,在1310℃下烧成可制得釉面效果良好的乌金釉。%The mirror black glaze is prepared using K2O-CaO-BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 base glaze by adding color agents (such as:Co2O3, MnO2, Fe2O3, Cr2O3, etc.). The content of color agents, balling time and glaze thickness are studied by orthogonal and single experimental method. The results show that:the mirror black glaze is obtained when the ba⁃sis glaze with glaze layer thickness of 1.0mm by adding 1.6 wt%of Co2O3, 3.44 wt%of Fe2O3, 0.32 wt%of MnO2, 2.64 wt%of Cr2O3, and fire at the temperature of 1310℃.

  7. Effects of flaw size and auto-glaze treatment on porcelain strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, J A; Thompson, J Y; Anusavice, K J

    1996-06-01

    The functional surfaces of porcelain restorations are often ground to adjust occlusion. This removes the surface glaze and introduces flaws. Re-firing the restoration before final placement produces a self-glaze layer on the surface that may reduce the extent of damage caused by grinding. The objectives of this study were to determine whether re-firing after grinding increases the strength of dental porcelain and to determine whether the effectiveness of this treatment was dependent on the initial flaw size. Six groups, each containing 12 disk specimens, were prepared from experimental body porcelain (No. 36, J.F. Jelenko & Co., Armonk, NY). The specimens were fired under vacuum, ground to a thickness of 1 mm with 240-grit SiC abrasive, and polished through 600-grit on the surface to be subjected to tensile stress. Control Group A consisted of 12 non-indented specimens. Flaws were induced in the remaining groups by means of a Vickers indenter under the following loads: 3.9 N (Group B), 7.8 N (Group C), 11.8 N (Group D), 15.7 N (Group E), and 19.6 N (Group F). Following indentation, half of the specimens from each group were re-fired. The flexure strength of each specimen was determined by means of a piston-on-three-ball biaxial fixture. The TTEST procedure of SAS (1985) indicated a significant difference between the mean strength values of glazed and non-glazed specimens in Group E only (p = 0.55, 0.24, 0.13, 0.07, 0.01, and 0.69 for Groups A to F, respectively). ANOVA with the GLM procedure of SAS (1985) revealed that the mean strength values of groups subjected to five indentation loads were not significantly different (p = 0.45 for glazed specimens and p = 1.00 for non-glazed specimens). These findings support those of Fairhurst et al. (1992) for specimens with smaller flaws that were induced by grinding with 1 micron abrasive grit. The results of the current study indicate that re-firing of porcelain with large surface flaws does not significantly increase the

  8. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational

  9. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational

  10. Solar assisted biogas plants: Pt. 4. Optimum area for blackening and double glazing over a fixed-dome biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayashankar, B.C.; Kishor, J.; Goyal, I.C.; Sawhney, R.L.; Sodha, M.S.

    The economic analysis of a fixed-dome biogas plant of rated capacity 8 m/sup 3/, above which a part of the ground is blackened and doubly glazed in the cold climate of Srinagar is presented. Blackening and glazing of the ground cannot alone maintain the slurry temperature at 35/sup 0/C, which is the optimum temperature in the mesophilic range for the anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, and so a part of the biogas must be burnt. The electrical simulation experiments have been performed to determine the loss or gain of heat from the underground biodigestor to the ambient atmosphere through the ground if a part of the ground above is blackened and double glazed. Economic analysis of the system shows that the optimum area to be blackened and glazed would have a radius 1.5 times that of the biodigestor.

  11. A multi-spectroscopic approach to the characterization of early glaze opacifiers: Studies on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa, south-western Iran (mid-first millennium BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakooei, Parviz

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results of micro-Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) studies performed on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa (mid-first millennium BC). The results showed that calcium antimonate (CaSb2O6) and lead antimonate (Pb2Sb2O7) were used as white and yellow opacifiers in the white and orange glazes respectively. Moreover, the mixture of calcium antimonate and lead antimonate were used as opacifier in the green glaze. In addition, green, turquoise, blue, and orange colors were achieved by the dissolution of copper, cobalt, and iron-bearing materials in an alkali glaze. A black glazed line, whose color was obtained by copper and iron oxides, was used to separate the colored glazes. The present paper strongly suggests invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of the opacifiers used in the early vitreous materials.

  12. Optically switchable glazing: G-values change at the press of a button; Auf Knopfdruck veraenderbare G-Werte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, A. [Materialforschungszentrum FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This article takes a look at glazing elements whose opacity can be controlled. The future role of such glazing as a replacement for traditional sun-shading systems is discussed. The construction and functioning of such photo-electro-chromatic and photochrome materials are looked at and their functioning is described in detail. Diagrams provide an overview of the physical and electrical processes involved in the various systems. The advantages of the various systems are discussed.

  13. An in vitro study to identify a ceramic polishing protocol effecting smoothness superior to glazed surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuran, Noxy George; Sreelal, T

    2014-09-01

    Polishing is taken up as an alternative to reglazing after adjustments of glazed ceramic prosthesis. An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate three different ceramic polishing systems and their combinations to identify a method that would achieve surface smoothness superior to the glazed surface. 77 glazed feldspathic porcelain disc surfaces, of diameter 12.5 mm and thickness 2 mm were constituted into seven groups of 11 specimen surfaces each. The glazed surfaces in the first group served as control (C). They were not subjected to deglazing or polishing. The remaining 66 surfaces underwent deglazing. The deglazed surfaces in the second group (D) were retained as such and did not undergo polishing. The deglazed surfaces in the third group (Wh), were polished using a polishing wheel (CeraMaster). In the fourth group (K), an adjustment kit (Porcelain Adjustment kit) was used for polishing the deglazed surfaces. The fifth group (Wx) was polished with diamond particle-impregnated wax (Dura-Polish Dia). In all these three groups, polishing was done for 40 s. The deglazed surfaces of the sixth group (WhWx) were polished initially with polishing wheel for 40 s and then with diamond particle-impregnated wax for 40 s. In the seventh group (KWx), the deglazed surfaces were polished with an adjustment kit (Porcelain Adjustment kit) for 40 s followed by diamond particle-impregnated wax (Dura-Polish Dia) for 40 s. In the sixth and seventh groups, the total polishing time was 80 s each. From each group, one specimen was set aside for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining ten specimens in each group underwent colorimetry and profilometry. Colorimeter (Minolta CR-200b ChromaMeter; Minolta, Osaka, Japan) was used to measure parameters according to CIE L*a*b* colour system and colour difference (ΔE) between control and other groups were calculated. Profilometer (Talysurf CLI 2000) was used to measure the surface roughness (Ra). The data were statistically

  14. Statistical Process Control Concerning the Glazed Areas Influence on the Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepădatu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a statistical investigation, for analyzing the buildings characteristics from the energy efficiency point of view. The energy efficiency of buildings may be estimated by their capacity to ensure a healthy and comfortable environment, with low energy consumption during the whole year. The glazed areas have a decisive role in the building energy efficiency having in view the complex functions that they play in the system. A parametric study, based on the method of factorial plan of experience with two levels, allows us to emphasize the measure in which the geometric and energetic characteristics of glazed areas influence the energy efficiency, estimated by the yearly energy needs, to ensure a comfortable and healthy environment.

  15. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  16. Water Droplet Impingement on Simulated Glaze, Mixed, and Rime Ice Accretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Michael; Rachman, Arief; Wong, See-Cheuk; Yeong, Hsiung-Wei; Hung, Kuohsing E.; Vu, Giao T.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2007-01-01

    Water droplet impingement data were obtained at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for a 36-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil with and without simulated ice using a dye-tracer method. The simulated ice shapes were defined with the NASA Glenn LEWICE 2.2 ice accretion program and including one rime, four mixed and five glaze ice shapes. The impingement experiments were performed with spray clouds having median volumetric diameters of 20, 52, 111, 154, and 236 micron. Comparisons to the experimental data were generated which showed good agreement for the rime and mixed shapes at lower drop sizes. For larger drops sizes LEWICE 2.2 over predicted the collection efficiencies due to droplet splashing effects which were not modeled in the program. Also for the more complex glaze ice shapes interpolation errors resulted in the over prediction of collection efficiencies in cove or shadow regions of ice shapes.

  17. A Study of Ca-Mg Silicate Crystalline Glazes--An Analysis on Forms of Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Pei-de; YU Ping-li; WU Ji-huai

    2004-01-01

    In the study on Ca-Mg silicate crystalline glazes, we found some disequilibrated crystallization phenomena,such as non-crystallographic small angle forking and spheroidal growth, parasitism and wedging-form of crystals, dendritic growth, secondary nucleation, etc. Those phenomena possibly resulted from two factors:(1) partial temperature gradient, which is caused by heat asymmetry in the electrical resistance furnace,when crystals crystalize from silicate melt ; (2) constitutional supercooling near the surface of crystals. The disparity of disequilibrated crystallization phenomena in different main crystalline phases causes various morphological features of the crystal aggregates. At the same time, disequilibrated crystallization causes great stress retained in the crystals, which results in cracks in glazes when the temperature drops. According to the results, the authors analyzed those phenomena and displayed correlative figures and data.

  18. Natural convection at an indoor glazing surface with different window blinds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, Cristian; Fissore, Adelqui [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Fonseca, Nestor [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, AA. 97 Pereira, Risaralda (Colombia)

    2010-10-15

    In the present study, an empirical model to determinate the convective heat loss, at an indoor glazing surface, is proposed. This model allows calculating the convective heat transfer coefficient and the air flow rate entering to the window cavity formed between the glazing surface and the protection device. The window blind is first studied experimentally by using a rigid paper, which is installed at four different distances from the window frame. This configuration is used as reference to determinate a global model, which is mainly composed of two correlations: one for the Nusselt number and other one for the air mass flow rate incoming to the window cavity. Then, more realistic configurations are tested: single curtains, double curtains, PVC blinds, wood blinds, Venetian blinds or polyester blinds. In general, heat transfer coefficients for these configurations are equal or higher than that obtained with a free plate. Several correlations are proposed for each configuration. (author)

  19. The Influence of Glazing Systems on the Energy Performance of Low-Rise Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Lampert,1983) in optical switching materials for glazing systems including chromogenic, electrochromic , photochromic, thermochromic, physio-optic and...ASHRAE/IES Standard 90, LBL -16770 Final Report, Berkeley, Ca.: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1983. 5. National Climatic Center, Test Reference Year...Illumination and Energy Analysis, LBL -14863, Berkeley, Ca.: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1982. 12. Selkowitz, S.E. and Lampert, C.M., Advanced Optical and

  20. MULTI-ANALYTICAL APPROACH FOR THE STUDY OF GLAZED POTTERY FROM AL-FUSTAT, EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, H

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the archaeometric characterizations of glazed pottery from Al-Fustat by using multi- analytical techniques. Pot sherds investigated by colorimetry, Polarized Light Microscope OLM, XRD and SEM. In the studied samples, quartz added to the pottery body paste. In addition, additive materials commonly added to the raw materials such feldspars, mica, amphibole, pyroxene and calcite. Mineralogical and morphological analysis of the matrix indicate that the firing temperature carrie...

  1. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of ve...

  2. PIXE and {mu}-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it; Bouquillon, Anne; Lanterna, Giancarlo; Franco, Lucarelli; Mando, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  3. PIXE and /μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Giancarlo Lanterna; Lucarelli, Franco; Mandò, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  4. Elemental oxides analysis of the medieval period glazed ware from Gogha, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Khedekar, V.; Rao, B.R.

    area gets exposed during low tide and a number of archaeological artifacts, such as stone anchors and various type of ceramics can be observed in the inter- tidal zone areas. The pottery is being studied to understand the cultural sequence...–63. 12. Bhan, K. K., Towards the understanding of medieval glazed pot- tery manufacture from Lashkarshah, Khambhat, Gujarat. Man En- viron., 2006, XXXI.2, 90–95. 13. Hodges, H., Artifacts: An Introduction to Early Materials and Technology, Academic...

  5. Thermal performance of residential buildings in Lisbon with large glazing areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Márcia; Gonçalves, Helder; Bastos, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study of residential buildings (multi-family apartments) with glazing areas greater than 75% of the total façade area, and for different solar exposures in Lisbon. These buildings were designed after the implementation of the first Portuguese Buildings Thermal Regulation and they are intrinsically related with the construction and architecture practiced in the last few years. The analysis includes the thermal behaviour of the apartments select...

  6. Research on Solar Steamy Hot-air Drying Technology%太阳能蒸汽热风干燥技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴坤; 孔晓玲; 段凤江; 于鹏

    2012-01-01

    The technology of solar steamy hot-air drying uses the vacuum tube collector to heat water and produce steam, then converted it into hot air through the heat exchanger. The purpose is to realize the drying of agricultural products. This paper develops a set of test device. The experiments of drying carrots were carried out to test the drying system' s performance. The results show that when solar power reaches above 750W/ m2, the steam can stable work for about 5 ~7 hours;The temperature of the dryer's high temperature section can be stabilized at around 551 ,and the temperature of the low can be stabilized at around 40t. The drying effect of carrots is good.%太阳能蒸汽热风干燥技术利用真空集热管对水加热产生的水蒸气,通过换热器转换成热风,实现对农产品的干燥作业.本文研制了一套试验装置,以胡萝卜作为样品进行了干燥机的干燥性能试验,结果表明:当太阳辐射值达到750W/m2以上时,蒸汽可以稳定工作5~7h;干燥室内高温工作段温度可以稳定在55℃左右,低温工作段温度可以稳定在40℃左右.胡萝卜干燥效果良好.

  7. Analysis of Damage in Laminated Architectural Glazing Subjected to Wind Loading and Windborne Debris Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Stutts

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind loading and windborne debris (missile impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.

  8. Application of laser scanning microscopy in the development of highly abrasion-resistant glazes for fast-fired hard paste porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham-Gia, K.; Moertel, H. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Glas und Keramik; Melchner, R.; Voit, K. [Porzellanfabrik Christian Seltmann GmbH, Weiden (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    To strengthen the competitiveness of porcelain manufacturers in national and international markets with their ever increasing quality requirements, the research presented was aimed at developing highly abrasion-resistant glazes for fast-fired hard paste porcelain. By increasing the degree of cross-linking in the glass structure, it was possible to improve the mechanical abrasion resistance of porcelain glazes. Uniform and defect-free glaze application is particularly important for achieving this improvement. To determine the abrasion resistance of the glazes, a new testing method was developed in which the glaze surface is analysed topographically with a laser scanning microscope before and after defined sand-blasting and the roughness parameters compared. The glaze development work could be minimized with the help of fractional factorial statistical test planning according to the Taguchi method. (orig.)

  9. Development of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing façade with night insulation and validated by full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per;

    2013-01-01

    glazing facade with the night insulation. The calculation result of the internal glazing surface temperature has been validated with experimental data collected in a full-scale fac¸ ade element test facility at Aalborg University (DK). With the help of the simplified method, dynamic U-value of the facade......The study aims to develop a simplified calculation method to simulate the performance of double glazing fac¸ ade with night insulation. This paper describes the method to calculate the thermal properties (Uvalue) and comfort performance (internal surface temperature of glazing) of the double...... with night insulation is calculated and compared with that of the facade without the night insulation. Based on standards EN 410 and EN 673, the method takes the thermal mass of glazing and the infiltration between the insulation layer and glazing into account. Furthermore it is capable of implementing whole...

  10. Measurement of single and double glazing thermal performance under realistic conditions using the mobile window thermal test (MoWiTT) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, J.; Keller, H.

    1986-11-01

    The thermal performance of single glazing, clear double glazing, and double glazing with a low-emissivity coating was measured in both south-facing and north-facing orientations under realistic field conditions using the new MoWiTT field test facility. The time-dependent net heat flow through each fenestration was found to be consistent with the predictions of the standard simplified heat transfer model, provided that an angle-dependent shading coefficient is used and diffuse solar gain is included in the calculation. Summer-condition average U-values were derived for each glazing type and were found to agree with the expected values for both types of double glazing. The measured U-value for single glazing was lower than predicted.

  11. Nongray-radiative and convective-conductive thermal coupling in Teflon-glazed, selective-black, flat-plate solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. K.; Rhee, S. J.

    1984-05-01

    An analysis is presented comparing Teflon film with glass for the inner glazing of a double-glazed selective-black, flat-plate solar collector. The effect of spacing between glazings and between the inner glazing and absorber plate is examined. It is shown that a 12.5-micron Teflon film is superior to glass for the inner glazing of a selective-black collector, because the advantage of its high solar transparency overwhelms the disadvantage of its infrared transparency. A too-small spacing between a selective-black absorber and its inner cover short-circuits the desirable thermal radiation resistance offered by a selective-black absorber plate. Account is taken of spectral variations in the radiation properties of glass, Teflon, and the absorber plate. Allowance is made for the fact that critical Rayleigh number is lower for a plastic film inner glazing than for a glass one.

  12. The Application of HACCP in the Processing of Cans of Air Dried Lobster Sauce Dace%HACCP在豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芳; 邹文中; 潘志民

    2014-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point(HACCP)was applied in the Processing of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace to insure the quality. Potential hazard of affecting the quality of product in each processing procedure were analyzed,and the planning worksheet was established to improve the safety of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace.%为了确保豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头的安全,对豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品进行危害分析,通过确定关键控制点及控制措施等建立了危害分析和关键控制点(HACCP)计划工作表,对改善和提高豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品的安全性具有重要的推动作用。

  13. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA; Ioana Mihaela ALEXE

    2012-01-01

    After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass) structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknes...

  14. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA; Ioana Mihaela ALEXE

    2012-01-01

    After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass) structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknes...

  15. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pevenage, J., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verhaeven, E. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, University College Antwerp, Blindestraat 9, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Vekemans, B. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lauwers, D., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vincze, L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Moens, L., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandenabeele, P. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods.

  16. 热风干燥温度对马蹄产品品质的影响%Effect of Temperature on the Product Quality of Hot Air Drying for Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷; 黎润凤; 陈振林; 张志; 梁璇; 莫玉菲

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the temperature on the quality of water chestnut slice by hot air drying,the col-or,rehydration capacity,hardness,porosity and sensory value of the water chestnut slice were compared. Results showed that hot air drying temperature had a significantly influence on the color parameters and porosity of water chestnut (P<0.05). With the drying temperature rising,the dry basis moisture content decreased faster,the dry-ing time shortened. The water chestnut slice hardness prepared at hot air drying temperature 65℃was small,the porosity and color was good.%为探究热风干燥温度对马蹄品质的影响,比较不同干燥温度对马蹄色泽、复水性、硬度、多孔性、及感官等的影响。结果表明:热风干燥温度对马蹄的色泽和多孔性含量有显著影响(P<0.05);随着干燥温度升高,失水速率增加,干燥时间缩短,干燥温度为65℃时,马蹄片的硬度小,多孔性好,呈现出较好色泽。

  17. 基于人工神经网络的施釉机器人釉料厚度沉积率建模与预测%Glazing Thickness Deposition Rate Modeling and Prediction for Robotic Glazing Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于盛睿; 洪超; 曹利钢

    2011-01-01

    为进行陶瓷产品的施釉机器人离线编程作业的轨迹自动规划,实现釉料厚度的精确性,提高釉面质量,提出基于人工神经网络拟合釉料厚度沉积率模型的方法.以釉料厚度试验数据为基础,采用贝叶斯归一化算法和LM优化算法进行拟合,通过试验结果对比分析表明,两种拟合模型与试验数据基本吻合,验证了模型的正确性和有效性.在此基础上进行模型的筛选,选择执行效率高、精度高、抗噪能力强的贝叶斯归一化算法拟合模型.提出的方法符合工程实际,有助于提高施釉机器人釉料厚度的控制精度,为陶瓷施釉自动轨迹规划的软件编程和仿真实现提供了模型依据与方法指导.%A key problem of the off-line trajectory planning for robotic glazing is to determine the glazing deposition rate model.For automatic trajectory planning of robot offline programming tasks about ceramic products, ensuring accuracy of glazing thickness and improving the quality of products, the model of glazing thickness deposition rate is developed based on artificial neural network.Based on the experimental data of glazing thickness, the glazing deposition rate model is fitted by using the Bayes normalization algorithm and LM optimization algorithm respectively.The result shows that all the two models have the high precision.However, compared with LM optimization algorithm,the Bayes normalization algorithm converges faster and more accurate.So Bayes normalization algorithm is better than LM optimization algorithm in modeling glazing deposition rate.The method increases the control accuracy of glazing thickness.The paper provides a specific theoretical and methodological support for the realization of process planning and simulation system in ceramic glazing manufacturing.It will make the future developed system meet the actual processing requirement.

  18. Effect of Air-dried Aged Waste on Removal of PAHs in River Sediment%风干陈化垃圾对河流沉积物中多环芳烃去除的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱华; 苏良湖

    2013-01-01

    考察了风干陈化垃圾对河流沉积物中多环芳烃(菲和蒽)去除的影响.研究发现,添加20%风干陈化垃圾使沉积物在40d内菲和蒽的非生物迁移率分别从47.2%下降至35.6%和从23.0%下降至7.0%,菲和蒽的非生物迁移与时间呈现较好的线性关系.添加陈化垃圾可以降低沉积物中菲和蒽向大气迁移的风险.同时,风干陈化垃圾没有促进沉积物中多环芳烃的降解,即添加20%风干陈化垃圾前后,沉积物中菲40 d内的生物降解率分别为32.8%和32.2%,蒽40 d内的生物降解率分别为35.3%和23.6%.%The effects of air-dried aged waste on the removal of PAHs in river sediment were investigated. The results showed that abiological removal rates of phenanthrene and anthracene decreased from 47. 2% and 23. 0% to 35. 6% and 7. 0%, respectively, in the presence of 20% air-dried aged waste in sediment in 40 days. The abiological removal rate of phenanthrene and anthracene was linearly related to time. The amount of phenanthrene and anthracene transfered from polluted sediment to atmosphere was reduced in the presence of air-dried aged waste. Meanwhile, no beneficial effect on PAHs degradation was observed in the presence of air-dried aged waste, that is to say, the biodegradation rate of phenanthrene in sediment was 32. 8% and 32. 2% before and after adding 20% air-dried aged waste in 40 days, and the biodegradation rate of anthracene was 35. 3% and 23. 6%.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Hot Air Drying of Thin Layer Litchi Flesh%荔枝果肉热风干燥薄层模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关志强; 王秀芝; 李敏; 蒋小强; 谢晶

    2012-01-01

    The influences of drying temperature and hot air speed on the moisture ratio MR and the drying velocity U of litchi were studied by self-building heat pump drying device. The results showed that drying process of litchi occurred in the falling rate period, and the moisture transfer was controlled by internal diffusion. Nine different dynamic models were fitted nonlinearly by using the drying test data of litchi in the heat pump device. The results of comparing the values of the correlation coefficient R , the reduced chi-square X2 and the root mean square error eRMSE and the verification testing showed the Page model was the best suitable to descript the relationship of litchi moisture and drying time by hot air drying. The effective moisture diffusion coefficient Deff and the activation energy Ea were also obtained by experiments under different conditions, the values of Deff would increase with the addition of drying temperature and hot air speed, the average value of Ea was 29. 939 kJ/mol.%利用热泵干燥装置探讨了热风温度和热风风速对荔枝果肉干燥水分比MR和干燥速率U的影响.结果表明:荔枝果肉薄层热风干燥是内部水分扩散控制的降速干燥过程.对9种常见食品薄层干燥模型进行试验数据非线性拟合,通过比较评价决定系数R2、卡方x2和标准误差eRMSE以及试验验证,结果显示Page模型是描述荔枝果肉薄层热风干燥过程的最优模型.不同干燥条件下有效水分扩散系数Deff和活化能Ea的求解结果表明,有效水分扩散系数Deff随热风温度和风速的增加而变大,平均活化能Ea为29.939 kJ/mol.

  20. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Arsi-Bale goats supplemented with different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL supplementation on carcass components and meat quality in Arsi-Bale goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with initial body weight of 13.6+/-0.25 kg were randomly divided into four treatments with six goats each. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g head^(−1 d^(−1 concentrate. The treatment diets contain a control diet without supplementation (T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g head^(−1 d^(−1 (T2, 170 g head^(−1 d^(−1 (T3 and 220 g head^(−1 d^(−1 (T4. The results indicated that the average slaughter weight of goats reared on T3 and T4 was 18.2 and 18.3 kg, respectively, being (P<0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.5 kg. Goats fed on T3 and T4 diets had higher (P<0.05 daily weight gain compared with those of T1 and T2. The hot carcass weight in goats reared on T3 and T4 diets was 6.40 and 7.30 kg, respectively, being (P<0.05 higher than those of T1 (4.81 kg and T2 (5.06 kg. Goats reared on T4 had higher (P<0.05 dressing percentage than those reared in other treatment diets. The rib-eye area in goats reared on T2, T3 and T4 diets was higher (P<0.05 than those of T1. The protein content of the meat in goats reared on T3 and T4 was 24.0 and 26.4%, respectively being significantly higher than those of T1 (19.1% and T2 (20.1%. In conclusion, the supplementation of MSL to natural grass hay improved the weight gain and carcass parts of Arsi-Bale goats indicating Moringa leaves as alternative protein supplements to poor quality forages.

  1. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2, 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3 and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4. The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001 higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001 also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.3 kg. The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05 higher than those reared in the control (T1 (54.0 g/goat/day and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4 had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good

  2. Thermal performance analysis of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor; Hewitt, Neil [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Research in Renewable Energy Science and Technology, University of Loughborough (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Energy Lab, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-04-15

    Thermal performance of an electrochromic (EC) vacuum glazing (VG) was modelled under ASTM standard winter conditions. The EC VG comprised three 0.5 m by 0.5 m glass panes with a 0.12 mm wide evacuated space between two 4 mm thick panes sealed contiguously by a 6 mm wide indium based edge seal with either one or two low-emittance (low-e) coatings supported by a 0.32 mm diameter square pillar grid spaced at 25 mm. The third glass pane on which the 0.1 mm thick EC layer was deposited was sealed to the evacuated glass unit. The whole unit was rebated by 10 mm within a solid wood frame. The low-e coating absorbed 10% of solar energy incident on it. With the EC VG installed with the EC component facing the outdoor environment, for an incident solar radiation of 300 W m{sup -2}, simulations demonstrated that when the EC layer is opaque for winter conditions, the temperature of the inside glass pane is higher than the indoor air temperature, due to solar radiation absorbed by the low-e coatings and the EC layer, the EC VG is a heat source with heat transferred from the glazing to the interior environment. When the emittance was lower to 0.02, the outdoor and indoor glass pane temperatures of the glazing with single and two low-e coatings are very close to each other. For an insolation of 1000 W m{sup -2}, the outdoor glass pane temperature exceeds the indoor glass pane temperature, consequentially the outdoor glass pane transfers heat to the indoor glass pane. (author)

  3. Tensile Bond Strength of Metal Bracket Bonding to Glazed Ceramic Surfaces With Different Surface Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments.Materials and Methods: Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA. Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primerand adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively.Results: The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (P<0.01.Conclusion: In spite of limitations in laboratory studies it may be concluded that in application of Scotch bond multipurpose plus adhesive, phosphoric acid can be used instead of HFA for bonding brackets to the glazed ceramic restorations with enough tensile bond strength.

  4. Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels...... project in IEA SHCP Task 18 deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of prototypical evacuated aerogel glazings produced in Denmark by means of a new edge seal technique with very small...

  5. Use of glazed ceramic waste as additive in mortar and the mathematical modelling of its strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Zehra Gulten; Erturan, Seyfettin; Tepecik, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated the reusability of waste material from the tile manufacturing industry as an alternative material to natural pozzolan trass. Yield strength values of mortar made from Portland cement (CEM 142.5), were measured by adding glazed ceramic waste and trass at various weight ratios (5 to 40%). The test results proved that the strength values at 2, 7, and 28 days gave good results for concentrations of waste materials less than 5-10% in the cement. A decrease in strength was observed at higher concentrations. Mathematical modelling results showed a logarithmic correlation between the mortar strength and weight fraction of cement.

