WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-nine state rural

  1. LECTURE ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Nine ENURESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲; 尚秀葵; 董红英

    2003-01-01

    @@ Enuresis is referred to involuntary dischargeof urine in children who are more than threeyears at the age and have normal function of mic-turition. If bed-wetting happens occasionally dueto fatigue or drinking too much water beforesleep, it doesn't belong to pathological state.

  2. Twenty-nine-month follow-up of a paediatric zirconia dental crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Cazaux, Serena; Hyon, Isabelle; Prud'homme, Tony; Dajean Trutaud, Sylvie

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this paper is to present the long-term follow-up of one paediatric zirconia crown on a deciduous molar. Preformed crowns are part of the armamentarium in paediatric dentistry. In recent years, aesthetic alternatives to preformed metal crowns have been developed, first preveneered crowns and then zirconia crowns. This paper describes the restoration of a primary molar with a zirconia crown (EZ-Pedo, Loomis, California, USA) in an 8-year-old boy. In this clinical case, the protocol for the implementation and maintenance of zirconia crowns is detailed. The patient was followed up for 29 months until the natural exfoliation of his primary molar. The adaptation of the zirconia crown, the gingival health and the wear on the opposing tooth were considered. In this case, the paediatric zirconia crown allowed sustainable functional restoration while restoring a natural appearance of the tooth. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Chapter Twenty Nine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    From the liberal to the radical feminist, arguments abound as to which gender theory best would suit the African environment without it serving as “a red rag to the ..... change all this, it is still a man's world, which women will always help to.

  4. Rural Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  5. 77 FR 43658 - Designation of Twenty-Nine (29) Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13573 of May 18, 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State: (1) To be a senior official of the Government of... 13573 of May 18, 2011, ``Blocking Property of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria''...

  6. Rural Veterans by State (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This spreadsheet contains data from the 2015 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  7. Rural Veterans by State (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  8. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  9. Difference of Phytic Acid Content and its Relation to Four Protein Composition Contents in Grains of Twenty-nine japonica Rice Varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; CHENG Fang-min; LIU Zheng-hui; WEI Ke-su

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-nine japonica rice varieties collected from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China were planted in Hangzhou,China, to investigate the phytic acid content in brown rice and its frequency distribution as well as the correlation among the contents of phytic acid, total protein and four protein compositions in brown rice. The phytic acid content in brown rice ranged from 0.699% to 1.034%, with a mean of 0.868% for the 29 tested rice varieties. Xiushui series rice varieties generally exhibited lower phytic acid level than Wuyujing and Huai series rice varieties. A rough normal distribution, with a mean of 8.722%, was observed for the total protein contents in the tested varieties. Of the four protein compositions, the glutelin, globulin and albumin contents had larger coefficient of variation than the prolamin content, although the difference in prolamin content was genotype-dependent. No significant correlation was found between the phytic acid and four protein composition contents, whereas the total protein content was significantly and positively related to the glutelin content in brown rice.

  10. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  11. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003... (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS ORGANIZATION Functional Organization of the Rural Development Mission Area § 2003.10 Rural Development State Offices. (a) Headed by State Directors, State Offices...

  12. Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…

  13. PREVALENCE OF AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND LEISHMANIASES IN DOMESTIC DOGS IN A RURAL AREA OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO JOÃO DO PIAUÍ, PIAUÍ STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEREZ, Taliha Dias; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges; JUNIOR, Artur Augusto Mendes VELHO; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; BRAZIL, Reginaldo Peçanha; COURA, José Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease and the leishmaniases are endemic zoonoses of great importance to public health in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a major reservoir, host of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. in both urban and rural areas, playing an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The present study evaluated the prevalence of both infectious diseases in dogs of a rural area in the municipality of São João do Piauí, Piauí State. One hundred twenty-nine blood samples were collected for serological assessment: for the leishmaniases, 49 (38%) animals tested positive by the Dual-Path Platform technology (DPP), nine (6%) by the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and 19 (14.7%) by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody test (IFA); while for American Trypanosomiasis, 36 (28%) dogs were reagent by ELISA and 21 by IFA. Of the 129 dogs sampled, 76 were submitted to xenodiagnosis, bone marrow aspiration and skin biopsy to perform parasitological tests whose results showed only one (2.3%) positive skin sample for Trypanosoma caninum and one positive xenodiagnosis for T. cruzi, both results confirmed by molecular assays. Three hundred triatomines of the species Triatoma brasiliensis and 552 phlebotomines - 509 (97%) of the species Lutzomyia longipalpis, were also captured. PMID:27828620

  14. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  15. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... the contribution of risk factors such as age, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), ... Methods: Fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) levels were obtained from a total of ...

  16. Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: ... (SSA), is now a serious endemic threat and an important public health issue. ... Medical history such as prior knowledge of blood pressure status and family ...

  17. Rural Administration in Romania: Evaluation of Current State

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A large part of Romania’s population lives in the rural environment, in communes and in their composing villages. However, there is an important gap in what concerns the administrative action, access to public services and the general development level, between the urban and the rural environment. The paper at hand aims at performing an assessment of the rural space state, from an administrative perspective, starting from the general characteristics of communes in Romania. This evaluation rep...

  18. Responding to rural health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the need to address territorial inequalities in American healthcare services. It shows how much the situation has become critical in the United States. It discusses to what extent telemedicine is a sustainable option to reduce the negative consequences of the economic, professional and physical barriers to care in rural areas. As far as healthcare is concerned, rural and urban environments in the United States do not have to face the same barriers and challenges. The article first details what specific health issues have to be dealt with in rural areas. The case of emergency care in Vermont is then developed to illustrate what could be the benefits of using ICTs to improve access to care.

  19. Twenty-nine cases of the pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in nursing%29例妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云波

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮的护理方法.方法对本院29例妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮孕产妇的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果除了1例产妇因妊娠 29+1周新生儿重度窒息死亡外,其余28例孕产妇均能顺利度过孕产期,无并发症,新生儿均成活,母婴康复出院.结论 对妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮孕产妇给予加强健康教育,重视产前检查,选择合适的妊娠时机,加强母儿监护,系统性红斑狼疮患者能够顺利生育.%Objective To investigate the nursing on pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Twenty-nine cases of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus clinical data are analyzed retrospectively. Results One ease of severe neonatal asphyxia was dead due to maternal pregnancy (29 + 1 ) weeks, the remaining 28 cases of pregnant women survived with no serious complications, and neonates also survived. Conclusions SLE patients should be educated with maternal health knowledge, and they should master the right time of pregnancy. If the care of the maternal and the fetal can be intensified, the better outcomes could occur.

  20. Rural livelihood and food poverty in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of livelihood activities on food security status of rural households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 150 households through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The majority of the rural residents were in their economic active years, had diversified their livelihood activities so as to increase their income stream and also mitigate against shocks. The highest food poverty headcount was observed among female crop farming non-farming households with one to six members while all households with more than 12 members were food poor. Severity of food poverty decreased with years of farming experience, educational status and farm size of crop farmers and those engaged in non-farm activities. The probability of a rural household being food poor reduced with household head’s attainment of primary education and land ownership but increases with being headed by a woman and having high dependency ratio.

  1. Participatory Rural Appraisal of Basic Needs Deprivation among Rural Dwellers of Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping strategies for deprivation. PRA techniques employed are Seasonal Calendar and Force Field Analysis and 300 systematically selected participants from 9 local government areas were the study frame. The findings are that basic need deprivation is an outcome of environmental scarcities, resource capture, and failure of socioeconomic infrastructure. Episodic drought, flood, and conflict over resources triggers loss of farm harvest and livestock hence food, income and other needs there from. The coping strategies include wild food foraging, migratory fishing and praying to God which lead to the conclusion that basic needs satisfaction among the studied rural dwellers in Borno state is below societal expectations. Recommendations for improvement were proffered.

  2. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  3. The State and Rural Subjectivities. Ethnography of their Spatial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Gómez Carpinteiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with spatial effects and the creation of social subjects in the historical formation of the postrevolutionary State. From an ethnographic perspective, it discusses the importance of sociology and history for understanding the ways that neoliberal policies are currently understood and contested in rural areas. The exposition is illustrated through a case from southwest Puebla, Mexico, in which peasants have become themselves immersed in complex processes of modernization and regulation.

  4. Past and projected rural land conversion in the US at state, regional, and national levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White; Anita T. Morzillo; Ralph J. Alig

    2009-01-01

    The developed land area of the United States increased by 14,2 million hectares between 1982 and 2003. Along with a projected U.S. population increase to more than 360 million individuals by 2030, is an expected continuation of expanding rural land development. Related to population growth, rural land development and the associated loss of rural open space are expected...

  5. Rural Security in Colombia: An Opportunity for State Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bulla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The citizen security service provided by the Colombian State is unequal. It focuses mainly on large cities and municipal capitals, and is absent in vast expanses of the national geography. In these regions, state incapacity to enforce the law, resolve citizen conflicts, and protect and promote social order based on peaceful coexistence is painfully evident. Also, in a context of armed conflict, the State has placed special emphasis on the fight against illegal armed groups (national security, rather than respond to coexistence and security challenges (citizen security. Post-conflict, the transition from national security to citizen security in rural areas requires the design of security strategies with a regional focus. It should consider institutional adjustments, construction of legal authorities, and the strengthening of local capacities.

  6. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  7. Differences Among States in Rural Veterans' Use of VHA and Non-VHA Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Alan N; Weeks, William B; Charlton, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    To understand how vouchers for non-VHA care of VHA-enrolled veterans might affect rural enrollees, we determined how much enrollees use VHA and non-VHA inpatient care, and whether this use varies substantially between rural and urban residents depending on state of residence. For veterans listed in the 2007 VHA enrollment file as living in Arizona, Iowa, Louisiana, Tennessee, Florida, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, or New York, we merged 2004-2007 administrative discharge data for all VHA hospitalizations with all non-VHA hospitalizations listed in state health department or hospital association databases. Within states, rural and urban residents (RUCA-defined) were compared on VHA and non-VHA hospitalization rates, overall and for major diagnostic categories. Non-VHA hospital use was much greater than VHA use, though it also was more variable across states. In states with higher proportions of urban enrollees, use of non-VHA hospitals was lower for small or isolated rural town residents than urban residents; in the more rural states, it was greater. Rural enrollees also used VHA hospitals more than urban enrollees if they lived in the South, but they used VHA hospitals less in other states. Findings were consistent across principal diagnoses, except that in every state, rural veterans were hospitalized less often for mental disorders but more for respiratory diseases. Logistic regressions controlling several covariates consistently showed that very rural enrollees relied on VHA hospitals more than urban enrollees. Vouchers would likely increase non-VHA use more in states with greater rural populations. Vouchers for non-VHA inpatient care might have greater impact in rural states. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Ozone in rural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer A.

    1989-06-01

    I present the results of an analysis of ozone data from rural locations in the United States. Ozone concentrations above 80 ppb are common in the east in spring and summer, but they are unusual in the west, and ozone shows considerably more day-to-day variability in the east. Variations in ozone levels are highly correlated over distances of several hundred kilometers in the east, indicating that high values are associated with episodes of large spatial scale, >600,000 km2. There were 10 and seven such episodes in 1978 and 1979 respectively, between the months of April and September; they persisted for 3-4 days, on average, with a range of 2-8 days, and were most common in June. Daily maximum ozone values exceeded 90 ppb at over half the sites during these episodes and were often greater than 120 ppb at one or more sites. An analysis of the meteorology for each episode shows that they occurred preferentially in the presence of weak, slow-moving, and persistent high-pressure systems. Two episodes that occurred outside the summer half of the year were associated with unseasonably warm weather; only one episode, in March 1978, appeared to reflect a major stratospheric intrusion. Concentrations of NOx at rural locations in the east are frequently high enough (>1 ppb) to permit significant photochemical formation of ozone. It is clear that rural ozone in the east in spring and summer is severely impacted by anthropogenic emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, and that ozone episodes occur when the weather is particularly conducive to photochemical formation of ozone. Ozone episodes were present on 23% of days in May-August in the east in 1978-1979. The effect of these pollution episodes on vegetation cannot be assessed with current information on dose-response characteristics, which is based primarily on exposure of crops to a given level of ozone for 7 hours a day. The results presented here may be used to design studies that account for the periodic exposure of vegetation

  9. Effect of rural-urban migrants’ remittances on arable crop production in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku Albert U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Delta State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of rural-urban remittances on arable crop production. Twenty percent (20% of the registered arable crop farmers in Delta State were selected to arrive at 131 respondents for the study. Questionnaire and structured interview schedule were used to collect data from the respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics and contingency tables were used to treat the collected data. It was discovered that most (69.5% of rural-urban migrants were in the 11-30 age bracket. The remittances from rural farm households were far higher than the remittances from rural-urban migrants. The little remittances from the rural-urban migrants were added to the funds of the rural farm household, farm labour and inputs. The remittances from rural-urban migrants did not make any meaningful contribution to arable crop production. It was recommended that governments should make the rural areas attractive to young school learners/graduates, embark on enlightenment programme to expose the youths to agriculture related self-employment opportunities in the rural areas; and create enabling environment for the youths to operate as self-employed individuals in the rural areas.

  10. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe; A.A., Adigun; Jubril Olayinka, Animashaun

    2014-01-01

    Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 ran...

  11. Sex Education in Rural Schools in the United States: Impact of Rural Educators' Community Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The overall purpose of this exploratory research was to better understand rural educators' feelings about school-based sex education in order to foster better communication and collaboration between prevention researchers and rural teachers and administrators. In order to accomplish this purpose, the research question asked "How does…

  12. Recommendations from the North Star State: Rural Administrators Speak out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia M.; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Administrators in America's rural school districts are uniquely challenged to meet increased achievement expectations despite decreasing resources. Mandated reform initiatives, population decline, and the complex formulas used to distribute tax-based funding have disproportionately affected rural schools. In this mixed-methods study, researchers…

  13. Rural Gentrification and Linked Migration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter B.; Oberg, Alexander; Nelson, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Although gentrification is a process commonly associated with urban landscapes, rural areas in advanced economies have also experienced gentrification over the past two decades. Largely based on case study approaches, the Rural Studies literature describes transformations in the housing market, changed cultural attitudes toward the environment,…

  14. 47 CFR 54.314 - State certification of support for rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.314... area of a rural incumbent local exchange carrier within their jurisdiction to receive support pursuant... jurisdiction. A rural incumbent local exchange carrier not subject to the jurisdiction of a state or...

  15. 47 CFR 54.313 - State certification of support for non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.313... area of a non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier within their jurisdiction to receive support... subject to State jurisdiction. A non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier not subject to...

  16. Reducing Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in the Rural United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Macarena C; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Bauer, Ursula E; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    In 2014, the all-cause age-adjusted death rate in the United States reached a historic low of 724.6 per 100,000 population (1). However, mortality in rural (nonmetropolitan) areas of the United States has decreased at a much slower pace, resulting in a widening gap between rural mortality rates (830.5) and urban mortality rates (704.3) (1). During 1999–2014, annual age-adjusted death rates for the five leading causes of death in the United States (heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD), and stroke) were higher in rural areas than in urban (metropolitan) areas (Figure 1). In most public health regions (Figure 2), the proportion of deaths among persons aged leading causes that were potentially excess deaths was higher in rural areas compared with urban areas (Figure 3). Several factors probably influence the rural-urban gap in potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes, many of which are associated with sociodemographic differences between rural and urban areas. Residents of rural areas in the United States tend to be older, poorer, and sicker than their urban counterparts (3). A higher proportion of the rural U.S. population reports limited physical activity because of chronic conditions than urban populations (4). Moreover, social circumstances and behaviors have an impact on mortality and potentially contribute to approximately half of the determining causes of potentially excess deaths (5).

  17. Dimensions in rural water coverage and access in Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABIA

    2014-12-15

    Dec 15, 2014 ... This study examined the levels of rural water access and coverage in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ...... maintenance of efficient and up-to-date database ... assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water ...

  18. Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe: a typology of small towns and rural municipalities in the state of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airola, T M; Parker, R A

    1983-11-01

    Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe of the United States is examined using the state of New Jersey over the period 1970-1980 as an example. "This article provides additional evidence for the redistribution of population to the rural-urban fringe and identifies those types of municipalities that experienced the greatest growth during the 1970s. Furthermore, it finds that the factors that account for population growth at the rural-urban fringe are not only those associated with suburbanization, but also those associated with nonmetropolitan growth. It also demonstrates that population growth at the rural-urban fringe varies not only by municipal type but also by race."

  19. The Effect of Agricultural Development Project (ADP on the Rural Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Adamu Madu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Majority of communities in Nigeria are rural dwellers and agrarian by occupation. Development strategy for a country whose rural population are mainly farmers cannot be achieved without first sustained growth in rural income and standard of living primarily from agriculture. It was based on this that the state wide Agricultural Development Project (ADP was established to raise productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in Nigeria. This study assesses the effect of the ADP activities on the wellbeing of the rural farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collect on annual crop output, annual income, farm size, use of improved technology, access to credit among farmers, farmers’ training and rural infrastructure development. The data were sourced using structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The statistical analysis used to determine the effect to the project on the participating farmers include, descriptive statistics and comparability test for difference (T-test analysis. The results indicates that Adamawa ADP had positive and significant impact on rural farmers productivity, income, access to credit, standard of living as measured by assets ownership. However, the project did not have significant impact on the rural infrastructure, adoption of improved technologies and farm sizes, even though the change from before and after ADP activities was positive. The study recommends that much attention should be paid to the provision of rural infrastructure and the needed improved technologies. The study also recommends that the two tiers of government in Nigeria should adequately fund the project to efficiently cope with its responsibility of developing the rural sector.

  20. The role of community self help projects in rural development of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye-Adetona, C.I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempt to examine the impact of self-help projects in rural development using Irepodun Local Government Area as a case study, Kwara State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 respondents was interviewed through the use of questionnaire format. In the course of the study, it was revealed that income encouraged the people to embark on self help projects. Community unions / association contributed immensely in the execution of self help projects and the subsequent rural development. The Chi-square and correlation results, concluded that the inhabitants of the area are not equally satisfied with self help projects and amenities and that there is a relationship between population and self help projects and also that self help projects has increased the standard of living of the people in the area. There is an unequal distribution of self help projects in the study area. And since the level and efficiency of self help projects on rural communities normally influence the development of the rural areas, governments should therefore redirect its rural development towards capital and developmental projects in rural areas and make population be the focus for all communities in the rural areas. This will ensure an equitable distribution of self help projects an essential tool for balanced socio-economic development of the rural areas especially in Nigeria.

  1. Service delivery for patients with HIV in a rural state: the Vermont model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, C J; Soons, K R; Kutzko, D; Alston, W K; Ramundo, M

    1999-11-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is increasing rapidly in rural areas of the United States. Barriers to health-care delivery for this patient population include the complexity of this rapidly changing field, inexperienced rural physicians, long travel distances to receive expert care, lack of psychosocial support systems, and concerns about confidentiality. Models of HIV care for rural areas have not been developed that remove these barriers. We present the philosophy, structure, implementation, and services of a model of care in Vermont that is designed to remove many of these barriers and bring HIV expertise into the rural areas of the state. Three HIV specialty clinics have been developed in regional hospitals throughout the state. The clinic team includes an HIV-trained nurse practitioner and social worker from the hospital, a client consultant from the regional AIDS service organization, and an infectious disease specialist who travels to each of the clinics monthly. Patient care will be centralized in these regionally located clinics. The dispersion of HIV care among numerous and inexperienced rural providers will be obviated. Confidentiality will be emphasized within the hospital environment. The model has the potential to provide a complete continuum of medical care and psychosocial case management, integrate patient care and regional provider education, and increase community awareness. Patients will be able to receive their care in their own community, avoiding long travel distances. This may encourage patients to seek care earlier in their illness. The model may be adaptable to other rural areas of the United States.

  2. (Cbos) In Rural and Agricultural Transformation in Delta State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    based organizations are veritable agents of development in ensuring the agricultural ... dependence culture put in place by colonization was maintained ... instrument for Agricultural and rural transformation in-terms of contributing ... 1440. Source: Survey Data (2007) ... also involved in the evaluation of decisions, goals and.