  6. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    batch. Furthermore the production time has been reduced to 1/3 of the initial production time through detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of especially the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most...... of the chemicals involved in the production process. A large number of aerogel glazing prototypes have been made with partly evacuated aerogel in between two layers of low iron and anti-reflection coated glass panes with an airtight edge seal solution based on multi-layered plastic foil developed for vacuum...

  7. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  8. Experimental performance investigation of glazing system combined with internal roller blinds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Iversen, Tore Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Modern low-energy buildings are often associated with efficient shading devices, as an inevitable component to reduce the peak heat gain in the building and to improve visual comfort. Internal shading devices may have inferior performance compared to external shading, but these are still the most...... used in practice due to lower cost, simplicity and better acceptance between architects and users. The interplay between glazing systems and internal shading devices has been studied and in everyday practice this interplay is described by the solar shading coefficient and the total g...

  9. Assessment of five control strategies of an adjustable glazing at three different climate zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Ritter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for operating modern office spaces is often driven by either the annual heating demand, cooling demand or the demand for electrical lighting. The irradiation of the sun directly and indirectly affects the demand of all three. Consequently, the glazing of higher office buildings is often treated with coating that allows a fixed transmittance. Due to changing exterior conditions and interior needs, a fix-transmittance value is a compromise and most often doesn’t provide optimal thermal and visual conditions. The team in the research project named Fluidglass develops a new glazing in which the transmittance of the glazing can be adjusted. This is possible by colouring a fluid, which is circulated in chambers of the glazing. The concentration of the colorant can be infinitely adjusted. In addition, this window allows collecting heat in the exterior fluid and allows the interior fluid chamber to operate as heating panel. This paper presents a first assessment of different control strategies for adjusting the colorant concentration with a simplified model. The assessed control strategies result in considerably different overall energy demands. Certain control strategies have high potential for reducing the energy demand for heating and cooling depending on the locations (Munich 20–30% , Madrid 50–70% , Dubai 50–60%. However, certain control strategies increase the electricity demand for lighting, which needs to be considered in the further development. In general, control strategies that only consider the solar irradiation are less promising strategies in temperate climate than strategies that also take the interior temperature into account. The results of controls that also respect the thermal comfort based on a Predicted Mean Vote (PMV index can achieve low energy demand, presuming that a deviation from the highest level of comfort is acceptable. At this stage of research, none of the studied control strategies shows to be

  10. Development of Craze and Impact Resistance in Glazing Plastics by Multiaxial Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, G M; Wolock, I; Axilrod, B M; Sherman, M A; George, D A; Cohen, V

    1956-01-01

    The loss of strength of cast polymethyl methacrylate plastic as a result of crazing is of considerable importance to the aircraft industry. Because of the critical need for basic information on the nature of crazing and the effects of various treatments and environmental conditions on its incidence and magnitude, an investigation of this phenomenon was undertaken. The following factors were examined: (1) the effect of stress-solvent crazing on tensile strength of polymethyl methacrylate; (2) the critical stress and strain for onset of crazing at various temperatures; (3) the effect of molecular weight on crazing; and (4) the effect of multiaxial stretching on crazing of polymethyl methacrylate and other acrylic glazing materials.

  11. Study of the photo chromic effect exhibited by sphene-opacified glazes.; Estudio del efecto fotocromico que presentan los vidriados opacificados por esfena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou, E.; Orts, M. J.; Moreda, C.; Gozalbo, A.; Gimeno, R.; Sanchez, A.

    2012-07-01

    White glazes opacified by sphene, based on the system SiO{sub 2}-CaO-TiO{sub 2}, are an alternative to the glazes in which the opacifying phase is zircon. However, it has been observed that this type of glaze displays photochromism (reversible change of colour after exposure to a light source), involving the appearance of a yellowish shade after the glaze has been subjected to sunlight for several hours, which then disappears after a few days. This effect has led to limited use of this type of glaze. In this study, a method of quantifying the photochromic effect by means of a UV light source is established. The microstructural characterisation of glazes with a pronounced tendency to display a photochromic effect has allowed the possible causes of the photochromic effect to be determined. Finally, a series of tests have been conducted that show that the photochromic effect is related to the impurities present in the glaze, as well as to the type and quantity of crystalline phases contained in the glaze. (Author)

  12. Study of glazed building ceramics from central Europe (Budapest, Hungary) in aspect of deterioration by environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The Zsolnay products are one of the most famous Hungarian ceramics. The glazed building ceramics, which were produced by this factory, were often applied in Hungary and the surrounding countries. Since their outplacements the ceramics have suffered from numerous environmental and human influences. There is no profound knowledge about deterioration of these building materials. Beside the characterization of the Zsolnay ceramics, our purpose is to attempt to explain the deterioration caused by environmental factors considering that these ceramics have never been studied in this aspect before. Other goal is to reveal if there is any influence on the deterioration depending on the location of building covered by Zsolnay ceramics. The studied objects were used on buildings of the Museum of Applied Arts (in the center with high traffic) and the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute in Budapest (in a quarter with moderate traffic). We examined the physical and chemical features of the glaze and the ceramic body (e.g., phase composition, texture, microstructure, alteration) and the depositions on the glazed and the unglazed sides of some selected ceramics. Based on the results, three different types of ceramics were used as building materials. We observed several kinds of damage (e.g. cracks, pitting corrosions), black deposition layer and alterations in different extent. Natural and artificial particles (e.g. iron-oxide, mica, calcite and glauberithe) and spherules were deposited on the surface. Traces of biological activity were also found and connected to these organic residues calcium-oxalate was detected. On some objects of the Museum the glaze has started to weather and its lead was leached glaze by rainfall. Weathering also occurs along cracks in the glaze interior together with precipitation of lead-rich phases. Gypsum layer frequently covers the ceramics. In conclusions, the ceramics from the Museum are in worse condition than the ceramics from the

  13. Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat loss through the windows of solid wall dwellings is one of the factors contributing to high energy consumption for space heating ensuing in preventable carbon emissions. This research forms a part of novel contribution in vacuum glazing science presenting the refurbishment technology of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of triple vacuum glazing to existing UK solid wall dwelling by investigating the space-heating load, solar energy gain and window to wall area ratios. Three-dimensional dynamic thermal models, considering realistic heating and occupancy regimes, of an externally insulated solid wall dwelling with single glazed, double glazed air filled, double glazed argon gas filled, triple glazed air filled and triple vacuum glazed windows were developed. Predictions for the simulated dwelling when replacing single glazed windows with triple vacuum glazed windows indicate space-heating energy saving of 14.58% (871.1 kWh for the winter months (Dec, Jan and Feb; predicted annual energy savings are 15.31% (1863.5 kWh. The predicted reduction in the solar energy gains for the triple vacuum glazing was 75.3 kWh in the winter months. The effects on solar energy gain are analysed and the potential to increase window-to-wall area ratios (WWR’s examined. For a simulated room with triple vacuum glazed windows increasing the WWR’s from 5% to 59% led to a reduction in the predicted required space-heating; whilst for a room with single glazed, double air filled, double argon gas filled and triple air filled windows the predicted required space-heating increased with increasing WWR. It was shown that retrofitting existing solid wall dwelling with triple vacuum glazed windows could be a robust retrofit solution in improving building energy efficiency. This research also implicates a need of the cost-effective development of triple vacuum glazing at the manufacturing level, which would then be more beneficial to consumers in terms of

  14. 高温风干对风鸭品质及脂质氧化的影响%Effect of high-temperature air-drying on quality and lipid oxidation of dry-cured duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇延军; 陈妹; 钟玉虎; 栾亚

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the differences in physicochemical indices,TBARS,sensory quality and volatile flavor compounds between high-temperature and low-temperature air-drying ripened dry-cured duck,the potential effect of high-temperature air-drying processing on the quality characteristics and lipid oxidation were studied.The results showed that high-temperature air-drying significantly (p < 0.05) accelerated the decline of moisture,Aw and accumulation of salt,and also showed significant effect in a * value(p < 0.05),but not in texture.TBARS value of high-temperature air-drying group were extremely higher than that in control group (p < 0.01),temperature showed extremely significant effect on lipid oxidation.Aldehydes in high-temperature and lowtemperature air-drying ripened dry-cured duck increased significantly (54.85% and 67.1%,respectively).Hexanal,nonanal,3-methyl butanal and pentanal were the major component,which were the most important volative compounds for the flavor quality.High-temperature air-drying ripening produced more acids and ketones,and may be corrected with lipid peroxidation and rancid flavor.%通过对高温风干和低温风干鸭胸肉理化指标、TBARS及产品感官品质、挥发性风味物质的比较,研究高温风干工艺对风鸭品质特性及脂质氧化的影响.结果显示:高温风干可以显著加速风鸭水分散失、Aw下降及盐分积累速度(p<0.05),显著促进a*值下降(P<0.05),对质构影响不显著;高温风干组TBARS值极显著高于对照组(p<0.01),温度对脂质氧化速率影响极显著;挥发性风味物质中醛类物质含量(达54.85%和67.1%)显著高于原料,己醛、壬醛、3-甲基正丁醛和戊醛是醛类物质的主体成分,是形成风鸭风味品质的一类重要物质;高温风干生成更多的酸、酮类物质可能是脂质过氧化产生酸败味的重要成分.

  15. Effect of surface free energy of ceramic glaze on oil droplet shape and its behavior in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jin-sheng; MENG Jun-ping; LIANG Guang-chuan; WANG Li-juan; ZHANG Jin; LI Ji-yuan

    2006-01-01

    A super-hydrophilic functional ceramic was prepared by adjusting the chemical components of ceramic glaze. Effect of surface free energy of ceramic glaze on oil droplet shape and its behavior in water were studied. The results show that water can spread on ceramic surface with high surface free energy,and oil droplet can aggregate rapidly and separate from the ceramic surface in water. For the ceramic with lower surface free energy,the polar shares are dependant on its easy-cleaning property. The higher the polar shares,the better the easy-cleaning property,and the easier the droplet separates from the ceramic surface in water.

  16. Chemical constituents from air-dried Piper longum%荜茇三氯甲烷部位化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文峰; 江志勇; 陈纪军; 张雪梅; 马云保

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents of Piper longum. Method: The whole plant of air-dried P. longum.was extracted with 95% EtOH. The EtOH extract was suspended in H_2O and extracted with petroleum ether, CHCl_3 and n-BuOH,suc-cessively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the CHCl_3 fraction, and identified based on spec-tral analyses (MS, ~1H-NMR, ~(13)C-NMR). Result: Threeteen compounds were isolated from P. longum, and were characterized as 1-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl) -1E-tetradecene ( 1 ), 3-( 3', 4'-methylenedioxophenyl) -propenal ( 2 ), piperoic acid ( 3 ), 3', 4'-di-hydroxy-biabola-1,10-diene (4), eudesm-4 ( 15 ) -ene-1β, 6α-diol (5), 7-epi- eudesm-4 ( 15 ) -ene-1β, 6β-diol (6), guineesine (7),piperine (8), pipericide (9), 2E, 4E-dienamide ( 10), (2E, 4E, 8E) -N-isobutylhenicosa-2,4,8- trienamide ( 11 ), piperlongumi-nine (12), methyl piperate (13), Conclusion: Compounds 1-6 were obtained from P. longum for the first time.%目的:对胡椒科植物荜茇Piper longum的化学成分进行研究.方法:荜茇用95%乙醇提取,依次用石油醚、三氯甲烷、正丁醇萃取,对三氯甲烷萃取部分采用各种柱色谱进行分离纯化,通过波谱数据分析(MS,~1H-NMR,~(13)C-NMR)进行结构鉴定.结果:从三氯甲烷萃取部分分离鉴定了13个化合物,其中6个酰胺类生物碱,3个倍半萜,4个其他类化合物.分别鉴定为:1-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1E-tetradecene(1),3-(3',4'-methylenedioxophenyl)-propenal(2),胡椒酸(piperoic acid,3),3',4,-dihydroxy-biabola-1,10-diene(4),eudesm-4(15)-ene-1β,6α-diol(5),7-epi-eudesm-4(15)-ene-1',6β-diol(6),几内亚胡椒胺(guineesine,7),胡椒碱(piperine,8),胡椒酰胺(pipericide,9),2E,4E-dienamide(10),(2E,4E,8E)-N-isobutylhenicosa-2,4,8-trienamide(11),荜茇明碱(piperlonguminine,12),胡椒酸甲酯(methyl piperate,13).结论:其中化合物1-6为首次从荜茇中分离得到.

  17. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated.

  18. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  19. Development and test of continuous combined mid-infrared with hot air drying equipment%连续式中红外-热风组合干燥设备的研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小雷; 张春晖; 贾伟; 李侠; 王兆进; 穆国锋

    2015-01-01

    Drying efficiency was always considered to be the most important factor by factories, however, low thermal conductivity and case hardening of the material slowed the moisture migration in hot air drying, and resulted in more time and energy consumption. So to solve the existing problems of present drying equipment, a continuous drying equipment of combined mid-infrared and hot air (CMIHA) was developed in this paper. This drying equipment included feed section, heating sections and cooling section, of which each heating section was made up of four parts, i.e. conveying system, heating system, convective circulation system and control system. As we all know, since infrared energy is converted into heat only when material absorbs the radiation, it was essential to select a heat source emitting radiation with the range in which the material to be processed had maximum absorption. So, the radiation wavelength of infrared was selected by the infrared spectra of meats, and the radiation intensity could be controlled by changing the amount of working lamps to make good use of the radiation energy. At the same time, this equipment was developed by calculating the main technological parameters of convection system, cooling system and heating system, and then the production verification test was also done to compare the difference between CMIHA drying and hot air drying on beef jerky. Results showed that, in the same conditions (heating power 105 kW, heating temperature 70℃, wind velocity 1 m/s, cooling wind velocity 3 m/s, heating distance 8 cm), compared with hot air drying, the continuous CMIHA drying equipment could speed up muscle protein denaturation, reduce activation energy, reduce the energy that jerky needed to accelerate moisture migration, and improve drying efficiency. The time consumption that the beef samples in the first row on the conveyor dehydrated from raw to weight reduction by 50%for CMIHA drying equipment was 120 min, and the production efficiency

  20. Effects of Slice Processing on Hot Air Drying Characteristics of Semi-dry Original Red Jujube%切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志慧; 郭婷; 何新益; 程莉莉

    2013-01-01

      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slice processing on hot air drying characteristics of semi-dry red jujube. Drying characteristics of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube under different hot air drying temperature were compared. The drying kinetics model of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube were founded. Results showed that slice processing could decrease the drying time of semi-dry original red jujube. Page model provided better simulation of drying curves for red jujube slice at different hot drying temperature. While Henderson and Pabis model provided better simulation of drying curves for origine semi-dry original red jujube at different hot air drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity of red jujube was 10 times that of origine semi-dry original red jujube, among 1.77×10-5 m2/s-2.99×10-5 m2/s and 4.56×10-6 m2/s-7.20×10-6 m2/s, respectively. Slice processing has the significant effects on drying characteristics of semi-dry original red jujube dried by hot air drying.%  为探索切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响,以半干原枣果作参照,比较了不同热风干燥温度下枣片和枣果的干燥特性,分别建立了干燥动力学模型。研究结果表明,切片处理可以缩短红枣的干燥时间;枣片的热风干燥过程符合Page方程,而枣果的热风干燥过程符合Henderson and Pabis方程。枣片的有效扩散系数是枣果有效扩散系数的的10倍左右,分别为1.77×10-5 m2/s~2.99×10-5 m2/s、4.56×10-6 m2/s~7.20×10-6 m2/s。结果表明切片处理对红枣的干燥特性有明显的影响。

  1. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shakouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012 [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015 [2]. A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  2. Glaze Icing on Superhydrophobic Coating Prepared by Nanoparticles Filling Combined with Etching Method for Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Icing on insulators may cause flashover or even blackout accidents in the power transmission system. However, there are few anti-icing techniques for insulators which consume energy or manpower. Considering the water repelling property, the superhydrophobic surface is introduced for anti-icing of insulators. Among the icing forms, the glaze icing owns the highest density, strongest adhesion, and greatest risk to the power transmission system but lacks researches on superhydrophobic surface. In this paper, superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle of 166.4°, contact angle hysteresis of 0.9°, and sliding angle of less than 1° are prepared by nanoparticle filling combined with etching method. The coated glass slide and glass insulator showed excellent anti-icing performance in the glaze icing test at −5°C. The superhydrophobicity and anti-icing property of the coatings benefit from the low surface energy and hierarchical rough structure containing micron scale pits and nanoscale coralloid bulges supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS characterization.

  3. Innovations for glazing of buildings; Innovationen fuer die Verglasung von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Thermische und Optische Systeme

    1998-02-01

    There are two main aspects in the development of new glazing. On the one hand, windows with extremely low thermal conductivity are wanted. On the other hand, solar irradiation should contribute to thermal gains during the heating season. A large number of different coatings and window systems is suited for many different applications. In particular for the prevention of overheating in the summer, there is a huge interest in glazing regulating the irradiation itself without additional mechanical devices. Indeed, innovations have sprung using several of these ideas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Entwicklung neuer Verglasungen spielen zwei Gesichtspunkte eine hervorragende Rolle. Zum einen ist man an Fenstern mit sehr geringen Waermeverlusten interessiert. Zum anderen soll aber auch die solare Einstrahlung waehrend der Heizperiode zu thermischen Gewinnen beitragen. Die Vielfalt der einsetzbaren Beschichtungen und Fenstersysteme ermoeglicht eine breite Palette von Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. Insbesondere um Ueberhitzungsprobleme im Sommer auszuschliessen, ist man an Verglasungen interessiert, die die Einstrahlung selber, d.h. ohne mechanische Zusaetze, regeln. Tatsaechlich fuehren hierfuer verschiedene Ansaetze zu Neuentwicklungen. (orig.)

  4. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  5. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    'Qin brick and Han tile' has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were unearthed at the center of Guangzhou's old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty, A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world' by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient technical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical characteristics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  6. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ‘Qin brick and Han tile’ has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were un- earthed at the center of Guangzhou’s old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty. A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world’ by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient tech- nical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical character- istics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  7. Performance Evaluation of a Double-Glazed Box-Type Solar Oven with Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Folaranmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with reflector fabricated using locally available materials, compressed sawdust with binder; size of the box is 700 mm ×  700 mm × 400 mm and 10 mm thickness. The experimental solar cooker consists of an aluminium absorber plate (1 mm painted matt black and a double-glazed lid. The bottom and sides are lagged with fibreglass wool insulator, thickness = 50 mm,  W/m°C. The reflector consists of a wooden-framed commercially available specular plane mirror which is sized to form a cover for the box when not being in use. Its thermal performance was tested according to the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of box-type solar cooker. Thermal performance experiments were conducted in order to determine the first figure of merit (F1, the second figure of merit (F2 and standard cooking power (Ps. The obtained test results were employed to calculate the two figures of merit (F1, and F2 and the standard cooking power (P50 to be 0.11 Km2w−1, 0.31, and 23.95 W, respectively. Finally, the results illustrated that the cooker has a good reliability for cooking food and boiling water.

  8. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Panya, Preecha [Kamphaengphet Rajabhat University, Kamphaengphet (Thailand); Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth [The Office of Primary Industries and Mines Region 3, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Scales, Peter J. [The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2} media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2}, within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl{sub 2} more than in 0.1 mM MgCl{sub 2}.

  9. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  10. Influencing of orientation of glazed facades on general energy consumption of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Zaytsev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the nature of relation of energy consumption of residential buildings of mass development from orientation of their glazed facades on the parties of horizon is parsed. The basic contents of a technique of an estimation of building energy efficiency, used in calculations, is adduced pursuant to the public Standard of Russian Science and Technical Society of the Builders of Russian Federation. The structure of a complex of energy saving measures, used in investigated buildings, is reviewed. The computed results of power inputs for the heating season on the indicated technique for two reference buildings at their different orientation with allowance for and disregarding of energy saving measures are shown. An estimation of influencing of orientation of glazed facades for the term of payback of a complex of energy saving measures, used in buildings, is given. The guidelines on expedient dimensional orientation of the extended residential buildings from the point of view of heat saving in the cold season of year are offered. The presentation is illustrated by a significant amount of a graphic stuff.

  11. Benign monomelic amyotrophy: a study of twenty-one cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, M R; Nascimento, O J

    2000-09-01

    A consecutive series of 21 patients with single limb atrophy (monomelic amyotrophy) is reported. Sixteen had lower limb atrophy and five had upper limb involvement. The median age of the onset was 20 years. Characteristic features were sporadic occurrence, wasting confined to one limb, insidious onset with slow progression, stabilizing in 1 to 4 years, and absence of pyramidal signs. All the patients with upper limb involvement were male, however in our cases with lower limb amyotrophy there were no male preponderance. We observed wasting of the entire length of the lower limbs in six patients. There were nine cases with amyotrophy restricted to the leg and one with amyotrophy only in the thigh. In the upper limb in four cases the involvement was distal and in one patient the atrophy was proximal. The electromyographic features were suggestive of anterior horn disease not only in the affected limb but also, in some cases, in clinically uninvolved limb. Cervical or lumbar MRI was normal. MRI of the lower limb disclosed increased signal intensity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in one patient suggesting denervation.

  12. Benign monomelic amyotrophy: a study of twenty-one cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos R. G.de Freitas; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A consecutive series of 21 patients with single limb atrophy (monomelic amyotrophy) is reported. Sixteen had lower limb atrophy and five had upper limb involvement. The median age of the onset was 20 years. Characteristic features were sporadic occurrence, wasting confined to one limb, insidious onset with slow progression, stabilizing in 1 to 4 years, and absence of pyramidal signs. All the patients with upper limb involvement were male, however in our cases with lower limb amyotrophy there ...

  13. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  14. Glaze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ...

  15. Comparison of vacuum glazing thermal performance predicted using two- and three-dimensional models and their experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor; Hewitt, Neil [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Research in Renewable Energy Science and Technology, University of Loughborough (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Energy Lab, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2009-09-15

    Thermal performance of vacuum glazing predicted by using two-dimensional (2-D) finite element and three-dimensional (3-D) finite volume models are presented. In the 2-D model, the vacuum space, including the pillar arrays, was represented by a material whose effective thermal conductivity was determined from the specified vacuum space width, the heat conduction through the pillar array and the calculated radiation heat transfer between the two interior glass surfaces within the vacuum gap. In the 3-D model, the support pillar array was incorporated and modelled within the glazing unit directly. The predicted difference in overall heat transfer coefficients between the two models for the vacuum window simulated was less than 3%. A guarded hot box calorimeter was used to determine the experimental thermal performance of vacuum glazing. The experimentally determined overall heat transfer coefficient and temperature profiles along the central line of the vacuum glazing are in very good agreement with the predictions made using the 2-D and 3-D models. (author)

  16. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value) toget...

  17. Applications of a synergic analytical strategy to figure out technologies in medieval glazed pottery with "negative decoration" from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannossa, Lorena Carla; Acquaviva, Marianna; Laganara, Caterina; Laviano, Rocco; Mangone, Annarosa

    2014-09-01

    Glazed pottery with "negative decoration" samples, dating back to the twelfth to thirteenth century ad and coming from three sites along the Adriatic coast, Siponto, Egnatia and Trani (Southern Italy) were characterized from physical-chemical, mineralogical and morphological points of view. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations were carried out on ceramic bodies, pigments and glazes of the fragments. We aimed to outline the technological features, define the nature of decorations and coatings—glazes and engobes—and look for clues to hypothesize provenance. Results obtained show clear differences in raw materials and production technology between the impressed ceramic of Islamic tradition and the incised one of Byzantine tradition. Regarding the latter, evidences of a non-local origin can be found in the compositional diversity of raw materials used for the ceramic bodies of fragments decorated with spiral and pseudo-kufic motifs, which stressed the use of clays so far not recorded in Apulia. At the same time, at least in the case of Siponto, the compositional similarity of both ceramic bodies and materials used under the glaze for impressed ceramic and painted polychrome ceramics (RMR and protomaiolica), more likely local production, could suggest that both were produced in the same workshops.

  18. A note on the net radiation method applied to a system composed of a semitransparent film between two glazings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, J.; Dijk, van H.A.L.

    1994-01-01

    The net radiation method is applied to obtain an expression for the thermal radiation heat transfer between a double glazed window unit which contains a semitransparent grey film in the cavity. The results are interpreted in terms of network modelling equations. The total heat transfer equals the re

  19. 乳酸菌替代亚硝酸盐在风干牛肉干中发色的研究%Study on coloring of lactobacillus instead of nitrite in air dried beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞; 石晶红; 朱效兵

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at improving the color and safety of air dried beef,the coloring effects of lactoba⁃cillus in air dried beef was studied. Through sensory evaluation,the optimum technology was determined. The beef was cured at 4℃ for 15h,0. 2% lactobacillus of the weight of beef was inoculated,and 0. 1%vitamin C was added to color the beef at 21℃ for 8h. After coloring was finished,the beef was roasted at 45~55℃ for 7h. In the end the beef was deep fried for 4~5min at 145℃.%以提高风干牛肉干的色泽和安全性为目标,对乳酸菌在风干牛肉干中的发色效果进行研究,通过感官评分确定其最佳工艺为:先将牛肉4℃低温腌制15h,然后按照牛肉重量的0.2%接种,并添加0.1%的Vc,21℃发色8h,发色结束后将牛肉在45~55℃烘烤7h,最后145℃高温油炸4~5min。

  20. The Research Status and Prospects of the Hot Air Drying and Freeze Drying for Papaya%木瓜热风干燥和冷冻干燥的研究现状和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭; 陈冬梅; 侯萍; 赵鹤飞; 余善鸣

    2013-01-01

    果蔬的干燥主要有热干、微波、冻干和组合干燥。木瓜的干燥以热干为主,冻干能最大程度保持木瓜的色泽、风味和营养价值,但研究报道较少。今后木瓜干燥研究的主要内容将是提高品质和降低产品成本。因此,木瓜的热干和冻干的组合干燥将是研究的重点。%The primary drying technologys of fruits and vegetables are hot-air drying , microwave drying , freeze drying and combined drying. The mainly drying method of papaya is hot-air drying. The freeze-dried can keep the greatest degree of color, flavor and nutritional value of papaya, However, it is lack of references on that. Future research of the drying technology of papaya will be improvement of the quality and to reduce product cost. Therefore, the combined drying technology of hot-air and freeze of papaya will become a study emphasis in further research.

  1. The art of Bernard Palissy (1510-1590): influence of firing conditions on the microstructure of iron-coloured high-lead glazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisine, Gauthier; Capobianco, Natan; Caurant, Daniel; Wallez, Gilles; Bouquillon, Anne; Majérus, Odile; Cormier, Laurent; Gilette, Solène; Gerbier, Aurélie

    2017-08-01

    During the French Renaissance, a well-known ceramist, Bernard Palissy (1510-1590), succeeded to create amazing lead-glazed ceramics, the recipe of which he kept totally secret. The present study is a first step to try to understand the process of manufacture of Palissy's honey iron-coloured high-lead aluminosilicate glazes through examination of both ancient glazes—discovered in Palissy's workshop (Paris, garden of Tuileries), during archaeological excavations—and replicate glazes of similar composition prepared in the laboratory from raw materials mixtures under controlled conditions (different firing temperatures T_p and cooling rates). These replicate glazes were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). According to laboratory experimentations, three iron-rich crystalline phases are likely to be formed in the glaze after firing (hematite {Fe2O3}, melanotekite {Pb2Fe2Si2O9} and magnetoplumbite PbFe_{12}O_{19}) and their nature, abundance and microstructure strongly depend on both temperature T_p and cooling rate. Comparing the microstructures of replicate glazes and authentic Palissy's glazes allowed to better understand the artist technique in terms of firing process: he would have probably fired most of his production around 1000°C, above liquidus temperature, and would have used a reasonably fast cooling rate (faster than 5° C/h), which enables both to melt all raw materials and to prevent crystallisation during cooling.