  3. Health Seeking Behaviour among the Rural Dwellers in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    disorder, disability and non-functioning of the body system. People tend to ... illness, age, religious background educational background, seventy of sickness ... reduction in maternal illness and deaths would greatly increase women's contribution to ... The outcome of these affects are: the rural dwellers are subjected to high.

  4. Climate Change Information Needs of Rural Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    The study assessed the information needs of rural farmers on climate ... participatory manner so as to enable them cope with the challenges of ... use, loss of vegetation/pastures, intense weed growth, incidence of pests and .... level of knowledge retarded the adaptation potential of the community and ..... Indian Journal of.

  5. (ICT) in Agricultural and Rural Transformation in Delta State.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    socio-economic development, there is the need now, to ... policies which have had more diminutive effects on ... given rise to a new generation of electronic audio-visual aids .... Tap Bin Sallah, D. (2004) “Rural Development in Malaysia.

  6. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  7. Concussion Law Compliance: The Allocation of Time, Resources, and Money in a Rural Western State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Caroline; Moffit, Dani M.; Schiess, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Secondary schools across the United States that sponsor extracurricular athletic programs are challenged to comply with recent laws that require concussion education and appropriate concussion management. This study examined one rural state's efforts by illustrating both the successes and challenges that secondary schools faced. The findings…

  8. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  9. Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

  10. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  11. Stated environmental preferences in a Romanian rural community

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik

    2004-01-01

    This article uses random utility theory to analyse the economic and environmental trade-offs at farm level in a Romanian rural area confronting water pollution on the basis of survey data. To underline the impact of socio-economic variables in the decision-making process at farm level as regards environmental choices, a binary logit model is estimated that includes socio-economic variables in addition to the attributes in the choice set. The study shows that heterogeneity in tastes is partial...

  12. Rural change and circular migration to the United States. A case of study from Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Levi Levi

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of circular migration to the United States upon the economic and social changes in the rural areas influenced by it. Factors as innovations in agricultural practices, penetration of capital, increased commercialization, expansion of infrastructure and social modifications within rural areas will be examined. These changes have increased the local importance of temporary migration to the United States. Using case studies in Michoacan, the impact of the flow of remittances associated with this form of movement is explored.

  13. Study on Factors Influencing Urban-rural Dual Economic Structure of Chongqing Based on the State Space Variable Parameter Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuchuan; XU; Yuqing; WANG; Xiang; HE

    2013-01-01

    Firstly,this paper reviews and analyzes historic background of urban-rural integration of Chongqing,and the evolution and trend of urban and rural dual economic structure.On the basis of previous researches,it selects factors and variables influencing urban and rural dual economic structure,and establishes an econometric model.By state space Kalman filtering method,it analyzes dynamic influence of factors upon urban-rural dual economic intensity.According to empirical conclusion,it puts forward corresponding policy recommendations for promoting integrated urban and rural economic development of Chongqing.

  14. Effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Mbah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.

  15. The distance between state and rural society in the PRC. Reading document no 1 (February 2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, Susanne

    2008-04-01

    While the People's Republic of China appears on a daily basis in all of the important newspapers around the world with its enormous successes in modernizing its economy, life in the Chinese countryside usually does not attract international attention. However, we know from a wide range of reports that the situation in the Chinese countryside is getting more and more complicated with local corruption, pollution and poverty growing in most parts of the country. The Chinese language press reports on a growing number of local uprisings in remote areas. While some analysts regard the situation in the countryside as a potential threat to the ongoing peaceful process of economic reform in China, China seems to be well prepared to cope with this change and the state is comparatively flexible in dealing with unrest among the rural population. So far the system itself has not been challenged by peasant discontent. This article introduces the idea that the distance between state and rural society is the basis of this flexibility. It will analyze a major policy document issued by the state and party leadership in order to show how state and rural society interact on the basis of a still insurmountable distance between state and rural society.

  16. State Primary Stroke Center Policies in the US: Rural Health Issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slade, C.; O'Toole, L.J.; Rho, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between state primary stroke center (PSC) designation policy implementation and access to optimal stroke care for residents of rural areas. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected during the period September 2008–August 2009. Following content analys

  17. Development and the Urban and Rural Geography of Mexican Emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Villarreal, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Past research on international migration from Mexico to the United States uses geographically-limited data and analyzes emigrant-sending communities in isolation. Theories supported by this research may not explain urban emigration, and this research does not consider connections between rural and urban Mexico. In this study we use national data…

  18. State Primary Stroke Center Policies in the US: Rural Health Issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slade, C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Rho, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between state primary stroke center (PSC) designation policy implementation and access to optimal stroke care for residents of rural areas. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected during the period September 2008–August 2009. Following content

  19. An Investigation of Bioecological Influences Associated with First Use of Methamphetamine in a Rural State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anne; Moring, John; Williams, Mark; Hopper, Glenna; Daniel, Candice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a significant problem in rural areas of the United States. Yet, little theoretically driven formative research has been conducted on the interactions of factors influencing initiation. The study was guided by Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model. Methods: Eighty-three MA users participated in an…

  20. Rethinking the Changing Structures of Rural Local Government--State Power, Rural Politics and Local Political Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Simon; Goodwin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There is a notable absence in contemporary rural studies--of both a theoretical and empirical nature--concerning the changing nature of rural local government. Despite the scale and significance of successive rounds of local government reorganisation in the UK, very little has been written on this topic from a rural perspective. Instead research…

  1. Reforms for the expansion of electricity access and rural electrification in small island developing states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small island developing states face unique constraints to the provision of electricity services in rural areas, given their geographical features, and the small scale of government bureaucracies and markets. In small island developing states situated in the Pacific Ocean, these factors have resulted in some of the lowest electrification rates in the world. Seventy percent of Pacific islanders are without access to power; a figure that is equivalent to access rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, despite higher income levels in the Pacific. Past efforts by government and aid organizations to expand electricity access in rural areas have achieved negligible success, given regulatory frameworks that do not encourage grid extension, and the absence of effective institutional frameworks for operation and maintenance of decentralized systems. This paper argues that the binding constraint to rural electrification in Pacific small island developing states is the failure of regulatory frameworks to establish a viable business model for investment. Regulatory reform is needed that creates commercial incentives for private and public sector power utilities to provide power in rural areas, both through extension of electricity networks and decentralized power provision. Regulatory reform could also address past problems with the operation and maintenance of decentralized systems.

  2. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  3. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  4. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  5. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL AND URBAN FARMING HOUSEHOLDS OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Anjeinu Abu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined factors affecting household food security status among rural and urban farming households of Benue State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to obtain a sample of 180 respondents, 90 households head each from rural and urban areas. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Food Security Index, Surplus/Food Insecurity Gap, Factor analysis and Probit model. Using calorie intake method, the result revealed that 53.3% and 62.2% of rural and urban households respectively were food secured. The rural and urban food secure households exceeded the recommended calorie intake by 39% and 42% respectively, while the rural and urban food insecure households fell short of recommended calorie by 24% and 26% respectively. It was also found that income of households head (p<0.10, rural households size (p<0.01, and farm size (p<0.10 had a positive impact on household food security. On the other hand, age of household head (p<0.05 and urban household size (p<0.10 had a negative relationship with household food security. Constraints such as lack of access to credits, inadequate land availability, and poverty, infertility of the soil, lack of non-farm income generating activities, storage and processing problems were identified as some of the factors militating against the achievement of food security in the study area. It was recommended that credit be provided to farming households by government to reduce the constraint of not being able to access credit facilities, the agricultural policies which aimed at promoting farmers access to land and improving farm household productivity be encouraged and that farmers be provided with informal education through extension services on nutritional awareness and non-farm income generating activities.

  6. A Study on the Factors Influencing the Income Gap between Urban and Rural Areas Based on State-space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly widening income gap between urban and rural areas is affected by many factors. Using the stepwise regression analysis,we find that urbanization level,socio-economic development,education level,financial development scale and financial development efficiency have the greatest impact on the income gap between urban and rural areas. By cointegration test,it is found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between these five variables and the income gap between urban and rural areas. We build the state-space model to research the dynamic impact of these factors on the income gap between urban and rural areas. The results show that by improving the level of urbanization,we can effectively narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas,while socio-economic development,the improvement of education level,expansion of financial development scale and financial development efficiency all significantly expand the income gap between urban and rural areas.

  7. Food Security Index and Socio-Economic Effects of Climate Change on Rural Farming Households in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaziye, P. O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the food security status and the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in Delta State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to determine the food security status of the rural farming households in the state while the specific objective was to determine the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in the state. Multistage sampling procedure was used in the random selection of local government, communities and rural households for the research study. The data for the study were obtained with the aids of structured questionnaire survey randomly administered to rural farming households in the state. Food security index was used to determine the level of food insecurity (food security status among the rural households in communities that have been affected by flood and or other climate hazardswhile descriptive statistics was used to summarize the socio-economic effects and their food security status of the rural farming households in the state. Most respondents (65.10% were married with low annual income of N54,702 ($353 which is less than the poverty line of less than $1 (one dollar a day. Most rural farming households witnessed loss of investment on farm lands, lives and income respectively in the state. The study also reveals that rural farming households suffered ill health, such as malaria, water borne diseases and skin infections that were on the increase in the state. The study also revealed that majority of respondents was moderately food insecure. The study also recommends that Government planning agencies and policy makers should put into consideration these food insecurity situations in their planning and policy implementation to prevent future chronic food insecurity situation in the state.

  8. 胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术治疗原发性手汗症29例%Twenty-nine cases primary palmar hyperhidrosis treatment by thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam cut off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东东; 洪丰; 江春苗

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术治疗原发性手汗症的疗效和预防术后并发症的措施.方法:回顾性分析29例原发性手汗症手术,对相关临床资料进行比较分析.结果:全组无手术死亡和严重并发症,术后手掌多汗症状消失,无复发病例,术后有2例出现轻度代偿性出汗,1例出现中度代偿性出汗,无重度代偿性出汗病例.结论:胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术是治疗原发性手汗症安全有效的微创方法.%Aim: Explore the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis efficacy and prevention of postoperative complications by thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam amputation. Methods; Twenty-nine cases of primary palmar hyperhidrosis symptoms underwent surgery and clinical data were analysed. Results; No operative death and serious complications, palm hyperhidrosis symptoms disappeared postoperatively, no recurrence, 2 cases of mild compensatory sweating, 1 case of moderate compensatory sweating, no severe compensatory sweating cases. Conclusion:Thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam amputation is safe and effective minimal invasive method for the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis.

  9. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  10. Risky Teen Driving in a Rural Southern State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kathy; Hardwick, William; Lawson, Victoria; Nichols, Elizabeth; Nichols, Michele; King, William D

    2017-05-01

    Alabama is one of the five US states with the highest teen driving mortality. We recruited teen drivers to participate in a questionnaire regarding high-risk driving behaviors. Teens were recruited from a large county school system to participate in a voluntary anonymous survey. Questions were taken in part from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1023 teen drivers participated (46% boys, 47% African American, 39% white, 6% Latino, and 7% other). In all, 526 students (52%) reported inconsistent seat belt use. Half of the teens surveyed reported using a cellular telephone while driving within the past 30 days (51%); 10% admitted to driving after drinking alcoholic beverages in the past 30 days, with 23% saying they had ridden with a driver who had been drinking. High-risk teen driving behaviors were reported by many of the participants in our study. The majority of teens surveyed do not routinely wear seatbelts. Common misperceptions still exist regarding seatbelts and should be a focus of future education. Future research should focus on parental behaviors and correcting misperceptions of young drivers.

  11. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities.

  12. Stated preferences of doctors for choosing a job in rural areas of Peru: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doctors' scarcity in rural areas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors' stated preferences for rural jobs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho's capital and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54. Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a rural area, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden.

  13. Use of modern birth control methods among rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Ike; Obasi, O O

    2008-04-01

    This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of the respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. The most popular modern method was the condom (24.2%). This was followed by the IUD, used by only 2.5% of the respondents. Some of the identified factors that hindered the use of MBCM included perceived negative health reaction, fear of the unknown effects, cost, spouse's disapproval, religious belief and inadequate information. For a better understanding and utilization of MBCM, it is recommended that adequate educational campaign should be mounted in the rural areas on the advantages of MBCM. This campaign should target the men the more because they make the major decisions on MBCM use.

  14. Organizing for rural energy development: Improved cookstoves, local organizations, and the state in Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniates, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    Proponents of the sustainable development of Third World States frequently urge the integration of local non-government organizations (NGOs) into State-sponsored, centrally administered programs of rural-resource development. This study draws on literatures on energy use, biomass technologies, and organization theory, and on interviews, archival research, and organizational surveys of eight Gujarati NGOs conducted in India in 1986 and 1987. It concludes that the conventional wisdom guiding State-NGO collaboration is in important ways flawed. Though driven by political and fiscal imperatives to integrate local NGOs in State programs, national planners are ill-equipped to cope with the uncertainty and vulnerability such collaboration brings. Their understandable response is to structure collaboration in ways inimical to overarching goals of local participation and flexible administration. Simultaneously, at the local level, unmanaged systems of collaboration - organized around a view of local organizations as self-guiding and self-correcting - generates a degradation of capacity. Organizational assumptions driving the sustainable development of India's (and much of the Third World's) rural energy resources must be re-evaluated.

  15. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  16. Racial Disparities in Diabetes Hospitalization of Rural Medicare Beneficiaries in 8 Southeastern States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. H. Wan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined racial variability in diabetes hospitalizations attributable to contextual, organizational, and ecological factors controlling for patient variabilities treated at rural health clinics (RHCs. The pooled cross-sectional data for 2007 through 2013 for RHCs were aggregated from Medicare claim files of patients served by RHCs. Descriptive statistics were presented to illustrate the general characteristics of the RHCs in 8 southeastern states. Regression of the dependent variable on selected predictors was conducted using a generalized estimating equation method. The risk-adjusted diabetes mellitus (DM hospitalization rates slightly declined in 7 years from 3.55% to 2.40%. The gap between the crude and adjusted rates became wider in the African American patient group but not in the non-Hispanic white patient group. The average DM disparity ratio increased 17.7% from the pre-Affordable Care Act (ACA; 1.47 to the post-ACA period (1.73 for the African American patient group. The results showed that DM disparity ratios did not vary significantly by contextual, organizational, and individual factors for African Americans. Non-Hispanic white patients residing in large and small rural areas had higher DM disparity ratios than other rural areas. The results of this study confirm racial disparities in DM hospitalizations. Future research is needed to identify the underlying reasons for such racial disparities to guide the formulation of effective and efficient changes in DM care management practices coupled with the emphasis of culturally competent, primary and preventive care.

  17. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

  18. Rural biodigesters: a discussion on the state of Paraiba - Brazil experience; Biodigestores rurais: uma discussao sobre a experiencia paraibana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Leimar de; Castro, Moema Soares de; Oliveira, Aluzilda J. de [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Nucleo de Energia]. E-mail: leimar@nerg.ufpb.br

    1999-07-01

    This work presents data of a large field research involving 76 rural properties, aiming the discussions and investigations on aspects of unifying the biogas supplying, the rural and domestic sectors demands. The analysis have been conducted from the stratified data as function of the final biogas use: cooking, lighting and refrigeration, for the domestic sector, and electric power, heating and electric generation for the agricultural sector. Some results from the Brazilian State of Paraiba experience have been checked viewing the improvement of the energy policies for the rural sector.

  19. Frequency of intimate partner violence and rural women's mental health in four Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the association between self-reported frequency of verbal, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among 6,303 rural married women (age 15-49), in four Indian states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Data are taken from the 2002-2003 National Family Health Survey-2 Follow-Up Survey. The results indicate that experiencing physical, verbal, or sexual IPV is associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Our results provide support for the importance of screening for IPV in mental health settings, especially in resource-poor settings where both IPV and mental health are often overlooked.

  20. Uncompensated Care Burden May Mean Financial Vulnerability For Rural Hospitals In States That Did Not Expand Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Noles, Marissa; Pink, George H

    2015-10-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act has led to a large decrease in the number of uninsured people. Yet uncompensated care will still occur, particularly in states where eligibility for Medicaid is not expanded. We compared rural hospitals in Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states in terms of the amount of uncompensated care they provided and their profitability and market characteristics in 2013. We found that rural hospitals in expansion states provided more dollars of uncompensated care than those in nonexpansion states and that the difference was at least partly driven by greater uncompensated costs associated with public programs such as Medicaid. We found higher dollar values of unrecoverable debt and charity care among non-critical access rural hospitals in nonexpansion states than among those in expansion states. Compared to hospitals in expansion states, those in nonexpansion states provided greater amounts of uncompensated care as a percentage of revenues and appeared to be more financially vulnerable; thus, these hospitals may be more likely to experience financial pressure or losses. Policy makers need to formulate strategies for maintaining access to care for rural populations residing in nonexpansion states. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C Barker

    Full Text Available Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61 were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is

  2. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Judith C.; Hoeft, Kristin S.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California’s rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers’ experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having ‘extra’ benefits. Once informed about fluoride’s safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable

  3. Fossil and Contemporary Fine Carbon Fractions at 12 Rural and Urban Sites in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schichtel, B; Malm, W; Bench, G; Fallon, S; McDade, C; Chow, J

    2007-03-01

    Fine particulate matter collected at two urban, four near-urban, and six remote sites throughout the United States were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). Samples were collected at most sites for both a summer and winter season. The radiocarbon was used to partition the TC into fossil and contemporary fractions. On average, contemporary carbon composed about half of the carbon at the urban, {approx}70-97% at near-urban, and 82-100% at remote sites. At Phoenix, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington, one monitor was located within the urban center and one outside to assess the urban excess over background concentrations. During the summer the urban and rural sites had similar contemporary carbon concentrations. However, during the winter the urban sites had more than twice the contemporary carbon measured at the neighboring sites, indicating anthropogenic contributions to the contemporary carbon. The urban fossil carbon was 4-20 times larger than the neighboring rural sites for both seasons. Organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from TOR analysis were available. These and the radiocarbon data were used to estimate characteristic fossil and contemporary EC/TC ratios for the winter and summer seasons. These ratios were applied to carbon data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network to estimate the fraction of contemporary carbon at mostly rural sites throughout the United States. In addition, the ratios were used to develop a semiquantitative, lower bound estimate of secondary organic carbon (SOC) contribution to fossil and contemporary carbon. SOC accounted for more than one-third of the fossil and contemporary carbon.

  4. Gearing up to Teach the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in Rural Northeast Region Schools. REL 2015-031

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kirk; Torres, Aubrey Scheopner; Smith, Toni; Ford, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study describes key challenges and necessary supports related to implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) identified by rural math educators in the Northeast. The research team interviewed state and district math coordinators and surveyed teachers in Maine, New Hampshire, New York and Vermont, to assess their…

  5. [Communication related to pesticides use in a rural area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, F; Rozemberg, B; Alves, S R; Moreira, J C; Oliveira-Silva, J J

    2001-12-01

    To assess communications aspects related to pesticide use in a rural area of the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The study was carried out in the area of São Lourenço stream. It was based on methodological triangulation comprising: semi-structured interviews and observation of a local population sample (about 600 inhabitants); structured questionnaire to collect data on the local community; and records of lectures given by argonomic engineers, pesticides traders and other public service professionals. This study pointed out to the historical misinformation on pesticides in rural areas; the emphasis on technical language in educational and training activities available which constitutes a barrier for rural workers knowledge acquisition and empowerment; and the industry/commerce's pressure to legitimate pesticide trading, reinforcing the existing communication process, resulting in unfavorable inclusion of the rural worker into a broader market economy.