  2. 真空玻璃应用于采光顶的结构研究%Structure of Vacuum Glazing on Skylight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘甜甜; 侯玉芝; 许威; 唐健正

    2016-01-01

    真空玻璃采光顶有隔热保温、防结露、隔声效果好等优势,探讨适合于采光顶的复合真空玻璃结构具有重要意义。主要针对中空+真空+夹胶4片结构的采光顶玻璃,将其中空外片分别采用白玻、颜色玻璃和 Low-E 玻璃,并分别测试玻璃内侧、外侧和中部的温度,并测试应用过程中的挠度,最终给出采光顶结构的建议。%Vacuum glazing skylight have some advantages such as heat insulation and preservation, anti-condensation, good sound insulation etc., so it’s important to discuss the proper structure of composite vacuum glazing used in skylight. This paper aims at skylight glass of composite vacuum glazing of insulation+vacuum+lamination glazing structure. We change the out piece of glass of the composite vacuum glazing from clear glass to color glass and Low -E glass respectively, and test the temperature of the outside, the inside and the middle side of the glazing, even the deflection in the application, and finally supply the suggested composite vacuum glazing structure for skylight.

  3. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated.

  4. ZrO{sub 2} thin films to improve the chemical resistance of calcium matt glazes; Capas finas de ZrO{sub 2} para mejorar la resistencia quimica de los vidriados mates de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, M. D.; Mestre, S.; Orts, M. J.; Blasco, E.

    2012-11-01

    The chemical resistance of ceramic glazes susceptible to it, and more specifically the glazes formulated with a calcium matt frit, is enhanced by depositing on the surface a thin layer of zirconium oxide. A stabilized zirconia sol is the precursor of the layer, which is deposited by spray painting over the glaze, and with a mild heat treatment (T{sub m}ax {approx}{approx} 400 degree centigrade) is transformed into ZrO{sub 2} and anchored to the glazes surface. Chemical resistance tests show that the protected glaze does not suffer a visually significant attack by concentrated hydrochloric acid, conditions under which the same glaze without the coating is severely damaged. The used precursor generates a zirconium oxide layer that protects the underlying glaze, so that the chemical attack by the hydrochloric acid is confined to cracks and discontinuities in the deposited layer. (Author) 22 refs.

  5. CO2 Laser Glazing Treatment of a Veneering Porcelain: Effects on Porosity, Translucency, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, R; dos Reis, M C; Salvadori, M C; Hernandes, A C; Cesar, P F; Medeiros, I S

    2015-01-01

    This work tested CO2 laser as a glazing agent and investigated the effects of irradiation on the porosity, translucency, and mechanical properties of veneering porcelain. Sixty discs (diameter 3.5 × 2.0 mm) of veneering porcelain for Y-TZP frameworks (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik) were sintered and had one of their faces mirror polished. The specimens were divided into six groups (n=10/group) according to surface treatment, as follows: no treatment-control; auto-glaze in furnace following manufacturer's instructions (G); and CO2 laser (45 or 50 W/cm(2)) applied for four or five minutes (L45/4, L45/5, L50/4, L50/5). Optical microscopy (Shimadzu, 100×) was conducted and the images were analyzed with Image J software for the determination of the following porosity parameters: area fraction, average size, and Feret diameter. The translucency parameter studied was masking ability, determined by color difference (ΔE) over black and white backgrounds (CM3370d, Konica Minolta). Microhardness and fracture toughness (indentation fracture) were measured with a Vickers indenter (HMV, Shimadzu). Contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) (50 × 50 μm(2), Nanoscope IIIA, Veeco) was performed at the center of one sample from each group, except in the case of L45/5. With regard to porosity and translucency parameters, auto-glazed and laser-irradiated specimens presented statistical similarity. The area fraction of the surface pores ranged between 2.4% and 5.4% for irradiated specimens. Group L50/5 presented higher microhardness when compared to the G group. The higher (1.1) and lower (0.8) values for fracture toughness (MPa.m(1/2)) were found in laser-irradiated groups (L50/4 and L45/4, respectively). AFM performed after laser treatment revealed changes in porcelain surface profile at a submicrometric scale, with the presence of elongated peaks and deep valleys.

  6. Factors Inlfuencing Transparent Crackle Glaze%透明裂纹釉影响因素的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪琛; 沈华荣; 徐强; 卢希龙; 曹春娥

    2014-01-01

    本项目以较好的透明裂纹釉配方为基础,考察其釉料组成、工艺参数和烧成制度等对釉面效果的影响。实验结果证明:较好的组成范围是,钠长石为70-78wt.%,高岭土1-3wt.%,石英12-20wt.%,石灰石6-12wt.%;烧成温度为1290℃,保温30 min,冷却速度20℃/min;釉层厚度为0.8~1.3 mm,球磨时间是20 min。所得样品釉面光滑平整、透明度较好,裂纹也具有较好艺术效果。%The effects of glaze composition, process parameters and firing systems on glaze result were studied for a better formula of transparent crackle glaze. Experimental results show that the preferable range of the composition is sodium feldspar 70 ~ 78 wt%, kaolin 1 ~ 3 wt%, quartz 12 ~ 20 wt%, limestone 6 ~ 12 wt%; ifring temperature is 1290℃, holding time is 30min, cooling rate is 20 °C/min; glaze layer thickness is 0.8 ~ 1.3 mm, and the milling time is 20min. The glaze surface of the resulted samples was smooth with better transparency and artistic crackle effect.

  7. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  8. Measuring Air Temperature in Glazed Ventilated Facades in the Presence of Direct Solar Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Zanghirella, Fabio; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    A distinctive element of buildings with a double glazed façade is naturally or mechanically driven flow in a ventilated cavity. Accurate air temperature measurements in the cavity are crucial to evaluate the dynamic performance of the façade, to predict and control its behavior as a significant...... part of the complete ventilation system. Assessment of necessary cooling/heating loads and of the whole building energy performance will then depend on the accuracy of measured air temperature. The presence of direct solar radiation is an essential element for the façade operation, but it can heavily...... irradiance, in order to achieve an accurate and reliable way to measure the air temperature reducing the error caused by radiation. Experiments include bare thermocouple, naturally and mechanically ventilated shielded thermocouples, mechanically ventilated thermocouple with double shielding, silver coated...

  9. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The HILIT AEROGEL WINDOW project with participants from Denmark (coordinator), France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, was formulated in order to develop a safe and clean production of monolithic silica aerogel based on supercritical CO2 drying of the gels, to study the process parameters...... and to transfer the results from lab- to mid- and finally to large-scale making of 60 by 60 cm2 in a pre-industrial plant. The large samples forms the basis for assembly of evacuated aerogel glazings optimised with respect to thermal and optical properties. The production process development and transfer to pre...... is the mixing rate and the HF (catalyst) flow rate. A mixing reactor have been designed and successfully transferred to large-scale application. A wet gel strengthening process has been developed and optimised at laboratory-scale and transferred at mid-scale with success (concerning monolithicity). A direct...

  10. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pa. The optical properties have been improved compared to previous aerogels thanks to the process and the smooth surfaces obtained and a heat treatment of the dried aerogel. A rim seal solution that offers the required air and moisture tightness without leading to severe thermal bridge effects has been developed...... as well as an assembly process including heat treatment and evacuation in a vacuum chamber. The centre U-value is measured for several prototype glazings to 0.68 W/m2K, which is somewhat higher than the targeted value of 0.4 W/m2K due to the thinner aerogel sheets available. The overall U-value including...

  11. Experimental performance investigation of glazing system combined with internal roller blinds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Iversen, Tore Dahl;

    2016-01-01

    is carried out by experimental work in a full-scale test facility, the Cube, with two types of window (double and triple glazed) and two types of solar shading: highly reflective roller blind and highly absorbing roller blind. Danish Building simulation software, BSim is used to illustrate the scale......-value of the system (window + roller blind). Solar shading coefficient in such practice is assumed to be independent of the window properties and solar incidence angle. This paper is aimed to illustrate the deviation between the actual and assumed performance of the window system with internal roller blind. This task...... of deviation between the experimental results and the results obtained with common assumptions for solar properties of shading device. It is concluded that the solar shading coefficient for an internal roller blind, as a standalone parameter, is not good enough to describe the solar properties of the system...

  12. Gamma Ray and X-ray Spectroscopy of Fiesta Ware and Knowles Uranium Glaze Pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek

    2002-10-01

    In the mid-20th century, several china manufacturers produced a popular monotone series of pottery. In order to obtain the orange-red color, such as FiestaWare's "Fiesta Red", a glaze containing naturally occurring uranium was used. These pieces of radioactive china have become popular demonstration tools for health physicists and nuclear scientists. This work analyzes emissions from two such pieces of differing origin. The gamma ray and x-ray spectra from a FiestaWare pitcher and Edward M. Knowles plate were measured with HPGe detectors. The content of uranium and uranium daughter products was identified. Estimates of the percentage content of U-235 in the plates were estimated in order to deduce the era of manufacture.

  13. Dynamic Characteristics Analysis and Structure Optimization Study of Glaze Spraying Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of glaze spray manipulator is studied with a three-dimensional entity modal. The dynamic characteristics of its structure have been analysis by finite element method. The first ten other modes of vibration and their natural frequencies were obtained. It is found out that the frequency peak appears at 10Hz and the max deformation occurs in sixth order vibration mode by the observation of the end of spray gun on the manipulator. Furthermore, an improvement structure is provided to reinforce the stiffness and the thickness of rotation support at the manipulator’s wrist (the end joint. By test verification, it is proved that the max deformation is reduced after structure improvements.

  14. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  15. Variations in snow and firn chemistry along US ITASE traverses and the effect of surface glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Dixon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a baseline from which changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere over Antarctica can be monitored under expected warming scenarios and continued intensification of industrial activities in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the first study to measure more than 25 chemical constituents in the surface snow and firn across extensive regions of Antarctica. We present major ion, trace element, heavy metal, rare earth element and oxygen isotope data from a series of surface snow samples and shallow firn sections collected along four US ITASE traverses across East and West Antarctica. In each sample we measure dissolved concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3+, SO42−, and MS− using ion chromatography and total concentrations of Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Na, Mg, Li, and K using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. We also measure δ18O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Satellite remote sensing measurements of microwave backscatter and grain size are used to assist in the identification of glaze/dune areas across Antarctica and determine if these areas can possibly contain useful chemical climate records. The majority of the non-glaze/dune samples in this study exhibit similar, or lower, concentrations to those from previous studies. Consequently, the results presented here comprise a conservative baseline for Antarctic surface snow chemical concentrations. The elements Cd, Pb, As and Bi are enriched across Antarctica relative to both ocean and upper crust elemental ratios. Local and global volcanic outgassing may account for the majority of the Bi measured in East and West Antarctica and for a significant fraction of the Cd and As. However, significant concentrations of Cd, Pb, and As remain across much of Antarctica.

  16. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique in Identification of Ancient Ceramics Bodies and Glazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Khaled; Imam, Hisham; Madkour, Fatma; Meheina, Galila; Gamal, Yosr

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we report a study on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a promising non-destructive technique for the identification of the colored glazes, and clay's bodies of Fatimid ceramics ancient artifacts. The scientific examination of ceramics may be helpful in unraveling the history of ancient shards, particularly as the process of its production such as firing condition and temperatures. The analysis of pottery, ceramic bodies and glazed coatings is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece. Revealing the technical skills of ancient potters has been one of the most important issues for gaining a deep insight of bygone culture and also it is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece of art. LIBS measurements were carried out by focusing a Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and 50 mJ pulse energy on the surface of the sample by a 100-mm focal length lens. The plasma emission was collected by telescopic system and transferred through a fiber to Echelle spectrometer attached to an ICCD camera. The focal spot diameter is found to be in the range of 100-150 μm. which is small enough to consider this technique as a non-destructive technique. LIBS technique clarified that each piece of archaeological objects has its own finger print. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on these archaeological ceramic body samples to study raw materials such as clays, which allowed the investigation of the crystal structure and showed the changes in its structure through firing process. This provided information on the ceramic characteristic and composition of the ceramic bodies.

  17. 热风干燥联合真空降温缓苏提升黄秋葵干制品品质%Hot air drying combined vacuum ventilation tempering improving quality of dried okra products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段续; 刘文超; 任广跃

    2016-01-01

    world. Like others vegetables, okra is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of its high moisture content. Various physiological and morphological changes occur after harvest, which make these okras unacceptable for consumption, and thus it is necessary to remove the moisture of okras. Hot air drying is the most widely used and inexpensive drying technique for okra. Nevertheless, long-time drying at relatively high temperature during the falling rate period often leads to the overheating of dried products, and undesirable thermal degradation of the finished products may occur. Hence, it is necessary to apply innovative techniques on hot air drying to solve these drawbacks, which can increase drying rate and reduce quality loss. One of the methods that may be recommended is drying with tempering cycles. Tempering allows moisture diffusion from the interior to the external surface of the sample kernels to decrease the moisture gradients. Hence, the material structure can be well protected during drying process, and with the uniform distribution of moisture, the drying rate of next stage will be higher. While in a vacuum environment, the oxygen (O2) content is in a low level, which can reduce many undesirable oxidation reaction and slow down the physiological activity of materials. Moreover, many researchers have reported the vacuum tempering method can obviously reduce the tempering time compared to traditional natural tempering. Ventilation tempering is carried out under the condition of decreasing temperature, the moisture can be uniformly distributed not only by moisture gradient but also by temperature gradient. Consequently, combining the vacuum tempering method with ventilation tempering can reduce tempering time more significantly along with obtaining good product quality. As above introduction, applying the combined tempering method on hot air drying may overcome some limitations of traditional hot air drying process, which can be called as vacuum ventilation

  18. 浸泡-风干循环作用对砂岩变形及破坏特征影响研究%Influence of immersion-air dry circulation function on deformation and fracture features of sandstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓华锋; 李建林; 刘杰; 朱敏; 罗骞; 原先凡

    2012-01-01

    In the process of impoundment and normal operation of reservoirs, the water level will rise and fall periodically in a planned way. As a result, the immersion-air dry function will lead to the degeneration of mechanical properties of rock mass in variable amplitude zone with time, and then affect the slope stability. Based on these, the immersion-air dry circulation function tests considering the change of water pressure of sand rock are designed, and the deformation and fracture features of rock samples are studied. The test results indicate that the rise or decline of water pressure and the immersion-air dry circulation function have cumulative and irreversible damage to the samples. In the process of circulation, the stress-strain curves of the sand rock samples become slow gradually, the compaction segment gradually becomes long, the gradient of the elastic deformation section decreases gradually, elastic modulus reduces gradually, yield step gradually becomes long, the axial strain corresponding to the peak intensity increases gradually, and the fracture angle of the samples decreases gradually. The stress-strain curves of the sand rock samples show that the samples have a distinct trend of softening. Moreover, the more the cycle times of the immersion-air dry, the more the serious damage to the rock mass. The results of important reference value in the studies on the deformation and fracture laws of the variable amplitude rock in reservoir banks will provide a favorable evidence for the long-term stability analysis of reservoir bank slopes.%水库正常运营后,库水位将按计划周期性的上升或下降,浸泡-风干循环作用将导致库岸边坡变幅带岩体性质逐渐劣化,进而影响库岸边坡的稳定性,基于此,设计了考虑水压力升、降变化的砂岩浸泡-风干循环作用试验,重点研究了砂岩试样的变形及破坏特征。研究结果表明:水压力升、降变化和浸泡-风干循环作用对岩

  19. 自然干燥与热风干燥对甘薯粉丝质量的影响%Effcets of Natural Drying and Hot-air Drying on Quality of Sweet Potato Vermicelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 孔晓玲

    2011-01-01

    This article researches on the quality comparison of natural drying and hot air drying of sweet potato vermicelli, by the appearance of shape, swelling rate, break off rate, tensile properties . Analyses the effect of different dry methods on sweet potato vermicelli, points out the reasonable dry method of vermicelli.%对自然干燥与热风干燥的甘薯粉丝进行了质量对比,通过外观形状、膨润度、断条率、抗拉性等几个方面的观察与检测,分析了不同的干燥方法对粉丝干燥特性的影响,并给出了粉丝干燥方式的合理化建议.

  20. X-ray fluorescence (conventional and 3D) and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of Portuguese polychrome glazed ceramics: Advances in the knowledge of the manufacturing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme, A. [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coroado, J. [Instituto Politecnico Tomar, Dep. Arte Conservacao and Restauro, P-2300313 Tomar (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [GIAN, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Luehl, L.; Wolff, T.; Kanngiesser, B. [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36 D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    This work shows the first analytical results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) (conventional and 3D) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive System (SEM-EDS) on original Portuguese ceramic pieces produced between the 16th and 18th centuries in Coimbra and Lisbon. Experts distinguished these productions based only on the color, texture and brightness, which originates mislabeling in some cases. Thanks to lateral and spatial resolution in the micrometer regime, the results obtained with {mu}-XRF were essential in determining the glaze and pigment thicknesses by monitoring the profile of the most abundant element in each 'layer'. Furthermore, the dissemination of these elements throughout the glaze is different depending on the glaze composition, firing temperature and on the pigment itself. Hence, the crucial point of this investigation was to analyze and understand the interfaces color/glaze and glaze/ceramic support. Together with the XRF results, images captured by SEM and the corresponding semi-quantitative EDS data revealed different manufacturing processes used by the two production centers. Different capture modes were suitable to distinguish different crystals from the minerals that confer the color of the pigments used and to enhance the fact that some of them are very well spread through the glassy matrix, sustaining the theory of an evolved and careful procedure in the manufacturing process of the glaze.

  1. Solar collectors. Technical progress report No. 1, September 5, 1978-March 5, 1979. [Listing of glazings, housing materials, acrylic coatings, etching processes and AR coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, B.; Gage, M.

    1979-04-27

    A broad information search was carried out in four areas: glazings, housing materials, acrylic coatings, etching processes and AR coatings. An extensive list of all (known) US transparent polymers was developed as well as tables of plastic, ceramic and metallic materials that could conceivably function as a housing. In addition, a compilation was made of commercially available solvent and water-base acrylic coatings for use as a uv protective coating for the glazing. Eighteen transparent polymers were chosen as possible glazings and twelve materials (plastic and wood) as possible housings and exposed in the Weather-Ometer as tensile bars and for the glazings as disks for optical transmission. These same materials were also exposed on our roof to monitor soiling. A variety of solvent and water-base acrylics were selected as protective coatings and ordered. Two commercial films - Tedlar 20 and Halar 500 - with strong absorption in the uv and two commercial films containing uv absorbers - Tedlar UT and Korad 201R - were laminated by several different processes to four promising glazing materials: polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlar), polymethyl methacrylate (Plexiglass), crosslinked ethylene/vinyl acetate and thermoplastic polyester (Llumar). A variety of etching processes were briefly explored and AR coating studies started on the above four glazing films.

  2. Effects of air-dry pretreatment on maturity and odors during composting of pig manure and corn stalks%风干预处理对堆肥腐熟度及臭气排放量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧冰; 李恕艳; 李国学

    2016-01-01

    Under the guiding thought of closed loop agriculture, the agriculture industry is becoming more intensified and specialized in China. Large scaled pig farms increased dramatically in China recently, which led to an enormous increase in pig manure. However, unlike in the US, the lagoon is not widely used to store swine manure in China because of the lack of land. Moreover, for some pig farms, it is hard to find enough land to consume all the manure nearby. Therefore, in some area, manure need to be transported to a specialized composting plant for treatment. Air-dry is a good process to decrease the volume of fresh manure for transporting. Meanwhile composting is a good way to treat pig manure as well as produce high-quality fertilizer. So it is meaningful to compare air-dried manure and fresh manure composting. In this study, composting reactors were used to conduct continuous aerated composting of air-dried pig manure and fresh pig manure. The dry matter of dry manure and fresh manure was controlled equally in each reactor. Same amount of 1~3cm corn stalks was used as a bulking agent for different treatments. Water was added into the feedstocks for the same initial moisture. Temperature, CO2, pH, electrical conductivity and germination index were measured to compare the maturity of two treatments. NH3 and eight kinds of sulfur odors were measured to compare the odor emissions of treatments. Specialized gas chromatograph was used for the measurement of sulfur odors. The result showed that mature compost product could be obtained from both of dry manure composting and fresh manure composting according to the result of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and germination index. The electrical conductivity of dry manure composting product was significantly lower than fresh manure. It took less time for dry manure composting to start the curing phase. NH3, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide emissions of dry manure composting were 71.09%, 66.11% and 9.66% less

  3. Production of luster glaze on opal tableware using zarinfam technique and characterization of its structure and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Fahime; Rashidi Huyeh, Majid; Ghahari, Mahdi

    2016-05-01

    Lusters are potters that have attracted much attention due to their specific optical features, one of the most important of which is their sparkle that appears in various colors at different angles. This effect linked to the multilayer structure of luster and the presence of metallic nanoparticles in enamel layer. In this research, luster glaze was produced on Opal tableware, manufactured in Mahfam Jam Co., using Zarinfam technique. SEM micrograph image of the samples indicated that the glaze forms a multilayer structure, on the Opal tableware surface, consisting of a glassy superficial layer of some tens of nanometers and a composite layer of some hundreds of nanometers. The enamel composite layer contains silver nanoparticles embedded in a silica medium. Employing a multilayer model, we studied the influence of different parameters such as luster enamel thickness, nanoparticles volume fraction in enamel, nanoparticle size, observe angle, and glass layer thickness on luster color.

  4. Long-term ageing tests on glazing materials for solar collectors; Langzeit-Alterungsuntersuchung an Abdeckungsmaterialien fuer thermische Sonnenkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruesch, F.; Brunold, S.; Haeuselmann, T.; Frank, E.; Frei, U.

    2008-02-15

    This report made by the Swiss Institute for Solar Technology at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland, for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project that investigated the long-term behaviour of glazing materials for solar collectors. The locations tested and their associated meteorological data are presented and the tests made concerning the optical characteristics of several different types of glazing are discussed. Soiling and degradation are also looked at. An overview of the solar transmission of the various materials is presented. Details on the various materials such as glass, polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), fluorised plastics, unsaturated polyester (UP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are presented.

  5. Modelling of flashover performance of an ice-covered resistive glazed post station insulator in presence of an air gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Vinay [NSERC/Hydro-Quebec/UQAC Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Engineering of Power Network Atmospheric Icing (INGIVRE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Farzaneh, Masoud [NSERC/Hydro-Quebec/UQAC Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Engineering of Power Network Atmospheric Icing (INGIVRE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2006-01-07

    The main objective of this paper is to study the electric field distributions around a standard post insulator for the power frequency, lightning impulse (1.2/50 {mu}s) and switching impulse (250/2500 {mu}s) voltages under icing conditions, and these were computed numerically using the finite element method. Thin glaze coating on the insulator requires a very large number of elements for finite element analysis because of the open boundary around the ice-covered insulator. To reduce the number of elements and hence computation time, the region between the domain of interest and infinity was modelled by a form of Kelvin transformation. The simulation results, confirmed by laboratory experiments, show that while a lightning impulse is the limiting factor in the design of a resistive glazed insulator under clean conditions, a switching impulse is the limiting factor under icing conditions.

  6. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value) toget...... year performance with different time steps, e.g. in simple energy and comfort compliance checking tools....

  7. Assessment of Bond Strength between Metal Brackets and Non-Glazed Ceramic in Different Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Harririan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength between metal brackets and non-glazed ceramic with three different surface treatment methods.Materials and Methods: Forty-two non-glazed ceramic disks were assigned into three groups. Group I and II specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid. Subsequently in group I, silane and adhesive were applied and in group II, bonding agent was used only.In group III, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid and then silane and adhesive were applied. Brackets were bonded with light-cured composites. The specimens were stored in water in room temperature for 24 hours and then thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C.Results: The difference of tensile bond strength between groups I and III was not significant(P=0.999. However, the tensile bond strength of group II was significantly lower than groups I, and III (P<0.001. The adhesive remnant index scores between the threegroups had statistically significant differences (P<0.001.Conclusion: With the application of scotch bond multi-purpose plus adhesive, we can use phosphoric acid instead of hydrofluoric acid for bonding brackets to non-glazed ceramic restorations.

  8. Trombe wall and glazings facades: Energy efficiency for different Portuguese Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacht, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance glass and Trombe walls in the façade was studied in this research. The paper reports results of an ongoing investigation on a new façade system concept, designed as: “Façade Modules for Eco-Efficient Refurbishment of Buildings”, especially on energy efficiency of Trombe wall and glazing modules arrangement. Computational simulation was carried out by using the software DesignBuilder. Two double glazing types and Trombe walls were considered for three different climates in Portugal and four solar orientations. Results obtained for heating energy needs were compared to all façade configurations. The use of Trombe wall and the double self-cleaning glass in the façade point towards a significant decrease of heating energy needs. The great majority of the façades combinations presented energy needs lower than the maximum allowed by the Portuguese regulation (RCCTE.Esta investigación aborda el estudio de fachadas con cristales de altas prestaciones y muros Trombe. El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación en curso sobre un nuevo concepto en sistemas de fachada, denominado "Módulos de fachada para el acondicionamiento ecoeficiente de edificios", especialmente enfocado a la eficiencia energética de muros Trombe y módulos con doble acristalamiento. Haciendo uso del software DesignBuilder se realizaron simulaciones de una estancia, analizando distintos conjuntos de fachadas modulares. Para la realización de las simulaciones se consideraron dos tipos de módulos de doble acristalamiento, dos configuraciones de muros Trombe, tres climas diferentes en Portugal y cuatro orientaciones solares. Se compararon los requerimientos de calefacción de cada una de las configuraciones, observándose que tanto los muros Trombe como los módulos de doble acristalamiento presentaron disminuciones significativas en cuanto a requerimientos de calefacción. De las configuraciones analizadas, la mayoría presentó demandas energ

  9. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    invention of several technical solutions related to moulding and handling of the large gels. Despite the efforts only aerogels with a thickness up to 15 mm have been produced with a good reproducibility. The thermal conductivity is approximately 0.015 W/mK at atmospheric pressure and 0.010 W/mK at 10 h...... as well as an assembly process including heat treatment and evacuation in a vacuum chamber. The centre U-value is measured for several prototype glazings to 0.68 W/m2K, which is somewhat higher than the targeted value of 0.4 W/m2K due to the thinner aerogel sheets available. The overall U-value including...... the thermal bridge effect of the rim seal solution is measured to 0.74 W/m2K. The solar energy transmittance is measured to 76% thanks to the use of low-iron glass with an anti reflective coating....

  10. Sustainable cultivation of microalgae by an insulated glazed glass plate photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Ashiwin; Moheimani, Navid R; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Cosgrove, Jeffrey J; Alameh, Kamal; Parlevliet, David

    2016-03-01

    Microalgae growth in closed photobioreactors is greatly inhibited by elevated temperatures caused mainly by the infra-red portion of light. Current passive evaporative cooling systems for temperature control in outdoor photobioreactors are neither economical nor sustainable. Here we built a novel flat plate photobioreactor with its illumination surface customized with insulated glazing units (IGP). The IGP design enabled transmission of more than 50% of visible light while blocking 90% of ultraviolet and infrared radiations. The growth and productivity of Nannochloropsis sp. (MUR 267) in the IGP was compared against conventional flat plate photobioreactors subjected to the full spectrum (HLP) and also externally modified spectrum (CLP) of halogen lights. High temperature (up to 42°C) resulted in no growth in the HLP. Biomass productivities of Nannochloropsis sp. grown in the CLP was significantly higher than the IGP due to higher light transmission and lower temperature profiles recorded in the CLP. Lipid content of Nannochloropsis was highest in the CLP (60.23%) while protein was highest in the IGP (42.43%). All photosynthesis parameters were negatively affected in the HLP. The IGP's ability to remove infrared (heat) makes this newly developed photobioreactor a promising and sustainable cultivation system for mass algal production especially for high value products.

  11. Influencing Factors on the Interface Microhardness of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Consisting of Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight aggregate concrete consisting of glazed hollow bead (GHB as lightweight aggregate is studied for the influence of nanosilica (NS content, prewetting time for GHB, water-cement ratio, and curing humidity, on the interface structure between GHB and cement paste. This research analyzed the influences of various factors on the interface zone structure by measuring microhardness (HV and hydration degree of cement paste (HD nearby the interface zone (1 mm between GHB and cement paste at different periods of aging. Due to the sampling limitation, the interface zone in this test is within 1 mm away from the surface of lightweight aggregate. The HD of cement paste was determined through chemically combined water (CCW test. The results were expected to reflect the influence of various factors on the interface zone structure. Results showed that the rational control of the four factors studied could fully mobilize the water absorption and desorption properties of GHB to improve the characteristics of the interfacial transition zone.

  12. Multiple Dissipative Devices for Blast-Resisting Cable-Supported Glazing Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Amadio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the structural response of a high-level air blast loaded cable-supported façade. Since the glass panels and the cables present a typical brittle behavior and are subjected to elevated tensile stresses when a high-level explosion occurs, multiple dissipative devices are simultaneously introduced in the conventional glazing system to mitigate the maximum effects of the design blast wave. Dynamic analyses are performed using a sophisticated FE-model to describe accurately the response of the façade equipped by dissipative devices. Based on numerical results of previous contributions, viscoelastic spider connectors (VESCs are introduced in the points of connection between glass panels and pretensioned cables, to replace “rigid” spider connectors commonly used in practice. At the same time, rigid-plastic frictional devices (RPDs are installed at the top of the bearing cables to mitigate furthermore the bracing system. As a result, due to the combined use of VESCs and RPDs opportunely calibrated, the maximum tensile stresses in the glass panels and in the cables appear strongly reduced. In addition, the proposed devices do not trouble the aesthetics of such transparent structural systems. At last, simple design rules are presented to predict the response of cable-supported façades subjected to high-level dynamic loads and to preliminary estimate the mechanical parameters of combined VESCs and RPDs.

  13. Applications of a glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis to forensic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Toshio [Hyogo Prefecture, Kobe (Japan). Forensic Science Lab.; Nomura, Shigeaki; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Ikeda, Shigero

    1995-06-01

    A glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXF) has been applied to forensic samples: a counterfeit 100-dollar bill, fragments of polyvinyl tapes, a trace of semen, illegal drugs, fingerprints and fake V.S.O.P brandy. Strontium could not be detected on the magnet-respondent letter of the counterfeit bill and Br was detected on the magnet-nonrespondent part of the counterfeit bill, while such phenomena could not be noticed on a true bill. Fragments of black vinyl tapes related to a sexual assault case could be discriminated from each other. Zinc as a characteristic ingredient could be detected in a trace of semen. Bromine was detected in each of what is called a pure methamphetamine crystal and K, Ca, Fe, Zn etc. were detected in heroin powders. Lead was sharply detected in gunshot residues attached to a finger after gunfiring. Sulfur as a contaminant was abundant in fake V.S.O.P brandy, while no S was detected in genuine V.S.O.P brandy. (author).

  14. Nano-composite thermochromic thin films and their application in energy-efficient glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeli, Manfredi [Universita degli Studi di Palermo - Dipartimento di Progetto e Costruzione Edilizia (DPCE), Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Piccirillo, Clara; Parkin, Ivan P.; Binions, Russell [University College London - Department of Chemistry - Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, WC1H 0AJ London (United Kingdom); Ridley, Ian [Barlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, Wates House, 22 Gordon Street, WC1H 0QB London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    A hybrid atmospheric pressure and aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition strategy is presented as a facile route for the production of vanadium dioxide nano-composite thin films. The effect of the inclusion of gold nanoparticles and the use of a surfactant molecule, tetraoctylammonium bromide, is discussed. The films were fully characterised using a wide variety of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy. It is shown that micro-structural changes brought about by careful control of film growth conditions, and/or the use of surfactant, lead to an enhancement of thermochromic properties. Gold nanoparticle incorporation leads to a significant change in the colour of the films from a yellow-brown colour to a variety of greens and blues depending on the gold nanoparticle concentration. The films become more reflective in the infra-red with increased gold nanoparticle incorporation. Optical data are used in energy modelling studies to elucidate the film potential as an energy-saving coating in architectural glazing. The energy modelling results suggest that for warmer climates the thermochromic nano-composites investigated here lead to significant energy savings when compared with plain glass and other standard industry products. (author)

  15. Glazed clay pottery and lead exposure in Mexico: Current experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristán-López, Luis Antonio; Medrano-Gómez, Karen Itzel; Torres-Domínguez, Juan Alejandro; Ríos, Camilo; Montes, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Lead exposure remains a significant environmental problem; lead is neurotoxic, especially in developing humans. In Mexico, lead in human blood is still a concern. Historically, much of the lead exposure is attributed to the use of handcrafted clay pottery for cooking, storing and serving food. However, experimental cause-and-effect demonstration is lacking. The present study explores this issue with a prospective experimental approach. We used handcrafted clay containers to prepare and store lemonade, which was supplied as drinking water to pregnant rats throughout the gestational period. We found that clay pots, jars, and mugs leached on average 200 µg/l lead, and exposure to the lemonade resulted in 2.5 µg/dl of lead in the pregnant rats' blood. Neonates also showed increased lead content in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Caspase-3 activity was found to be statistically increased in the hippocampus in prenatally exposed neonates, suggesting increased apoptosis in that brain region. Glazed ceramics are still an important source of lead exposure in Mexico, and our results confirm that pregnancy is a vulnerable period for brain development.

  16. Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

    2013-08-20

    A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

  17. Optimization of the Hot-air Drying Technical Parameters for Ginkgo Fruit Based on Response Surface Methodology%银杏果热风干燥工艺参数响应面法优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎骅; 徐中明; 夏磊; 马志远

    2012-01-01

    The effects of drying temperature, material load and airflow rate on hot-air drying characteristics of the moisture content and dehydrating rate of ginkgo fruit were investigated by applying self-made hot-air drying online testing device. Drying temperature, material load and airflow rate were the influence factors, and moisture content, dehydration rate, average energy consumption of drying process, protein retention rate and sensory quality of dried ginkgo were the experimental indices, and the relationships between the experimental indices and the influence factors were analyzed through the responsesurface analysis method and sub-stepping method. The quadratic regression mathematical models that described the relations between the experimental indices and the influence factors were established. The optimal combination of technological parameters for drying materials was obtained through conducting a multi-objective function optimization by function expected optimization. The hot air drying process of ginkgo is mainly concentrated in constant-speed phase and decelerated phase, and the optimal parameters are as follows; hot-air temperature of 68℃ , airflow rate of 1. 15 m/s, and material load of 15. 58 kg/m2. Under these conditions, the energy consumption is 11. 86 Kw·h/kg, the dehydration rate is 9. 77%/h, protein retention rate is 90. 30% and the sensory score is 8. 57. The results can provide a theoretical basis for drying and industrialized production of ginkgo fruit.%利用自制的热风干燥在线测试装置,对银杏果的热风干燥进行了试验研究,探讨了热风温度、热风速度及装载量对含水率、干燥速率的影响,通过响应面分析和逐步逼近法分析了热风温度、热风速度及装载量与干燥过程平均能耗、平均干燥速率、蛋白质保存率以及干燥后的感官品质之间的关系,建立了二次回归数学模型.并利用函数期望优化方法进行了多目标函数

  18. 微波热风两段式干燥法生产婴幼儿保健糯米粉%Production of infant health glutinous rice powder by two stages method of microwave and hot air drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤霞; 蒋欣欣; 陈守江; 于雷; 江铃

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the taste cold empty and abdominal distension diarrhea of infants,the edible traditional Chinese medicine poria cocos,dioscorea opposita thunb,lotus seed,and jujube were added into glutinous rice powder,and then the health glutinous rice powder was developed for infants.The curves of hot air and microwave drying were drawn based on a single factor experiment,and the best drying parameters were determined according to the orthogonal test under two dry optimal conditions,the best proportion of raw materials was determined by other orthogonal experiments.The results showed that the best parameters of dying were microwave 300W,1.5min,and then hot air drying 70℃,2h.The best ratio of raw material was 14g poria cocos and jujube,10g dioscorea opposita thunb,8g lotus seed were added into 100g glutinous rice,and 24% xylitol was added after being smashed.The combination drying method of hot-air drying with microwave drying could effectively keep raw natural composition and good sensory properties when health care glutinous rice powder was produced.%以糯米粉为基料,添加药食同源的中药茯苓、淮山药、莲子、红枣,开发一种能调理婴幼儿脾胃虚寒、腹胀腹泻的即食型糯米粉。依据单因素实验绘制热风和微波干燥曲线,并根据两种干燥的最适条件进行正交实验,确定最佳干燥参数;然后用正交实验对原辅料进行最佳配比实验。结果表明:原辅料最佳配比为100g基料中添加茯苓和红枣各14g,淮山药10g,莲子8g;先用300W微波干燥1.5min,后70℃热风干燥2h;粉碎后添加24%的木糖醇。采用微波热风联合干燥法生产即食型保健糯米粉可有效保持原料固有成分,且具有良好的感官性状。

  19. 赤泥基低温红油滴釉的研究%Red Oil Drop Glaze Fired at Lower Temperature by Using Red Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉敏; 杜纪伟; 朱建平; 黄定国

    2017-01-01

    为降低制备成本,有效利用工业废弃物,以赤泥作为氧化铁主要来源,在1120℃左右烧成,制备出了较为理想的低温红油滴釉。探讨了釉组成中ZnO、B2 O3、CaO、MgO、Fe2 O3、Al2 O3等氧化物含量对釉面光泽度、油滴形成的影响。研究发现,低温油滴釉的形成主要基于釉的分相;B2 O3、ZnO的引入不仅可促使釉分相,并能降低釉的熔融温度增加基础相的透明度,从而得到光泽度良好的低温油滴釉;调整CaO、Al2 O3等的含量可以控制分相的产生及分相的结构;Fe2 O3会富集在油滴状的微相中;ZnO、MgO对油滴釉的颜色有较大影响,增加ZnO的含量则油滴釉由黑色变为棕红色,增加MgO的含量则油滴釉由棕色变为黑色。研究了釉层厚度对油滴形成的影响,釉层厚度为1~1.5 mm时形成的油滴效果最好。%In order to reduce the preparation cost and recycle industrial waste, low temperature re d oil drop glaze was preparated at about 1120 ℃ which using red mud as main sources of iron oxide. The effects of the contents of Al2 O3 ,B2 O3 , CaO, MgO ,Fe2 O3 ,ZnO on the glaze glassiness and the red oil drop effect were studied. The results show that the formation of the oil drop glaze mainly based on the phase separation of the glaze. B2 O3 and ZnO can impel glass phase separation, reduce the melting temperature and increase the transparency of the glaze. CaO and Al2 O3 can control phase separation of the glaze and structure of phase separation. Fe2 O3 is enriched in oil droplets. ZnO and MgO have a great influence on the colour of the oil drop glaze, the colour of oil drop glaze changes from black to brownish red with the increase of ZnO, and the colour of oil drop glaze changes from brown to black with the increase of MgO. The effect of glaze thickness on the oil drop glaze were also studied, when the glaze thickness is 1-1. 5 mm, the glaze has the best oil drop effect.

  20. Evaluation of borax solid wastes in production of frits suitable for fast single-fired wall tile opaque glass–ceramic glazes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Pekkan; B Karasu

    2010-04-01

    Zircon (zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4) is the main opacifier of glossy, opaque, white-coloured, fritbased wall tile glazes. However, zirconia containing frits employed in the preparation of these glazes raise the production cost limiting zircon usage as a raw material at an industrial scale. Therefore, there have been several searches on seeking for alternative frit compositions with lower or without zirconia content. Consequently, positive outcomes were recently reported. With the present study, 1.5–5% of borax concentrator waste replaced certain level of acid boric for B2O3 content in a low zircon containing frit recipe. It is confirmed that waste contribution did not distort the surface properties of the fast single-fired wall tile opaque glazes. Zircon was found to be the main crystal phase of the glazes in laboratory trials. Industrial applications revealed that shorter firing cycles lead to zircon and petedunnite (CaZnSi2O6) formation in the CW-4 glaze.

  1. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental performance assessment of glazing and windows - context, overview, main concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sustainable Development Dept., Saint-Martin D' Heres (France); Krogh, H. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Energy and Indoor Climate Div., Hoersholm (Denmark); Tarantini, Mario [The Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    While all industrial sectors are integrating the environment concern into their culture and strategy, actors of the construction field seem to be torn between motivation and suspicion in front of this new topic. In most countries, the economic situation of the passed years for building was not suitable for investing in new long-term approaches, and the strong particularities of the building world appear as many complicating elements for introducing new concepts easily. But now the awareness for a sustainable development of all human activities is also growing in our sector, and it is time to take benefit of some favourable habits like the use of multi-criteria analysis: beyond performances, suitability for use, and durability, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products, and for which purpose? Because actors in the field are many, we will have several distinct answers, which may call for different tools. In other industrial sectors, two approaches have been experimented: the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and the environmental labelling. Between LCA and green labels, several relevant tools are in development for the building products, each of them adapted to specific users and objectives, and most often of limited use in other contexts. A short review of the studies already performed on the environmental quality of glazing and windows revealed quite a small amount of available matter, and justifies the work undertaken within the programme of IEA/SHCP/Task 27, which will be presented in the third part of this paper. (au)

  2. Research on Properties of Foamed Concrete Reinforced with Small Sized Glazed Hollow Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete (400 kg/m3 was prepared through a physical foaming method using ordinary Portland cement (42.5R, vegetable protein foaming agent, fly ash, and glazed hollow beads (GHB, K46 as raw materials. The performance of cement paste as well as the structure and distribution of air voids was characterized by rheometry, SEM, and XRD analyses with imaging software. The effects of GHBs on the compressive strength and thermal conductivity of the foamed concrete sample were also explored. Results show that the proportion of 50–400 μm air voids, average air-void diameter, 28 d compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of the test sample mixed with 2.4 wt% GHBs are 94.44%, 182.10 μm, 2.39 MPa, and 0.0936 w/(m·k, respectively. Excessive amount of GHBs (>2.4 wt% increases the amount of air voids with diameter smaller than 50 μm in the hardened foamed concrete as well as the degree of open porosity. Moreover, the proportion of 50–400 μm air voids, average air-void diameter, 28 d compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of the sample mixed with 4.0 wt% GHBs are 88.54%, 140.50 μm, 2.05 MPa, and 0.0907 w/(m·k, respectively.

  3. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  4. 发酵香肠在自然风干存贮过程中的理化指标变化%Physicochemical Properties Changes of Fermented Sausage during Natural Air Drying and Storage Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权美平

    2013-01-01

    Take fresh pork as raw material,make sausage with traditional Chinese-style method and detect the changes of different physicochemical indexes of finished sausage at regular intervals.The results show that:with the time extends,the moisture content,pH value,red value reduce gradually and fat content increases gradually.In addition,the acid value,POV value and TBA value caused by oxidation hydrolysis of fat increase gradually.The variation trends of test indexes indicate that natural air drying and storage do not help to the quality advance of sausage and the improvement measures should be adopted.%以猪肉为原料,采用传统中式方法制作香肠,定期检测成品香肠中各项理化指标的变化情况.结果表明:随着时间的延长,水分含量、pH值、红值逐渐降低;脂肪含量逐渐升高,脂肪的氧化水解导致的酸价、POV值、TBA值也逐渐增大.检测指标的变化趋势表明:自然风干存贮不利于香肠品质的提升,应设法加以改进.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of polishing on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and its comparison with autoglazing and over glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali H.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ceramic restorations are popular because they can provide the most natural replacement for teeth. However, the brittleness of ceramics is a primary disadvantage. There are various methods for strengthening ceramics such as metal framework, ceramic cores, and surface strengthening mechanisms through glazing, work hardening and ion exchange. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polish on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and to compare it with overglaze and autoglaze. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, one brand of feldspathic porcelain (colorlogic, Ceramco was used and forty bars (25×6×3 mm were prepared according to ISO 6872 and ADA No. 69. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups: overglazed, auto glazed, fine polish and coarse polish (clinic polish. Flexural strength of each specimen was determined by three point bending test (Universal Testing Machine, Zwick 1494, Germany. Collected data was analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: A significant difference was observed among the studied groups (P<0.0001. According to post-hoc test, flexural strength in overglaze and fine polish group were significantly stronger than clinic polish and autoglaze group (P<0.001. Although the mean value for overglazed group was higher than fine polish group, this was not statistically significant (P=0.9. Also no statistical difference was seen between autoglazed and coarse polish group (P=0.2. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, flexural strength achieved by fine polish (used in this study can compete with overglazing the feldespathic porcelains. It also can be concluded that a final finishing procedure that involves fine polishing may be preferred to simple staining followed by self-glazing.

  6. 苦杏仁去皮热风干燥适宜温度提高油脂品质%Suitable hot air drying temperature improving quality of apricot kernel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦中高; 吕真真; 刘杰超; 张春岭; 刘慧; 杨文博; 王思新

    2016-01-01

    为探索适宜的杏仁热风干燥温度,以热烫去皮处理后的湿杏仁为试验材料,研究了热风干燥不同温度对杏仁及其油脂的感官、理化和营养品质的影响。结果表明,经热烫去皮、干燥处理后可以得到颜色较浅的杏仁油,有利于提高杏仁油的感官品质,但会造成杏仁油过氧化值显著升高(P0.05);过氧化值呈上升趋势,且80℃以上干燥处理显著高于40℃和60℃干燥处理(P<0.05);总不饱和脂肪酸、油酸、亚油酸、十七碳烯酸、二十碳烷酸的比例及β-生育酚、δ-生育酚及总生育酚含量总体呈下降趋势,棕榈油酸、棕榈酸、硬脂酸的比例和β-谷甾醇、总甾醇含量总体呈升高趋势。低温干燥有利于提高杏仁油中生育酚含量,而提高干燥温度则有利于杏仁油中植物甾醇含量的提高。尤其是干燥温度为80℃以上时,杏仁油的品质变化加快。因此,为提高杏仁油理化与营养品质,杏仁脱皮后的干燥宜在80℃以下的较低温度条件下进行。研究结果可为杏仁干燥和高品质杏仁油加工提供参考。%In order to explore optimal drying method and technological conditions, the effects of different conditions of hot air drying on sensory quality, physico-chemical characteristics and nutrition properties of apricot kernels and apricot kernel oil were studied using the wet apricot kernels after decorticating with blanching treatment as test materials. The apricot kernels with a moisture content of 4.61% were blanched in boiling water for 10 min and decorticated, and then the decorticated wet apricot kernels with a moisture content of 17.93% were dried with hot air at different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120℃) till the moisture content of apricot kernels was decreased to about 4%-5%. After extracting the oils from cooled apricot kernels using the petroleum ether with boiling point from 60 to 90℃ under ultrasonic

  7. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath

    2017-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  8. Low emissivity insulating glazing materials: principle and examples; Les vitrages isolants a basse emissivite: principe et exemples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, A. [Saint-Gobain Recherche, 93 - Aubervilliers (France)

    1996-12-31

    One of the stakes of flat glass industry is the limitation of thermal losses from indoor to outdoor through glass walls (K coefficient) in order to increase energy savings. Thermal insulation performances of a double glazing can be reinforced by the application of a highly reflective (low emissive) film with respect to thermal infrared radiation. The low emissive character is obtained with the use of surface-deposited materials that can be described using the Drude model: vacuum pulverization of metals, and vacuum pulverization or pyrolysis deposition of doped semi-conductor oxides. (J.S.)

  9. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A. [Departamento de Cristallografia, Mineralogia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, avenida Reina Mercedes s/n (Spain); Castaing, J. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jacques.castaing@culture.fr; Aucouturier, M. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  10. Potential of shading devices and glazing configurations on cooling energy savings for high-rise office buildings in hot-humid climates: The case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Khin Kiet Lau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growing of energy use has raised critical concerns over energy supply difficulties and negative environmental impacts globally and among ASEAN countries. Malaysia is experiencing a high average annual energy demand growth rate of approximately 2.3% which large portion of that energy is used by office buildings. Under the hot-humid climatic conditions in Malaysia, high-rise office buildings with large or fully glazed façades are facing a major problem of overheating due to high solar radiation through the glazed façades. This has caused high cooling energy requirements. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of three types of shading devices on cooling energy savings when applied at different façade orientations. The aim also extends to investigations on different cooling energy savings when shading devices are applied on façade glazing with different configurations and thermal performances. This was done through a case study of a high-rise office building in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using IES (VE building thermal simulation software. Twenty simulation building models were applied with different shading devices at different façade orientations and with high and low performance façade glazing. The simulation results indicate that high-rise office buildings in Malaysia use approximately 45.9% of total building energy for cooling purposes. The results also suggest that use of various shading devices on low-e double glazed façades will result between 1.0% and 3.4% annual cooling energy savings, depending on the types of shading devices and façade orientations. The estimated annual cooling energy savings increase to between 5.0% and 9.9% when the shading devices are applied to all orientations of low-e double glazed façades. The estimated annual cooling energy savings further increase to between 5.6% and 10.4% when the façade glazing is replaced by single clear glazing. This study recommends prioritizing shading devices on

  11. 北京清代建筑琉璃胎釉中间层的SEM和Ram an研究*%SEM and Raman Research on the Middle Layer between Matrix and Glaze of Beij ing Architectural Glazed Tile of Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛; 苗建民; 赵兰

    2013-01-01

    建筑琉璃作为中国传统建筑风格的标志性元素,是中国建筑文化的重要组成部分,也是古代建筑保护不可或缺的重要屏障。本文以北京故宫清代建筑琉璃为研究对象,利用扫描电子显微镜、X射线能谱仪及拉曼光谱仪,研究了建筑琉璃胎釉中间层的元素组成、显微结构及物相组成。研究表明:釉烧过程中,建筑琉璃胎料中的 Si、Al和K元素向釉料扩散、熔解和渗透,釉料中 Pb元素向胎料扩散、熔解和渗透;釉烧后,胎釉之间形成由微晶层与熔蚀层构成的胎釉中间层,微晶层中的板条状晶体可能为铅长石。%Ancient architectural glazed tile was not only a traditional Chinese architectural style and an important part of the iconic ele-ments of Chinese architectural culture,but also an important protective barrier to ancient buildings.Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)and X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy were used on Beijing Forbidden City Qing dynasty archi-tectural glazed tile,to research on the element content,micro-structure and phase composition of the middle layer between the matrix and glaze,and to research on the relation between the middle layer and the glaze peel off.The research results showed that Silicon,Alu-minum and Potassium in the matrix diffuse,fuse and penetrate to glaze,and Lead in glaze diffuse,fuse and penetrate to matrix in the glaze firing process.The middle layer that composed by crystal layer and corroded layer formed between the matrix and glaze after glaze firing.The needle-like crystal should be Lead-feldspar.And there was no obvious relation found between the thickness of the middle layer and the anti-peel off ability of the architectural glazed tile.

  12. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  13. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  14. Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Banihashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with the growing global trend toward energy efficiency in buildings, this paper aims to first; investigate the energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates and second; analyze the most dominant used parametric and non-parametric tests in dimension reduction for simulating this component. A four-story building representing the conventional type of residential apartments for four climates of cold, temperate, hot-arid and hot-humid was selected for simulation. 10 variables of U-factor, SHGC, emissivity, visible transmittance, monthly average dry bulb temperature, monthly average percent humidity, monthly average wind speed, monthly average direct solar radiation, monthly average diffuse solar radiation and orientation constituted the parameters considered in the calculation of cooling and heating loads of the case. Design of Experiment and Principal Component Analysis methods were applied to find the most significant factors and reduction dimension of initial variables. It was observed that in two climates of temperate and hot-arid, using double glazed windows was beneficial in both cold and hot months whereas in cold and hot-humid climates where heating and cooling loads are dominant respectively, they were advantageous in only those dominant months. Furthermore, an inconsistency was revealed between parametric and non-parametric tests in terms of identifying the most significant variables.

  15. Hot-air drying characteristics and technical parameters optimization of kernel hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.)%山核桃坚果热风干燥特性及其工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德泉; 曹成茂; 丁正耀; 刘伟伟; 张念生; 王继先

    2011-01-01

    针对山核桃坚果热风干燥质量难以控制、干后品质差等问题,采用单因素试验方法,研究了热风温度、装载量及风速对山核桃坚果干燥特性的影响.通过3因素5水平的二次回归正交试验,分析了热风温度、装载量及风速与干燥过程单位时间干燥速率、单位质量干燥能耗以及干后物料蛋白质保存率、不饱和脂肪酸保存率、感官品质指标综合分值的关系,建立了二次同归数学模型,分析了3因素对各指标影响的显著性;利用多目标非线性优化方法,确定了山核桃坚果热风干燥的最佳工艺参数组合,即热风温度为72℃,装载量为0.08 kg,风速为65 m/min.在此条件下,单位时间干燥速率为0.458%/min、单位质量干燥能耗为5.986 kWh/kg、蛋白质保存率为92.12%、不饱和脂肪酸保存率为90.65%、感官品质指标综合分值为32.89分,综合评分为0.802.研究结果为山核桃坚果的干燥和工业化生产提供一定的理论依据.%According to the proplems of difficult control for hot-air drying process and poor quality of dried hickory kernels (Carya cathayensis Sarg.), the effects of drying temperature, material load and airflow rate on hot-air drying characteristics of kernels were investigated by the single factor experimental method. The quadratic regression orthogonal experimental method with three factors and five levels for each factor was employed. Drying temperature, material load and airflow rate were the influence factors, and dehydration rate, energy consumption of drying process, protein retention ratio, unsaturated fatty acid retention ratio and synthetic score of sensory quality indicator of dried kernels were the experimental indices. The relationships between the experimental indices and the influence factors were analyzed. The regression mathematical models describing the relations between the experimental indices and the influence factors were established to analyze the

  16. Effects of High-temperature Air-drying on Flavor Compounds in Dry-cured Duck%高温风干成熟工艺对风鸭风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 王永丽; 章建浩

    2012-01-01

    The effects of high-temperature air-drying on flavor compounds in dry-cured duck were investigated in the study.Volatile flavor compounds and their relative contents in dry-cured ducks at stages of raw material,dry-curing,air-drying 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h were measured by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(SPME-GC/MS)analysis.One hundred and ten flavor compounds were identified,including alcohols(38),hydrocarbons(24),aldehydes(19),ketones(9),amines(7),furans(4),esters(3),S-containing compounds(2),acids(2),ethers(1) and N-containing compound(1).The first principal component consisted aldehydes,alcohols and methyl ketones,and the second principal component consisted of hydrocarbons,alcohols and aldehydes.The flavor formation of dry-cured ducks was affected by oxidative of fat,protein degradation and microorganisms.Therefore,the flavor in finished product is controlled by those processing parameters.%为研究高温风干成熟工艺对风鸭风味物质的影响,采用固相微萃取结合气相色谱/质谱联用技术(SPME-GC/MS)检测了原料、腌制、风干24、48、72、96 h不同工艺阶段风鸭中挥发性风味化合物的种类及相对含量,并利用主成分分析方法分析影响风鸭风味的主要因子。共检测到110种挥发性风味成分,分别为醇类(38)、烃类(24)、醛类(19)、酮类(9)、胺类(7)、呋喃类(4)、酯类(3)、酸类(2)、含硫化合物(2)、醚类(1)和含氮化合物(1)。第一主成分主要由醛、醇类和甲基酮构成,第二主成分主要由烃、醇和醛等组成。风鸭风味的形成受脂肪氧化分解、蛋白质降解及微生物共同作用的影响,通过控制加工工艺参数可以调控高温成熟风鸭风味的形成。

  17. Biomassa microbiana em amostras umedecidas após secagem ao ar de solos de toposeqüência de pastagens Microbial biomass in air dried and moisturized soil samples from toposequences of pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Samarão Gonçalves

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento avaliou-se o carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo (C-BMS em diferentes solos sob topossequência de pastagem e a viabilidade de utilizar amostras condicionadas na forma de terra fina seca ao ar (TFSA. Observou-se para C-BMS, separação dos conteúdos entre os diferentes tipos de solo. A época de inverno favoreceu a C-BMS, elevando-se em 60% em relação ao verão. Na comparação realizada entre os solos preparados na forma de TFSA e com a metodologia de fumigação-extração não se detectou diferença significativa, encontrando-se correlações significativas para os dois métodos de preparo das amostras, o que estabelece um panorama promissor no uso desta metodologia, embora seja necessário maior aprofundamento neste aspecto.In this experiment we evaluated microbial biomass carbon (C-SMB from different soils under toposequences of pasture and the viability of the use of air dried soil samples (ADSS. C-SMB showed separation of values between different soil types. Winter season favored C-SMB being 60% higher in relation to summer. In comparison between the two soil sample preparation methods, ADSS and the classical one, there was no statistical. Significant correlations were observed between the two methods. This gives a positive perspective to the use of this new approach, even thought more study is necessary.