  6. Prevalence of Arthritis and Arthritis-Attributable Activity Limitation by Urban-Rural County Classification - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Michael A; Hootman, Jennifer M; Liu, Yong; Theis, Kristina A; Murphy, Louise B; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Brady, Terry J; Croft, Janet B

    2017-05-26

    Rural populations in the United States have well documented health disparities, including higher prevalences of chronic health conditions (1,2). Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is one of the most prevalent health conditions (22.7%) in the United States, affecting approximately 54.4 million adults (3). The impact of arthritis is considerable: an estimated 23.7 million adults have arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL). The age-standardized prevalence of AAAL increased nearly 20% from 2002 to 2015 (3). Arthritis prevalence varies widely by state (range = 19%-36%) and county (range = 16%-39%) (4). Despite what is known about arthritis prevalence at the national, state, and county levels and the substantial impact of arthritis, little is known about the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL across urban-rural areas overall and among selected subgroups. To estimate the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL by urban-rural categories CDC analyzed data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The unadjusted prevalence of arthritis in the most rural areas was 31.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 31.0%-32.5%) and in the most urban, was 20.5% (95% CI = 20.1%-21.0%). The unadjusted AAAL prevalence among adults with arthritis was 55.3% in the most rural areas and 49.7% in the most urban. Approximately 1 in 3 adults in the most rural areas have arthritis and over half of these adults have AAAL. Wider use of evidence-based interventions including physical activity and self-management education in rural areas might help reduce the impact of arthritis and AAAL.

  7. Gearing up to Teach the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in the Rural Northeast Region. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-066

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Walters; Smith, Toni M.; Ford, Jennifer; Scheopner Torres, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study describes key challenges and necessary supports related to implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) identified by rural math educators in the Northeast. The research team interviewed state and district math coordinators and surveyed teachers in Maine, New Hampshire, New York and Vermont, to assess their…

  8. Rural youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the level of youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and five youths were randomly selected from seven rural communities, fifteen youths from each village. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire, which was analysed using frequency count and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypothesis of significance between the socio-economic characteristics and the level of participation in infrastructural development. Findings revealed that 56.2% of respondents were within the age category of 21-30 years, 62.9% were male, and 60% were single, while 56.2% of the respondents had secondary school level education. The study revealed the various roles played by youths in participating in infrastructural development as well as the associated constraints which include finance, availability of materials, technical knowledge and time. Age, marital status, educational level and years of residence were found to be significantly related to the level of participation of youths in infrastructural development. The study recommended the adequate budget allocation to rural areas as well as intensive training and educative programmes for effective participative development.

  9. BLOOD PRESSURE VALUES AMONG PRIMI AND MULTIGRAVIDA WOMEN IN A RURAL POPULATION OF KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pregnancy is usually a serene time of unparalleled joy and expectation in a women's life. However , sometimes it can be complicated by illnesses or medical conditions. Although only 10 - 30% of the mothers seen in antenatal period can be classified as high ri sk they account for 70 - 80% of perinatal mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES : To determine casual blood pressure recordings among primi and multigravida women in a rural block of Karnataka state. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present cross - sectional study was carried out in all the sub - centers under Primary Health Centre (PHC , the rural field practice area of Bangarpet taluk of Kolar district during April 2013 to September 2013. Blood pressure was recorded with sphygmoman ometer by auscultatory method in 200 registered pregnant women attending the particular sub - center at that point of time. Data was analyzed for statistical significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following conclusions were drawn after statistical analysi s . 1. There was statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure as age advanced among the pregnant women . 2. There was statistically significant increase in diastolic blood pressure among primigravida as compared to multigravida . But nonethel ess no cases of pregnancy induced hypertension was detected in our study group .

  10. Awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control in a rural community in Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuemu, V O; Okojie, O H; Omuemu, C E

    2007-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Udo, a rural community in Ovia South-west LGA of Edo State to assess the level of awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control. Cluster sampling method was used to select participants and data collection was by researcher administered questionnaire. Blood pressure measurement was by standardized method. A total of 590 respondents with mean age 30.7 +/- 14.6 years participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension was 20.2% using the WHO/ISH criteria of SBP > or = 140 mmHg and/or DBP > or = 90 mmHg. Twenty two (18.5%) of the hypertensives were aware of their high blood pressure status. Awareness was higher in females, increased with age and decreased with higher educational status. Of those aware of their condition, 77.3% were on treatment and ofthese, 29.4% had adequate blood pressure control. This study has revealed a low level of awareness of high blood pressure status and control in this rural community. Therefore, there is urgent need for regular community-based hypertension screening programmes.

  11. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  12. Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

  13. The Globalized Landscape: Rural Landscape Change and Policy in the United States and European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassauer, J.I.; Wascher, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    While some rural areas draw increasing populations to their landscape amenities and some are changed by the long reach of metropolitan sprawl, agriculture defines, and dominates rural landscapes. Amenity characteristics and ecological services of many rural landscapes occur in the context of

  14. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  15. A "health commons" approach to oral health for low-income populations in a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetstra, Stephen; Derksen, Daniel; Ro, Marguerite; Powell, Wayne; Fry, Donald E; Kaufman, Arthur

    2008-09-01

    Oral health needs are urgent in rural states. Creative, broad-based, and collaborative solutions can alleviate these needs. "Health commons" sites are enhanced, community-based, primary care safety net practices that include medical, behavioral, social, public, and oral health services. Successful intervention requires a comprehensive approach, including attention to enhancing dental service capacity, broadening the scope of the dental skills of locally available providers, expanding the pool of dental providers, creating new interdisciplinary teams in enhanced community-based sites, and developing more comprehensive oral health policy. By incorporating oral health services into the health commons primary care model, access for uninsured and underserved populations is increased. A coalition of motivated stakeholders includes community leaders, safety net providers, legislators, insurers, and medical, dental, and public health providers.

  16. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  17. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...

  18. Diversity and Persistence of Salmonella enterica Strains in Rural Landscapes in the Southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Maurer

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis cases in the in the United States show distinct geographical trends, with the southeast reporting among the highest rates of illness. In the state of Georgia, USA, non-outbreak associated salmonellosis is especially high in the southern low-lying coastal plain. Here we examined the distribution of Salmonella enterica in environmental waters and associated wildlife in two distinct watersheds, one in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (a high case rate rural area physiographic province and one in the Piedmont (a lower case rate rural area. Salmonella were isolated from the two regions and compared for serovar and strain diversity, as well as distribution, between the two study areas, using both a retrospective and prospective design. Thirty-seven unique serovars and 204 unique strain types were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Salmonella serovars Braenderup, Give, Hartford, and Muenchen were dominant in both watersheds. Two serovars, specifically S. Muenchen and S. Rubislaw, were consistently isolated from both systems, including water and small mammals. Conversely, 24 serovars tended to be site-specific (64.8%, n = 37. Compared to the other Salmonella serovars isolated from these sites, S. Muenchen and S. Rubislaw exhibited significant genetic diversity. Among a subset of PFGE patterns, approximately half of the environmental strain types matched entries in the USA PulseNet database of human cases. Ninety percent of S. Muenchen strains from the Little River basin (the high case rate area matched PFGE entries in PulseNet compared to 33.33% of S. Muenchen strains from the North Oconee River region (the lower case rate area. Underlying the diversity and turnover of Salmonella strains observed for these two watersheds is the persistence of specific Salmonella serovars and strain types that may be adapted to these watersheds and landscapes.

  19. An assessment of dietary intake and state of nutritional in hypertensive patients from rural and urban areas of Greater Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Duda, Grażyna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Piątek, Jacek; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional factors connected with the prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban areas of Greater Poland. The study consisted of 308 people aged 35-62, with essential hypertension but without any other coexisting disorders. The studied group consisted of 154 residents of Poznań (79 women and 75 men) and 152 inhabitants of rural areas in Greater Poland (78 women and 74 men). Participants were randomly assigned to the study. Nutritional state assessment was based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Dietary intake were assessed with a 24-hour nutritional survey from 3 consecutive days. Analysis of anthropometric examination results showed a large prevalence of obesity in the studied group. Moreover people living in rural areas had a significantly higher BMI and body fat percentage than those living in a city. It has been proved that the patients with hypertension consume food with an excess of fat and a shortage of fibre, antioxidant vitamins, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The total food rations of rural dwellers consisted of larger amounts of fat, cholesterol and vitamin A compared to those of city dwellers. Present studies have shown incorrect dietary intake among patients with hypertension, often related to the coexistence of overweight and obesity. Obtained results indicate significantly worse eating habits and state of nutrition among rural inhabitants.

  20. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  1. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  2. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  3. RURAL FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ofuoku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.

  4. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  5. Rural livelihood diversification and income inequality in local government area Akinyele, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Abimbola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of income distribution has been a major concern in the developing world. This is because high levels of income inequality are likely to create a hostile atmosphere for economic growth and development. This study examined rural livelihood strategies and their contribution to the overall income inequality of households in Akinyele local government area of Oyo state. Primary data employed in the study were obtained from 105 respondents selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multinomial logit and the generalized entropy inequality indices as a measure of inequality. The distribution of respondents by type of livelihood strategy adopted revealed that almost half of the respondents adopted the combination of farm and non-farm strategy while 14.3% and 40.0% adopted only farm and non-farm strategy respectively. Income inequality was the highest among non-farming households and the lowest among farming households, implying that income from non-farm activities contributed most to income inequality in the study area. The study revealed that the major factor which negatively influenced the choice of farming as a livelihood strategy was household size while factors such as age and land ownership had positive and negative effects on the adoption of the non-farm strategy respectively. The study recommends that policies targeted at rural dwellers should centre on improved access to productive assets such as land for the landless farmers as well as the provision of improved technology, which could encourage the ageing farming population to engage in farming activities.

  6. Rural food insecurity in the United States as an overlooked site of struggle in health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadurai, Vandhana; Sharf, Barbara F; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    This article indicates the need for health communication scholars to attend to the growing national problem of rural food insecurity. A review of the health communication literature reveals that food insecurity and rural health overall are research issues that have been overlooked. Using the Culture-Centered Approach ( Dutta, 2008 ), while simultaneously searching for community assets as well as problems, we explore aspects of rural residents' food environments, culture, and institutional structures that empower and constrain their communities. Twelve focus groups (n = 86), segmented by race/ethnicity, were conducted in rural central Texas. Results were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Our findings outline problems and personal obstacles described by participants, as well as creative solutions and coping mechanisms illustrative of individual agency and social capital inherent in their rural culture. We conclude by providing suggestions for future research that will aid health communication scholars to further the conversation on rural food insecurity.

  7. [Entomological study of Trypanosoma cruzi vectors in the rural communities of Sucre state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jordán, Noris; Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Concepción, Juan Luis; Aldana, Elis; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    The ecological niche of Reduvidae vectors has been modified due to environmental changes and human encroachment into the rural areas. This study evaluates the current entomological indices of triatomines responsible for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Sucre State, Venezuela. A cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted in 95 towns and 577 dwellings in the 15 municipalities of the state of Sucre, Venezuela, from August to November, 2008. Triatomine bugs were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics, and their feces examined for T. cruzi infection through direct microscopy. Positive slides were stained with Giemsa and parasites were identified by morphologic characterization. The entomological indices expressing the highest values were dispersion (16.67%) and household colonization (33.33%). The triatomine species captured were: Rhodnius prolixus , Rhodnius main intradomiciliary vector. Despite the low index of vector infection (1.72%), the existence of species with domiciliary and peridomiciliary reproductive success ensures the persistence of the epidemiological chain both for the disease and the parasite.

  8. Hypertension in rural communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Prevalence, risk factors and barriers to health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary I. Ofili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is a global health challenge and its prevalence is increasing rapidly amongst adults in many African countries. Some studies on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension have been conducted in Nigeria, but none within Delta State. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors amongst adults in three villages in the Ibusa community in Delta State, Nigeria.Method: Homesteads were randomly selected and all consenting adults (≥ 18 years of age were recruited for this cross-sectional study (134 individuals: 48 men, 86 women. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements (weight, height and abdominal circumference were recorded. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure≥ 140/90 mmHg.Result: Hypertension prevalence in this rural community was 44%. Results from one village (Ogboli: 82% and ethnic group (Ibo: 50% were significantly higher than in others in the same variable category. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested increasing age, increasing body mass index and high salt intake as prominent risk factors for hypertension. Lack of funds and equipment shortage in clinics were most often reported as barriers to healthcare.Conclusion: A nutritional education programme to promote low-cholesterol and low-salt diets is recommended to specifically target people in higher-risk areas and of higher-risk ethnicity. Local barriers to accessing health care need to be addressed.

  9. Transmission dynamics of Simulium damnosum in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Opara

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Onchocerciasis is endemic in some parts of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This study describes the entomological parameters of transmission in three rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, prior to ivermectin intervention in 2004. Methods: Blackflies were caught using human bait and 90% of the flies were dissected for parity. All parous flies were further dissected for the presence of filaria larvae. Monthly and annual biting rate, and transmission potential were calculated using standard methods.Results: A total of 4296 adult Simulium damnosum were caught on human bait, 4119 were dissected of which 208 (5.1% were infected with Onchocerca volvulus larvae. Transmission parameters varied significantly (p < 0.05 in the three villages. Annual biting rates, ranged from 9490 to 11,218 bites per person per year. The annual transmission potential ranged from 131 to 189 infective larvae per person per year, monthly biting rate and monthly transmission potential varied significantly (p < 0.05 in the three villages. Transmission was highly seasonal occurring during the peak of rainy season from August to October. There was no transmission during the dry periods — November to March, and the early rainy periods — April to May. The diurnal biting activity of the fly exhibited a bimodal pattern with a morning peak (0900–1000 hrs and a more marked evening peak (1600–1700 hrs. Interpretation & conclusion: The results indicate that there is a temporal and spatial variation in the transmission dynamics of S. damnosum in the study area.

  10. Rural electrical process and the agroindustrial expansion in Goias state, Brazil; Processo de eletrificacao rural e a expansao da agroindustria no extremo sudoeste goiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Josias Manoel [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias (CEFET/GO), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The electric energy is an important tool to rural communities, promoting quality of life through its use at home or as part of the productive process. The Rural Electrical Project of the State of Goias began with the collaboration between The Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) and the Electric Company of the State of Goias. The subject of this paper is to characterize the electric energy use in three farms attended by OECF project, in Rio Verde, Jatai and Mineiro. It was done the checking, analysis and description of situations related to the electric installation, motors starting, conservation and use of alternative energy source. It was evident that all farms use electric motors to several purposes (irrigation, manufacture of ration, triturates, mechanic milking, etc). Two farms used electric fences, while only one used hybrid system. It was verified at the visited farms presented an expressive use of the electric energy in its domestic usage as much as an input to the productive process. (author)

  11. Divergent Urban-Rural Trends in College Attendance: State Policy Bias and Structural Exclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tony; Jiang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the massive expansion of higher education in China since 1998, the cohort trends of urban and rural "hukou" holders in college attendance have widened sharply. Prevailing explanations emphasize the advantages of urban students over rural students in school quality and household financial resources. We propose the structural…

  12. The Politics of the MST Autonomous Rural Communities, the State, and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara Camus, Leandro

    Examination of the politicization of landless people in the encampments and settlements of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra (Landless Rural Workers' Movement-MST) in Brazil suggests that the movement's success rest on the fact that it generates relatively autonomous rural communities

  13. The Politics of the MST Autonomous Rural Communities, the State, and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara-Camus, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    Examination of the politicization of landless people in the encampments and settlements of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra (Landless Rural Workers' Movement-MST) in Brazil suggests that the movement's success rest on the fact that it generates relatively autonomous rural communities

  14. The State of Education in Alabama's K-12 Rural Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Alabama's rural school districts with its city, suburban, and town districts. Descriptive statistics were used for this population study, with effect sizes calculated using Cohen's d. Findings indicated Alabama's rural school districts serve slightly less affluent student populations, with a lower…

  15. Rural-urban disparity in knowledge and compliance with traffic signs among young commercial motorcyclists in selected local government areas in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola O; Owoaje, Eme T

    2016-01-21

    This study compared knowledge and compliance with traffic signs among young commercial motorcyclists in rural and urban communities in Oyo state, Nigeria. Information on knowledge and compliance with 10 common traffic signs was obtained from 149 rural and 113 urban commercial motorcyclists aged 18-35 years. Aggregate knowledge scores were computed and categorized as good (≥5) and poor (knowledge. Overall, 98.7% rural versus 61.1% urban motorcyclists had poor knowledge of traffic signs (p knowledge of the traffic signs (OR = 58.15; 95% CI = 11.96-282.79). A higher proportion of rural than urban motorcyclists never obeyed any of the traffic signs. Young rural commercial motorcyclists' knowledge and compliance with the road signs was poorer than their urban counterparts. Interventions to improve the rural motorcyclists' knowledge and ultimately compliance with road signs are urgently required.

  16. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis among rural Ezza farmers in the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Jude C; Oguwuike, Uche; Nwoke, Bertram; Asor, Joe; Ikpeama, Chidinma; Nwosu, Dennis; Ogbusu, Fidelia

    2006-01-01

    Studies on vesical schistosomiasis and its snail vectors were carried out between October 2001-May 2002 among rural Ezza farmers inhabiting the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The people are predominantly farmers. Of the 2,104 urine specimens examined in 10 communities, 466 (22.1%) comprising 305 (23.7%) men and 161 (19.7%) women were infected with visible haematuria as the predominant presenting symptom. Ezza people associate bloody urine with sexually transmitted diseases. There were no significant differences in the prevalence rates amongst various villages and sexes (p > 0.05). There was a gradual increase in the disease prevalence as the subjects' age increases. About 78.3% of the infected persons are aged 0-20 years. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence, intensity and visible haematuria were significantly more ( p infected population, 183 (39.3%) and 283 (60.7%) were excreting 50 eggs/10 ml urine and above 50 eggs/10 ml urine respectively. Lack of visible haematuria is a more valid indicator of the absence of vesical schistosomiasis. Of the various snails collected during malacological survey, mainly B. globosus were infected. Possible control measures are discussed.

  17. State of Technological Development of Crop Production by Rural Territorial Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usenko Lyudmila N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low level of distribution of innovations and technological development in the Russian agriculture exerts a negative influence upon the basic branch of the economy of rural territories – crop production, which, by production factors, possesses the highest potential in the world. Moreover, Russia’s joining WTO has an effect on the strategy of the branch development and disposes to another, innovative way of formation of the competitive agrarian sector of economy. The article uses retrospective analysis of main factors of production and many-sided indicators of financial and economic activity of agriculture in order to assess the state of technological development and innovation potential of the crop industry in Russia. The article draws conclusions about influence of these factors and indicators upon formation and development of the innovative basis of the agro-industrial complex of Russia and identifies potential of its further growth. The article also focuses on interdependence of groups of indicators that form the current picture of the study. The article reveals weaknesses and negative factors that interfere with establishment of the innovative agrarian sector of Russian economy.

  18. Agricultural Resource Access and the Influence of Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Rural Women in Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ojo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural resource access and the influence of socioeconomic characteristics among women in Borno State, Nigeria was the main objective of this study. The data for the study were generated by the use of structured questionnaire which was administered to 266 respondents obtained by the use of multistage random sampling technique. The techniques used to analyze the data generated for this study were descriptive statistics and the binary logistic regression analyses. The major findings of the study showed that respondent’s socioeconomic characteristics indicated high levels of illiteracy (59.4%, non-membership of cooperatives (89.8%, no extension contact (72% and low access to credit (89.4%. Access to production resources including fertilizers, agrochemicals, family and hired laours and land ownership were low. Some socio- economic factors influenced the likelihood of women’s access to production resources. These factors included cooperative membership, years of schooling, farm income, extension contact, off-farm income, family size, age, farming experience and farm size. It was recommended that agricultural development planners should work at enhancing rural women’s access to socioeconomic factors which enhance their access to production resources for more efficient agricultural productivity.

  19. Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku Albert U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help groups in order to be able to have access to credit (mean = 3.78, information (mean = 3.55, extension services (mean = 3.45. The respondents were satisfied with their respective self-help groups. However, they had some challenges such as inadequate access to extension services (mean = 3.55 and lack of commitment by the leaders (mean = 3.22 and members (mean = 3.19. Educational level and frequency of extension contact of the respondents were found to influence their perception on self-help groups at 5% level of significance. It is recommended that governmental and non-governmental organizations, and university agricultural extension departments should carry out a campaign on workshops for these groups on commitment and extension agencies should diversify their focus to include selfhelp groups and activities.