  18. Development and sensitivity study of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing facade and verified by a full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    with experimental data collected in a full-scale façade element test facility at Aalborg University (DK). Comparison was conducted between the simplified method and WIS software on the accuracy of calculating internal surface temperature of double glazing facade. The method is based on standards EN410 and EN673...

  19. 提高陶瓷砖釉面硬度的途径%Study on Approaches to Increase the Hardness of Glazed Ceramic Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琨; 区卓琨

    2012-01-01

    有釉砖具有良好的装饰效果,但是釉面硬度较低,容易出现划痕。本文概述了有釉砖的釉面硬度、耐磨性的检测方法。并通过分析影响有釉砖釉面硬度的因素.提出了通过调整配方组成、引入微晶玻璃、改进工艺制度、进行表面处理等途径可提高有釉砖的釉面硬度。%Glazed ceramic tile had good decorative effect, but its low hardness leaded to surface wear in floor tile. This paper introduced the testing method of hardness and resistance to surface abrasion for glazed tiles. According to the analysis of the relation between hardness and glazed ceramic tile, this paper proposed four countermeasures: choosing suitable composition, preparing glass-ceramics, improving technique process and using sat'face treatment to increase the hardness of glazed ceramic tile.

  20. The effect of single-horn glaze ice on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe-Yan; Dong, Qiao-Tian; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-02-01

    The present study experimentally investigated the effect of a simulated single-horn glaze ice accreted on rotor blades on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine by using the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) technique. During the experiments, four horizontal axis wind turbine models were tested, and both "free-run" and "phase-locked" Stereo-PIV measurements were carried out. Based on the "free-run" measurements, it was found that because of the simulated single-horn glaze ice, the shape, vorticity, and trajectory of tip vortices were changed significantly, and less kinetic energy of the airflow could be harvested by the wind turbine. In addition, the "phase-locked" results indicated that the presence of simulated single-horn glaze ice resulted in a dramatic reduction of the vorticity peak of the tip vortices. Moreover, as the length of the glaze ice increased, both root and tip vortex gaps were found to increase accordingly.

  1. EFFECT OF THE SPACE BETWEEN TWO GLASSES ON THE SOLAR SENSOR PERFORMANCE OF PLAN IN DOUBLE-GLAZED COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ben Guehza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper is a contribution to the theoretical study of the impact of space between the protective glass and the glass through the performance of a solar plan double glazing. Under the climatic conditions in the region of Ouargla Algeria. The study was carried out using a mathematical model obtained by writing the laws of conservation of energy in the system. Type of day June 15, 2008 at Ouargla. To simplify the system of equations of energy, we use the finite difference method with an implicit scheme. The algebraic system obtained and solved by the iterative Gauss Seidel, the program is inscribe FORTRAN. We also took into account the variation of the angle of incidence and refraction of solar radiation in terms of time and its influence on the coefficients of transmission, reflection and absorption.

  2. Simulating multi-layered glazing with the Danish TSBI3 (draft). IEA Task 13 ``Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.

    1991-06-01

    The document comprises the results of simulation of multi-layered glazing using the computer program TSBI3 for the thermal simulation of buildings. The programme requires the transmissivity of normal irradiation for the total number of glass panes and calculates from this the transmissivity for five different angles of incidence assuming normal conditions. Results show, for each month of a year, values for heating and cooling loads, solar available on south, total solar input window, ventilation load, window conduction and total surface conduction. Heating or cooling loads kW for three consecutive days in February and May are given by the hour and solar intensities on external surfaces in kW per square meter for each hour during May 31st are given. The limitations and assumptions in the TSBI3 programme (version 3.0) are noted. (AB)

  3. Investigation of Released Cadmium and Lead from Different Colors of Over Glaze Designs to Food Stuff in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi-Moghaddam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, leaching of lead and cadmium was investigated from porcelain over glaze designs between different colors.  Also the effect of microwave heating was considered on leaching of lead and cadmium.  Dishes were selected with a decor with the dominant color of gray, red, yellow, blue, and dark blue. Amounts of cadmium and lead which leached from the container by acetic acid and orange juice were measured according to the standard ASTM C738.  The results showed that especially in the red and dark blue colors cadmium and lead could be released easily by either acetic acid or orange juice, and these amounts were much higher than the permissible standard amount. Also microwave heating could enhance releasing of lead and cadmium from decorated dinnerware. 

  4. 柱状胡萝卜样品热风微波耦合干燥数学模型%Mathematical modeling of microwave assisted air drying of cylindrical carrot samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙帅; 崔政伟

    2013-01-01

    利用热风微波耦合干燥装置研究了柱状胡萝卜样品的干燥特性,一个实验室规模的热风微波耦合干燥装置用来实现此实验目的.基于干燥过程中同时具有传热传质现象,建立了一个数学模型以此来预测干燥过程中样品内温度和含水量的分布.考虑到柱状样品的半径和微波的穿透深度,假定微波中的电场强度在样品内均匀分布.由于表面水分的蒸发而造成的热损失被考虑在内并将其作为模型的一个边界条件,利用数值方法中的隐式有限差分法对模型进行求解.通过干燥尺寸不同的柱状胡萝卜样品得到的实验值和模型的预测值进行比较来对模型进行验证,探讨了微波功率密度和热风温度的影响作用.%Drying behavior of cylindrical samples of carrot was investigated in a microwave assisted air drying.A pilot-scale microwave assisted air dryer was set up for this purpose.Based on the simultaneous heat and mass transfer,a mathematical model was proposed for predicting the temperature and moisture distribution in the drying sample.Considering the carrot radiuses and the penetration depth of the electromagnetic waves,a uniform electric field strength distribution within the drying material was assumed in the proposed model.The heat loss due to surface evaporative cooling was also considered at the external boundaries.A numerical solution was developed for the proposed model using an implicit finite difference method.The model was validated by comparing the predicted data with the experimental data,obtained from different cylindrical carrot samples during drying.The effects of microwave power density and also drying air temperature on the moisture and temperature profiles were investigated.

  5. 英夫利西单抗联合甲氨蝶呤短期治疗银屑病关节炎21例临床观察%Combination Therapy of Infliximab with Methotrexate for Twenty-one Cases with Psoriatic Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成强; 董国萍; 房丽华; 任如枫; 刘晓萍; 李瑞; 王洁; 崔潞萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of Infliximab combined with methotrexate in short-term treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Methods Twenty-one patients received with 5mg phleb Infliximab which at 0, 2, 6, 14 week and 7.5-15mg oral MTX once a week. Results The swollen joint counts, tenderness joint counts and the score of PASI significantly reduced. Meanwhile the level of ESR and CRP significantly decreased in all cases(P <0.05). One patient experienced pruritus and flaky erythema at the injection site. It disappeared witnout any treatment. No severe adverse effects occurred in other patients. Conclusion The Infliximab combined with methotrexate is effective and safe in short-term treatment of psoriatic arthritis.%  目的探讨英夫利西单抗(Infliximab,商品名:类克,Remcidae)联合甲氨蝶呤(methotrexate,MTX)短期治疗银屑病关节炎(psoriatic arthritis,PsA)的疗效与安全性。方法对传统治疗方案[非甾体类消炎药(NSAIDs)联合MTX或其他免疫抑制剂(DMARDs)]治疗3个月以上疗效欠佳的21例患者,在0、2、6、14周时给予静脉输注Infliximab(剂量为5mg/kg体重,溶于0.9%的氯化钠注射液250ml,输液时间不少于2h),同时给予MTX 7.5-15mg,1次/周,14周后停用Infliximab,观察患者治疗前后的临床症状、炎性实验室指标的改善情况及药物安全性。结果21例患者关节压痛数、关节肿胀数、银屑病面积和严重度指数(psoriasis area and severity index,PASI)均明显降低,同时血沉(ESR)及C反应蛋白(CRP)亦明显下降,且与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义。1例患者出现注射部位皮肤片状红肿及瘙痒,未予特殊处理后消失,其余患者均未出现明显不良反应。结论Infliximab联合MTX短期治疗银屑病关节炎有效、安全、可行。

  6. 圣女果分段式变温变湿热风干燥特性%Dried characteristics of cherry tomatoes using temperature and humidity by stages changed hot-air drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆惠; 李忠新; 杨劲松; 谢龙; 张世湘; 高振江

    2014-01-01

    Cherry tomato decays easily. Generally, it can be preserved only for 5-7days under normal pressure and temperature. The dehydration of cherry tomatoes into dried or preserved fruits can prolong their shelf life and enrich the market of the fruit. Currently, cherry tomatoes is dehydrated through natural drying. The advantage of this method is simple, and low cost. But the drying time is long and is affected by the climate and sanitary conditions. The product quality is difficult to control. In order to shorten the drying time and prevent mildew, cherry tomatoes are often soaked or sprayed with the alkaline solution. These chemicals are bad for our health. Multi-stage temperature-and-humidity drying is conducted through the material drying characteristics. This method can speed up the drying rate, improve drying quality, and reduce energy consumption. It has been successfully applied for apricot,lyceum barbarum, grapes and other materials. In this study, internal recycling hot-air drying technology was employed for the drying of cherry tomatoes. The effects of drying temperatures, humidity, drying stages and slicing forms on the drying characteristics and the appearance quality of the cherry tomatoes were investigated. Each experiment was composed of four drying stages. The drying temperatures were fixed, the humidity of the environment was changed in processⅠ,Ⅱ andⅢ. The drying temperature was low, the humidity was high at the beginning of processⅣ. Gradually, the temperature was raised, the humidity was reduced. At the end of the process, the drying temperature was higher, the humidity was lower compared with their values at the beginning. The experimental results indicated that pre-heated and falling rate periods exist during the drying of cherry tomato. Previous studies only shown falling rate period. The increase in temperature and humidity has bad effects on the nutrition, color and the appearance quality of cherry tomato. Even though cherry tomato can

  7. 生物多孔介质热风干燥数学模型及数值模拟%Mathematical model and numerical simulation of biological porous medium during hot air drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会林; 卢涛; 姜培学

    2014-01-01

    Drying is a very important unit operation in many industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals and ceramics. In most cases, wet materials are dried by forced convection using hot air flow. Heat and mass transfer processes during drying have been studied by both experimental and numerical simulation methods. For the purpose of studying the mechanism of heat and mass transfer and stress-strain distribution during the hot air drying of biological porous medium, two-way coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical mathematical model has been developed to simulate the hot air convective drying process of biological porous media on basis of Fickian diffusion theory, Fourier’s law of heat conduction and thermoelasticity mechanics. The following assumptions were made in order to find a solution to the hot air drying model: the biological porous medium was homogeneous and isotropic; the deformation during drying was elastic. The transient model, composed of a system of partial differential equations, was solved by finite difference methods. The computational procedure was programmed using C language. Some physical and mechanical properties of carrot changing with dry basis moisture content and temperature were considered. The numerical results were compared with available experimental data obtained during the drying of potatoes and carrots. The relative errors between numerical results and experimental data were both less than 5%, which showed the numerical results obtained using the mathematical model were in good agreement with the experimental data. Numerical simulations of the drying curve variations and the spatio-temporal distributions of moisture, temperature and drying stresses and strains of carrot were also evaluated. The temperature and moisture content showed a gradient inside carrot slice during drying. As the drying process proceeded, the temperature inside the carrot slice initially increased to reach the wet bulb temperature of the environment and eventually

  8. 茭白片热风对流干燥模型与传质性能%The Model and Mass Transfer Performance of Convective Hot Air Drying of Water-Oat Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸爱士

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the transfer characteristics of the water-oat drying process, a laboratory convective hot air dryer was applied to study the influences of drying temperature and thickness of water-oat slice on the drying process. The experimental data of moisture ratio of water-oat slices were used to fit the mathematical models, and the diffusion coefficients under different drying temperatures were calculated, the relative relations between the diffusion coefficient and drying temperature were also related. The results show that the drying temperature influences the drying process significantly, and the thinner slice benefits the moisture diffusion. Among several familiar numerical moisture ratio models, Page model of moisture ratio was found to be the most satisfactory one for the description of the kinetics of the hot air drying water-oat slices process. It was also found that, when the thickness of water-oat slice is 0.003 m, with the increase of temperature from 55℃ to 75℃, the water diffusion coefficient varies from 3.440×10-9 m2·s-1 to 6.357×10-9 m2·s-1; and it fits the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy is 27.86 kJ·mol-1. Under the same temperature, the experiments show that the thickness of the drying material has almost no influence on the water diffusion coefficient%为了探讨茭白干燥的传递特性,在对流热风干燥实验装置中进行了茭白片薄层干燥实验,研究了干燥温度、片的厚度对干燥过程的影响,将试验的水分比与数学模型进行了拟合,计算了不同温度下的水分扩散系数,并关联了其与干燥温度的关系.结果表明:干燥温度对干燥过程影响显著,薄片有利于水分扩散:用Page模型来描述茭白片热风干燥动力学令人满意;茭白片厚度为0.003m时,随风温升高,水分扩散系数从3.440×10-9 m2·s-1增大到6.357×10-9m2·s-1,并符合阿累尼乌斯方程,活化能为27.86 kj·mol-1.相同温度下,物料中水分的扩散系数基本不受厚度影响.

  9. 耀州窑月白釉的复仿制及呈色机理研究%Preparation and coloring mechanism analysis of pale green glaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建锋; 施佩; 王芬; 董龙龙; 吕臣敬

    2014-01-01

    以长石、石英、方解石和滑石为主要原料,采用三角配料法,确定了月白釉的基础釉组成.在此基础上,进一步研究了氧化铁和粘土含量对月白釉呈色的影响,并成功仿制出与古瓷釉色接近的月白釉.借助 X 射线衍射仪(XRD )、扫描电子显微镜(SEM )和 X 射线能谱仪(EDS )等对仿月白釉和古瓷釉的物相及微观结构进行了对比分析.结果表明:在Si/Ca的摩尔比为5.35~10.17的区域,可以得到乳浊度较高的青釉.随着釉中氧化铁含量的增加,釉色从青黄向青绿色调发展;而随着粘土含量的增加,釉色由绿色向黄色发展.仿月白釉和古瓷釉的微观结构相似,但仿月白釉中晶相含量低,气泡更加细小、均匀,更有利于月白釉的呈色.%In this work ,feldspar ,quartz ,calcite and talc were used as raw materials to obtain the basic composition of the pale green glaze by the triangle batching method .Then ,the effects of the clay and iron oxide addition on the coloring of the fabricated glazes were inves-tigated and the similar products with ancient ceramics were fabricated .The phase composi-tion and microstructure of the imitation pale green glaze and the ancient glaze were discussed by the X ray diffraction (XRD ) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spec-trometry (SEM/EDS) .The results show that the green glaze with high opacity can be ob-tained when mole ratio of Si to Ca is in the region of 5 .35~10 .17 .The color of the imitation pale green glaze is developed from bluish yellow to bluish green with increase of iron oxide content ,and the glaze color is from green to yellow with increasing the clay content .The fab-ricated pale green glaze has a similar microstructure with the ancient ceramics .But the crys-talline phase content is less and the size of bubbles is smaller and dispersed more uniform than those in the ancient ceramics ,w hich are more

  10. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng; Meitian, Li; Youshi, Kim; Changsheng, Fan; Shanghai, Wang; Qiuli, Pan; Zhiguo, Liu; Rongwu, Li

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  11. An effective simulation model to predict and optimize the performance of single and double glaze flat-plate solar collector designs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines and formulates a compact and effective simulation model, which predicts the performance of single and double glaze flat-plate collector. The model uses an elaborated iterative simulation algorithm and provides the collector top losses, the glass covers temperatures, the collector absorber temperature, the collector fluid outlet temperature, the system efficiency, and the thermal gain for any operational and environmental conditions. It is a numerical approach based on simu...

  12. 高清三维凹凸釉面砖的研制%Development of Concavo-convex Glazed Tile with High-Definition 3D Decorative Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国明; 王贵生; 李少平; 王勇

    2011-01-01

    The 3D roller printing technology was developed for high-definition decoration of engraved glazed tile. The influences of moulding process, grain composition of powder, and performance of glaze and ink on the decoration were investigated. High-definition texture resembling natural stone was achieved on the concavo-convex surface of glazed tile under the optimized processing conditions.%采用高清三维胶辊印刷技术进行凹凸釉面砖装饰,探讨了釉面砖成型工艺、粉料颗粒级配、釉料和印油性能等工艺因素对凹凸釉面砖三维胶辊印花装饰效果的影响,通过相关工艺参数优化,实现凹凸釉面砖表面高清的石材天然纹理的印刷效果.

  13. Switchable window modeling. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    This document presents the work conducted as part of Subtask A.1, High-Performance Glazing, of Task 12 of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that chromogenic technology (switchable glazing) held considerable promise, and that algorithms to accurately model their dynamic behavior were needed. The purpose of this subtask was to develop algorithms that could be incorporated into building energy analysis programs for predicting the thermal and optical performance of switchable windows. The work entailed a review of current techniques for modelling switchable glazing in windows and switchable windows in buildings and methods for improving upon existing modeling approaches. The proposed approaches correct some of the shortcomings in the existing techniques, and could be adapted for use in other similar programs. The proposed approaches generally provide more detailed calculations needed for evaluating the short-term (hourly and daily) impact of switchable windows on the energy and daylighting performance of a building. Examples of the proposed algorithms are included.

  14. 卷筒塑胶上光机的设计与研制%Design and development of plastic-reel glazing machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宗银; 王泾文; 章功国

    2011-01-01

    卷筒塑胶上光机由自动放卷、高精度压印上光、快速固化和自动收卷4部分组成,采用机、电、气、液、光一体化设计,运用紫外线(Ultra-Violet UV Ray)上光处理技术,对塑胶等产品进行表面处理,增强产品的亮度和耐磨性、抗污性,属环保无污染的新型上光设备.广泛用于广告设计、公共场所的地板、操场跑道、墙纸、高档木家具的表面处理.%Plastic-reel glazing machine is composed of automatic unwinding, high precision stamping glazing, rapid solidifying and automatic winding. By applying the integrated design of mechanical, electrical, gas, liquid and optical, and by using UltraViolet (UV) ray glazing treatment technology to carry out surface treatment on plastic products, enhancing their brightness, abrasion resistance and stain resistance of products. It is a new type of environmental and pollution-free polishing equipment. It is widely used in surface treatment of advertising design, public place's floor,playground runway, wallpaper, high-grade wooden furniture.

  15. 玻璃幕墙结构装配胶带的性能研究%Performance Study of 3MTM VHBTM Structural Glazing Tape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盈; 王新; 王承军

    2012-01-01

    Material performances of 3M? VHB? Structural Glazing Tape are characterized by 90 degree peel strength, tensile strength, shear strength and static shear strength in different conditions. Mockup tests validate that VHB Structural Glazing Tape can meet specified requirements for the application in a real life under stresses and environmental conditions that glass panels would typically experience in a glazed curtain wall system.%通过对玻璃幕墙结构装配胶带在不同试验条件下90°剥离强度,正态拉伸强度、拉伸剪切强度、持粘性等性能的测试,表征了玻璃幕墙结构装配胶带的材料性能.并通过幕墙形式试验的检验,论证了玻璃幕墙结构装配胶带粘结的幕墙在真实经历的应力和环境条件下能够满足应用的要求.

  16. The most widespread glazed imports of Crimean production and some issues relating to East European trade in the 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei G. Bocharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine morphological and technological features and distribution of the four most massive types of glazed closed vessels produced in towns of south-eastern Crimea (Solkhat, Kaffa, Sudak. Starting from the late 13th – early 14th centuries, the Crimean producers of glazed ceramics had reached a far better development compared to other ceramic centers of the Golden Horde. For almost 50–70 years the Crimean glazed ceramics had dominated the whole territory of Eastern Europe. The most common finds are pharmaceutical amphorae, albarello and two types of jars – the stamped jars and the wine jars with a narrow long body. The authors illustrated informational capacities of the analysis of massive finds, which is a good tool to obtain some new historical information, particularly, to study European trade in the best years of the Golden Horde towns. They showed how studying archaeological stuff can substantially complement the written accounts about the trade crisis after the events in Azak (Tana in September 1343.

  17. The development and testing of glaze materials for application to the fit surface of dental ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, Michael J; Chadwick, Thomas C; Knowles, Jonathan C; Clarke, Richard L

    2009-04-01

    The aims of the study were to develop and test overglaze materials for application to the fit surface of dental ceramic restorations, which could be etched and adhesively bonded and increase the flexural strength of the ceramic substrate. Three glaze materials were developed using commercial glass powders (P25 and P54, Pemco, Canada). P25 (90 wt%) was mixed with P54 (10 wt%) to produce (P25/P54). P54 (90 wt%) was mixed with P25 (10 wt%) to produce (P54/P25). P25 (90 wt%) was mixed with 10 wt% of an experimental glass powder (P25/frit). Eighty-two disc specimens (14 mm x 2 mm) were produced by heat pressing a leucite glass-ceramic and were sandblasted with 50 microm glass beads. Group 1 control specimens (10) were sandblasted. Groups 2-4 (10 per group) were coated using P25/frit (Group 2), P25/P54 (Group 3) and P54/P25 (Group 4) overglazes before sintering. Groups 1-4 were etched for 2 min using 9.5% HF (Gresco, USA). Composite cylinders (Marathon v, Den-Mat) were light cured and bonded to the glazed and prepared disc surfaces and groups water stored for 8 days. Groups were tested using shear bond strength (SBS) testing at 0.5mm/min. Disc specimens (42) were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test at a crosshead speed of 0.15 mm/min. Group 1 was tested as sandblasted (21) and Group 2 (21) after coating the tensile surface with P25/frit. Xrd, Eds and Sem analyzes were carried out. Mean SBS (MPa+/-S.D.) were: Group 1: 10.7+/-2.1; Group 2: 9.8+/-1.9; Group 3: 1.8+/-1.0 and Group 4: 2.6+/-1.7. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically different to Groups 3 and 4 (p0.05). The mean BFS (MPa+/-S.D.) of the overglazed Group 2 (200.2+/-22.9) was statistically different (pceramic substrate and produced comparable shear bond strengths to an etched and bonded control. The application of etched overglaze materials to dental glass-ceramic and ceramic substrates may be useful in adhesive dentistry.

  18. Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Alavedra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs. However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research.

  19. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leona, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 microm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France).

  20. SIMULATION OF SOLAR LITHIUM BROMIDE–WATER ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM WITH DOUBLE GLAZED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR FOR ADRAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML CHOUGUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrar is a city in the Sahara desert, in southern Algeria known for its hot and dry climate, where a huge amount of energy is used for air conditioning. The aim of this research is to simulate a single effect lithium bromide–water absorption chiller coupled to a double-glazed flat plate collector to supply the cooling loads for a house of 200m2 in Adrar. The thermal energy is stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system was designed to cover a cooling load of 10.39KW for design day of July. Thermodynamic model was established to simulate the absorption cycle. The results have shown that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 65.3 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

  1. Hydrophilicity, photocatalytic activity and stability of tetraethyl orthosilicate modified TiO2 film on glazed ceramic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Tian, Jie; Xu, Ruifen; Ma, Guojun

    2013-02-01

    A new, simple, and low-cost method has been developed to enhance the surface properties of TiO2 film. Degussa P25-TiO2 nanoparticles were modified by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) on glazed ceramic tiles. Effects of tetraethyl orthosilicate modification on microstructure, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, photocatalytic activity and stability of the film were investigated. The obtained results showed that P25-TiO2/TEOS particles exhibited better dispersion, higher surface area, bigger surface roughness and smaller particle size comparing to pure P25-TiO2 particles, which resulted in better hydrophilicity after 10 days in a dark place and higher photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. 68% of Rhodamine B was degraded by P25-TiO2/TEOS film in 25 h with the light intensity of 5000 ± 500 lx, and degradation rate reached to 82% with the light intensity of 10,000 ± 1000 lx. Furthermore, two fundamentally different systems, in which the films recycle for repetitive degradation after soaked in dye solution and for discoloration after depositing dye on the surfaces, respectively, were measured to confirm that P25-TiO2/TEOS film showed excellently stable performances. Therefore the P25-TiO2/TEOS film we obtained has good washing resistance and would be a promising candidate for practical applications.