  20. Rural Dwellers’ Perception of Human Trafficking and its Implication for Agricultural Production in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. U.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of rural dwellers on human trafficking in relation to its effect on agricultural production in the three Senatorial Districts of Edo State, Nigeria. A sample size of 120 household heads was used for the study. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data for the study. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, means and percentage while Chi-Square statistical model and Tobit regression analytical model were used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that the household members were trafficked as a result of push and pull factors. The trafficked members of household were actively involved in farming practices before being trafficked. There is significant relationship between human trafficking and agriculture production. Shortage of farm labor, decreased farm size, reduced farm income, reduced farm output, extra expenditure on hired labor and storage of food supply by the community were perceived as effect of human trafficking on agriculture. Age of the household head and the household size had significant effect on the number of household member trafficked. Human trafficking has an adverse effect on agricultural production. Extension department should therefore integrate anti-human trafficking campaigns with their services to the farming population.

  1. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  2. The opportunities and challenges for shared decision-making in the rural United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William A; Barr, Paul J; Castaldo, Mary G

    2015-06-01

    The ethical standard for informed consent is fostered within a shared decision-making (SDM) process. SDM has become a recognized and needed approach in health care decision-making. Based on an ethical foundation, the approach fosters the active engagement of patients, where the clinician presents evidence-based treatment information and options and openly elicits the patient's values and preferences. The SDM process is affected by the context in which the information exchange occurs. Rural settings are one context that impacts the delivery of health care and SDM. Rural health care is significantly influenced by economic, geographical and social characteristics. Several specific distinctive features influence rural health care decision-making-poverty, access to health care, isolation, over-lapping relationships, and a shared culture. The rural context creates challenges as well as fosters opportunities for the application of SDM as a natural dynamic within the rural provider-patient relationship. To fulfill the ethical requirements of informed consent through SDM, it is necessary to understand its inherent challenges and opportunities. Therefore, rural clinicians and ethicists need to be cognizant of the impact of the rural setting on SDM and use the insights as an opportunity to achieve SDM.

  3. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  4. Comparison of indoor radon and thoron concentrations in the urban and rural dwellings of Chhattisgarh state of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, M.S.K. [Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur (C.G.) 495 009 (India)], E-mail: mskkhokhar@rediffmail.com; Kher, R.S. [Department of Physics, Government Science Postgraduate College, Bilaspur (C.G.) 495 006 (India); Rathore, V.B. [Department of Radiotherapy, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College, Raipur (C.G.) 492 001 (India); Pandey, S. [Department of Physics, St. Thomas Postgraduate College, Bhilai (C.G.) (India); Ramachandran, T.V. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2008-08-15

    In the frame of nationwide radon/thoron monitoring program, indoor radon/thoron and their progeny concentrations have been estimated for 210 dwellings situated in 8 towns (urban) and 9 villages (rural) of Chhattisgarh state of India. The measurement has been made on quarterly integrating cycle for one full year in each dwelling. Twin chamber dosimeter cup with LR-115 Type-II Solid State Nuclear Track Detector was used for the measurement of indoor radon/thoron concentration. The results show that the geometric mean of indoor thoron concentration in urban dwellings varies from 11.57 to 25.88Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 16.65Bqm{sup -3}, while in rural dwellings it varies from 12.50 to 30.08Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 19.00Bqm{sup -3}. The potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels of thoron in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 2.58 and 4.57 mWL, respectively. Similarly, the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations in urban dwellings is found to vary from 20.20 to 30.13Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 25.28Bqm{sup -3}, while in rural dwellings it varies from 15.50 to 36.05Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 27.32Bqm{sup -3}. The PAEC levels of radon in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 1.50 and 1.87 mWL, respectively. The dose contribution of thoron and progeny in total inhalation dose has been found to be more than 20% in all the surveyed places that show the necessity to pay attention to the presence of thoron and progeny from public health point of view.

  5. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women.

  6. Observed and Model-Derived Ozone Production Efficiency over Urban and Rural New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ninneman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the model-derived and observed ozone production efficiency (OPE = ∆Ox/∆NOz in one rural location, Pinnacle State Park (PSP in Addison, New York (NY, and one urban location, Queens College (QC in Flushing, NY, in New York State (NYS during photo-chemically productive hours (11 a.m.–4 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST in summer 2016. Measurement data and model predictions from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NOAA NAQFC—Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model versions 4.6 (v4.6 and 5.0.2 (v5.0.2 were used to assess the OPE at both sites. CMAQ-predicted and observed OPEs were often in poor agreement at PSP and in reasonable agreement at QC, with model-predicted and observed OPEs, ranging from approximately 5–11 and 10–13, respectively, at PSP; and 4–7 and 6–8, respectively, at QC. The observed relationship between OPE and oxides of nitrogen (NOx was studied at PSP to examine where the OPE downturn may have occurred. Summer 2016 observations at PSP did not reveal a distinct OPE downturn, but they did indicate that the OPE at PSP remained high (10 or greater regardless of the [NOx] level. The observed OPEs at QC were found by using species-specific reactive odd nitrogen (NOy instruments and an estimated value for nitrogen dioxide (NO2, since observed OPEs determined using non-specific NOx and NOy instruments yielded observed OPE results that (1 varied from approximately 11–25, (2 sometimes had negative [NOz] concentrations, and (3 were inconsistent with CMAQ-predicted OPE. This difference in observed OPEs at QC depending on the suite of instruments used suggests that species-specific NOx and NOy instruments may be needed to obtain reliable urban OPEs.

  7. ASSESSING INCOME EFFECT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES: A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY-BASED AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN KWARA STATE (NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Olaniyi Adewumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, governments initiate various programmes to address income poverty among rural farmers. However, studies that focus on the impact of such programmes on farmers’ income are either scanty or non-existent, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Therefore, this study examines the impact of Community-Based Agriculture and Rural Development Project (CBARDP in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 120 respondents comprising 60 benefi ciaries and 60 non-benefi ciaries of the programme. Descriptive statistics and double-diff erence estimator were used for the data analysis. The study showed that there was 46.3% increase in the income of the benefi ciaries while the non-benefi ciaries had just 7.4% increase. The study further revealed that there was a positive income diff erence of N151.27 in favour of the benefi ciaries of the project. However, the constraints to deriving a full impact of the programme by the benefi ciaries were: lack of commitment by the facilitators, lack of technical know-how, poor transportation system and inadequacy of the equipment provided. The study therefore recommends policies aimed at overhauling the activities of the facilitators, improving the technical skill of the benefi ciaries, improving the transportation system and providing the benefi ciaries with more equipment.

  8. Pragmatic help seeking: How sexual and gender minority groups access mental health care in a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Salvador, Melina; Kano, Miria

    2006-06-01

    This qualitative study examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in rural areas of the poor and multiethnic state of New Mexico access secular (professional and lay) and sacred (indigenous and Christian) mental health care resources. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to document the help-seeking processes of 38 rural LGBT people. Obtaining assistance was complicated by the ideal of self-reliance and the view of mental illness as a sign of weakness. Financial considerations and a lack of and community-based LGBT social networks also exerted substantial influence on help seeking. Many LGBT people would strategically remain silent about their sexuality or gender status and rely on their family ties to access the range of secular and sacred resources that are most commonly available in medically underserved rural communities. Although persons from sexual and gender minority groups often experience positive outcomes as a result of help seeking, some LGBT people remain vulnerable to anti-LGBT sentiments that persist within secular and sacred sectors of rural health care systems.

  9. Pattern of Alcohol Consumption and its Effects on Livelihood in Selected Rural Communities of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimelu M. U.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined alcohol consumption and its effects on economic and social livelihood of selected rural communities of Enugu State. One hundred and twenty randomly selected alcohol consuming heads of households and sixty four purposively selected non-alcohol consuming heads of household were used. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and analysed using percentage. Alcoholic beverages available were palm wine (100%, beer (100%, local gin (100%, spirit (89.2%, and burukutu (41.7%. Respondents indicated preference for palm wine (50.0%. Choice of alcoholic beverage was a function of several factors namely availability, ability to produce the alcohol, cost and others. Effects of alcohol consumption were evident by less commitment to livelihood activities, household’s welfare, incidents of violence and others. The study recommends that policies should be enacted to regulate proliferation and operation of alcohol enterprises in the rural areas. More importantly is the regulation of the type of alcohol marketed in the communities. Also government should promote programmes that target improved livelihood strategies and empowerment of rural people to enhance diversification of the rural economy.

  10. Pattern Of Alcohol Consumption And Its Effects On Livelihood In Selected Rural Communities Of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimelu, M. U.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined alcohol consumption and its effects on economic andsocial livelihood of selected rural communities of Enugu State. One hundred and twenty randomly selected alcohol consuming heads of households and sixty four purposively selected non-alcohol consuming heads of household were used. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and analysed using percentage. Alcoholic beverages available were palm wine (100%, beer (100%, local gin (100%, spirit (89.2%, and burukutu (41.7%. Respondents indicated preference for palm wine (50.0%. Choice of alcoholic beverage was a function of several factors namely availability, ability to produce the alcohol, cost and others. Effects of alcohol consumption wereevident by less commitment to livelihood activities, household’s welfare, incidents of violence and others. The study recommends that policies should be enacted to regulate proliferation and operation of alcohol enterprises in the rural areas. More importantly is the regulation of the type of alcohol marketed in the communities. Also government should promote programmes that target improved livelihood strategies and empowerment of rural people to enhance diversification of the rural economy.

  11. A comparative study of patients' attitudes toward clinical research in the United States and urban and rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Elizabeth; Wang, Tianyi; Lin, Tammy; Chen, Xisui; Guan, Zhe; Cao, Claudia; Rao, Huiying; Yang, Ming; Feng, Bo; Pui, Sandra; Chan, Melvin; Fu, Sherry; Lin, Andy; Wei, Lai; Lok, Anna S

    2015-04-01

    As the number of clinical trials conducted in China increases, understanding Chinese attitudes toward clinical research is critical for designing effective and ethical studies. Two survey studies were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to compare patient attitudes toward clinical research and factors affecting research participation in the United States and urban and rural China. We surveyed 525 patients in 2012 (186 US, 186 urban, 153 rural China) and 690 patients in 2013 (412 US, 206 urban, 72 rural China). US patients were more likely to have no concerns regarding research participation than Chinese patients. Most common concerns of US patients were safety, privacy and confidentiality, and time required. Safety was a top concern for many Chinese. Chinese patients, particularly rural Chinese, were more concerned about the likelihood of self-benefit, and receiving free medical care and financial incentive had greater influence on their participation. Being informed of the freedom to choose whether to participate or to leave a study was less important to Chinese patients. Our study provides important insights into Chinese patients' attitudes toward clinical research and the need to educate them about their rights. These findings help in designing cross-cultural clinical studies that maximize enrollment while upholding Western ethical standards.

  12. Acceptance of Climate Change by Rural Farming Communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Effect of Science and Government Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine Delta State rural farming communities’ attitude to climate change in relation to science and government credibility. A preparatory assessment of Delta State rural communities’ understanding of climate change and insights into potential barriers to communication were given by influences on their attitudes. Average of 60.46% of the farmers reported that climate change was occurring and asserted that climate change was the consequence of human activities. Most (91.23% were certain that climate change is adversely affecting their farming businesses. Many (mean=1.40 found climate change information not easily comprehensible. However the farmers have negative view about the credibility of science, but had low levels of confidence in government. They reported that lack of information was a barrier to adaptation to climate change. This suggests that such barrier lies with the Delta State extension service. There is also an indication that government through the public extension service, need to wake up to her responsibilities of sending related information the rural farming communities. The government should consider the local socio-cultural economic and biophysical environment of the farmers the information is meant for.

  13. Pattern of skin disorders in a rural community in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    west Nigeria. All consenting adults and children with parental consent that presented for the screening ... Keywords: pattern, skin disorders, skin infection, rural, community, Nigeria ..... Skin diseases in South-east Nigeria: a current perspective.

  14. the impact of ict in rural education: case study - enugu state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nathan

    example, Internet has become the most efficient means for communication, trading and delivery of services and goods influencing all human activities. Effective. ICT deployment ... The urban/rural distribution of the .... Thus a retail chain, for ...

  15. The impact of micro financing on poverty levels of rural women farm households in Abia state, Nigeria; implication for policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZEH Innocent

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the impact of micro-finance on poverty level of rural women farm households in Abia State, Nigeria: Implication for policy intervention. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to +select the local government areas, communities and respondents in the three (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia agricultural zones of the State. The sample size was 240 (120 a piece for rural women farmer borrowers and non borrowers. Instrument of data collection was a set of structured and pre-tested questionnaire administered on both groups of rural women farmers. The result indicated that incidence of poverty or head count ratio was 0.558 for the rural women farmers borrowers and 0.933 for the rural women farmer non borrowers; poverty gap otherwise known as income short fall was 0.4547 for the rural women farmer borrowers and 0.6995 for the rural women farmer non borrowers. The result of the paired t-test showed that micro-finance impacted significantly on annual farm income, farm size and fertilizer use level of rural women farmer borrowers at given levels of significance. It was however, recommended that increased subsidy policy on agro-inputs and increased funding by the micro-finance will significantly aim at reducing the poverty levels of these women.

  16. Are biogenic emissions a significant source of summertime atmospheric toluene in rural Northeastern United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. White

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Summertime atmospheric toluene enhancements at Thompson Farm in the rural northeastern United States were unexpected and resulted in a toluene/benzene seasonal pattern that was distinctly different from that of other anthropogenic volatile organic compounds. Consequentially, three hydrocarbon sources were investigated for potential contributions to the enhancements during 2004–2006. These included: 1 increased warm season fuel evaporation coupled with changes in reformulated gasoline (RFG content to meet U.S. EPA summertime volatility standards, 2 local industrial emissions and 3 local vegetative emissions. The contribution of fuel evaporation emission to summer toluene mixing ratios was estimated to range from 16 to 30 pptv d−1, and did not fully account for the observed enhancements (20–50 pptv in 2004–2006. Static chamber measurements of alfalfa, a crop at Thompson Farm, and dynamic branch enclosure measurements of loblolly pine trees in North Carolina suggested vegetative emissions of 5 and 12 pptv d−1 for crops and coniferous trees, respectively. Toluene emission rates from alfalfa are potentially much larger as these plants were only sampled at the end of the growing season. Measured biogenic fluxes were on the same order of magnitude as the influence from gasoline evaporation and industrial sources (regional industrial emissions estimated at 7 pptv d−1 and indicated that local vegetative emissions make a significant contribution to summertime toluene enhancements. Additional studies are needed to characterize the variability and factors controlling toluene emissions from alfalfa and other vegetation types throughout the growing season.

  17. Aids em área rural de Minas Gerais: abordagem cultural AIDS in rural Minas Gerais state (Southeastern Brazil: a cultural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Neves Guimarães

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever comportamentos facilitadores à exposição ao HIV/Aids em população rural. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa realizada com 52 pacientes atendidos em ambulatório de DST/Aids, em 2002-2003. Foram feitas entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas em profundidade com os participantes (30 homens e 22 mulheres, conduzidas no ambulatório ou em suas residências, em municípios rurais da região norte de Minas Gerais. As entrevistas foram transcritas, analisadas em categorias: concepções da doença, trabalho, sociabilidade, informações prévias sobre a doença, modo de vida. A interpretação dos resultados baseou-se na análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Na percepção dos entrevistados, a Aids era "doença de cidade grande" e de "forasteiro", desvinculada da cultura local. Todos os entrevistados se infectaram através de atividades heterossexuais ou homossexuais. A migração rural-urbana é aspecto relevante da infecção do HIV na região devido ao deslocamento em busca de trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: As noções populares de doença contribuem para vulnerabilidade à infecção pelo HIV. É necessário apreender noções culturais locais para melhor entender as categorias de pensamento dessa população, enfocando essas noções ao divulgar informações sobre a doença.OBJECTIVE: To describe behaviors facilitating HIV/AIDS exposure in rural population. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted comprising 52 patients who attended a STD/AIDS outpatient clinic in 2002 and 2003. In-depth open and semi-structured interviews were carried out with subjects (30 males, 22 females at the clinic or at home in rural municipalities in the northern area of Minas Gerais state, Southeastern Brazil. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed considering categories such as disease, work, social life, prior HIV/AIDS knowledge, and lifestyle. Content analysis was used for result interpretation. RESULTS: Interviewees perceived AIDS as a "big city

  18. Knowledge of nutritional and health needs of children among rural residents of Enugu north senatorial zone in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Ngwu, Christopher N; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2015-01-01

    The article assessed knowledge of the nutritional and health needs of children among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were conducted with all male and female groups in four purposively chosen rural communities in Nsukka Senatorial zone of Enugu State. These generated data on participants' knowledge on the nutritional and health needs of the children as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. All the participants were married with mean age of 41 and 36 years for males and females, respectively. The participants had six and four children on the average for male and female participants, respectively. Findings show that participants demonstrate knowledge of basic dietary needs of children; however, actual practice is lacking. Men believe women have the sole responsibility for children's nutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding is not adhered to by participants. Some reservation still exists about immunization. Sustained health education on exclusive breastfeeding and child immunization targeting both sexes is still needed.

  19. Land-use change, economics, and rural well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana L.K.; Johnson, Rex R.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Thomas, Catherine Cullinane

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings included in a comprehensive new report (see USGS Professional Paper 1800) which investigated land-use change, economic characteristics, and rural community well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States. Once one of the largest grassland-wetlands ecosystems on earth, the North American prairie has experienced extensive conversion to cultivated agriculture, with farming becoming the dominant land use in the region over the last century. Both perennial habitat lands and agricultural croplands retain importance economically, socially, and culturally. Greatly increased oil and gas development in recent years brought rises in employment and income but also stressed infrastructure, cost of living, and crime rates. Research described in these reports focuses on land-use dynamics and illuminates how economic variables and rural development in the Prairie Pothole Region might be influenced as land uses change.

  20. Introduction to the special issue on observations and source attribution of ozone in rural regions of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefohn, Allen S.; Cooper, Owen R.

    2015-05-01

    We thank Dr. Mae Gustin for initiating the concept of this special issue and inviting us to serve as Atmospheric Environment Guest Editors. In the current rulemaking activities associated with the United States EPA proposing lower National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone (O3), there has been considerable attention drawn to the elevated O3 concentrations that occur in the western U.S. (EPA, 2013; Federal Register, 2014) and the possibility of exceedances at urban and rural locations resulting from background O3 at current and lower proposed standards. The subjects covered in this special issue are timely in regards to providing insight into the importance of the physical and chemical processes that affect the spatial distribution and temporal trends of surface and lower tropospheric O3 across the rural western U.S.

  1. Study of acute undifferentiated fever cases and their etiologies in rural Konkan area of Maharashtra state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil S. N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute undifferentiated fever (AUF is a common cause for which the patients seek health care in India. It is region specific and has similar clinical presentation, with varied etiologies. Due to this it posses challenge to the diagnosis, treatment and public health. Majority of patients present with nondescript symptoms. Scrub typhus, Malaria, Enteric Fever, Dengue, Leptospirosis, Chikungunya, Spotted fever, Rickettsiosis, Hantavirus, Q fever, Brucellosis, Influenza and other bacterial infections are some of the common etiologies of AUF. The prevalence of local AUF etiologies helps to prioritize differential diagnosis and guide the treatment. The study aimed to find out the predominant AUF etiologies in the rural Konkan area of Maharashtra state in India. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital on the samples received from District hospitals and Primary health centers from Sindhudurg District of Maharashtra state for the duration of October 2012 to January 2014. Patients with age 5years and with classical symptoms of febrile illness were included in the study. About 500 blood samples received were investigated for Malaria, Bacterial culture sensitivity, Leptospira culture, ELISA for scrub typhus, Brucella, Dengue and Leptospira and further evaluated for commonest region specific AUF etiology. Results: The study included 500 blood samples obtained from patients presenting with classical symptoms of AUF. Samples received from males showed highest number of positive cases amounting for 82.47% with majority of cases (83% cases in middle age group. The sero-positivity of samples accounted for 42.8%. Brucella was the most common cause of AUF (28.50% followed by Leptospira (27.10% and Scrub typhus (21.49%. Interestingly there were no positive cases of malaria and only 11.21% samples positive for Dengue which are considered as most common AUF etiologies and treated accordingly

  2. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  3. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.

  4. [Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humaitá, State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; de Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humaitá in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humaitá's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health.

  5. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.

  6. Epidemiological study of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in a rural village in Yucatan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Fraser, A; Allan, J C; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; Craig, P S

    1999-01-01

    A survey to detect human taeniasis and cysticercosis was conducted in a community in Yucatan state, Mexico, an area endemic for Taenia solium. Information on the environmental, demographic and risk factors associated with transmission of T. solium within the community was recorded on questionnaires. Although no Taenia eggs or proglottides were found in the initial faecal samples collected from each of the 475 subjects, the results of a capture-ELISA for T. solium coproantigen were positive for 10 of the subjects (of both genders and various ages). After treatment with niclosamide, proglottides were detected in purge samples from seven of these 10 subjects. The prevalence of parasitologically confirmed taeniasis was therefore 1.5% (seven in 475). The other three ELISA-positive cases delayed supplying faecal material post-treatment, and it is nuclear whether they had expelled proglottides before providing the samples. All 10 ELISA-positive subjects became ELISA-negative after treatment. Seroprevalence of human cysticercosis, based on the detection in immunoblots of antibodies to antigens of 8- and 26-kDa from a crude saline extract of T. solium metacestodes, was 3.7% (i.e. five positives out of 134 subjects). None of the seropositive cases demonstrated clinical symptoms of infection. Again, the positive cases were of both genders and various ages. Although tongue palpation indicated that 17 (23%) of 75 pigs kept within the community had T. solium cysticercosis, the results of immunoblotting demonstrated antibodies to the 8- and/or 26-kDa antigens of T. solium in 26 (35%). The pigs allowed to roam throughout the community were far more likely to have cysticercosis than those kept in pens (odds ratio = 42, with a 95% confidence interval of 5.05-920.2; P taeniasis and cysticercosis included the eating of infected pork and close proximity to a carrier of T. solium. The main risk factor identified for porcine cysticercosis was free-range husbandry, permitting access to

  7. Rural migration in Bolivia: the impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal, Carlos Balderrama; Tassi, Nico; Miranda, Ana Rubena; Canedo, Lucia Aramayo; Cazorla, Ivan

    2011-04-15

    This case study analyses current migration dynamics in two regions of Bolivia: Northern Potosi, one of the main areas of outmigration in Bolivia, and the municipality of San Julian in the Department of Santa Cruz, a major destination for internal migrants, some of whom come from Northern Potosi. The research was qualitative in nature, with specific attention to breadth and accuracy in the information and analysis. The methods used were participative and the research was done in collaboration with the rural and indigenous organisations in the two selected areas: the Federation of Indigenous Ayllus of Northern Potosi (Federacion de Ayllus Originarios Indigenas del Norte de Potosi Charka Qhara Qhara - FAOI-NP) and the Federation of Intercultural Communities of San Julian (Federacion de Comunidades Interculturales de San Julian). The information gathering process examined a wide range of factors that may trigger migration, including the possible influence of climate change and public policies on migration. The key challenge was to understand current patterns of migration, the processes involved and the social, cultural, economic and political causes and effects, taking into account issues that are increasing in importance, such as climate change, and seeking to discover the extent of their influence in the midst of other factors that drive migration. It is well known that migration is not a simple occurrence. In fact, it involves a series of processes, motivations, causes and decisions. Because it is a collective rather than an individual process, it takes on the character of a 'social phenomenon' that is historically and geographically determined. In many cases, there are cultural practices of transhumance, such as agriculture on different ecological levels or the use of winter and summer pastures. This involves people moving from one place to another, sometimes travelling long distances and crossing districts for several months at a time. These transhumance

  8. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  9. Diabetes Burden and Access to Preventive Care in the Rural United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Santosh; Gillespie, Kathleen N.; McBride, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: National databases can be used to investigate diabetes prevalence and health care use. Guideline-based care can reduce diabetes complications and morbidity. Yet little is known about the prevalence of diabetes and compliance with diabetes care guidelines among rural residents and whether different national databases provide similar…

  10. Environmental Carcinogen Releases and Lung Cancer Mortality in Rural-Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental hazards are unevenly distributed across communities and populations; however, little is known about the distribution of environmental carcinogenic pollutants and lung cancer risk across populations defined by race, sex, and rural-urban setting. Methods: We used the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database to conduct an…

  11. Diabetes Burden and Access to Preventive Care in the Rural United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Santosh; Gillespie, Kathleen N.; McBride, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: National databases can be used to investigate diabetes prevalence and health care use. Guideline-based care can reduce diabetes complications and morbidity. Yet little is known about the prevalence of diabetes and compliance with diabetes care guidelines among rural residents and whether different national databases provide similar…

  12. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  13. Past and projected rural land conversion in the US at state, regional, and national levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The developed land area of the US increased by 14.2 million hectares between 1982 and 2003. Along with a projected US population increase to more than 360 million individuals by 2030 is an expected continuation of expanding rural land development. Related to population growth, ru...

  14. Access to Specialty Health Care for Rural American Indians in Two States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Hollow, Walter B.; Casey, Susan; Hart, L. Gary; Larson, Eric H.; Moore, Kelly; Lewis, Ervin; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Grossman, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Indian Health Service (IHS), whose per capita expenditure for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) health services is about half that of the US civilian population, is the only source of health care funding for many rural AI/ANs. Specialty services, largely funded through contracts with outside practitioners, may be limited by…

  15. Urban and rural dimensions in post-disaster adjustment challenges in selected communities in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Usman Adebimpe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human populations are exposed to climate change directly through changing weather patterns as manifested in the more frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in ecosystem functions. Rainstorm disasters are common events associated with environmental change and settlements in Kwara state, Nigeria were ravaged by rainstorm events between 2003 and 2006. More than 1000 households were displaced from their habitual homes with consequences for human health and other adjustment challenges. This paper examines the variations in the post-disaster adjustment challenges of rural and urban households so as to identify location specific intervention strategies in the domains of environ- ment and health of the victims. A sample of 200 households was drawn from all households affected by rainstorm disaster as reflected in the FEMA records during the period. A structured questionnaire was administered in addition to the secondary data and analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The  findings include that most households required support before replacing the roofs and/or walls of their homes. Sources of support however vary. Urban households received more institutional support but lower than the amount required for the renovation. A signifficant proportion of urban households moved to poorer homes where they faced challenges relating to the quality of environmental services. Many urban respondents also reported increases in the occurrence of water-borne and weather-related diseases and ailments. Rural households indicated no signi$cant ecological differences between their former homes and the areas to which they relocated. The paper concludes that signi$cant variations exist in the adjustment challenges faced by rural and urban dwellers after a disaster. Community efforts hold promise for emergency response particularly during disasters in rural areas.

  16. Linking health states to subjective well-being: an empirical study of 5854 rural residents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Jia, X; Zhu, M; Chen, J

    2015-06-01

    Despite a maturing literature on the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and health status of the general population in Western countries, little is known regarding the happiness-health relation in China, and rural populations in particular. This study was aimed to explore the correlation between SWB and health states of China's rural residents. Cross-sectional survey. Data derived from a household survey conducted in 2010 with 5854 rural residents included. The single-item self-reported happiness measure used in the World Values Survey was employed to measure SWB. EQ-5D dimensions and visual analogue scale (VAS) were applied to measure subjective health status. The number of chronic diseases was used as proxy of objective health status. OLS regressions were performed to estimate the variation in SWB by health status and β coefficients were employed as effect size measures. Among EQ-5D dimensions, anxiety/depression had the strongest negative effect on SWB. Having severe anxiety/depression problems could reduce SWB by 1.65 on a scale 1-4. Reporting severe problems in pain/discomfort could also reduce SWB by 0.41, while the impact of other dimensions was insignificant. The coefficient on VAS implied a difference in SWB of 1.60 between the worst health state and the best health state. And suffering from three chronic diseases could reduce SWB by 0.62, but the effect turned insignificant when all measures of subjective health status were entered in the regression. The results from this study verify the strongly negative effect of the mental health dimension on SWB in the context of rural China. And suffering from chronic diseases has substantial negative effect on SWB even after subjective health status is controlled for. But the impact of chronic diseases on SWB could be fully captured when all measures of subjective health status are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Searching for Comparative International Water Research: Urban and Rural Water Conservation Research in India and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Wescoat Jr.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparison is common in water management research: every table, map, and graph invites comparisons of different places and variables. Detailed international comparisons, however, seem infrequent in water resources research. To assess this perceived gap, this paper searched for examples of comparative research between two water sub-sectors in two countries using systematic bibliographic mapping procedures. It focused on rural and urban water conservation research in India and the United States. Search methods built upon procedures initially developed for the FAO Investment Centre and more advanced systematic review methods. The search generally confirmed that there have been few detailed comparative international studies on the subject of this review. Not surprisingly, there are a greater number of comparative studies between rural and urban water conservation within each country. The search also identified different conservation emphases in the two countries, e.g., rainwater harvesting in India compared with stormwater quality management in the United States. It identified unanticipated publications and l¬ines of comparative water conservation (e.g. comparative physiology. Some transnational research goes beyond comparison to address the diffusion of innovations, i.e. research linkages as well as comparisons, although these studies are also few. The more prevalent pattern involves parallel literatures, which indicate substantial opportunities for future comparative and transnational research. This review also identified diffusion of international knowledge paths that are not the product of formal comparative research. The final section focuses on the prospects and priorities for future international and inter-sectoral research, e.g. paired multi-objective river basin research, linkages between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, diffusion of water conservation innovations, and synthesis of research on urban and rural

  18. Rural poverty and the welfare state: a discursive transformation in Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Cloke, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper some of the issues raised in researching the 'problematic' of rural life-styles are discussed. It is argued that traditional normative approaches to the study of deprivation and poverty need to be supplemented by an understanding of varying social and cultural constructions of reality, community, living standards, and welfare. The importance of such social and cultural constructs is illustrated in a discussion of the discursive transformation of previous codes, symbols, and conc...

  19. Prediabetes in rural and urban children in 3 states in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradillas-García, Celia; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Guízar, Juan M; Camacho, Nicolás; De la Cruz-Mendoza, Esperanza; Quemada, Leticia; Sierra, Juan Francisco Hernández

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the frequency, distribution, and factors associated with prediabetes (fasting glucose, 100-125 mg/dL) in rural and urban children from San Luis Potosí, León, and Querétaro in central Mexico. Family history, somatometry, and levels of fasting insulin, glucose, and lipids were collected in 1238 children 6 to 13 years of age. The authors found no cases of type 2 diabetes and a 5.7% frequency of prediabetes. The group with prediabetes had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Prediabetes was more frequent in León, with similar distribution in rural and urban children. The frequency of insulin resistance was 24.1%, with higher figures in urban groups and in San Luis Potosí. In multivariate analysis, prediabetes was associated with insulin resistance and residence in León. The authors concluded that in central Mexico the frequency of prediabetes is significant, and it is associated with insulin resistance and a geographic location, but not with obesity or urban vs rural dwelling.

  20. Assessing the extension service needs of credit officers of microfinance banks in Anambah state: Implications for rural finance intermediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onugu Charles Uchenna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The credit officers of Microfinance Banks (MFBs are key players in rural finance intermediation for economic development. The paper assessed their extension service needs in Anambra State. Thirty-six (36 credit officers drawn from eleven (11 rural based MFBs in Anambra State were the respondents. Data was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics of simple percentage, frequency table and mean. Three (3 hypotheses were tested with the use of Chi square (x2. The findings of the study revealed that the credit officers are sufficiently knowledgeable about credit extension service delivery. However, they were found not involved in designing, and implementation of effective credit policies for their clients. Also, they are not adequately motivated to carry out their duties. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the board of directors and management of the MFBs should provide capacity building program for credit officers to improve and sustain their knowledge and skills, also they should improve their welfare especially, attractive and encouraging salary, incentives and insurance cover which are paramount to performance.

  1. Commission staff reports: impact of 1978--1979 winter curtailment for twenty-nine pipeline companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-18

    Results of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) staff's survey are reported on short-term natural gas curtailment impacts as projected for the forthcoming winter heating season; November 1978, through March 1979, by interstate pipelines and their customers. Data are tabulated on estimated and actual gas supplies available, emergency gas transactions, weather, and potential availability of emergency gas. (JRD)

  2. Evaluation of Predicted and Observed Data on Biotransformation of Twenty-Nine Trace Organic Chemicals

    KAUST Repository

    Bertolini, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Trace organic chemicals present in household products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products may have adverse ecotoxicological effects once they are released to the environment. These chemicals are usually transported with the sewage to wastewater treatment facilities, where they might be attenuated depending on the degree of treatment applied prior to discharge to receiving streams. This study evaluates the removal performance of 29 trace organic compounds during two different activated sludge treatment systems. Predominant attenuation processes such as biotransformation and sorption for the target compounds were identified. Biotransformation rate constants determined in this study were used to assess removal of compounds from other treatment plants with similar operational conditions, using data gathered from the literature. The commercial software Catalogic was applied to predict environmental fate of chemicals. The software program consisted of four models able to simulate molecular transformations and to generate degradation trees. In order to assess the accuracy of this program in predicting biotransformation, one biodegradation model is used to contrast predicted degradation pathway with metabolic pathways reported in the literature. The predicted outcome was correct for more than 40 percent of the 29 targeted substances, while 38 percent of the chemicals exhibited some degree of lower agreement between predicted and observed pathways. Percent removal data determined for the two treatment facilities was compared with transformation probability output from Catalogic. About 80 percent of the 29 compounds exhibited a good correlation between probability of transformation of the parent compound and percent removal data from the two treatment plants (R2 = 0.82 and 0.9). Based upon findings for 29 trace organic chemicals regarding removal during activated sludge treatment, attacked fragments present in their structures, predicted data from Catalogic, and peer-reviewed pathways, possible indicator compounds capable of representing the removal of other compounds based on similar structures were identified. In conclusion, nine among the 29 select compounds were grouped into two categories showing similarities between removal, probability of transformation and attacked fragments. If more chemicals are evaluated, this approach could be useful to establish other indicator compounds based on identification of groups of chemicals with similar fate, properties, and structures.

  3. Twenty-nine day study of stability for six different parenteral nutrition mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desport; Hoedt; Pelagatti; Lagarde; Lorieul; Chalmel; Sultan; Feiss

    1997-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the particle size stability of six parenteral nutrition regimens, fitted to various pathologies, and used by the University Hospital of Limoges. The mixtures contained glucose (30 or 50%), amino acids (Hyperamine(R)25), and either long-chain triglycerides (20% Intralipide(R)) or a combination of medium and long-chain triglycerides (20% Médialipide(R)). The regimens were not supplemented. RESULTS: The visual examinations, particle size analysis and physico-chemical tests, carried out during a long storage period, did not reveal any significant evolution of the lipid emulsions. All the tested formulae were stable for 28 days at 4 degrees C plus 24 h at room temperature. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the choice of lipid emulsions depends, for these formulae, on the metabolic and clinical needs of the treated patients.

  4. Assessing the Relationship Between Hazard Mitigation Plan Quality and Rural Status in a Cohort of 57 Counties from 3 States in the Southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Salvesen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural counties face unique challenges with regard to disaster vulnerability and resilience. We compared the quality of hazard mitigation plans (HMPs completed in accordance with provisions of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 from 21 urban and 36 rural counties in three southeastern states. HMPs were content analyzed to calculate a score for six principles of plan quality. Generalized linear models were used to assess how the mean number of items within each of the six principles was related to urban status, adjusting for total county population and state-level differences. Adjusted mean ratios were higher in urban areas for goals, fact base, policies and participation. Rural areas performed better than urban counterparts in both implementation and monitoring and inter-organizational coordination. Our results suggest that there are important differences in hazard mitigation plan quality between urban and rural counties. Future research should explore characteristics of urban and rural counties that explain the observed differences, and whether such differences can help explain the inequalities in response and recovery to disasters between urban and rural counties.

  5. Differences in Family Planning Services by Rural-urban Geography: Survey of Title X-Supported Clinics In Great Plains and Midwestern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Summer L; Starr, Katherine A; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the nature of rural-urban variation in U.S. family planning services would help address disparities in unmet contraceptive need. In 2012, some 558 Title X-supported clinics in 16 Great Plains and Midwestern states were surveyed. Rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes were used to categorize clinic locations as urban, large rural city, small rural town or isolated small rural town. Bivariate analyses examined key domains of service provision by RUCA category and clinic type. The proportion of clinics offering walk-in appointments was lower in isolated small rural towns (47%) than in the other RUCA categories (67-73%). Results were similar for sites that do not specialize in family planning or reproductive health, but no variation was seen among specialty clinics. Overall, availability of evening or weekend appointments varied in a linear fashion, falling from 73% in urban areas to 29% in isolated small rural towns. On-site provision of most hormonal methods was most common in urban areas and least common in isolated small rural towns, while provision of nonhormonal methods was similar across RUCA categories. Sixty percent of clinics provided IUDs or implants. For clinics that did not, the only barriers that varied geographically were low IUD demand and lack of trained IUD providers; these barriers were most common in isolated rural towns (42% and 70%, respectively). While important characteristics, such as clinics' specialization (or lack thereof), are linked to the provision of family planning services, geographic disparities exist. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  6. Rural-urban focus of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziero, Nelí; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Steindel, Mário; Link, Juliana Seger; Rossini, Diego; Alban, Silvana M; Nascimento, Aguinaldo J

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, bordering Argentina and Parana State, southern Brazil, where in recent years, VL has been recorded in both dogs and humans. Clinical signs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for Leishmania investigation. Among the 252 dogs surveyed, 41 were positive by ELISA assay, 43 in IFAT (titer>40), and 55 by PCR. From the 48 positive for VL by both serological and molecular methods, 19 (39.6%) presented clinical symptoms of leishmaniosis, 35 (72.9%) were from rural areas, and 13 (27.1%) were from urban areas. This pilot study confirms the occurrence of VL among dogs in the far western region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, with high risk of CVL outbreaks and presenting a threat to humans.

  7. Magnitude and Frequency of Rural Floods in the Southeastern United States, 2006: Volume 1, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; Feaster, Toby D.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    A multistate approach was used to update methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in rural, ungaged basins in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina that are not substantially affected by regulation, tidal fluctuations, or urban development. Annual peak-flow data through September 2006 were analyzed for 943 streamgaging stations having 10 or more years of data on rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and adjacent parts of Alabama, Florida, Tennessee, and Virginia. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for the 943 stations by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows for each station to a Pearson Type III distribution. As part of the computation of flood-frequency estimates for these streamgaging stations, a new value for the generalized-skew coefficient was developed by using a Bayesian generalized least-squares regression model. Additionally, basin characteristics for the streamgaging stations were computed by using a geographical information system and automated computer algorithms. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least-squares regression, was used to develop a set of predictive equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent chance exceedance flows for rural ungaged basins in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 828 stream-gaging stations were combined to form the final database used in the regional regression analysis. Five hydrologic regions were developed for Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The final predictive equations are all functions of drainage area and percentage of the drainage basin within each hydrologic region. Average standard errors of prediction for these regression equations range from 34.5 to 47.7 percent.