  2. Influence of Glaze on Corona Inception Voltage of Stranded Conductor%雨凇对导线起晕电压影响规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉; 蒋兴良; 舒立春; 胡建林; 张志劲; 张满

    2013-01-01

      雨凇对输电线路的安全威胁极大,形成的冰柱会使得导线表面电场发生畸变进而影响电晕起始特性,国内外针对导线电晕特性进行了大量研究,但大多采用铝管来模拟实导线,且尚未深入分析覆冰对导线起晕电压的影响规律。利用人工气候试验室完成对 LGJ-185/25钢芯铝绞线雨凇覆冰后的交流电晕试验,采用紫外成像仪及曲线拟合法对导线起晕电压进行测量并分析,并根据雨凇冰柱形态建立有限元模型进行最大场强计算。结果表明:雨凇会导致绞线起晕电压值的降低;覆冰程度的增加会使得绞线起晕电压持续下降但逐渐趋于饱和;雨凇形态不随电导率的不同而发生改变,但盐浓度的增加会使得绞线起晕电压继续下降。所得结论可为雨凇频发区的输电线路设计及选型提供依据。%  Glaze affects secure operation of transmission line seriously, and icicles caused by glaze makes the electric field on conductor surface distorted and then the corona onset voltage characteristic of conductor is affected. A lot of researches on corona characteristics of conductors are performed home and abroad, most of them utilize aluminum pipes to simulate actual conductors and the influences of ice-coating on corona onset voltage of conductor are not analyzed in depth. A series of AC corona tests for ice-covered steel cored aluminum stranded wire LGJ-185/25 due to glaze are implemented in artificial climate chamber, in the tests the ultraviolet imager and curve fitting method are used to measure and analyze the corona onset voltage of stranded conductor, and according to the form of glaze-caused icicles a finite-element model is established to calculate the maximum field strength. Test results show that glaze leads to the decrease of corona onset voltage of stranded conductor;the increase of ice-coating thickness makes the corona onset voltage of stranded conductor

  3. 利用核磁共振成像技术分析胡萝卜干燥过程中内部水分传递%Moisture transport in carrot during hot air drying using magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建国; 徐刚; 张绪坤; 顾震; 张森旺; 李华栋

    2013-01-01

    not an accurate method because of low precision and moisture loss during cutting process, although it could give inside moisture distribution. In recent years, the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure mass transport phenomena in porous systems, especially in foodstuffs and biological materials, including drying processes, has been demonstrated. NMR imaging as a non-destructive, non-invasive, promising technique has been used to obtain moisture profiles during drying of vegetables and fruits. In this paper, the moisture transport in a cylindrical carrot sample was visualized and studied using nuclear magnetic resonance images obtained from the drying experiments. The transient moisture profile distributions in carrot were measured during the hot-air drying process with air temperatures of 40 and 70℃, respectively. Experimental results showed that the moisture profiles moved irregularly toward the center of the carrot sample in both the axial and radial directions, indicating a muti-dimensional and unsteady-state mass transfer process that has non-Fickian moisture transport characteristics. In the initial drying stage, a sharp moisture gradient was found indicating significant moisture flux at the surface of the carrot. With the process of drying, the ratio of the MRI diameter declined faster than that of the optical diameter, which indicated that the dried layer appeared at the surface and moisture profile moved inside. The Henderson-Pabis model (MR=1.003e-0.01114t, R2=0.9994) achieved better predictive accuracy than other models and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of the carrot cylinder at 70℃. The maximum relative error of prediction compared with the measured results was 7.69%, with relative errors during the drying process at 70℃ commonly remaining less than 4%. The moisture transport of the carrot center layer was simulated by the Henderson-Pabis model (MR=1.005e-0.00286t,R2=0.9978) during the drying process at

  4. THE RESEARCH ON THE DRINK UTENSIL POTTERY MADE OF GLAZED PURPLE CLAY IN THE QING DYNASTY%清代紫砂加彩饮具研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩荣

    2012-01-01

    Purple-clay potteries added with glaze in Qing Dynasty now boost a booming trend in production.Through a variety of analysis and researches,the overall styles and unique characteristics in this period are described in terms of the functional categories and expressional forms of drink utensils.It has been drawn that the rapid development of the manufacturing craft of glazed purple-clay drink utensil is actually closely related to social demands at that moment.In fact,this development is fueled by the combination of practical and aesthetic demand,and promoted by export sales and foreign cultures.In addition,the research significance and the important role played by glazed purple-clay drink utensil in the historical development of arts and crafts are also elaborated.%清代紫砂器施加釉彩的饮具生产呈现蓬勃态势,通过对其梳理研究,从器具功能类别、表现形式描述了紫砂加彩饮具在这一时期整体的风貌及独具的特色,探究出清代紫砂加彩饮具艺术化进程飞速发展得以确立的原因与时下社会需求密切相关,是在实用性与审美性结合型需求与外销和外来文化的作用力共同影响之下产生与发展的。阐述了清代紫砂加彩饮具在工艺美术历史发展中的重要地位和研究意义。

  5. 玻化微珠保温砂浆在外墙防火构造中的应用%Application of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar in external fireproof construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 李珠; 郭秀华

    2012-01-01

    介绍玻化微珠保温砂浆的性能,并对外保温系统进行防火安全分析,证明玻化微珠保温砂浆在外墙外保温系统防火构造中应用是可行的,可有效阻止保温系统的火势蔓延,具有优良的阻燃效果.%By introducing the performance of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar, and analyzing on fire protection of exterior insulation system,the feasibility of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar as fireproof in external insulation is proved. The thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar can effectively prevent fire spreading in external wall exterior insulation system and has an excellent flame retardant effect.

  6. 宜兴仿钧陶胎釉组成配方特征研究%RESEARCH ON THE COMPOSITION FORMULA FEATURES OF IMITATION JUN POTTERY FETAL GLAZE IN THE CITY OF YIXlNG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 吴琳; 张茂林; 吴军明; 李其江; 黄梦璇; 王丽丽; 江鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Chemical composition of body and glaze of imitated-Jun kiln of Yixing pottery was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, and the characteristics of the pottery body and glaze formula were discussed. Results indicate that the glaze of Yixing belongs to calcium glaze and the ratio of Si/Al is in a large proportion between l0 to 16. The main coloring element of Caramel glaze is Fe, while the blue or green glaze comes from Cu, with a certain content of ZnO which could improve phase separation. The main raw material of Yixing pottery body is white clay, some samples may adopted red stoneware. The chemical composition of Yixing ootterv did not change a lot, which indicate that its formula is stable during a long firing period%采用能量色散X射线荧光法分析了宜兴仿钧陶胎釉元素组成,探讨了宜钧胎、釉配方的特点。分析表明,宜钧釉属于钙釉,其Si/Al较大,在10-16之间。酱色釉的主要呈色元素是Fe,蓝绿色釉的主要呈色元素为Cu,并加入了一定量的ZnO,以促进瓷釉分相。宜钧胎体的原料主要是白泥,部分样品可能采用了紫砂泥制胎。不同时期宜钧胎体的主次量元素含量变化不大,这说明宜钧在长期烧制过程中,其胎体的原料配方较为稳定。

  7. Effect of Spray Drying and Hot Air Drying on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Pumpkin Powder%喷雾干燥及热风干燥对南瓜粉营养特性和感官品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱梅; 万艳娟; 李少华; 赵力超; 林淑苑; 李启圣

    2011-01-01

    以新鲜南瓜为原料,分别研究了喷雾干燥及热风干燥两种不同干燥工艺对南瓜粉营养特性和感官性能的影响,重点研究了喷雾干燥的干燥温度、压缩空气流量与改良剂添加量(南瓜固形物与麦芽糊精比例)及热风干燥的干燥温度,物料厚度与改良剂添加量(南瓜固形物与麦芽糊精比例)三个因素的影响,以南瓜粉成品的Vc和β-胡萝卜素含量及感官评分作为评价指标,确定最佳干燥工艺.结果表明,南瓜粉最佳的喷雾干燥工艺条件为:进风温度180℃、压缩空气流量480L/h、麦芽糊精添加量3:1;最佳热风干燥条件为:干燥温度75℃、物料厚度0.8 cm、麦芽糊精添加量2:1.在此条件下所得南瓜粉成品的Vc和β-胡萝卜素含量及感官评分分别为64.49%、67.35%、85分及50.84%、52.04%、77分.%The effects of spray drying and hot air drying on the nutritional and sensory properties of pumkin powder using fresh pumkin as raw material were investigated. Emphases were laid on the effects of spray drying temperature, the flow of condensed air, the addition level of drying aid (the ratio ofpumkin solid to maltodextrin) and the temperature of hot air drying, thickness of material and the addition level of drying aid (the ratio ofpumkin solid to maltodextrin) on the quality ofpumkin powder using the content of Vc and β- carotene and sensory score as indicators.Results showed pumkin powder with best quality produced by spray drying could be obtained under the optimum conditions: spray drying temperature 180 ℃, the flow of condensed air 480L/h, and the addition of maltodextrin 3:1. For hot air drying, pumkin powder with best quality could be achieved under the following conditions: hot air drying temperature of 75 ℃, the thickness of 0.8 cm, and the addition of maltodextrin of 2:1. Under the above optimal conditions, the contents of Vc and β-carotone and sensory scores ofpumkin powder were {64.49%, 67.35%, 85

  8. Local structures and electronic band states of α−Fe2O3 polycrystalline particles in the glazes of the HIZEN celadons produced in the Edo period of Japan, by means of X-ray absorption spectra (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, M; Ohashi, K.; R. P. Wijesundera; L. S. R. Kumara; Sugihara, S.; Momoshima,N.; Kubuki,S.; Sung,N. E.

    2011-01-01

    HIZEN celadon glazes produced in 1630's to 1790's (Edo period, Japan) have been investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) near a Fe-K edge by using synchrotron radiation and a Mössbauer spectrum. The XAS suggest that the local structure around Fe2O3 fine powders is slightly different between the Izumiyama ceramics of mainly the Quartz-SiO2 and Ohkawachi ceramics of mainly the feldspar of (K,Na)Si3O8 (Sanidine), and that the glazes of the HIZEN celadons include the Fe2O3 fine pow...

  9. An Infraspec VFA-IR spectrometer analysis of Trans-fat content in glazed donuts purchased from supermarkets, convenience stores and bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most packaged food products must contain trans-fat labelling; however unpackaged snacks such as cookies, donuts, and muffins at supermarkets, gas station convenience stores, and bakeries often do not have or require nutrition fact labels. Hence, consumers are not aware of the trans-fat content in unpackaged food products. It is well-known within the health and scientific community that diets high in trans-fat can lead to a host of health problems, namely coronary heart disease (CHD. The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary study of the trans-fat content in unpackaged baked goods, particularly unpackaged glazed donuts. To accomplish our objective, we determined the % trans-fat in oil extracted from glazed donuts obtained from several supermarkets, gas stations and bakeries across Northwest, Indiana. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. In this paper, we present our preliminary findings.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. A twenty-one year surveillance of adenoviral conjunctivitis in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koki; Tagawa, Yoshitugu

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the clinicoetiological, serological, and molecular epidemiological features of adenoviral conjunctivitis under the auspices of the nationwide surveillance project in Sapporo, located in northern Japan. We were able to analyze the results of 1,454 cases of adenoviral, herpetic, and chlamydial conjunctivitis. We found that adenonovirus serotypes 8, 19, and 37 caused severe conjunctivitis without systemic symptoms, whereas serotypes Ad3, Ad7, and Ad11 caused mild conjunctivitis with systemic involvement. Ad4 showed a broad range of symptoms, from PCF to EKC. Adenoviral conjunctivitis had seasonal outbreaks in the summer in association with adequate temperature and humidity in Sapporo. Neutralization antibodies against Ad8, Ad19, and Ad37 were detected in fewer than 20% of cases, and so the incidence of epidemics with these serotypes may rise in the coming years. The main genome types of adenovirus in Sapporo were Ad4a, Ad8e, Ad19a, Ad19b, and Ad37p, a, and b.

  12. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  13. Twenty-One Millisecond Pulsars in Terzan 5 Using the Green Bank Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H; Freire, P C C; Camilo, F; Kaspi, V M; Kaplan, D L; Ransom, Scott M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Camilo, Fernando; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Kaplan, David L.

    2005-01-01

    We have discovered 21 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the globular cluster Terzan 5 using the Green Bank Telescope, bringing the total of known MSPs in Terzan 5 to 24. These discoveries confirm fundamental predictions of globular cluster and binary system evolution. Thirteen of the new MSPs are in binaries, of which two show eclipses and two have highly eccentric orbits. The relativistic periastron advance for the two eccentric systems indicates that at least one of these pulsars has a mass >1.68 Msun at 95% confidence. Such large neutron star masses constrain the equation of state of matter at or beyond the nuclear equilibrium density.

  14. Drug-associated acute pancreatitis : twenty-one years of spontaneous reporting in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eland, I A; van Puijenbroek, E P; Sturkenboom, M J; Wilson, J H; Stricker, B H

    OBJECTIVE: Drugs are considered a rare cause of acute pancreatitis. We conducted a descriptive study to assess which drugs have been associated with acute pancreatitis in spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports in The Netherlands. METHODS: Our study is based on reports of drug-associated acute

  15. Structure Matters: Twenty-One Teaching Strategies to Promote Student Engagement and Cultivate Classroom Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    The biology education community focuses a great deal of time and energy on issues of "what" students should be learning in the modern age of biology and then probing the extent to which students are learning these things. There has been increased focus over time on the "how" of teaching, with attention to questioning the…

  16. Drug-associated acute pancreatitis : twenty-one years of spontaneous reporting in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eland, I A; van Puijenbroek, E P; Sturkenboom, M J; Wilson, J H; Stricker, B H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Drugs are considered a rare cause of acute pancreatitis. We conducted a descriptive study to assess which drugs have been associated with acute pancreatitis in spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports in The Netherlands. METHODS: Our study is based on reports of drug-associated acute pan

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. A study of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    -frequency tinnitus. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants, and the complainants were exposed to these in blind test listening experiments. Furthermore, the low-frequency hearing function of the complainants was investigated, and characteristics of the annoying sound was matched. The results...... showed that some of the complainants are annoyed by a physical sound (20-180 Hz), while others suffer from low-frequency tinnitus (perceived frequency 40-100 Hz). Physical sound at frequencies below 20 Hz (infrasound) is not responsible for the annoyance - or at all audible - in any of the investigated...... cases, and none of the complainants has extraordinary hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. For comparable cases of low-frequency noise complaints in general, it is anticipated that physical sound is responsible in a substantial part of the cases, while lowfrequency tinnitus is responsible in another...

  19. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  20. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at 8 sites along a transect over an altitude range of 390–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower 3 sites within 10 km of the margin experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  1. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE:Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-one MELANCHOLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚秀葵; 付娟; 董红英

    2001-01-01

    Melancholy is a general term for diseases resulting from emotional depressign and stagnation of qi. Disorder of qi-circulation can disturb functional activity of the blood system and result in many pathological changes. In this section, only hysteria is discussed. If you want to treat headache, insomnia, palpitation, seminal emission and globus hystericus, the relative sections in other lectures can be referred to.

  2. Structure Matters: Twenty-One Teaching Strategies to Promote Student Engagement and Cultivate Classroom Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    The biology education community focuses a great deal of time and energy on issues of "what" students should be learning in the modern age of biology and then probing the extent to which students are learning these things. There has been increased focus over time on the "how" of teaching, with attention to questioning the…

  3. Progress report for the first twenty-one months of the contract period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    During the period of July 1, 1978, through March 31, 1980 in-depth research of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in all of the nineteen northeastern states was performed. Research into economic issues associated with the development of small scale hydroelectric power was undertaken by the project economist. Special research activities have been undertaken with respect to the federal dam safety programs, the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System requirements of the Federal Clean Water Act and the implications of those requirements to small scale hydroelectric power, riparian law on lake and reservoir fluctuation in the State of Maine, and the implications of Title II and IV of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to the development of small scale hydroelectric power. The results of these studies are reported. (LCL)

  4. [Incidence of major lower limb amputation in Geneva: twenty-one years of observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, G A; Lacraz, A; Hoffmeyer, P; Assal, M

    2014-10-22

    Between 1990 and 2010 the incidence of major lowerlimb amputations (by definition any level of amputation above the foot) in the canton of Geneva was 10.02 per 100,000 inhabitants/ year. The analysis of various population groups revealed that the presence of diabetes increased the relative risk of amputation by a factor of 20, and age 65 years or older by a factor of 9. During this 21 years period we observed a gradual decline in the incidence of amputation and an increased age at the time of amputation, despite the increasing prevalence of diabetes and an aging population. This was a reflection on the efforts of primary and secon- dary prevention, initiated in the 1980s in which Geneva was a pioneer.

  5. morbid obesity in a twenty one year old beggar: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and China2 recorded the greatest increase in obesity, particularly in ... Native Americans and Mexican. Arnericanss. ... An ulcer on the lower lateral aspect of the right leg measuring ... wound as prescribed and would not adhere to any exercise ...

  6. Oral discoid lupus erythematosus: A study of twenty-one cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amena M Ranginwala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to analyze the histopathological findings of oral discoid lupus erythematosus with conventional light microscopy for early diagnosis of the oral lesions that would aid in prompt treatment. Objectives: To find out the predominant age, sex, site and clinical features of oral discoid lupus erythematosus. To study the histopathological features of oral discoid lupus erythematosus. To study the alterations of basement membrane changes of oral discoid lupus erythematosus. Materials and Methods: Our study consisted 21 cases of diagnosed DLE with oral lesions. A detailed clinical proforma was used for thorough clinical examination and light microscopy was used for histopathological study of the incisional biopsy specimens. Statistical Analysis Used: The lesions were diagnosed on the histopathological criteria given by Gisslen et al. and was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test. Results: In the present study 9.52% patients had only oral lesions, while 90.47% patients had oral lesions along with skin lesions with the most common site of oral involvement being labial mucosa (76.19%, vermillion border (71.42% and buccal mucosa (42.85%. On clinical examination, white spots were present in 28.6%, ulcers in 19% and central erythema in 52.4% lesions. Histopathologically, atrophy was observed in 66.66% cases, acanthosis in 66.66% and acanthosis alternating with atrophy in 33.33% cases along with the basement membrane appearing thin and homogenous in 66.7% and partially destroyed in 81% cases with Periodic Acid Schiff stain. Conclusions: Thus, from this study it was found that a diagnosis of oral discoid lupus erythematosus was based on the combination of clinical and histopathological findings. Thus the dentist may be in an important position to establish the diagnosis with the aid of clinical and histopathological findings before the cutaneous lesions become apparent.

  7. Karyotypic analyses of twenty-one species of molossid bats (Molossidae: Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.

  8. Acid Rain: A Selective Bibliography. Second Edition. Bibliography Series Twenty-One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid.…

  9. Progress report for the first twenty-one months of the contract period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    During the period of July 1, 1978, through March 31, 1980 in-depth research of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in all of the nineteen northeastern states was performed. Research into economic issues associated with the development of small scale hydroelectric power was undertaken by the project economist. Special research activities have been undertaken with respect to the federal dam safety programs, the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System requirements of the Federal Clean Water Act and the implications of those requirements to small scale hydroelectric power, riparian law on lake and reservoir fluctuation in the State of Maine, and the implications of Title II and IV of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to the development of small scale hydroelectric power. The results of these studies are reported. (LCL)

  10. Cephalometric Assessment of Sagittal Dysplasia: A Review of Twenty-One Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anteroposterior discrepancy is usually of utmost concern to patients and parents and hence has received maximum attention in orthodontics. A number of analyses have been proposed over the years with varying degrees of reliability and success in assessing sagittal jaw relationships. It is absolutely essential that a clinician be aware of a range of analyses to be used in different situations. This review provides an insight into the various cephalometric methods used for evaluation of the anteroposterior jaw relationship in chronologic order and their clinical implications in contemporary orthodontics.

  11. Twenty-one Asteroid Lightcurves at Group Observadores de Asteroides (OBAS): Late 2015 to Early 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar Macias, Amadeo; Carreno Garcerain, Alfonso; Arce Masego, Enrique; Brines Rodriguez, Pedro; Lozano de Haro, Juan; Fornas Silva, Alvaro; Fornas Silva, Gonzalo; Mas Martinez, Vicente; Rodrigo Chiner, Onofre; Herrero Porta, David

    2016-07-01

    We report on the photometric analysis result of 21 mainbelt asteroids (MBA) done by Observadores de Asteroides (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database task initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions. This is a compilation of lightcurves obtained during last quarter of 2015 and first quarter of 2016.

  12. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...

  13. Intelligent Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad

    the use of energy calculation software and thermal building simulation software the initial analysis in this thesis strives towards defining the potential of controlling the energy transport across the façade. The simple analysis defines the key technologies to focus on as a result. The focus on each...... as well as in practical façade control systems The results from the initial analysis show the performance of a dynamic façade which enables the variation of the heat transfer, transmitted irradiance, transmitted natural light, mass transport and thermal energy storage. The potential from this analysis...... across the façade by between 50 % and 88 %. The obtained results from the initial analysis through the developed numerical models to the final analysis show that there are significant energy savings in the design of the dynamic façade. The energy savings need to be further investigated under laboratory...

  14. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    WORLD FAMOUS ARCHITECTS CHALLENGE TODAY THE EXPOSURE OF CONCRETE IN THEIR ARCHITECTURE. IT IS MY HOPE TO BE ABLE TO COMPLEMENT THESE. I TRY TO DEVELOP NEW AESTHETIC POTENTIALS FOR THE CONCRETE AND CERAMICS, IN LARGE SCALES THAT HAS NOT BEEN SEEN BEFORE IN THE CERAMIC AREA. IT IS EXPECTED TO RESULT...

  15. Study on roof insulation technology with thermal insulation glazed hollow heads mortar%玻化微珠保温砂浆屋面保温技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓青; 李珠; 刘元珍

    2012-01-01

    Exploring thermal insulation glazed hollow beads mortar with the function of fine heat preservation and fire protection as the thermal insulation layer of the roof. Combining problems 'of the heat preservation materials used in thermal insulation layer of the roof, the performance of thermal insulation glazed hollow heads mortar, structure of thermal insulation roof with glazed hollow beads mortar, comparison with ordinary thermal insulation materials in thermal performance and application in projects were introduced in this article. Thermal insulation glazed hollow heads mortar was proved to have good feasibility in application of roof energy conservation.%结合目前屋面保温材料存在的问题,探索使用具有良好保温、防火作用的玻化微珠保温砂浆作为屋面的保温层.主要介绍了玻化微珠保温砂浆的性能、屋面保温层的构造做法、与普通保温材料的热工性能对比以及工程应用,证明了玻化微珠保温砂浆在屋面节能中的可行性.

  16. 基于OCT技术对古瓷釉气泡特征的初步研究%Preliminary Research on Bubble Characteristics of Ancient Glaze Using OCT Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严鑫; 董俊卿; 李青会; 郭木森; 卜工; 胡永庆

    2015-01-01

    气泡是古代瓷釉中最常见的一种现象,气泡的大小与分布与胎体和釉层的配方及制作工艺密切相关。气泡表征对研究陶瓷的制作工艺、产地和时代特征等具有重要的意义。为了探讨利用光学相干层析成像技术(OC T )表征古代瓷釉中气泡及其分布特征的可行性,实验采用扫频OC T成像系统对五件不同类型的瓷釉样品进行了测试。根据实验所获得的透明釉层及胎釉结合部位的二维断面图像和三维层析图像,分别进行了瓷釉气泡二维断面和三维切片的特征研究,综合分析了釉层中的气泡特征及其可能产生的原因,认为釉层中的气泡主要是由于胎体中的气体在烧制过程中向釉层溢出所致;同时基于像素点计算了气泡的大小,并与传统光学显微镜观测到的结果进行了比较;实验还针对不透明釉层中的气泡进行了大小计算、二维断面及三维切片的特征研究。实验结果表明,不同类型的古代瓷釉釉层中的气泡特征差异明显;基于像素点计算的气泡大小与传统光学显微镜测试的结果吻合,近胎釉结合面的胎体切片能很好的反映瓷釉的气泡特征。本研究提出并验证了利用OCT技术表征瓷釉气泡特征的可行性与有效性,实现了釉层气泡特征的无损检测,特别是对不透明釉层气泡的分析,克服了以往利用传统显微镜技术对釉层气泡分布研究的局限,为古代陶瓷瓷釉的气泡特征分析提供了一种新型的、可靠的分析手段。%The bubble is one of the most common feature in ancient glaze .The size and distribution of bubbles are closely associ‐ated with recipes of the raw materials for the body and glaze and the making process .To characterize the bubbles is essential for the study of ceramic production process ,production places ,times characteristics and so on .In order to explore the possibility of using the

  17. 纳米TiO_2添加对陶瓷釉的表面结构影响%Influence of Nano-TiO_2 on the Surface Structure of the Ceramic Glaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周武艺; 张微

    2009-01-01

    采用纳米TiO_2对丝网印刷釉料进行改性,制得一种能在低温下快速烧成的改性釉料.用扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪、红外光谱分析仪等仪器对釉料、釉面进行了结构与形貌分析.结果表明:在750~800 ℃温度烧成时,当加入5~7.5wt%纳米TiO_2能与原釉料良好地结合,制得平整、致密、光滑有光泽的乳白色釉面.%In this paper,a modificative glaze was prepared using nano-TiO_2 as the additive which resulted in sintering quickly at low temperature. The structure and configuration of the glaze were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrum (IR). The results show that nano-TiO_2 could combined well with silk screen printing glaze and a looked flat, compact, lubricity and reflect ivory-white glaze is obtained by using 5-7.5wt% of nano-TiO_2 and calcining at 750-800 ℃.

  18. 真空玻璃内部残余气体热导计算%Thermal conductivity calculation of residual gas in vacuum glazing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉芝

    2016-01-01

    The total thermal conductivity in the vacuum glazing center is composed of the thermal conductivity from radiation , pillar and residual gas . When the Low-E glass , the pillar material and the spacing are determined , the thermal conductivity is mainly affected by the residual gas in the vacuum cavity . According to the heat conduction theory of rarefied gas , the thermal conductivity calculation formula of the residual gas is determined , and the thermal adaptation coefficient is very important . The residual gas composition changes with the edge material . The present calculation result is based on the air in vacuum glazing . In the future , various gases should be measured so as to accurate calculate the thermal conductivity of the residual gas in vacuum glazing .%真空玻璃中心区域热导由辐射热导、支撑物热导及残余气体热导三部分构成,当Low-E玻璃、支撑物材料及间距确定后,真空玻璃热导主要受真空腔内部残余气体热导影响。根据稀薄气体导热理论,确定了真空玻璃内部残余气体热导计算公式。该公式中气体热适应系数α的取值相当重要,使用不同封边材料时,内部残余气体成分不同。目前的计算结果是基于真空玻璃中残余气体主要成分是空气而得出的。今后还应做进一步的实验来测量残余气体中各气体α值,从而精确计算真空玻璃内部残余气体热导。

  19. Multi-openable glazed facade in a new multi-story building. Bogholder Alle 28-32 Vanloese[Denmark]; Oplukkelig glasfacade i ny etagebolig. Bogholder Alle 28-32, Vanloese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelund Thomsen, K.; Wittchen, K.B.; Friis, N.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate how new types of glazing and glazed areas can be incorporated in a new multi-storey building and how new facade expressions as well as good spatial and light effects can be achieved. From mid-2002 to mid-2003 a multi-storey project was build in Copenhagen, Denmark. The building project comprised 24 apartments distributed over 4 floors. A major part of the facades are made of double-glazed low-emissivity glazing with a centre U-value of 1.1 W/m{sup 2}K and solar heat transmittance of 0.63. Calculations of the heat demand have shown that by using this type of glazing, it is possible to reduce heat consumption by approximately 15% compared with the Danish Building Regulation requirements. Further insulation of the thermal envelope will enable additional reduction of the energy consumption by 25-30% as targeted in the Danish Energy Plan: Energi 21. A newly developed multi-openable facade system is used which consists of highly insulating multi-folding doors making it possible to open the whole, or major parts, of the facade permitting natural ventilation. Calculations of temperature conditions have shown that it would be possible to keep the indoor temperature at an acceptable level by means of efficient solar shading and natural ventilation. Even during typical transitional weeks and cold winter weeks, indoor temperature is much influenced by solar radiation. It would be necessary to establish a light-coloured solar shading preferably externally, and additional possibilities of ventilating the apartment. (BA)

  20. Ceramic Polishing Slag as Foaming Material for Preparation of Light Glazed Tile%以陶瓷抛光废渣为发泡原料制备轻质釉面砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许林峰; 曾德朝; 钟保民

    2016-01-01

    A light ceramic tile body with outstanding non-deformability was produced by using ceramic polishing slag as foaming material and clay,silica sand,potash feldspar as raw materials.And a high temperature glaze and a low tempera-ture glaze with coefficient of thermal expansion adapting to the body were also produced.Light ceramic glazed tiles with ex-cellentglaze surface were prepared by a method of double-layer glazing.The test results indicate that the light ceramic glazed tiles show excellentantifouling property,and the flexural strength of 8.47 MPa and heat conductivity coefficient of 0. 39 W/m·K were reached.%以抛光废渣为发泡原料,结合粘土、石英、钾长石等陶瓷原料,制备出抗变形能力好的轻质陶瓷砖坯;并研制出热膨胀系数与轻质砖坯适配的高温釉料和低温釉料;采用双层布釉的方法,制备出釉面质量良好的轻质釉面砖。测试结果表明:轻质陶瓷砖釉面具有优异的防污性能,抗折强度达到8.47 MPa,导热系数为0.39 W/m·K。

  1. Effect of Saprophytic staphylococcus S25 on Fat and Protein Contents of Sichuan Sausage during Natural Air Drying%腐生葡萄球菌S25对四川香肠自然晾挂成熟过程中脂肪和蛋白质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程燕; 杨勇; 廖定容; 帅谨

    2012-01-01

    将腐生葡萄球菌S25接种到四川香肠中进行自然发酵,同时以不接菌的自然成熟香肠为对照,测定两组香肠自然成熟过程中脂肪和蛋白质含量的变化。结果显示:接种组的酸价在后期高于对照组;在自然晾挂成熟第15天和第30天,接种组的不饱和脂肪酸在总脂肪中含量分别为74.34%和74.30%,并且都高于对照组;在自然晾挂成熟过程中,接种组的总氮和非蛋白氮含量都高于对照组;在自然晾挂成熟第15天,接种组的游离氨基酸总量比对照组提高了19%,鲜味氨基酸(Glu)提高了31%,甜味氨基酸(Gly)提高了10%,必需氨基酸总量提高了21%;在自然晾挂成熟第30天,接种组的游离氨基酸、鲜味氨基酸、甜味氨基酸和必需氨基酸含量略高于对照组。结果表明,腐生葡萄球菌S25对四川香肠自然晾挂成熟过程中脂肪和蛋白质的分解有明显促进作用。%This study was designed to examine changes in the contents of fat and protein in Saprophytic staphylococcus S25 fermented and naturally fermented(control) Sichuan sausage during natural air drying.The acid value of inoculated sausage was higher than that of control sausage at the late stage of natural air drying.On the 15thand 30thdays,unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 74.34% and 74.30% of the total fat content of inoculated sausage,respectively,which were both higher when compared with control sausage.In addition,the contents of total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen were higher in inoculated sausage than control sausage.Inoculated sausage indicated an increase of respectively 19%,31%,10% and 21% in total free amino acids,Glu,Gly and essential amino acids on the 15th day and presented only a slight increase on the 30th day when compared with control sausage.These results suggest that Saprophytic staphylococcus S25 can accelerate proteolysis and adipolysis in Sichuan sausage during natural air drying.

  2. Analysis of shrinkage characteristics of sludge in superheated steam and hot air drying processes based on image processing%基于图像处理的过热蒸汽与热风干燥污泥收缩特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪坤; 王高敏; 温祥东; 邹加富; 姚斌; 吴青荣; 邢普

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of sewage sludge with high moisture content are generated every year. There are varieties of methods to manage sewage sludge such as land filling, composting, pyrolysis, incineration and thermal drying. Decreasing the moisture content of sludge is a critical step in harmlessness, bulkiness reduction, and resource utilization. Thermal drying has been proven to be an effective approach to reduce solid volumes compared with other ways. Drying is a complex process which may consist of molecular diffusion, capillary flow, Knudsen flow, surface diffusion and so on. Generally, the phenomena of shrinkage crack and skin layer formation can be observed during the drying process and each of them occurs can modify the drying kinetics. Currently, there are many studies on sludge shrinkage in hot air drying but lack of studies in superheated steam drying which has the advantages of energy saving, high efficiency and great heat and mass transfer coefficients. Furthermore, most of moisture diffusion models proposed by researchers are not consider the shrinkage and regard the finite regular geometry as an infinite one when they deal with the drying process, it may result in large error or erroneous results. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the shrinkage characteristics of sludge in superheated steam and hot air drying processes and their influences on the effective diffusion coefficients. The experimental devices for superheated steam drying under atmospheric pressure and hot air drying were built. The drying experiments were carried out with caky sludge samples of 10 mm in thickness and 50 mm in diameter at the temperature of 160 and 200℃. During the drying process, the photographs of sludge samples were obtained with digital camera by taking out the sludge samples from the drying chamber every tem minutes. In order to study the shrinkage phenomenon and its characteristic of caky sludge, the image processing technique was used to processing and analyze

  3. Technology simulation set: Multi-layered glazing. A part of an IEA working document. IEA Task 13 ``Advanced solar low-energy buildings``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report gives an overview and some hints about the possibilities for simulating multi-layered glazing systems in building simulation programs. The thermal and optical processes taking part in the energy transport through a window are discussed in separate sections in this report. Most programs calculate the losses through a window in a routine differing from the routine calculating the gains through a window as these are two completely different physical processes that describe the two types of energy transport. The part of the window-model dealing with gains from transmitted solar energy is the one which is subject to the largest uncertainties in the simple routines which most programs use. Therefore, this problem is given the major emphasis in this report. The work is meant as a support to the IEA task XIII ``Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings`` for simulating advanced and innovative energy conservation features in future buildings. (au)

  4. Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C Dalvi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o tipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G ou auto-glazeados (AG, e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i, formando os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento.Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls and then

  5. ON ARTISTIC FEATURES AND CONTEMPORARY INFLUENCE OF NEW PORCELAIN GLAZE POWDER ENAMEL VASE WITH FIGURE PAINTING IN THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA%论民国新粉彩人物瓷画艺术特色与当代影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游凌志

    2012-01-01

    New porcelain glaze powder enamel vase with figure painting in the Republic of China roots in classic pastel and light purple color figure porcelain painting, Adheres to the breath of literati painting and is affected by the Shanghai painting school and forms its own unique features. New porcelain glaze powder enamel vase with figure painting in the Republic of China has a far reaching influence, and until now it still plays a very important and positive influence.%民国新粉彩人物瓷画源于古典粉彩与浅绛彩人物瓷画,秉承其文人画气息,并深受海上画派影响形成其独特艺术特色。民国新粉彩人物瓷画影响深远,及至当代仍发挥着非常重要而积极的影响力。

  6. 大规格瓷质全抛釉面砖试制及生产%Development and Production of Large-Sized Fully-Polished Glazed Porcelain Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥勇

    2011-01-01

    简述了大规格瓷质全抛釉面砖在的试制过程、生产工艺和技术上的主要特点,同时对实际生产过程中应注意的配方问题以及具体的操作应用方法进行了分析。%This paper has briefly introduced the research and development of large-sized fully-polished glazed porcelain tile, its fabrication process and its main technical characteristics. In the while, the body and glaze formulas for the ceramic tile and their application methods have also been analyzed. The study will provide some reference for the industrial production of the products.

  7. Traditional 'air-dried' fermented sausages from Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, Friedrich-Karl; Vogeley, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    Traditional varieties of fermented pork sausages from Central Germany are different from related meat products in various aspects. First, they are prepared from "warm" pork immediately after slaughter. The meat is then minced, mixed with spices and minimal amounts of sugars, salt and nitrate, and the stuffed sausages ripen for a minimum of 6-8 weeks at temperatures below 15 °C. Second, surface mould growth during ripening is regularly removed or suppressed. The manufacturing methods require a minimum of investments and labour and reflect the socio-economic situation in the manufacturing area. The sausages have a good record of safety, and a preliminary risk assessment indicates that pathogens are kept under sufficient control by the extended ripening at low temperatures. Small-scale (artisanal) manufacture of these products is only possible with a flexible interpretation of the hygienic principles set up in current legislation.

  8. Convective Air Drying Characteristics for Thin Layer Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Dumitru Velescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most commonly used vegetables for human nutrition due to high vitamin and fibre content. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation, and it represents a very important aspect of food processing. Sun drying is the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical countries; this technique is extremely weather dependent, and has the problems of contamination with dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Also, the required drying time can be quite long. Therefore, using solar and hot-air dryers, which are far more rapid, providing uniformity and hygiene are inevitable for industrial food drying processes. Aim: This paper presents a kinetic study of convective drying without pre-treatment of carrot. The effects of the temperature of the drying agent, the speed of the drying agent and the thickness of the kinetics of drying the sample of carrots were investigated. Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out with the aid of an installation for drying food products, that is capable of ensuring the temperature of the drying agent (air in the range of +25 ... +125 °C. The drying process was conducted at temperature of 45 °C in first hour of process, 2 hours at 55 °C, and 3 hours at 60 °C. The air velocity was setup  at 1.0 - 2.5 m/s. Carrots were divided into segments of a thickness of 0.4 cm. Two mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental data. Results: The drying rate increases with temperature and decreases with the sample diameter. The Page model is given better prediction than the Henderson and Pabis model and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of carrot slices. Conclusions: The most important characteristics of carrot required for simulation and optimization of the drying were studied. The values of calculated effective diffusivity for drying at 45, 55 and 60oC of air temperature and 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s of air flow velocity. The effective diffusivity increases as air-flow rate and temperature increases. Page’s empirical model showed a good fit curves than the Henderson and Pabis model.

  9. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  10. The effect of air dried conditions on mechanical and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... one year, and this increased the bonding and compression strength. ... In the US, laminating techniques are used in plywood ... resistance with help of synthetic adhesives. ..... Technology of wood bonding, New York-USA.

  11. Treatment of air dried archaeological wool textiles from waterlogged environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2014-01-01

    expanded the fibers and the yarn increased in size, resulting in more flexible and less brittle textiles. This property was kept when the textiles were dried by stepwise dehydration in ethanol, acetone, and white spirit with a final treatment in 5% lanolin. Preliminary tests on brittle textiles can...

  12. The effect of pretreatments on air drying characteristics of persimmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, whole and peeled persimmons were dried in the ranges of 55-75 °C of drying temperature in a hot air dryer. The effect of drying temperature and pretreatments on the drying characteristics was determined. Immersing in a solution of 20 % sucrose resulted in an increase in the drying rate of persimmons. A non-linear regression procedure was used to fit five thin-layer drying models available in the literature to the experimental moisture loss data. The Page and Modified Page models have shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. The effective diffusivity was determined to be 9.237 × 10-10-10.395 × 10-10 m2 s-1 for the blanched persimmons and 7.755 × 10-10-9.631 × 10-10 m2 s-1 for immersed sucrose solution persimmons. The activation energies for diffusion were calculated to be 56.09 kJ mol-1 (for blanched) and 10.28 kJ mol-1 (for immersed sucrose solution).

  13. Control System Functional Criteria for Modernized Forced Air Dry Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    SOLUTION SUPPLY is to provide caustic water of fixed composition and volume to CAUSTIC REACTION. The technology used is to mix caustic soda and water in a...2.1.1.1 TK-7: provides holdup for batch preparation. 2.1.1.2 AG-1: provides for the mixing of caustic soda and water. 2.1.1.3 P-11: provides...air stream in the caustic scrubber. A con- trolled environment for prototype plant studies must be established since not enough is known about this

  14. Dynamics of convective hot air drying of filiform Lagenaria siceraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Aishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a laboratory convective hot air dryer was used for the thin-layer drying of filiform Lagenaria siceraria and the influences of the drying temperature and air velocity on the drying process were investigated. The drying temperature and the air velocity were varied in the range of 60-80°C and 0.6-1.04 m•s-1, respectively. The experimental data of moisture ratio of filiform Lagenaria siceraria were used to fit the mathematical models, and the dynamics parameters such as convective heat transfer coefficient α and mass transfer coefficient kH were calculated. The results showed that the drying temperature and air velocity influenced the drying process significantly. The Logarithmic model showed the best fit to experimental drying data. It was also found that, the air velocity and the drying temperature influence notable on both of the convective heat transfer coefficient α and the mass transfer coefficient kH. With the increase of hot air velocity from 0.423 to 1.120 ms-1, the values of α varied from 111.3 to 157.7 W•m-2•K-1, the values of kH varied from 13.12 to 18.58 g•m-2• s-1•ΔH-1. With the increase of air temperature from 60 to 80°C, the values of α varied between 150.2 and 156.9 W•m-2•K-1, the values of kH varied between 18.26 and 18.75 g•m-2•s-1•ΔH-1.

  15. 玻化微珠保温砂浆A级防火性能探析%Explore the A classed fire-proof performance of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波; 李珠; 赵林

    2011-01-01

    从控制燃烧条件和火势蔓延的角度阐述玻化微珠保温砂浆的A级防火性能,介绍了玻化微珠保温砂浆的物理力学性能和施工工艺,通过分析研究太原市纺织苑小区的火灾案例,得出玻化微珠保温砂浆防火性能优良.%From the perspective of controlling of combustion conditions and fire spreading,A classed fire-proof performance of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar was elaborated. The physical and mechanical performances and construction technology of thermal insulation glazed hollow bead were introduced. Through studing the fire case of Textile Garden District in Taiyuan city,the conclusion was drawn out that thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar had excellent fire-proof performance

  16. 风干肠加用混合香辛料挥发性化合物分析及其中两种香辛料对猪肉的保鲜效果%AnaIysis of VoIatiIe Compounds from Mixed Spices Used in the Processing of Air-dried Sausage and the Preservation Effects of Two Spices on Pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永; 李梦洋; 张春江; 杨红菊; 刘程; 平文祥; 王志英

    2016-01-01

    Harbin air-dried sausage is a kind of Chinese traditional spontaneous fermented sausage,and it is popular with consumers.The mixed spices used in the processing of air-dried sausage deeply affect the flavor of the final product.In this experiment,solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS ) technology are used to analyze the volatile compounds from mixed spices.Then the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of clove and angelica root extracts on fresh minced pork are investigated.It is expected to make foundation for the further discussion on the roles of mixed spices in the flavor formation and safety of air-dried sausage.The results show that there are 48 kinds of volatile compounds identified from mixed spices.Clove and angelica root in the mixed spices have antibacterial and antioxidant effects on minced pork,the preservation effects of clove is better than that of angelica root.%哈尔滨风干肠是一种传统的中式自然发酵香肠,广受消费者喜爱。风干肠加工过程中所用的混合香辛料,对风干肠独特风味的形成具有决定性作用,本试验使用固相微萃取-气质联用(SPME-GC/MS)技术分析哈尔滨风干肠加工用的一种混合香辛料的挥发性化合物,并检测其中丁香、白芷对猪肉糜的保鲜效果,以期为今后探讨其在风干肠风味形成及安全卫生方面的作用奠定基础。试验结果表明混合香辛料中鉴定出48种挥发性化合物;混合香辛料中的丁香和白芷提取液对猪肉糜均具有抑菌和抗氧化效果,而且丁香的保鲜效果优于白芷。

  17. 外加纳米铜对钧瓷釉层显微结构及呈色的影响%Effect of Cu Element on the Microstructure and Coloring of Jun Glaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭家凡; 贾会敏; 法文君; 冯铭华; 张治军; 郑直

    2013-01-01

    在钧瓷釉层中引入纳米级水溶性铜单质,经过同样烧制工艺煅烧后,钧瓷外观呈色和釉层微观结构都会发生明显变化.通过X-射线粉末衍射仪、扫描电子显微镜及X-射线能谱仪等检测手段,我们系统研究了铜元素的加入对钧瓷釉层显微结构及呈色的影响.结果表明:外加纳米铜单质的钧瓷烧制后,釉层由月白色变为天青色,同时釉层中二氧化硅晶体明显减少,釉层玻璃化;另外,铜元素可以在高温阶段与坯体及釉层中产生的二氧化碳、氧气、水蒸气等发生化合反应,减少气泡缺陷的产生.%The addition of water-soluble elemental copper nanoparticles can result in the significant changes of the coloring and the surface microstructures of the Jun porcelain glaze, after the same calcining process. By using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we systematically investigated the effects of the copper addition on the surface microstructuies and the coloring of the Jun porcelain glaze. The results show that the coloring of the Jun glaze changed from white to cyan or blue after the addition of elemental copper. Incidentally, the crystalline SiO2 were generally turned to be amorphous. Also, the additional copper can react with the carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor generated in the glaze, and therefore stops the air vents getting into the glaze.

  18. Basic design criteria for an impact test frame for safety glazing; Criterios basicos de diseno de banco de ensayos para impactos de vidrios de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postigo, S.; Pacios, A.; Huerta, C.

    2011-07-01

    The Spanish Building Code establishes the essential requirements of safety and habitability that buildings must satisfy. The Basic Document of Safety in Use and Accessibility identifies some critical areas where falling through brittle elements may cause a risk to the user. The document also establishes the minimum performance of glasses located in such areas, according to the impact procedure described in UNE-EN 12600:2003. However, this standard does not provide detailed information about the characteristics of the test equipment, but indicates a final calibration as validation test. The general criteria and conditions of this calibration are also incorporated in the UNE-EN 12600. To better achieve a successful manufacture of a pendulum complying with calibration limits, a proposal of the basic design criteria of a test frame for impacts of safety glazing is presented in this paper. Prototypes and results have been evaluated using dynamic design criteria of the impact phenomenon. Three criteria proposed and applied in the design and manufacture of a real test frame have helped to achieve the calibration required by the UNE-EN 12600:2003. The repeatability and reproducibility of the tests presented in this paper also guaranty the robustness of the set-up. (Author)

  19. Adjusting dental ceramics: An in vitro evaluation of the ability of various ceramic polishing kits to mimic glazed dental ceramic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Beier, Ulrike S; Heiss-Kisielewsky, Irene; Engelmeier, Robert; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Dhima, Matilda

    2015-06-01

    During the insertion appointment, the practitioner is often faced with the need to adjust ceramic surfaces to fit a restoration to the adjacent or opposing dentition and soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the ceramic surface smoothness achieved with various commercially available ceramic polishing kits on different commonly used ceramic systems. The reliability of the cost of a polishing kit as an indicator of improved surface smoothness was assessed. A total of 350 ceramic surfaces representing 5 commonly available ceramic systems (IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max Press, Cergo Kiss, Vita PM 9, Imagine PressX) were treated with 5 types of ceramic polishing systems (Cerapreshine, 94006C, Ceramiste, Optrafine, Zenostar) by following the manufacturers' guidelines. The surface roughness was measured with a profilometer (Taylor Hobson; Precision Taylor Hobson Ltd). The effects of ceramic systems and polishing kits of interest on surface roughness were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, paired t test, and Bonferroni corrected significance level. The ceramic systems and polishing kits statistically affected surface roughness (Pceramic surface. No correlation could be established between the high cost of the polishing kit and low surface roughness. None of the commonly used ceramic polishing kits could create a surface smoother than that of glazed ceramic (Pceramic polishing kits is not recommended as a reliable indicator of better performance of ceramic polishing kits (P>.30). Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, M.L. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE-CQFB, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Muralha, V.S.F. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Research Unit VICARTE, Vidro e Ceramica para as Artes, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Mirao, J. [Universidade de Evora, Laboratorio HERCULES, Evora (Portugal); Veiga, J.P. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-03-15

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified. (orig.)

  1. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Muralha, V. S. F.; Mirão, J.; Veiga, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara- a- Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified.

  2. Thermotropic layers for glazing of windows, facades and solar collectors. Final report; Thermotrope Systeme fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, E.; Gerst, M.; Nitz, P. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Grochal, P.; Raicu, A. [Sto AG, Stuehlingen (Germany); Blessing, R.; Wilson, H.R. [INTERPANE Entwicklungs- und Beratungsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Lauenfoerde (Germany); Wittwer, V.; Fuchs, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Increased use of solar energy is needed to save heating energy. In the German climate, however, passive use of solar energy with windows and facades in summer is also accompanied by the risk of overheating the living areas. Simple, automatically regulating systems to protect against overheating are not commercially available at present. The project, `Thermotropic Layers for Glazing of Windows, Facades and Solar Collectors`, aimed to develop thermotropic shading systems for windows, facades and solar collectors. Thermotropic hydrogels and polymer blends were developed, large-area samples produced and characterised under practice-relevant conditions. Building simulations proved that with the help of the polymer systems developed, heating costs can be saved by passive use of solar energy. The knowledge gained has not yet resulted in a commercially marketable product. Processing of large-area products and lifetime testing could not be brought to completion within the project duration. The project partners have thus lodged an application for funding by BMBF (German Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology) to continue the work. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Heizkostenersparnis ist der verstaerkte Einsatz von Sonnenenergie notwendig. In unserem Klima birgt die passive Nutzung von Sonnenenergie ueber Fenster und Fassaden im Sommer aber die Gefahr der Ueberhitzung der Wohnraeume. Einfache, selbstregelnde Systeme als Ueberhitzungsschutz sind zur Zeit am Markt nicht erhaeltlich. Das Projekt `Thermotrope Schichten fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren` hatte die Entwicklung von thermotropen Abschattungssystemen fuer Fenster, Fassaden und Sonnenkollektoren zum Ziel. Es wurden thermotrope Hydrogele und Polymerblends entwickelt, flaechige Muster hergestellt und in anwendungsnahen Pruefungen charakterisiert. Gebaeudesimulationen erbrachten den Nachweis, dass mit den entwickelten Polymersystemen eine Heizkostenersparnis durch passive

  3. 60Co γ射线辐照预处理对甘薯热风干燥特性的影响%INFLUENCE OF 60Co γ IRRADIATION PRE-TREATMENT ON CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AIR DRYING SWEET POTATO SLICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江宁; 刘春泉; 李大婧; 刘霞; 严启梅

    2012-01-01

    The influences of irradiation, hot air temperature and thicknesses of the slices on the characters of dehydration and surface temperature of 60Co γ-rays irradiated sweet potato were investigated. Meanwhile, microscopic observation and determination of water activity of irradiated sweet potato were conducted. The results show that the drying rate and the surface temperature rised with the increasing of irradiation dose. When the dry basis moisture content was 150% , the drying rate of the samples were 1.92, 1.97, 2.05, 2.28, 3.12%/min while the irradiation dose were 0, 2, 5, 8, 10kGy, and the surface temperature were 48.5℃ , 46.3℃ , 44.5℃, 42.2℃, 41.5℃ , respectively. With higher air temperature and thinner of the sweet potato slices, the dehydration of the irradiated sweet potato slices were faster. The drying speed of sweet potato slices at 85℃ was 170min faster than that of 65℃. The drying speed of 7mm sweet potato slices was 228min faster than that of 3mm sample. The cell wall and the vacuole of the sweet potato slices were broken after irradiation, and its water activity increased with the inorease is radiation dose. The water activity of the irradiated samples were 0. 92, 0. 945, 0. 958, 0. 969, 0. 979 with the irradiation doses of 0, 2, 5, 8, 10kGy, respectively. The hot air drying rate, surface temperature and water activity of sweet potato are significantly impacted by irradiation. The conclusion provids a theoretical foundation for further processing techonology of combined radiation and hot air drying sweet potato.%采用60Coγ射线对甘薯进行辐照预处理,考察辐照、热风温度和切片厚度对其干燥特性和表面温度的影响,同时对不同剂量辐照的甘薯样品进行了显微观察和水分活度测定。结果表明,甘薯的干燥速率和表面温度随着辐照剂量的升高而升高。当干基含水率为150%时,辐照剂量为0、2、5、8和10kGy的样品干燥速率分别为1.92、1.97、2.05、2.28和3

  4. An Experimental Study of the Flowfield on a Semispan Rectangular Wing with a Simulated Glaze Ice Accretion. Ph.D. Thesis, 1993 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah

    1994-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were conducted in order to study the effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the flowfield of a semispan, reflection-plane, rectangular wing at Re = 1.5 million and M = 0.12. A laser Doppler velocimeter was used to map the flowfield on the upper surface of the model in both the clean and iced configurations at alpha = 0, 4, and 8 degrees angle of attack. At low angles of attack, the massive separation bubble aft of the leading edge ice horn was found to behave in a manner similar to laminar separation bubbles. At alpha = 0 and 4 degrees, the locations of transition and reattachment, as deduced from momentum thickness distributions, were found to be in good agreement with transition and reattachment locations in laminar separation bubbles. These values at y/b = 0.470, the centerline measurement location, matched well with data obtained on a similar but two dimensional model. The measured velocity profiles on the iced wing compared reasonably with the predicted profiles from Navier-Stokes computations. The iced-induced separation bubble was also found to have features similar to the recirculating region aft of rearward-facing steps. At alpha = 0 degrees and 4 degrees, reverse flow magnitudes and turbulence intensity levels were typical of those found in the recirculating region aft of rearward-facing steps. The calculated separation streamline aft of the ice horn at alpha = 4 degrees, y/b = 0.470 coincided with the locus of the maximum Reynolds normal stress. The maximum Reynolds normal stress peaked at two locations along the separation streamline. The location of the first peak-value coincided with the transition location, as deduced from the momentum thickness distributions. The location of the second peak was just upstream of reattachment, in good agreement with measurements of flows over similar obstacles. The intermittency factor in the vicinity of reattachment at alpha = 4 degrees, y/b = 0.470, revealed the time-dependent nature of

  5. Preparation of colloid photonic crystal structural color glaze%胶体光子晶体结构色釉的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬; 安凯妮; 朱建锋; 董龙龙; 盖言成; 李伟东; 李强

    2014-01-01

    Structural color glazes were assembled by a variety of different size of monodisperse silica colloidal microspheres prepared by sol-gel on porcelain body with vertical deposition method .T he influences of particle size on structural color and the control methods of particle size were researched .SEM analysis shows that the size of the silica microspheres become large as increasing amount of ammonia and TEOS in the preparation process ,but will decrea-ses as the increase of reaction temperature .The size of the microspheres will increase to the maximum and then decrease with the rise of water concentration .And it is found that the films with good three-dimensional orderly close packing structure could have red-shift of the color by increasing the particle size ,by this way ,we have made various structural colors g laze .%采用溶胶凝胶法制备了多种不同粒径的单分散二氧化硅胶体微球,并利用制备的微球以垂直沉积自组装法在瓷胎表面制备了颜色艳丽的结构色釉.研究了微球粒径的工艺控制方法及微球尺寸对结构色的影响.SEM 分析表明:在二氧化硅微球制备过程中,随着反应液中氨水和正硅酸乙酯浓度的增大,微球粒径逐渐增大;水解、缩聚反应温度升高,微球尺寸会逐渐减小;体系水浓度增大,二氧化硅微球尺寸先增大后减小,存在一个峰值.薄膜分析表明,具有良好三维有序密堆积结构的薄膜,其颜色随着自组装用微球粒径的增大发生红移,色调发生变化,从而能够生成多种结构色釉.

  6. Development and characterisation of a new anti-slip glaze with smooth texture and easy-cleaning for porcelain stoneware; Desarrollo y caracterizacion de un nuevo esmalte antideslizante de textura lisa y de facil limpieza para baldosas de gres porcelanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina Albert, E.; Martin Nunez, J. A.; Fraga Chiva, D.; Calvet Roures, I.; Cada Castello, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    Since conventional anti-slip enamels show some disadvantages, directly related to the surface roughness which prevents the adequate surface cleaning of tile, an anti-slip enamel exhibiting glass-ceramic nature has been designed, characterized by being stain-resistant and presenting a smooth texture and touch soft. To do this, new matte frits and raw materials with similar nature have been used, refractory enough to be suitable in enamel compositions for porcelain stoneware. The glass-ceramic glaze thus prepared was characterized by various instrumental techniques (X-ray fluorescence [XRF], scanning electron microscopy [SEM], X-ray diffraction [XRD], mechanical profilometry and microhardness measurements), in order to check the nature of crystallized phases, their morphology, surface roughness and microhardness of the finished tile. In addition, the quality of the glazed piece has been evaluated by the regulations of chemical resistance, stain-resistance and slipperiness. The enamel obtained has devitrified in crystals of silicoaluminates of calcium and barium and complies with standards of anti-slip and stain-resistence, as it has a surface roughness similar to a non-slip enamel. (Author)

  7. 预拌玻化微珠保温砂浆技术性能研究%Study On Technical Performance of Ready-Mixed Glazed Hollow Bead Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽平; 吕冲飞; 刘鸽; 李珠

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism analyses and theoretical calculations of thermal conductivity,which is the most important technical performance index of ready-mixed thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar,were presented. The theoretical analysis of compressive strength,which is one of the main mechanical properties of ready-mixed thermal insulation glazed hollow bead mortar, was carried out. The technical performance indexes including compressive strength, consistency, water retention, setting time and construction curing conditions were presented.%首先对预拌玻化微珠保温砂浆导热系数这一最重要的保温性能进行机理分析、理论计算.对预拌玻化微珠保温砂浆主要力学性能指标——抗压强度及施工技术性能指标做了理论分析,提出了预拌玻化微珠保温抹灰砂浆、砌筑砂浆及地面砂浆的抗压强度、稠度、保水率、凝结时间及施工养护条件技术性能指标值.