  8. Implementation of a vision-screening program in rural northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Edmund; Siedlecki, Andrew N; Deng, Jie; Pollard, Margaret C; Cha, Sandolsam; Pepin, Susan M; Salcone, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Rural populations comprise almost 20% of the US population and face unique barriers in receiving health care. We describe the implementation of a medical student-run free vision-screening clinic as a strategy to overcome barriers in accessing eye care in New Hampshire and Vermont. Medical students were trained by an ophthalmologist to administer screening eye examinations. Patients from New Hampshire and Vermont were enrolled through a free community clinic. Screening included a questionnaire, distance and near visual acuity, extraocular movements, confrontational visual fields, and Amsler grid. Patients who met predetermined screening criteria were referred to an ophthalmologist or optometrist for further evaluation. Data including patient demographics, appointment attendance, level of education, and diagnoses were recorded and analyzed. Of 103 patients (mean age of 45.5±12.3 years, 63% female), 74/103 (72%) were referred for further evaluation, and 66/74 (89%) attended their referral appointments. Abnormal ophthalmologic examination findings were observed in 58/66 (88%) patients who attended their referral appointment. Uncorrected refractive error was the most common primary diagnosis in 38% of referred patients. Other diagnoses included glaucoma suspect (21%), retinal diseases (8%), amblyopia (8%), cataract (6%), others (6%), and normal examination (12%). Of the 8/74 (11%) referred patients who did not attend their appointments, reasons included patient cancellation of appointment, work conflicts, or forgetfulness. Patients traveled a mean distance of 16.6 miles (range: 0-50 miles) to attend screening examinations. Mean time for patients' last effort to seek eye care was 7.1 years (range: 1-54 years). This study underscores the high prevalence of unmet eye care needs in a rural population. Furthermore, it demonstrates that using community health centers as a patient base for screening can yield a high referral attendance rate for this at-risk population and

  9. Observations of nonmethane hydrocarbons and oxygenated volatile organic compounds at a rural site in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Daniel; Pos, Willer; Milne, Peter; Farmer, Charles; Zika, Rod; Apel, Eric; Olszyna, Ken; Kliendienst, Tad; Lonneman, William; Bertman, Steve; Shepson, Paul; Starn, Tim

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of an extensive range of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) including alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes were conducted for several weeks during the summer of 1995 as part of the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) at a rural experimental site (Youth, Inc.) 32 km southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. These measurements were conducted to (1) determine the absolute magnitude and variability of oxygenated compounds found in a contemporary rural region; (2) assess the importance of the measured ambient levels of OVOCs on a photochemical reactivity basis relative to the more commonly determined NMHCs; and (3) to evaluate our ability to accurately measure oxygenates by the current techniques employed under a field study scenario. Several other physical (temperature, insolation, etc.), meteorological (wind velocity, wind direction, atmospheric structure, and boundary layer height), and chemical (criterion pollutants, NOx, SO2, CO, O3, etc.) parameters were measured concurrently with the NMHC and OVOC measurements. During the study period, OVOCs were consistently the dominant compounds present, and methanol and acetone had the highest mixing ratios. Although OVOCs made up the majority of the volatile organic compound component on a mass basis, a substantial sink for OH was isoprene and its immediate oxidation products, methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. In combination with CO and formaldehyde, these compounds comprised about 85% of the observed OH reactivity at the site. Acetaldehyde and methanol were responsible for an additional 10%, with the NMHCs and remaining OVOCs making up the final 5% of the measured OH reactivity at the site. These observed patterns reinforce recent studies which find OVOCs to be an important component of the rural troposphere.

  10. Implementation of a vision-screening program in rural northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Edmund Tsui,1,2 Andrew N Siedlecki,3 Jie Deng,3 Margaret C Pollard,3 Sandolsam Cha,3 Susan M Pepin,4 Erin M Salcone4 1Department of Surgery, Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 3Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, 4Section of Ophthalmology, Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Background: Rural populations comprise almost 20% of the US population and face unique barriers in receiving health care. We describe the implementation of a medical student-run free vision-screening clinic as a strategy to overcome barriers in accessing eye care in New Hampshire and Vermont.Methods: Medical students were trained by an ophthalmologist to administer screening eye examinations. Patients from New Hampshire and Vermont were enrolled through a free community clinic. Screening included a questionnaire, distance and near visual acuity, extraocular movements, confrontational visual fields, and Amsler grid. Patients who met predetermined screening criteria were referred to an ophthalmologist or optometrist for further evaluation. Data including patient demographics, appointment attendance, level of education, and diagnoses were recorded and analyzed.Results: Of 103 patients (mean age of 45.5±12.3 years, 63% female, 74/103 (72% were referred for further evaluation, and 66/74 (89% attended their referral appointments. Abnormal ophthalmologic examination findings were observed in 58/66 (88% patients who attended their referral appointment. Uncorrected refractive error was the most common primary diagnosis in 38% of referred patients. Other diagnoses included glaucoma suspect (21%, retinal diseases (8%, amblyopia (8%, cataract (6%, others (6%, and normal examination (12%. Of the 8/74 (11% referred patients who did not attend their appointments, reasons included patient cancellation of appointment, work conflicts, or forgetfulness

  11. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREITAS, Erlane Chaves; OLIVEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANDRADE, Mônica Coelho; VASCONCELOS, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; da SILVA, José Damião; CÂNDIDO, Darlan da Silva; PEREIRA, Laíse dos Santos; CORREIA, João Paulo Ramalho; da CRUZ, José Napoleão Monte; CAVALCANTI, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease. PMID:26603232

  12. ZAdoption of Herbicides and Fertilizers Among Rural Farmers of Zone B Area of Kogi State Agricultrual Development Project, Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Onugba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine adoption of herbicides and fertilizers among rural farmers in Zone B area of Kogi State Agricultural Department Project (KADP. A total of 105 farmers were stratified and randomly interviewed. Frequency distribution and percentage were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that 88 and 96% of the farmers in the area were aware of herbicides and fertilizer respectively. Majority (74% of the farmers obtained much of their information from extension agents. It was however stated that project scarcity (46% and high cost of fertilizers (30% were the major limitation to the usage of fertilizers while the major limitations to the usage of herbicides were the high cost (30%, lack of capital (30% and technical knowhow (19%. It was recommended that government and agenesis responsible for the procurement and distribution of herbicides and fertilizers ensure proper and timely delivery to target users at subsidized price to enable interested farmers afford them.

  13. Myopia in schoolchildren in a rural community in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Lievanos O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Omar Garcia-Lievanos, Leticia Sanchez-Gonzalez, Nadia Espinosa-Cruz, Luis A Hernandez-Flores, Leonel Salmeron-Leal, Hector D Torres-Rodriguez Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN, Ex-Hacienda del Mayorazgo, Mexico City, Mexico Purpose: This study sought to determine the prevalence of myopia in schoolchildren of a rural population in Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 317 children between 6 and 12 years old. A complete refractive examination was performed, including static retinoscopy without cycloplegic agents. All procedures were conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Results: In total, 9.7% (95% CI: 13.07–6.52 of the examined children were myopic (spherical equivalent ≤ −0.50 D, 4.4% (95% CI: 6.66–2.14 presented astigmatism (cylinder ≤ −1.50 D, and 5.4% (95% CI: 7.89–2.91 presented hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥ +0.50 D. Conclusion: Additional research is required to assess the prevalence of refractive errors in rural areas in Mexico, to analyze the associated risk factors, and to implement appropriate eye care plans for this population. Keywords: myopia, refractive errors, hyperopia, astigmatism

  14. Occurrence of ectoparasites on dogs in rural regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Junior, Livio Martins; Rembeck, Karina; Mendonça, Filipe Lucas de Melo; Azevedo, Sandro Coelho; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Ribeiro, Mucio Flavio Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined occurrences of ectoparasites and identified them on dogs in rural regions in Brazil, and assessed the influence of climate on these parasites. Ectoparasites were randomly collected from 194 dogs living on farms located in Lavras (n = 92) and Nanuque (n = 102) during the dry season. During the subsequent rainy season, the same dogs in Lavras (n = 71) and Nanuque (n = 66) were resampled. During the experiment, fleas, ticks, lice and fly larvae were collected. The flea species Ctenocephalides felis was the most common ectoparasite collected from these dogs. The main tick species that infested the dogs in rural areas of Nanuque and Lavras was Amblyomma cajennense. In Lavras, the dogs had high levels of flea infestation (80.4 and 88.7% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and low levels of tick infestation (19.6 and 28.2% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively), without any significant differences in infestation rates between the seasons. In Nanuque, moderate levels of flea infestation (68.6 and 43.9% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and A. cajennense (65.7 and 47.0% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) were observed, with significantly lower prevalence in the rainy season (p < 0.05). The presence of ectoparasites was evident at both times of the year, but the different temperatures may have influenced the occurrences of parasites in Lavras and Nanuque.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among married women in an urban and rural community, Khartoum state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Mohammed Sabahelzain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended or unplanned pregnancy has been a distressing reality among females in the reproductive age group particularly in developing countries. The repercussions of such events range from illegal abortions to various health related problems associated with pregnancy in mothers. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in an urban and rural community in Khartoum state, to determine the associated factors of unintended pregnancy and to verify the reasons behind unintended pregnancy as perceived by the married women in the area. Methodology: It was a community-based; cross sectional study conducted in Riyadh and Alshekh Elfadni areas in Khartoum state. The sample size was calculated as 341. The study population were married women of reproductive age (15--‐49 years, selected by multistage stratified sampling. Data was collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and analysed by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to test the association between the dependent and independent variables. Level of significance was determined at 95% (P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Prevalence of unintended pregnancy was high at 30.2% among the study sample. Significant association (95% CI, p<0.05 was seen between unintended pregnancy and education, household size, parity and use of modern contraceptives methods Conclusion: This study concluded that the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in rural and urban communities in Khartoum state is high. The unintended pregnancy increases as the level of education increases. Women with big household size and high parity are more likely to have experienced unintended pregnancy. The most important reason behind unintended pregnancy is less spacing between one pregnancy and the other.

  16. Aging and eating in the rural, southern United States: beliefs about salt and its effect on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon L; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Wetmore, Lindsay K; Bell, Ronny A; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws upon qualitative research conducted among older adults in the rural, southern United States in which they articulated their beliefs and experiences with nutrition and foods, and lay models of the connection of diet with chronic disease. Salt emerged as a focus of contention. The goals of the paper are to (1) present the culturally constructed meaning of salt, (2) contrast the cultural meaning with biomedical views, and (3) discuss how these findings can be applied to health education and better doctor-patient communication. Data were collected in two rural communities characterized by high rates of poverty and a high proportion of minority residents. A total of 116 African American, Native American and white adults aged 60 years and older participated in 55 in-depth interviews or seven focus groups. A systematic analysis of text showed that salt was a highly contested component of food. While valued for its role in traditional foods and cuisine, it also held negative connotations because of biomedical links to chronic diseases prevalent in the population. We suggest that attempts to control salt intake are made difficult by the changes in taste perceptions that accompany aging. Respondents' articulation of salt's role in health and disease shows cross-over among different chronic diseases and a lay interpretation of blood as the medium through which salt affects disease. These older adults' narratives demonstrate their attempts to reconcile the important role of traditional foods in their identity as Southerners with their attempts to meet medical recommendations for healthy eating.

  17. Patterns and Drivers of Mobile Telephony for Sustainable Livelihood among Rural Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubril Olayinka Animashaun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it is acknowledged that mobile phones, as an asset, exhibits multiple functionalities and diverse applications that cut across all forms of capital accumulation necessary for sustainable livelihood. However, empirical result is sparse in Nigeria as to the impact of mobile phones on asset accumulation. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of mobile phone use and intensity of use for sustainable capital formation in among farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. Specifically, 120 rural farming households were randomly sampled and count data on the number of calls made with respect to livelihood capitals generated. Binary Logistic regression and Zero-Inflated negative Binomial regression models were used in analyzing the data. The study revealed that 73% of the respondents have access to mobile phone use. The study identifies major uses of mobile phone for sustainable livelihood enhancement activities. Significant determinants of mobile phone use are; possession of formal education, household size, age, marital status, annual farm income, diversity of crop cultivated and the number of family members living outside the community (p<0.05. This study underscores the relevance of mobile phones for sustainable development and recommends the need for increased investment in facilitating access to mobile phone use across rural communities in Nigeria

  18. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  19. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  20. Magnitude and Frequency of Rural Floods in the Southeastern United States, 2006: Volume 3, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    A multistate approach was used to update methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in rural, ungaged basins in South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina that are not substantially affected by regulation, tidal fluctuations, or urban development. Annual peak-flow data through September 2006 were analyzed for 943 streamgaging stations having 10 or more years of data on rural streams in South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, and adjacent parts of Alabama, Florida, Tennessee, and Virginia. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for the 943 stations by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows for each station to a Pearson Type III distribution. As part of the computation of flood-frequency estimates for the stations, a new value for the generalized skew coefficient was developed using a Bayesian generalized least-squares regression model. Additionally, basin characteristics for these stations were computed by using a geographical information system and automated computer algorithms. Exploratory regression analyses using ordinary least-squares regression completed on the initial database of 943 gaged stations resulted in defining five hydrologic regions for South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina. Stations with drainage areas less than 1 square mile were removed from the database, and a procedure to examine for basin redundancy (based on drainage area and periods of record) also resulted in the removal of some stations from the regression database. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least-squares regression, was used to develop a set of predictive equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent chance exceedance flows for rural ungaged basins in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 828 streamgaging stations were combined to form the final database used in the regional regression analysis. The final predictive equations are all

  1. An Explosive Cholera Outbreak In A Rural Community of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta P.G

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : What are the epidemiological features of an el Tor biotype of V. cholerae outbreak? Objective : To describe the epidemiological features of a cholera outbreak. Design: Epidemic investigation. Setting : Rural area near Baroda city. Participants : Residents of the village hamlet. Results : The overall attack rate among 248 people was 13.3% and was highest (26.9% in the 0-4 years age group. All the patients, except one who died at home, had to be hospitalized for treatment . V. Cholerae biotype el Tor serotype Inaba and phage type IV could be isolated from 62.5% of the cases. Some pathogens could be isolated in pure culture from the open well water which was the only source of drinking water for the hamlet.

  2. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Kennedy, Caitlin; Monti, Michele; Yip, Fuyuen

    2017-06-23

    The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural areas, such as air and water quality. 2008-2012 for air quality and 2010-2015 for water quality. Since 2002, CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program has collaborated with federal, state, and local partners to gather standardized environmental data by creating national data standards, collecting available data, and disseminating data to be used in developing public health actions. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (i.e., the tracking network) collects data provided by national, state, and local partners and includes 21 health outcomes, exposures, and environmental hazards. To assess environmental factors that affect health, CDC analyzed three air-quality measures from the tracking network for all counties in the contiguous United States during 2008-2012 and one water-quality measure for 26 states during 2010-2015. The three air-quality measures include 1) total number of days with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 24-hour average PM2.5 (PM2.5 days); 2) mean annual average ambient concentrations of PM2.5 in micrograms per cubic meter (mean PM2.5); and 3) total number of days with maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations greater than the NAAQS (ozone days). The water-quality measure compared the annual mean concentration for

  3. Dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME Programs in the United States: Intervention Delivery by Rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alongside the dramatic increase of older adults in the United States (U.S., it is projected that the aging population residing in rural areas will continue to grow. As the prevalence of chronic diseases and multiple chronic conditions among adults continues to rise, there is additional need for evidence-based interventions to assist the aging population to improve lifestyle behaviors, and self-manage their chronic conditions. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the geospatial dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME Programs across the U.S. in terms of participants enrolled, workshops delivered, and counties reached. These dissemination characteristics were compared across rurality designations (i.e., metro areas; non-metro areas adjacent to metro areas, and non-metro areas not adjacent to metro areas. Methods: This descriptive study analyzed data from a national repository including efforts from 83 grantees spanning 47 states from December 2009 to December 2016. Counts were tabulated and averages were calculated. Results: CDSME Program workshops were delivered in 56.4% of all U.S. counties one or more times during the study period. Of the counties where a workshop was conducted, 50.5% were delivered in non-metro areas. Of the 300,640 participants enrolled in CDSME Programs, 12% attended workshops in non-metro adjacent areas, and 7% attended workshops in non-metro non-adjacent areas. The majority of workshops were delivered in healthcare organizations, senior centers/Area Agencies on Aging, and residential facilities. On average, participants residing in non-metro areas had better workshop attendance and retention rates compared to participants in metro areas. Conclusions: Findings highlight the established role of traditional organizations/entities within the aging services network, to reach remote areas and serve diverse participants (e.g., senior centers. To facilitate growth in rural

  4. Contribution of malnutrition and malaria to anemia in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The most common cause of anemia is an iron deficiency; however, the condition may also be caused by deficiencies in folate, vitamin B 12 and protein. Some anemia is not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Aim: This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children in three rural communities of the Ovia North East Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Patients and Methods: A total of 316 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin was used to classify anemia. Results: 38.6% of the children were anemic, with hemoglobin levels lower than 11g/dL, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted and 44.0% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than hemoglobin concentration in detecting anemic children. Anemia was also significantly higher in the Evbuomore village school than in the Ekosodin and Isiohor villages (P0.001. Conclusion: Anemia detected in this population may be due more to malnutrition than to malaria.

  5. Contribution of malnutrition and malaria to anemia in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntade Michael Ayo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of anemia is an iron deficiency; however, the condition may also be caused by deficiencies in folate, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemia is not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. Aim: This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children in three rural communities of the Ovia North East Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Patients and Methods: A total of 316 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin was used to classify anemia. Results: 38.6% of the children were anemic, with hemoglobin levels lower than 11g/dL, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted and 44.0% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than hemoglobin concentration in detecting anemic children. Anemia was also significantly higher in the Evbuomore village school than in the Ekosodin and Isiohor villages (P<0.001. Conclusion: Anemia detected in this population may be due more to malnutrition than to malaria.

  6. Communities of Complicity:Notes on State Formation and Local Sociality in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANS Steinm ller; LIAO Peipei; TAN Tongxue

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the delicate relationship between vernacular practices and offi-cial discourse in rural China .In regards to geo-mancy (fengshui), rituals, gifting, and corruption discourse , for instance , official representations are often inconsistent with local practice .While it is very common to invite ritual masters for family celebrations and to give money gifts at such occa-sions , these practices are often described in public discourse as backwards and corrupt .Hence it is not appropriate to be too forthright and blunt about such things towards outsiders .When I first arrived in the villages of Bashan in Enshi , and asked a-bout fengshui, people often told me that they would not invite geomancers when building houses— yet in reality, I found out later , almost everyone did precisely this .The reason is that these practices are slightly sensitive , because they are seen as core features of peasant backwardness and feudal superstition .Peasants are keenly aware of such outside representations , and therefore share a sense of complicity , which makes itself visible in gestures of outright denial , but more commonly in embarrassment, irony, and cynicism.

  7. Epidemiological Study Of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD In Rural Population Of Gurgaon District (Haryana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadha S.L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A community based survey of coronary heart disease (CHD was carried out on a random rural sample of 3375 adults in the age group 25-64 years in gurgaon district (Haryana about 50-70 Km. Away from Delhi. CHD was diagnosed either (a on the basis of clinical history supported by documentary evidence of treatment in a hospital or at home of (b on ECG evidence in accordance with minnesta code. The overall prevalence rate of CHD on clinical history basis was 5.9 (7.4 in males and 5.1 in females per 1000 adults in the age group 25-64 years. Increased number of cases were found in the age group 55-64 years both in males and females. The prevalence rate based both on clinical history and ECG criteria is estimated at 27.1/1000. Risk factors for CHD such as hypertension, smoking, family history, obesity and physical activity were studied.

  8. Return Migration from the United States to Rural Areas of Campeche and Tabasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo ARRIOLA VEGA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la situación del retorno contemporáneo de migrantes origina - rios de áreas rurales de Campeche y Tabasco que viajaron a Estados Unidos. Con datos obtenidos de 60 retornados, a través de entrevistas realizadas en 2006 y 2007 en Campeche y de una encuesta administrada en 2008 y 2009 en Tabasco, se deter - minó que la mayoría de los migrantes regresaban por la misma motivación que lo han hecho, históricamente, muchos otros mexicanos: los nexos familiares. Empero, en esta región de emigración emergente la decisión del retorno también ha sido determinada últimamente por razones coyunturales y estructurales, al igual que lo sucedido en otras zonas del país. Entre esas causas están las políticas migratorias res - trictivas y la crisis económica en la sociedad de destino. Ante este panorama adverso, las pautas tradicionales del retorno difícilmente se restablecerán en el corto plazo, o quizás cambien en forma permanente.

  9. Spatial Effects of Cocoa Production on Rural Economy in Idanre-Ifedore Area, Ondo State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Adefila

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has been the main-stay of Nigeria’s economy of which cocoa production plays a significant role in the acceleration of the national gross domestic product (GDP, in terms of employment generation, feeding the local industries with raw materials and sustains the rural livelihood until about the mid-1970s that witnessed oil boom resulting in the neglect of the sector coupled with the introduction of structural adjustment programme (SAP in 1986 that killed the morale of cocoa producers. The cardinal objective of the study was to examine the effects of cocoa industry on the rural livelihoods in Idanre-Ifedore area, Ondo State of Nigeria. Primary data were generated from 80 randomly sampled households in the study area. Also, a focus group discussion was conducted among the communities that were involved in cocoa production. Secondary data were collected from the ministry of agriculture and rural development, cocoa development units, cocoa research institute of Nigeria (CRIN, official gazettes, federal office of statistics and documented materials. The study employed descriptive statistics namely mean, averages and percentages to summarize the data. Also, inferential statistics such as analysis of variance (ANOVA and regression statistics were employed to analyse the data. It revealed F-test value of 3.85 and a critical value of 2.53 indicates a significant variation in cocoa output at 0.05 probability level among the farmers in the study area. The study examined the relationship between cocoa output and socio-economic traits of the farmers. The regression result showed that age of cocoa farmers (r = .825, annual income (r = .631, age of cocoa farms (r = .755 and cocoa farm size (r = .648 have strong positive correlation coefficients while family size (r = .385 and cocoa farming experience (r = .413 were found to be positive but weak correlation at 0.05 alpha value. On the basis of the findings, one recommends among other things a mass

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis in rural communities of Amhara State: a longitudinal study in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí López-Perea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009 and at the end (February 2011 of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001, knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001, and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001. Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall.

  11. Economic strength in rural New York

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Deitz; Ramon Garcia

    2000-01-01

    In New York State, where economic growth has been sluggish for much of the last decade, the rural economy has done relatively well. The population and labor force in rural areas are expanding, and the number of jobs growing. We take a look at this robust rural economy, examining population and job growth, industrial composition, and income patterns in the state's rural areas.

  12. District Level Analysis of Urbanization from Rural-to-Urban Migration in the Rajasthan State

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jayant; Smarandache, Florentin

    2009-01-01

    Migration has various dimensions; urbanization due to migration is one of them. In Rajasthan State, district level analysis of urbanization due to migrants shows trend invariably for all districts of the state, though the contribution in urbanization by migrants varies from district to district. In some districts the share of migrants moving to urban areas is very impressive, in others it is not that much high. The migrants' contribution is on the raising over the decades. In this paper, the district level migration in the Rajasthan State is examined in relation to total urbanization and urbanization due to migration.

  13. Nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three rural southeast United States national parks: A model sensitivity analysis and comparison to measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Ray, John D.

    2003-10-01

    A detailed modeling analysis is conducted focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (14-29 July 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. The three national parks are Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), Big Meadows. A base emission scenario and eight variant predictions are analyzed, and predictions are compared with data observed at the three locations for the same time period. Model-predicted concentrations are higher than observed values for O3 (with a cutoff of 40 ppbv) by 3.0% at GRSM, 19.1% at MACA, and 9.0% at SHEN (mean normalized bias error). They are very similar to observations for overall mean ozone concentrations at GRSM and SHEN. They generally agree (the same order of magnitude) with observed values for lumped paraffin compounds but are an order of magnitude lower for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene). Model sensitivity analyses here indicate that each location differs in terms of volatile organic compound (VOC) capacity to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from net production to production suppression. Analysis of individual model processes shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at the high-elevation rural locations (GRSM and SHEN) are transported from other areas; local chemistry is the second largest O3 contributor. At the low-elevation location (MACA), about 80% of daytime O3 is produced by local chemistry and 20% is transported from other areas. Local emissions (67-95%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, the rest coming from transport. Chemistry processes are responsible for about 50% removal of VOCs for all locations; less than 10% are lost to surface deposition and the rest are exported to other areas

  14. Elementary Schools in Rural Honduras. Problems in Exporting Environmental Education Models from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sam H.; Castillo, Lizeth

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to determine the best approaches for developing environmental education and teacher training materials for schools in Honduras. Results dispute the value of materials produced in the United States for use in developing nations. (CW)

  15. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  16. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  17. Knowledge and Risk Factors for Glaucoma among Adults in a Rural Community of Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Adekunle Durowade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Glaucoma is becoming an increasingly important public health problem and presents a greater public health challenge because the blindness it causes is irreversible. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in Oke-ose community, Kwara State in North-Cental Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study which assessed the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in a rural community of Kwara State. The respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. RESULTS: Less than half 94(47.0% respondents were aware of glaucoma. Only 11(5.5% respondents had some knowledge of symptoms and 18(9.0% had knowledge of the risk factors. Socio-economic status, age of respondents and educational status and family history of glaucoma among the respondents significantly influenced the awareness and knowledge of the disease (p<0.05. Among the respondents, a total of 22(11.0% and 37(18.5% were diabetic and hypertensive respectively. Only five (2.5% of respondents had high risk perception of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk factors for glaucoma coupled with the poor risk perception and poor knowledge of the disease require urgent community directed eye care interventions to reduce the devastating effects of glaucoma. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 375-380

  18. Adaptation of rural electricity cooperatives in the State of Parana to the scenario of the electric sector; Adaptacao das cooperativas de eletrificacao rural do estado do Parana ao cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], Email: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmenan, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Reisdoerfer, Eli Carlos; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Email: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Rural Electrification Cooperatives (REC) has already played a fundamental role in rural electrification process. Bearing in mind changes in legislation towards specific laws that tend to facilitate energy distribution and trade relations, REC has increased there potential to contribute even more to above mentioned process. The present work intended to assess how REC settled in Parana State have adapted themselves to the privatised electrical business scenario as well as to new legal requirements and the presence of great national and international corporations disputing the energy market. Such new electrical market model favors huge changes to the electrification cooperatives, with the possibility of transforming cooperatives into public service energy with governmental permission. Moreover, it also represents a giant challenge for their insertion and continuity in such new scenario, in as much as the REC classification process as public service companies for electric energy distribution has been carried out for years, added to the scarcity of investments on state cooperatives, therefore restricting electric energy supply to residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  19. The clamor for schools rural education and the development of state-community contact in highland Bolivia, 1930-1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienen, Marten

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that in the development of a system of indigenous education in Bolivia, the indigenous communities or ayllus were mainly responsible for the rapid spread of indigenous schools throughout the Bolivian rural areas in the first decades of the twentieth century, and that these communities remained the driving force behind the expansion of indigenous education until the educational reforms of the 1930s and 1940s, during which time the state reestablished its control over the almost entirely independently functioning indigenous schools. Likewise, this paper also argues that contrary to its popular image as the «house of the exploited» and breeding ground of indigenous radicalism and politicization, in the end it was the famous «escuela-ayllu» of Warisata that after its foundation in 1931 would become the means through which the state managed to regain control over the rural and indigenous educational system during the aforementioned reforms.

    Este artículo interpreta el avance de la educación indígena boliviana (1900-1950 a partir de la noción de que fueron las comunidades indígenas que impulsaron la rápida expansión de la educación indígena durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX, y de que hasta las reformas educativas que tuvieron lugar a partir del año 1931 —la fundación de la famosa «escuela-ayllu» de Warisata— se puede considerar la educación indígena como asunto netamente indígena, en el cual el estado central juega un papel muy superficial limitado. Además, este artículo reinterpreta el papel de dicha escuela-ayllu de Warisata dentro de las reformas educativas de las décadas de los 1930 y 1940, sugiriendo que justamente esta «casa de los explotados» fue el instrumento primordial a través del cual el estado central supo reintegrar las diferentes escuelas indígenas que hasta entonces existían en un estado de casi completa independencia del mismo estado.

  20. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Ukegbu, Andrew U.; Chukwuonye, Innocent I.; Madukwe, Okechukwu O.; Moses, Akhimiem O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization’s STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. RESULTS In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  1. Community participation and childhood immunization coverage: A comparative study of rural and urban communities of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamawei Itimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization coverage rates in Nigeria have remained very poor, in spite of numerous programs and strategies, specifically designed to improve coverage. This study was to assess the possible effects of greater community participation on immunization coverage, by comparing the immunization coverage in a rural community with a functional community health committee, with an urban community, with no distinct community structure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ondewari, a rural, riverine community, in Bayelsa State; and Yenagoa, the capital of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria; using a cross-sectional, comparative study design. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, administered on female head of households in both communities, with under-five children; and used to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, the immunization status of children in the household below the age of 2 years, and reasons for none and incomplete immunization. Results: A total of 288 respondents were studied in the rural community, while 270 respondents were studied in the urban center. The respondents in the urban center were significantly younger (P<0.01, better educated (P<0.001, and had fewer number of children (P<0.01. The immunization status of children in the rural community was significantly better than those in the urban community (P<0.000. Only 11.46% of the children in the rural community were not immunized, compared to 47.04% in the urban community. However, the dropout rate in the rural community was much higher; with a DPT dropout rate of 77.34%, compared to 12.39% in the urban community. Most of the reasons given in the urban community for the incomplete immunization were linked lack of motivation, and include relocation (11.34% and the adverse rumor about childhood immunization (17.23%, while the reasons in the rural community were mostly health

  2. Rural Students in Washington State: STEM as a Strategy for Building Rigor, Postsecondary Aspirations, and Relevant Career Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Barbara; Bornemann, Greta; Lydon, Cheryl; West, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    In rural settings, leaving for college can mean a young person's first step in leaving home forever (Sherman & Sage, 2011). That presents a serious challenge for college recruiters as they ask parents from Indian reservations or close-knit Hispanic or rural farming communities to allow their children to consider postsecondary opportunities. In…

  3. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  4. Theatre of Rural Empowerment: The Example of Living Earth Nigeria Foundation's Community Theatre Initiative in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betiang, Liwhu

    2010-01-01

    About 60% of Nigerians live in rural areas with poor access roads and health facilities, near-absent communication media, unemployment, alienation and disempowerment by the political leadership. This scenario has excluded the rural Nigerian from meaningful participation in development action. A bottom-up participatory approach to…

  5. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  6. The politics of defining and alleviating poverty: State strategies and their impacts in rural Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.; Thampi, B.V.; Narayana, D.; Nandigama, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a relational approach to the study of poverty (Mosse, 2010), and uses this to critically evaluate state strategies for identifying and alleviating poverty in Kerala, India. It traces these from national planning documents through to their point of implementation, drawing on

  7. Workforce issues in rural surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynge, Dana Christian; Larson, Eric H

    2009-12-01

    Almost one quarter of America's population and one third of its landmass are defined as rural and served by approximately 20% of the nation's general surgeons. General surgeons are the backbone of the rural health workforce. There is significant maldistribution of general surgeons across regions and different types of rural areas. Rural areas have markedly fewer surgeons per population than the national average. The demography of the rural general surgery workforce differs substantially from the urban general surgery workforce, raising concerns about the extent to which general surgical services can be maintained in rural areas of the United States.

  8. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  9. Strategy for Cost Recovery in the Rural Water Sector: A Case Study of Nsukka District, Anambra State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Dale; Okorafor, Apia; Okore, Augustine; McPhail, Alexander

    1990-09-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 395 households in three rural communities in the Nsukka district of Anambra State, Nigeria, concerning their household water use practices, water expenditures to vendors, willingness to pay for improved water supplies, and household socioeconomic characteristics. Households in Nsukka district do not want to pay for water in advance or commit themselves to a fixed monthly payment for water. They want the freedom to buy water only when they use it, partly due to the seasonal nature of water use and partly because they want control over their cash flow in order to meet other more immediately pressing needs. Equally important, they do not trust government to provide a reliable public water supply. They do not want to pay in advance for a service they are not sure they will ever get. If they are required to pay a fixed fee every month, households are willing to pay only relatively small amounts for improved services, even less than they are currently paying water vendors. Current arrangements for cost recovery, fixed monthly fees for both public taps and unmetered private connections, are inappropriate. Kiosk systems, or kiosk systems with metered private connections for some households, are the most promising way to improve cost recovery and meet consumers' cash flow needs.

  10. Schistosoma haematobium and urinary tract pathogens co-infections in a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nmorsi, O P G; Kwandu, U N C D; Ebiaguanye, L M

    2007-06-01

    A survey of S. haematobium and other urinary tract pathogens co-infection was carried out among 198 volunteers in Ihieve, Ogben, a rural community in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Of these, 118 (59.5%) had S. haematobium ova in their urine samples. Light infection ( 50 ova/10 ml). The children 68 (64.2%) were more infected their the adults 50 (54.3%). This difference was statistically significant at (chi2 = 60.37, P < 0.05). The prevalence of S. haematobium among the males 80 (71.4%) was higher than their female counterparts 38 (41.9%) and this difference is statistically significant at (t = 1.28) Bacteriuria and bacterial isolates occurred among 60 (30.3%) with S haematobium infection. Three nitrate reducing bacterial isolates namely; Klebsiella sp and Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and a fungus; Candida albicans were reported in their urine cultures. Multiple infections were observed among 43 S. haematobium infected persons. The antibiogram of the isolates indicated that Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin and otramax were the most effective drugs for the management of bacterial infections among these volunteers. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin and Augmentum. The C. albicans were sensitive to Diflucan, Nizoral, Gynotravogen, Gynotrosydovule, Gyno-daktarin and Mycostatin.

  11. Diet and Physical Activity in Rural vs Urban Children and Adolescents in the United States: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Meendering, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Current research suggests that the prevalence of obesity is higher among rural youth than urban youth. Due to the health implications that are associated with child and adolescent obesity, it is critical to understand systematic differences in diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors that may be contributing to this disparity in weight. However, varying definitions of rural and inconsistencies in study tools and methodologies may limit the generalizability of findings from research in this area. The objective of this narrative review was to synthesize and critically evaluate existing literature comparing diet and PA behaviors between rural and urban children and adolescents, providing recommendations for future research. Only five studies were found that reported on measures of diet in rural vs urban youth, whereas 16 were found that reported on measures of PA. Dietary assessment tools were generally standard and acceptable; however, differences existed in how dietary outcomes were defined. Few studies used assessment tools that objectively measured PA, and definitions for meeting PA recommendations varied among studies. Very few studies defined rural using the same criteria. Future research on the rural youth obesity disparity should focus on including a high-quality assessment of both diet and PA (as opposed to one or the other) and on using an appropriate and consistent definition of rural.

  12. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Two Rural Communities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaahan, Terngu J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health-related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2-1600.0 µS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0-55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.210mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0mg/L, while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 107.4-1375 µS/cm, pH 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2-1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi, the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. It is concluded that, while ground water abstraction may be a safety measure against guinea worm infestation it, nevertheless presents other health challenges to the rural population in the area, as the quality of the ground water is generally low.

  13. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  14. [Periodontal treatment needs in adults from Mixteca rural area in Puebla State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Conde, Gloria G; de Santillana, Irene A Espinosa; Martínez-Arroniz, Fernando; Huerta-Herrera, Ninfa; Islas-Márquez, Arturo J; Medina-Solís, Carlo E

    2010-08-01

    This study was aimed at determining periodontal treatment needs, as determined by the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN), in a sample of adults from the Mixteca region of the State of Puebla, in Mexico. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, single-centre study. Previous informed consent was obtained; 60.0 % of the sample were women whose main activity was housework (46 %), 14.0 % were farmers. Average age was 37.6 ± 13.6. Gingival and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need proposed by the World Health Organisation and the International Dental Federation were used; they were implemented by the same, previously-standardised researcher. Means, standard deviations and confidence intervals were calculated for dimensional variables and percentages for categorical ones. The gingival index gave 50.0 % light gingivitis, 32.0% moderate and 14.0 % severe gingivitis. The rear superior sextants commonly showed more 4 to 5 mm pockets, the front sextants calculus and the rear inferior sextants showed calculus and bleeding. 94.0 % of the patients required periodontal treatment (3.6 sextants per patient average). Periodontal treatment needs were high in this study; nine out of ten patients in the Mixteca region of the State of Puebla required periodontal treatment. Efforts must thus be guided towards improving oral health in indigenous communities.

  15. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    OpenAIRE

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez; José de Jesús Mejía-Saavedra; Nelly Molina-Frechero; Enrique Gaona; Diana Olivia Rocha-Amador; Olga Dania López-Guzmán; Ronell Bologna-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinica...

  16. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoli IC

    2006-01-01

    Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. O...

  17. Evaluation of Fadama II Road Infrastructure among Rural Communities in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Adamu Madu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the role played by Fadama II on road development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The data were obtained from 300 respondents who were randomly selected from Fadama II beneficiaries, non-beneficiaries within Fadama II communities and non-beneficiaries outside Fadama II communities. Based on propensity score matching (PSM and double difference estimator (DD, the data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and balancing test (t-test. The results showed that 30% of the roads were funded by Fadama II Project. Most of the roads were constructed and rehabilitated after the establishment of the project. Fadama II roads were found to be important for the beneficiaries’ activities. The analysis established that beneficiaries’ travel distance, travel time, waiting time and transport fares were reduced relative to non-beneficiaries. Road development has boosted marketing services for both farm and non-farm economic activities. Spill-over effect also manifests in the adjoining communities.

  18. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoli IC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92% were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05. With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05. Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas.

  19. Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

    2014-01-01

    According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged 5-15 years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (bacteriuria was bacteria count ≥ 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications.

  20. Physical and operational state of installed lighting photovoltaic systems at Mirandiba County rural area; Estado fisico e operativo dos sistemas de iluminacao fotovoltaicos instalados na zona rural do Municipio de Mirandiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, H.S.; Rosas, P.A.C.; Vilela, O. de C.

    1994-03-01

    This work deals with the material and functioning conditions of 11 PV systems installed in rural communities, at Mirandiba, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The communities were chosen to establish a controlled site, since they are in the countryside and, at least, at 2 km from the electric grid. Two basic types of PV systems have been installed: the first, with one monocrystalline silicon PV module of 40 Wp for residential lighting and the second, comprising two similar modules, for school lighting and TV. The functioning of the installed systems has been evaluated and the evaluation results are presented. 3 tabs., 42 figs

  1. Community health worker knowledge and management of pre-eclampsia in rural Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadurg, Umesh; Vidler, Marianne; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya; Mallapur, Ashalata; Goudar, Shivaprasad; Bannale, Shashidhar; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Sawchuck, Diane; Qureshi, Rahat; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard

    2016-09-30

    In India, the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and postpartum haemorrhage are responsible for nearly 40 % of all maternal deaths. Most of these deaths occur in primary health settings which frequently lack essential equipment and medication, are understaffed, and have limited or no access to specialist care. Community health care workers are regarded as essential providers of basic maternity care; and the quality of care they provide is dependent on the level of knowledge and skills they possess. However, there is limited research regarding their ability to manage pregnancy complications. This study aims to describe the current state of knowledge regarding pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among community health care workers (auxiliary nurse midwives, accredited social health activists, staff nurses) in northern Karnataka, India. Furthermore, this study describes the treatment approaches used by various cadres of community health workers for these conditions. The findings of this study can help plan focussed training sessions to build upon their strengths and to address the identified gaps. Data were collected as part of a larger study aimed at assessing the feasibility of community-based treatment for pre-eclampsia. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in 2012-2013 in northern Karnataka State: four with staff nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives and four with accredited social health activists. In addition, twelve auxiliary nurse midwives and staff nurses completed questionnaires to explore their competence and self-efficacy in managing pre-eclampsia. Qualitative data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated for thematic analysis using NVivo 10. Community health workers described their understanding of the origins of hypertension and seizures in pregnancy. Psychological explanations of hypertension were most commonly reported: stress, tension, and fear. The most common explanation for eclampsia was not receiving a tetanus vaccination. Despite

  2. Rural Health Clinics (RHCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rural healthcare organizations attract healthcare providers by posting job opportunities online by state. Candidates who are interested in ... areas may register with 3RNet to search for job opportunities. The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) provides scholarships ...