  8. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... countries, a low proportion of patients with RA exercise. These data may alert rheumatologists to motivate their patients to increase physical activity levels Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/15...

  9. What Color Is Gold? Twenty-One Years of Same-Race Authors and Protagonists in the Newbery Medal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bonnie J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the lack of minority representation of both authors and protagonists in the Newbery Medal books which are recognized as the most distinguished contributions to American children's literature. Topics include the subjectivity involved in deciding what book is distinguished enough for an award and older books that have racial stereotypes.…

  10. Refined localization of twenty-one genes in subregion p13.1 of human chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelala, C; Imbeaud, S; Devignes, M D; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we describe a refinement of the human transcript map of chromosome 1p13.1, a subregion undergoing many aberrations in various types of human cancers. Publicly available genetic linkage, radiation hybrid and physical maps, as well as cytogenetic and sequence data were used to establish the relative order and orientation of ten known intragenic markers. The complete sequence of genomic clones of the region, available at the Sanger Centre, provided the tool for further studies performed by BLAST analysis against all cDNA sequences registered in the Genexpress Index2. This allowed us to assign to subband 1p13.1 nine of the ten known genes, an additional member of the gene family of one of these genes and eleven new transcripts. The remaining known gene and one additional new transcript map at the 1p13.1 and 1p13.2 boundary. The corresponding genes may be responsible for disorders related to this region. The resulting transcript map of 1p13.1 is presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address http://idefix.upr420.vjf.cnrs.fr/CARTO.

  11. A twenty-one year temporal trend of persistent organic pollutants in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Michel; Measures, Lena; Noël, Michelle; Raach, Meriem; Trottier, Steve

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in blubber from 144 stranded adult belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) found on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) between 1987 and 2007. Temporal trends of POP concentrations (ln transformed) in beluga were described by three models, zero slope (ZS), linear (L) and two-segment piecewise (PW). Often two but sometimes all three models were equivalent in describing temporal trends based on Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample sizes. Over this 21-year time period, concentrations of most legacy POPs, including PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, exhibited relatively weak (≤11% per year) but significant decreasing trends in beluga. For PBDEs, temporal trends were best described by a PW model, characterizing a rapid increase until 1997-1998 followed by a slower increase for males and a steady-state for females. Potential cofactors such as blubber lipid content and carcass state of preservation did not show any significant temporal trends over the time period considered. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in beluga liver, a proxy of trophic level, could not be associated to any effect on temporal trends of POP concentrations in beluga. Several POPs exhibited significant relationships with age of beluga and data were age-adjusted. Temporal trends of POP concentrations adjusted for age of beluga were reassessed but results were essentially identical as those obtained with the original POP data. Overall, POP temporal trends observed in SLE beluga are consistent with changes expected from regulations and restrictions in the use of these compounds in developed countries.

  12. TWENTY-ONE CASES OF CAUDAL PAIN TREATED WITH MOXIBUSTION OF CHANGQIANG POINT IN COMBINATION WITH INTRA-ANAL MASSAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茎

    2003-01-01

    @@ Caudal pain is a relatively special disease of orthopedics and refers to the pain around the coccyx region, the lower part of sacral bone and its surrounding soft tissues including muscles, etc.. The serious case is usually caused by trauma and accompanied with dropping and distending sensation in the local region. The author of the present paper adopted moxibustion of Changqiang (GV 1) point in combination with massage around the inside of the anus and achieved an obviously curative effect. The results are reported as follows.

  13. Coming of age? Women's sexual and reproductive health after twenty-one years of democracy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Harries, Jane; Moodley, Jennifer; Constant, Deborah; Hodes, Rebecca; Mathews, Cathy; Morroni, Chelsea; Hoffman, Margaret

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a sequel to a 2004 article that reviewed South Africa's introduction of new sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights laws, policies and programmes, a decade into democracy. Similarly to the previous article, this paper focuses on key areas of women's SRH: contraception and fertility, abortion, maternal health, HIV, cervical and breast cancer and sexual violence. In the last decade, South Africa has retained and expanded its sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) policies in the areas of abortion, contraception, youth and HIV treatment (with the largest antiretroviral treatment programme in the world). These are positive examples within the SRHR policy arena. These improvements include fewer unsafe abortions, AIDS deaths and vertical HIV transmission, as well as the public provision of a human papillomavirus vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. However, persistent socio-economic inequities and gender inequality continue to profoundly affect South African women's SRHR. The state shows mixed success over the past two decades in advancing measurable SRH social justice outcomes, and in confronting and ameliorating social norms that undermine SRHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Benign monomelic amyotrophy: a study of twenty-one cases Amiotrofia monomélica benigna: estudo de 21 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS R.G. DE FREITAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A consecutive series of 21 patients with single limb atrophy (monomelic amyotrophy is reported. Sixteen had lower limb atrophy and five had upper limb involvement. The median age of the onset was 20 years. Characteristic features were sporadic occurrence, wasting confined to one limb, insidious onset with slow progression, stabilizing in 1 to 4 years, and absence of pyramidal signs. All the patients with upper limb involvement were male, however in our cases with lower limb amyotrophy there were no male preponderance. We observed wasting of the entire length of the lower limbs in six patients. There were nine cases with amyotrophy restricted to the leg and one with amyotrophy only in the thigh. In the upper limb in four cases the involvement was distal and in one patient the atrophy was proximal. The electromyographic features were suggestive of anterior horn disease not only in the affected limb but also, in some cases, in clinically uninvolved limb. Cervical or lumbar MRI was normal. MRI of the lower limb disclosed increased signal intensity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in one patient suggesting denervation.Relatamos uma série consecutiva de 21 pacientes com amiotrofia de um só membro, denominada de amiotrofia monomélica. Em 16 casos a atrofia era no membro inferior e em 5 localizava-se no membro superior. Todos eram jovens e a idade média do início foi 20 anos. Os dados mais característicos da doença foram ausência de história familiar, comprometimento de um só membro, início e progressão lenta estabilizando em até 4 anos e ausência de sinais piramidais. Nossos enfermos com amiotrofia de membro superior eram todos do sexo masculino, entretanto naqueles com amiotrofia do membro inferior havia igualdade de sexos. Dos pacientes com atrofia de membro inferior, em 9 a atrofia era restrita a perna, em 6 era em todo o membro e somente um apresentava amiotrofia localizada só na coxa. Naqueles com comprometimento do membro superior a atrofia era distal em 4 e proximal em 1. Os achados na eletromiografia foram compatíveis com acometimento do II neurônio motor. Todos foram submetidos a RM da coluna cervical ou lombar que se mostrou normal. Em um caso realizamos RM da perna acometida que evidenciou sinais hiperintensos nos músculos gastrocnemius e soleus, o que sugere desnervação.

  15. Study of Twenty One Cases of Red Cell Exchange in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddegowda, Prakash H; Chezhiansubash; Lingegowda, Jyothi B; Gopal, Niranjan; Prasad, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Red Cell Exchange (RCE) is removal of a patient’s red blood cells while replacing with donor red blood cells either manually or using automated systems. RCE is beneficial in patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) either during sickling crisis or prior to major surgical procedures to bring down the sickling percentage as high sickling percentage during prolonged anaesthesia may lead to vaso-occlusive crisis. It is also employed in patients infested with malaria and babesiosis where parasitic index remain high despite medical management. RCE is also tried as an adjuvant therapy in certain poisons like nitrobenzene and carbon monoxide when first line management fails. Aim To study the effectiveness, clinical outcome, challenges and complications of RCE in various clinical scenario and to understand how this procedure can be effectively utilized in the management of patients in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods This retro prospective study was conducted in tertiary care center in southern India which analyzed 21 RCE procedures performed on patients with different clinical conditions. Of the 21 RCE performed, 18 procedures were performed on patients with case of sickle cell disease, Two procedures were performed on patients infested with severe falciparum malaria and one procedure was performed on a patient with nitrobenzene poisoning. All procedures were performed using Spectra Optia® Apheresis System - Terumo BCT. Results All the 18 patients who underwent the RCE for sickle cell anaemia were admitted for hemi-arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the head of femur. The average initial HbS levels were between 73-85% and post RCE it was brought down to 22-29% and was achieved in a single sitting in all the cases. Among the two patients infested with severe falciparum malaria, RCE helped in reducing the infestation rate. In case of nitrobenzene poisoning, RCE helped in improvement of oxygen saturation and patient showed significant improvement. Conclusion RCE is an safe and clinically effective therapeutic modality with very minimal to nil side effects. RCE is possibly underutilized therapy in developing world like India due to various reasons like inadequate awareness/ technical expertise, lack of equipments and facilities to identify the clinical conditions per se etc. PMID:27437227

  16. Pulmonary renal syndrome in childhood: a report of twenty-one cases and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Vigier, R O; Trummler, S A; Laux-End, R; Sauvain, M J; Truttmann, A C; Bianchetti, M G

    2000-05-01

    In adults, the term specific pulmonary renal syndrome describes disorders with pulmonary and glomerular manifestations and includes Wegener's granulomatosis, Goodpasture disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Nonspecific pulmonary renal syndrome refers to either pulmonary disease complicating glomerular disease, or glomerular diseases following pulmonary disease. Since little is known regarding pulmonary renal syndrome in childhood, we reviewed the charts of 21 pediatric patients with pulmonary renal syndromes treated by the Department of Pediatrics, University of Bern between 1991 and 1998; we also reviewed the pediatric literature that deals with specific pulmonary renal syndromes. Specific pulmonary renal syndrome was noted in 3 children with systemic vasculitis (Wegener granulomatosis, N = 2; microscopic polyangiitis, N = 1) and 2 with systemic lupus erythematosus. Nonspecific pulmonary renal syndrome was observed in 12 patients with pulmonary edema (N = 9), pulmonary thromboembolism (N = 2), and pulmonary infection (N = 1) complicating the course of a glomerular disease, and in 4 children with a pulmonary disease followed by a glomerular disease. Review of the literature disclosed 52 cases of specific pulmonary renal syndrome other than systemic lupus erythematosus: Wegener granulomatosis (N = 28), Goodpasture disease (N = 13), and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (N = 11). In addition, hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated pneumococcal pneumonia in 32 cases. We conclude that pulmonary renal syndromes need to be looked for in childhood. Apart from Wegener granulomatosis, Goodpasture disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, Henoch-Schönlein purpura and hemolytic-uremic syndrome occasionally have both pulmonary and renal features. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Characterisation of twenty-one European badger (Meles meles) microsatellite loci facilitates the discrimination of second-order relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annavi, Geetha; Dawson, Deborah A.; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Greig, Carolyn; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The European badger (Meles meles) breeds plurally in lowland England and is important economically due to its link with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission. To understand disease transmission and facilitate effective management, it is vital to elucidate the social structure of bad

  18. The Extended Star Formation History of the Andromeda Spheroid at Twenty One Kiloparsecs on the Minor Axis

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, T M; Ferguson, H C; Guhathakurta, P; Singh-Kalirai, J; Rich, R M; Renzini, A; Sweigart, A V; Reitzel, David B; Gilbert, K M; Geha, M; Brown, Thomas M.; Smith, Ed; Ferguson, Henry C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jasonjot S.; Renzini, Alvio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Reitzel, David; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Geha, Marla

    2007-01-01

    Using the HST ACS, we have obtained deep optical images of a southeast minor-axis field in the Andromeda Galaxy, 21 kpc from the nucleus. In both star counts and metallicity, this field represents a transition zone between the metal-rich, highly-disturbed inner spheroid that dominates within 15 kpc and the metal-poor, diffuse population that dominates beyond 30 kpc. The color-magnitude diagram reaches well below the oldest main-sequence turnoff in the population, allowing a reconstruction of the star formation history in this field. Compared to the spheroid population at 11 kpc, the population at 21 kpc is ~1.3 Gyr older and ~0.2 dex more metal-poor, on average. However, like the population at 11 kpc, the population at 21 kpc exhibits an extended star formation history; one third of the stars are younger than 10 Gyr, although only a few percent are younger than 8 Gyr. The relatively wide range of metallicity and age is inconsistent with a single, rapid star-formation episode, and instead suggests that the sph...

  19. Properties of aerogels in glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the final tests carried out on an advanced apparatus for measurement of thermal conductivity of materials at atmospheric pressure and different levels of evacuation. The apparatus was designed and constructed in the phase 1 of the project. Difficulties with the control system...... have been solved and measurements have been carried out on common polystyrene foam insulation at atmospheric pressure. The measurements have been compared with results from reference measurements and a difference of only 0.3% was found in measured thermal conductivity. Measurements on monolithic silica...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW TEMPERATURE SINTERING B_2O_3 PHASE SEPARATION RAW OPAQUE GLAZE%低温烧成硼分相生料乳浊釉的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包镇红; 苗立锋; 江伟辉

    2011-01-01

    The phase separation raw opalescent glaze was prepared in K_2O-Na_2O-CaO-ZnO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3-B_2O_3 system as kaolin,quartz,feldspar,borocalcite and calcined zinc oxide as raw materials.The whiteness of glaze can reach 85.8 when the sintering temperature is 1140'C.The effects of Al_2O_3,B_2O_3,and ZnO contents on the opacification were studied.The opacifying mechanism was also analyzed on the optimum formula by TEM,EDS and XRD.The results indicate that the whiteness improved with the decreasing of A1_2O_3 contents and the increasing of B_2O_3 contents.The large amounts of spherical liquid droplets with 100nm were dispersed in glaze layer,which have large refractive index difference resuled in high opacification.%以高岭土、石英、长石、天然硼钙石、煅烧ZnO等为原料,制备了K_2O-Na_2O-CaO-ZnO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3-B_2O_3系统分相生料乳浊釉,在1140℃低温烧成,釉面白度可达85.8。分别研究了Al_2O_3、B_2O_3和ZnO含量对釉料乳浊度的影响,并通过对优化配方进行TEM、EDS及XRD测试分析,研究了其乳浊机理。结果表明,随着Al_2O_3含量降低,B_2O_3含量提高,釉面白度有增高趋势;釉层中均匀分散着大量粒径为100nm左右的球形液滴状乳浊粒子,其与基体之间的较大折射率差是釉面产生较高乳浊的主要因素。

  1. Synthesis and Properties of a Bridged Siloxane for Protection of Architectural Glazed Tiles of the Qing Dynasty in the Forbidden City%用于紫禁城清代建筑琉璃瓦保护的桥式硅氧烷的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩向娜; 黄晓; 罗宏杰

    2014-01-01

    The architectural glazed tiles of the Qing dynasty in the Forbidden City are the most important glazed ceramic of China. But some serious deterioration such as color change, dirty, craze crack, efflorescence and glazed layer spallation are observed in some tiles. In this paper, a bridged siloxane (BSQ) protective material focusing on glazed layer spallation issue was designed and synthesized starting with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Important properties including water absorption, contact angle, color change, water vapor diffusion and compressive strength of the treated glazed titles were examined. Furthermore, the chemical at-tack tests and freeze-thaw cycles were also evaluated. It shows that the BSQ treatment can modify the tile surface to hydrophobic, increase the strength of tile body and thus mitigate glazed layer spallation.%紫禁城清代建筑琉璃瓦是我国琉璃技艺的精华,但是部分现存的琉璃瓦却出现了变色、污染、开裂、风化、剥釉等损坏。本工作针对剥釉损坏,以异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯和3-氨基丙基三乙氧基硅烷为反应原料,设计合成了具有桥联结构的硅氧烷(BSQ),一种新型有机无机杂化材料,并将其用于琉璃瓦的保护。测试了保护后琉璃瓦的吸水率、接触角、色差、透气性、抗压强度等参数;并对保护后的琉璃瓦进行了耐化学侵蚀、耐冻融实验。结果表明,保护后的琉璃瓦具有较好的憎水性,强度得到提高,釉面剥落现象得到明显的抑制。

  2. Openable facade system with low-energy glazing in multi-storey buildings. Evaluation of energy consumption and indoor climate; Rumhoeje, oplukkelige glaspartier i etagebolig. Evaluering af energiforbrug og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsoee, N.C.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J.

    2009-07-01

    Future highly insulating types of glazing introduce new perspectives for the use of glass in the architectural design of energy-efficient buildings. The project demonstrates how new types of glazing and glass facades can be incorporated in multi-storey buildings. It also demonstrates how to achieve new facade expressions as well as spatial and lighting effects by using highly insulating glass facades while at the same time meeting energy requirements as stated in the Danish Building Regulations (BR). The aim of the project was to demonstrate the expected energy consumption and good indoor climate of a multi-storey building situated in a Copenhagen suburb. The building has 5 storeys with a total of 24 dwellings and a south facade with a multi-openable facade system consisting of folding doors with low-energy glazing. As described in By og Byg Results 030 'Openable glass facades in new multi-storey building' (2003) the energy consumption is expected to be somewhat lower than stated in the current Building Regulations. This is close to the requirements in the BR 2008 and at the same time achieves good architecture, good daylight conditions and a good indoor climate during winter without undesired heat during summer. Measurements were carried out from January 2005 until July 2006 in 6 apartments of 24 and while the building was occupied. The measurements include 1) registrations of the consumption of electricity, heating and water; 2) registrations of indoor temperatures and relative humidity rates; 3) measurements of air change rates during autumn and winter; 4) registrations of luminance conditions; and 5) measurement of U-values. The measurements are supplemented with questionnaires and interviews with the occupants concerning their use of the building, their perception of its qualities and their experience of their first months of occupancy. The average indoor temperatures were around 23-24 deg. C, but high temperatures occurred. The air change rates were

  3. Uncertainty Evaluation on Testing Results of Thermal Transmittance for Multiple Glazing%中空玻璃传热系数测定结果的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于翔; 云腾

    2011-01-01

    The steady-state thermal transmittance of.a multiple glazing with structure of 6 mm ordinary transparent glass/12 mm air layer/6 mm ordinary transparent glass was determinated by guarded hot plate method with CD-8080 type double sample coefficient of thermal conductivity detector according to GB/T 22476- 2008 "Calculation and Determination of Steady-state U Values (Thermal Transmittance) of Multiple Glazing", and the uncertainty of the test results was analyzed and evaluated according to JJF 1059--1999. The results show that the steady-state thermal transmittance of the multiple glazing was U= (2. 84-0. 2) W·m^-2·K^-1 and the coverage factor k = 2. Uncertainty from the determination average heat flow of the heating measurement unit was the uppermost factor affecting the test results of the steady-state thermal transmittance of the multiple glazing, uncertainty from the temperature measuring was the minor factor, and uncertainty from the rounding off of numberical values was the least factor.%采用CD-8080型双试样导热系数测定仪按GB/T22476—2008《中空玻璃稳态U值(传热系数)的计算及测定》中的防护热板法对某结构为6mm透明普通玻璃+12mm空气层+6mm透明普通玻璃的中空玻璃的稳态传热系数进行了测定,并依据JJF1059—1999《测量不确定度评定与表示》对试验过程中影响测定结果的各不确定度分量进行了评定。结果表明:该中空玻璃的稳态传热系数为U=(2.8±0.2)W·m^-2·K^-1,包含因子k=2;其中,由标准板标定,确定加热单元计量部分平均热流量引入的不确定度为影响中空玻璃稳态传热系数测定结果准确度的主要因素,由温度测量引入的不确定度其次,由数值修约引入的不确定度最小。

  4. Utilization of radiometric method in evaluation of wear on human dental enamel in vitro by dental porcelain glazed and polished; Utilizacao do metodo radiometrico na avaliacao in vitro do desgaste provocado ao esmalte dental humano por porcelanas dentais glazeadas e polidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki de; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese]. E-mail: katekawa@usp.br; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mitiko@curiango.ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The dental porcelain is a material commonly used in prosthesis. Disadvantages of dental porcelain use include possibility to cause tooth or dental materials wear. Before its use in the mouth, surfaces are treated with polishing and/or glazing. This research used the radiometric method to verify the influence of these surface treatments on the porcelains of commercial brands: Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse. This method was originally developed for dentifrice abrasiveness evaluation. Five specimens of dental enamel and 10 specimens of each porcelain (5 glazed, 5 polished) were used. The dental enamel was flattened and irradiated with neutrons from the IEA-R1 (IPEN/CNEN) nuclear reactor. Then it was weared by each porcelain in sliding motion, with water. After 2,500 cycles for each porcelain specimen, the released enamel residue was measured. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of {sup 32}P transferred to water from the irradiated tooth. Results varied from 2.57 to 5.81 {mu}g of enamel /mm{sup 2} weared surface. There was no statistical difference ({alpha}=0.05) between dental enamel wear caused by the same porcelains glazed or polished. The results suggest that adequate surface finishing depend on the type of dental porcelain. (author)

  5. Acid Resistant Lead Free Flux for Ceramic On-glaze Coblat Blue Pigments%陶瓷釉上钴蓝颜料用耐酸无铅熔剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余峰; 卢希龙; 陈婧; 冯枫; 曹春娥

    2012-01-01

    采用固相法合成了硅锌矿型钴蓝色料,然后选取耐酸性较强的无铅熔剂与色料按照一定比例混合,在一定温度下彩烤得到钴蓝颜料.通过单因素试验、正交试验对熔剂配方进行优化,制得呈色鲜艳、耐酸性良好的釉上钴蓝颜料.XRD分析结果表明:彩烤后颜料中存在(Co,Zn)2SiO4和ZrSiO4晶相.%Willemite type cobalt blue colorant was prepared by the solid state synthesis. Flux of high acid resistance and the as-prepared colorant were mixed in a proper proportion followed by decoration firing. Single factor experiments and orthogonal tests were carried out to optimize the composition of flux. On-glaze coblat blue pigments with rich-brilliant coloration and excellent acid resistance were successfully prepared. XRD results indicate that (Co,Zn)2SiO4 and ZrSiO4 crystals present in the pigments after decoration firing.

  6. Application of Glazed Hollow Bead in Exterior Insulation of Antique Building’s Exterior Wall%玻化微珠在仿古建筑外墙外保温中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫敬; 韩阳

    2016-01-01

    With the national requirements of building’s exterior insulation are more stringent, building’s exterior wall materials are developing rapidly. Antique building materials are widely used in the actual engineering project because of energy efficiency and heat consumption reduction. Antique buildings not only meet national traditional plane combinations and facade designs, but also comply with modern architectural related design regulation. To choose a suitable thermal insulation material has been a focused issue. After the correlation analysis and performance comparison of different antique building materials, glazed hollow bead is proved to be one suitable material for antique building insulation.%随着国家对建筑外墙保温的要求愈趋严格,建筑节能材料的发展十分迅速。因节能材料具有节省能源、降低热量消耗的作用,在实际工程项目中的应用十分广泛。仿古建筑不仅要满足中国传统的平面组合方式及立面造型,同时,还必须符合现代建筑设计相关规范。为仿古建筑选择合适的保温材料一直是人们关注的热点。通过对仿古建筑外墙外保温材料选择的相关分析,及各种保温材料的性能对比,得出玻化微珠保温砂浆是目前较适合仿古建筑的保温材料。

  7. Effect of air drying on bacterial viability: A multiparameter viability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, A.; Fernández, P.S.; Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of desiccation on the viability of microorganisms is a question of great interest for a variety of public health questions and industrial applications. Although viability is traditionally assessed by plate counts, cultivation-independent methods are increasingly applied with the aim to ga

  8. Mechanism and Application of Air Drying for New Offshore Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xuewen; Wang Liyang; Lin Zonghu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction The hydrostatic test must be carried out on completion of submarine gas pipeline construction, after which the dewatering operation is implemented to remove as much of the fill water as possible from the pipeline. However, after the dewatering operation, there is still some free water left behind on pipeline wall as well as in some low local areas.

  9. Ensuring Technical Product Quality in the Energy Efficient Hot Air Drying of Extruded Fish Feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo

    baggrund af disse detaljer for pillerne. Dette inkluderer bl.a.pillernes minimumtemperatur fra fordampningsafkølingen. Det udviklede kvalitetsestimat blev fundet at være signifikant i kontekst af at forudsige mekanisk holdbarhed af foderet, og var i stand til forklare 44 % af den total varians i mekanisk...

  10. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...... squares regression of the amino acid data and the sensory results indicated that bouillon taste was related to a mixture of different amino acids and peptides, that potato odor in particular correlated with high content of tyrosine, free and as the peptide residue, that bitterness was related to the level...

  11. Estimation of whole lemon mass transfer parameters during hot air drying using different modelling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    To design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments, accurate values of mass transfer parameters is of great importance. In this study, an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying whole lemons was carried out. The whole lemons were dried in a convective hot air dryer at different air temperatures (50, 60 and 75 °C) and a constant air velocity (1 m s-1). In theoretical consideration, three moisture transfer models including Dincer and Dost model, Bi- G correlation approach and conventional solution of Fick's second law of diffusion were used to determine moisture transfer parameters and predict dimensionless moisture content curves. The predicted results were then compared with the experimental data and the higher degree of prediction accuracy was achieved by the Dincer and Dost model.

  12. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  13. Theoretical preconditions and technical substantiation for mechanical compressed air drying method application on the railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RIPOL’-SARAGOSI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is related to the compressed air purification for the rolling stock problems. The mechanical method is described as a potential way of the compressed air cooling and purificating. The temperature field at the heat conducting surface engineer function equation is given in the article as well.

  14. Effect of Feeding Open-Air Dried Broiler Litter on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    energy. Pigs were housed in total confinement in a concrete-slatted floor house ... depressed by the increasing inclusion of broiler litter in the diet. ... supplements particularly phosphates have ... to sustain the heat produced by the litter. The.

  15. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...

  16. Transcriptome data - Air-drying stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...thod - Number of data entries - - Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History

  17. Antioxidant activity changes during hot-air drying of Moringa oleifera leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder in capsule is now a popular food supplement in Thailand. To investigate its health benefits, antioxidant activities of M. oleifera leaves (3 varieties: Num Phrae, Ang Thong and PKM1 during drying in hot-air oven at 50C and 100C were studied by 3 different methods, viz. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical cation decolourisation, together with the determination of total phenolic content and browning pigment formation. It was found that the antioxidant activities and total phenolic content tend to decrease in the early stage of drying and then increase in the later stage, and that the dried leaves still have at least 60% of antioxidant activities compared to fresh leaves.

  18. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  19. Mathematical Modeling on Combined Mid-infrared and Hot Air Drying of Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drying models and characteristics of Combined Mid-Infrared and Hot Air (CMIHA drying BEEF MEAT (BM, a laboratory scale CMIHA dryer was applied to the treatment of BM samples in a temperature range from 40-70°C, with air velocity of 1m/s and mid-infrared of 2.8-3.1 m. Microsoft visual C sharp (C# was used to develop a Moisture Prediction System (MPS to digitize the prediction process. The results indicated that the Modified Henderson and Pabis model could present better predictions for the moisture transfer than others and the MPS could predict the moisture ratio through the whole drying process conveniently. Besides, higher temperature could accelerate effective diffusivities to increase drying rate, thus shorten the drying time. The activation energy of BM dried with CMIHA was 32.83 kJ/mol. All of these could be used in the design and operation of the combination drying beef meat.

  20. Effects of air-drying in vitro on human dentine permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, D H; Stewart, F P; Galloway, S E

    1984-01-01

    The effects of evaporation produced by air blasts of 0, 0.5, 2 or 5 min to dentine in vitro were evaluated by measuring dentine hydraulic conductance before and after each trial. When the tubules were filled with water, even prolonged evaporation had no effect on dentine permeability. Tubules filled with physiological salt solution produced a time-dependent decrease in dentine permeability. Tubules filled with 1.5 per cent albumin in water gave the largest reductions in dentine permeability. These effects were more marked in unetched as opposed to acid-etched dentine. The results suggest that part of the reduction in dentine sensitivity produced clinically by prolonged air blasts may be due to precipitation of organic and inorganic constituents of dentinal fluid at the surface.