  3. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  4. Intelligent monitoring of Aedes aegypti in a rural area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argemiro Sanavria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to monitor the presence of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 on the Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, from 2010 to 2013. For this purpose, the Intelligent Dengue Monitoring (IM-Dengue and Intelligent Virus Monitoring (IM-Virus developed by Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Ecovec – Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. IM-Dengue is a tool that allows achieving a weekly overview of A. aegypti infestation, while IM-Virus is another tool that allows detecting dengue virus directly from the mosquito, by Real Time-PCR. Both tools were developed for diagnosis in a prepathogenesis period of the disease, before infection occurrence. Traps were distributed in 19 locations inside the municipality and the bugs were collected weekly during the years of the research. As a result, the presence of 163 females of A. aegypti was recorded over the period; there was no circulation of the virus in the municipality. In one of the 19 study sites, a high degree of disease transmission risk was verified. The study concluded that the municipality, as a whole, showed no risk of disease transmission throughout the field research period.

  5. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu , C.N. Kus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera:Cimicidae is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbuginfestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Governmentarea in Benue state, Nigeria.Methods: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquitonets and bamboo beds were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-pickingtechnique. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis for differences in the infestation levels inharbourages and sampling locations.Results: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation asegg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestationrate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other studylocations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (2 = 7.92, df = 6,p >0.05. Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%,while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestationrates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher thanother items inspected (2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05.Interpretation & conclusion: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidencesof infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detectionand education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  6. Factors predictive of alcohol use during pregnancy in three rural states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struck Judy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substance use screening instrument was used to determine factors predictive of drinking during pregnancy. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to negative birth outcomes. Methods The participants (n = 4,828 for the study were sampled from pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota. Clinic sites for the administration of the screening instrument were selected in each state, based on geographic and known population characteristics. Univariate and multivariate statistical procedures were used to determine factors predictive of drinking during pregnancy. Results Women who drank tended to: be single, be between 21–25 years old, have had fewer children, have had abortions, and be unemployed. Demographic factors that were protective of drinking when pregnant were married and full-time housewife status. Other variables associated with maternal alcohol use were: past sexual abuse, current or past physical abuse, tobacco use, other drug use, lived with substance users, and had mates who were substance users. Other contributing factors for alcohol use included: feeling sad, believing that drinking any amount of alcohol while pregnant was acceptable, had been in treatment, could use treatment now, and were able to hold four or more drinks. Conclusion Because drinking rates were high and factors correlated with drinking are known, alcohol screening for this population is essential.

  7. Protected Areas, State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation Land , Maryland Environmental Trust , County Conservation Land, Agriculture Preservation Easement, Agriculture Preservation District, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Protected Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation...

  8. Comparing willingness to pay for improved drinking-water quality using stated preference methods in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Roy; Job, Fumbi Crescent; van der Kroon, Bianca; Johnston, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Access to safe drinking water has been on the global agenda for decades. The key to safe drinking water is found in household water treatment and safe storage systems. In this study, we assessed rural and urban household demand for a new gravity-driven membrane (GDM) drinking-water filter. A choice experiment (CE) was used to assess the value attached to the characteristics of a new GDM filter before marketing in urban and rural Kenya. The CE was followed by a contingent valuation (CV) question. Differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for the same filter design were tested between methods, as well as urban and rural samples. The CV follow-up approach produces more conservative and statistically more efficient WTP values than the CE, with only limited indications of anchoring. The effect of the new filter technology on children with diarrhea is among the most important drivers behind choice behavior and WTP in both areas. The urban sample is willing to pay more in absolute terms than the rural sample irrespective of the valuation method. Rural households are more price sensitive, and willing to pay more in relative terms compared with disposable household income. A differentiated marketing strategy across rural and urban areas is expected to increase uptake and diffusion of the new filter technology.

  9. A qualitative analysis of provider barriers and solutions to HIV testing for substance users in a small, largely rural southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B; Curran, Geoffrey M; Stewart, Katharine E; Booth, Brenda M

    2013-01-01

    Integrating HIV testing programs into substance use treatment is a promising avenue to help increase access to HIV testing for rural drug users. Yet few outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States provide HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to incorporating HIV testing with substance use treatment from the perspectives of treatment and testing providers in Arkansas. We used purposive sampling from state directories to recruit providers at state, organization, and individual levels to participate in this exploratory study. Using an interview guide, the first and second authors conducted semistructured individual interviews in each provider's office or by telephone. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into ATLAS.ti software (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany). We used constant comparison and content analysis techniques to identify codes, categories, and primary patterns in the data. The sample consisted of 28 providers throughout the state, 18 from the substance use system and 10 from the public/ community health system. We identified 7 categories of barriers: environmental constraints, policy constraints, funding constraints, organizational structure, limited inter- and intra-agency communication, burden of responsibility, and client fragility. This study presents the practice-based realities of barriers to integrating HIV testing with substance use treatment in a small, largely rural state. Some system and/or organization leaders were either unaware of or not actively pursuing external funds available to them specifically for engaging substance users in HIV testing. However, funding does not address the system-level need for coordination of resources and services at the state level. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Reducing out-of-pocket expenditures to reduce poverty: a disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Charu C; Karan, Anup K

    2009-03-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on health care has significant implications for poverty in many developing countries. This paper aims to assess the differential impact of OOP expenditure and its components, such as expenditure on inpatient care, outpatient care and on drugs, across different income quintiles, between developed and less developed regions in India. It also attempts to measure poverty at disaggregated rural-urban and state levels. Based on Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) data from the National Sample Survey (NSS), conducted in 1999-2000, the share of households' expenditure on health services and drugs was calculated. The number of individuals below the state-specific rural and urban poverty line in 17 major states, with and without netting out OOP expenditure, was determined. This also enabled the calculation of the poverty gap or poverty deepening in each region. Estimates show that OOP expenditure is about 5% of total household expenditure (ranging from about 2% in Assam to almost 7% in Kerala) with a higher proportion being recorded in rural areas and affluent states. Purchase of drugs constitutes 70% of the total OOP expenditure. Approximately 32.5 million persons fell below the poverty line in 1999-2000 through OOP payments, implying that the overall poverty increase after accounting for OOP expenditure is 3.2% (as against a rise of 2.2% shown in earlier literature). Also, the poverty headcount increase and poverty deepening is much higher in poorer states and rural areas compared with affluent states and urban areas, except in the case of Maharashtra. High OOP payment share in total health expenditures did not always imply a high poverty headcount; state-specific economic and social factors played a role. The paper argues for better methods of capturing drugs expenditure in household surveys and recommends that special attention be paid to expenditures on drugs, in particular for the poor. Targeted policies in just five poor states to reduce

  11. 75 FR 15406 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... the Industrial Revolution. While those jobs created prosperity in rural communities, they often came... USDA Rural Development State Office, Federal Building, Room 210, 200 Fourth Street, SW., Huron,...

  12. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cocco da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  13. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  14. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

    2014-03-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts.

  15. 美国农村中小学合并程序评析%The Procedures of Rural Schools Consolidation in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟涓

    2015-01-01

    为了保证农村学校或学区合并的顺利进行,美国大多数州都会以法令的形式加强对农村学校合并过程的控制,并按照规定的公正性程序推进农村中小学合并,即初步考虑-可行性研究-向公众宣传-评估公众支持-合并正式实施。美国通过构建农村中小学合并决策的公正性程序,科学地制定合并程序的指导方针,力图确保合并决策过程的理性化运作。目前,我国还缺少农村中小学合并决策的法律依据,因此,需要根据美国的经验,结合我国实际,构建公正性的农村中小学合并程序。%In order to ensure that rural schools or districts were consolidated smoothly, most states will control the procedures of rural school consolidation by ordinance and in accordance with the fairness procedures to ensure the rural primary and secondary schools consolidation. That is preliminary consideration -feasibility study – informing the public – assessing the support of the public – implementing the consolidation. The U.S. formulated consolidation guidelines scientiifcally by building fairness procedures of rural schools consolidation, and they want to try to ensure that the rational decision-making process of consolidation. At present, China is still the lack of legal basis for rural primary and secondary schools consolidation. Therefore, according to the American experience and China's actual conditions, we need build the fairness procedures of rural schools consolidation.

  16. Predictors of maternal health services utilization by poor, rural women: a comparative study in Indian States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Koblinsky, Sally A; Koblinsky, Marge A

    2015-07-31

    India leads all nations in numbers of maternal deaths, with poor, rural women contributing disproportionately to the high maternal mortality ratio. In 2005, India launched the world's largest conditional cash transfer scheme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to increase poor women's access to institutional delivery, anticipating that facility-based birthing would decrease deaths. Indian states have taken different approaches to implementing JSY. Tamil Nadu adopted JSY with a reorganization of its public health system, and Gujarat augmented JSY with the state-funded Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) scheme, contracting with private physicians for delivery services. Given scarce evidence of the outcomes of these approaches, especially in states with more optimal health indicators, this cross-sectional study examined the role of JSY/CY and other healthcare system and social factors in predicting poor, rural women's use of maternal health services in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Using the District Level Household Survey (DLHS)-3, the sample included 1584 Gujarati and 601 Tamil rural women in the lowest two wealth quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between JSY/CY and other salient health system, socio-demographic, and obstetric factors with three outcomes: adequate antenatal care, institutional delivery, and Cesarean-section. Tamil women reported greater use of maternal healthcare services than Gujarati women. JSY/CY participation predicted institutional delivery in Gujarat (AOR = 3.9), but JSY assistance failed to predict institutional delivery in Tamil Nadu, where mothers received some cash for home births under another scheme. JSY/CY assistance failed to predict adequate antenatal care, which was not incentivized. All-weather road access predicted institutional delivery in both Tamil Nadu (AOR = 3.4) and Gujarat (AOR = 1.4). Women's education predicted institutional delivery and Cesarean-section in Tamil Nadu, while husbands

  17. Knowledge of School Health Programme among Public Primary School Teachers in Oyo State, South-West Nigeria: A Rural-Urban Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Onadeko, Modupe O

    2015-09-01

    Teachers are in a vantage position to facilitate positive health among school-age children through the School Health Programme (SHP). Lack of basic knowledge of the programme among them will hinder its effective implementation. Studies to gauge teachers' knowledge of SHP are needed to improve the current suboptimal level of implementation in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess and compare the knowledge of SHP among public primary school teachers in rural and urban areas of Oyo State, South-West Nigeria. A comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among teachers in selected rural and urban public primary schools using a 2-stage cluster sampling technique. Knowledge scores were computed giving minimum and maximum obtainable scores of 0 and 33 respectively. Respondents were reported as having inadequate knowledge if aggregate score "was knowledge of SHP with similar proportions in the rural (84.2%) and urban (84.9%) schools. Higher proportions of those aged 40 years, that were ever married and had 2 qualifications had adequate knowledge compared with their counterparts (p knowledge of SHP. Further study to assess teachers' training in SHP is needed. This may inform training intervention to upgrade their knowledge of the programme in the study area.

  18. Seroepidemiological survey of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses from a rural and from urban areas of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C; Finger, Mariane A P; Nascimento, Denise A G; Sicupira, Patrícia M L; Dutra, Leonardo H; Deconto, Ivan; Barros-Filho, Ivan R; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Biondo, Alexander W; Vidotto, Odilon

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroepidemiological data of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in horses from a rural settlement and carthorses from urban areas of Paraná State, southern Brazil. A total of 198 horses, including 32 from the rural settlement and 166 carthorses from Colombo (n=48), Pinhais (n=76), Londrina (n=24), and Curitiba city (n=18) was sampled and tested using a commercial competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) test. Out of the 198 horses, 193 (97.5%) were seropositive for at least one piroplasm species. Antibodies to T. equi were detected in 155/198 horses (78.3%), antibodies to B. caballi were detected in 137/198 horses (69.2%), and antibodies to both were detected in 99/198 (50.0%) horses. Horses living in the rural settlement and Colombo were more likely to be seropositive to T. equi than those in Curitiba (p0.05). In conclusion, the high seroprevalences to B. caballi and T. equi observed in this study emphasize that active surveillance programs are critical for monitoring animal health status, particularly because carthorses may act as urban disseminators of these piroplasms.

  19. A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

    2013-03-01

    The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population.

  20. Predicting Level of Mental Health Care among Children Served in a Delivery System in a Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel L.; Estle, George

    2001-01-01

    A study of 150 children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder found that inpatient admission was related to limited psychosocial strengths, previous hospitalization, and history of sexual abuse. Most children admitted to inpatient care were rural and had never received community-based services. Implications for public health education,…

  1. Paving the Way for Differentiated Instruction in Rural Classrooms under Common Core State Standards: An Interview with Carolyn Callahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.

    2017-01-01

    The author interviewed Dr. Carolyn Callahan, an eminent scholar in gifted education. The interview focused on Dr. Callahan's work on implementing gifted program in rural areas, and illustrated her suggestions for teachers, researchers, and parents on how to advocate for gifted students.

  2. A Case Study of a Rural Iowa School Preparing to Meet New State Guidelines for School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla Steege

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study highlighting one rural Iowa elementary school provided insight into the issue of small schools without library programs as they are preparing to meet the Iowa reinstatement of the requirement for school library programs. The site was purposefully chosen because it has been operating without a school library program or…

  3. [Prevalence of untreated caries in deciduous teeth in urban and rural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Mello, Tatiana Ribeiro; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2008-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of dental caries in children with deciduous teeth in urban and rural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify associated factors. The study included 24 744 children (5-7 years of age) examined as part of an epidemiological survey on oral health carried out in the state of São Paulo (Levantamento Epidemiológico de Saúde Bucal do Estado de São Paulo). Multilevel analysis was used to investigate whether the prevalence of untreated caries was associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of the children examined or with the socioeconomic aspects of the participating cities. Being black or brown (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.27), attending school in rural areas (adjusted OR=1.88), and attending public school (adjusted OR=3.41) were identified as determinants for an increased probability of presenting deciduous teeth with untreated caries. Being a female (adjusted OR=0.83) was identified as a protective factor. The negative coefficients obtained for second-level independent variables indicate that the oral health profile of the cities included in the study were positively impacted by a higher municipal human development index (beta=-0.47) and fluoridated drinking water (beta=-0.32). The prevalence of untreated caries is influenced by individual and sociodemographic factors. The present study provides epidemiological information concerning the rural areas in the state of São Paulo. This information is useful for strategic planning and for establishing guidelines for oral health actions in local health systems, thereby contributing to oral health equity.

  4. Survival State and Related Factors in the Rural Preschool Teachers%农村幼儿教师生存状态及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解农村幼儿教师的生存状态,探讨影响其生存状态的因素。方法:采用农村幼儿教师生存状态问卷、社会支持评定量表( SSRS)和主观幸福感量表( MUNSH)对268名农村幼儿教师进行测评。结果:①农村幼儿教师的生存状态总体水平中等偏差,并受其编制、婚姻状态( t=2.317,-2.706;P<0.01)的影响;②不同社会支持水平农村幼儿教师的生存状态水平差异显著( t=5.715,P<0.01);③农村幼儿教师的生存状态与主观幸福感及各因子呈显著相关(t=0.693,P<0.01)。结论:农村幼儿教师生存状态中等偏差,与其社会支持和主观幸福感相关。%Objective:To understand the survival state and related factors in rural preschool teachers. Methods:The survival state scale, social support rating scale ( SSRS ) and the Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness( UNSH) were used to evaluate 268 rural preschool teachers.Results:①The rural preschool teachers generally had a medium poorer survival quality in overall level and was in-fluenced by its personnel establishment and marital status(t=2.317,-2.706;P<0.05).②There were significant differences in different levels of social support(t=5.715,P<0.01).③It had significant cor-relations between the scores of survival state and the scores of subjective well-being(t =0.693,P<0.01).Conclusion:The rural preschool teachers have medium poorer survival state,which is related with their social support and subjective well-being.

  5. Concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products measured in outdoor air in various rural zones (Morocco) by using solid-state nuclear track detectors and resulting radiation dose to the rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Amrane, M; Ouguidi, J

    2010-03-01

    Alpha and beta activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their progenies were measured in the outdoor air at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). In addition, the radon concentration was continuously measured in one location by using the methods with SSNTDs and AlphaGuard counter. The influence of the geological and meteorological conditions as well as phosphate and building material dust on the radon concentration in the outdoor air of the areas studied was investigated. The committed equivalent doses due to (218)Po and (214)Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air. The annual effective dose due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of outdoor air by the members of the rural population was estimated.

  6. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4vz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7% participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been

  7. Rural Develoment Policies and Rural Governability: the Andalusian case

    OpenAIRE

    López Moreno, Ignacio; Aguilar Criado, Encarnación; Lozano Cabedo, Carmen; Pérez Chueca, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s, the EU Rural Development Policy (RDP) embodied on different programmes and initiatives -such as Leader- has been changing the institutional way to approach rural communities among State Members. This new policy has been introducing new ideas such as multi-level governance or bottom-up decision making process, which have unfolded a new model of rural governance in Europe. Therefore, the hypothesis of this p...

  8. Meeting the challenges of North-South collaboration: the case of HIV prevention for rural youth, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onokerhoraye, Andrew G; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-06-01

    Despite the significant contributions of the various North-South research partnerships during the past five decades to enhancing research capacity in the South, they have faced a number of challenges associated with the various partnerships. There have been limited attempts to critically examine the successes and challenges associated with these partnerships. Based on the experiences of implementing the 'HIV Prevention for Rural Youth' programme by a Canadian-Nigerian partnership during a four year period, this paper outlines the successes achieved and the challenges faced. The paper reviews the context of contemporary North-South research collaboration which provided the framework for the implementation of the HIV Prevention for Rural Youth. It then examines the benefits which the implementation of the programme have stimulated as well as the various challenges which confronted the partnership and how they were handled. The implications of the project's implementation experiences for future North-South collaborative research programmes are highlighted.

  9. Relationship of blood pressure with some cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural population of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil N Okeahialam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is associated with certain cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors which vary from one place to the other depending on community sophistication. We decided to obtain the situation as it affects this rural Nigerian community to be in an evidence-based position to initiate individual and group prevention strategies. Design: Cross-sectional population survey. Materials and Methods: We surveyed for CVD risk factors among subjects 15 years and above in this rural community using a questionnaire requesting personal, medical and anthropometric information. One in three of them were randomly assigned to laboratory investigations. Results: Of the 840 subjects studied, 25% were males. The population mean age was 45.5 (18.2 standard deviation (SD, with 1.8% smokers and 4.1% using alcohol. Systolic blood pressure (SBP correlated with age, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol (TC and uric acid (UA; while diastolic blood pressure (DBP correlated with age, BMI, TC, UA and atherogenic index (AI. SBP and DBP improved with exercise but not salt intake. The local seasonings used in cooking had no impact on blood pressure. Conclusion: To reduce cardiovascular morbidity in this and probably other rural sub-Saharan African communities, BMI, TC, UA and salt intake in diet should be targeted for reduction. Physical activity should be encouraged. Interestingly, these fall into the sphere of healthy lifestyle which should be encouraged and re-inforced.

  10. Barriers to Access and Adoption of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in a Relatively Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubach, Randolph D; Currin, Joseph M; Sanders, Carissa A; Durham, André R; Kavanaugh, Katherine E; Wheeler, Denna L; Croff, Julie M

    2017-08-01

    Biomedical intervention approaches, including antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), have been demonstrated to reduce HIV incidence among several at-risk populations and to be cost effective. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP access and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in relatively rural states. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted (August-November 2016) to assess opinions of and perceived barriers to accessing and adopting PrEP among MSM residing in Oklahoma. Participants perceived substantial barriers to accessing PrEP including a stigmatizing environment and less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive medical care. Overall, geographic isolation limits access to health providers and resources that support sexual health for Oklahoma MSM. Addressing stigma situated across ecological levels in an effort to increase adoption of PrEP by MSM residing in rural states remains necessary. Without this, social determinants may continue to negatively influence PrEP adoption and sexual health outcomes.

  11. Nurse Practitioner Autonomy and Satisfaction in Rural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A

    2016-01-29

    Rural primary care shortages may be alleviated if more nurse practitioners (NPs) practiced there. This study compares urban and rural primary care NPs (classified by practice location in urban, large rural, small rural, or isolated small rural areas) using descriptive analysis of the 2012 National Sample Survey of NPs. A higher share of rural NPs worked in states without physician oversight requirements, had a DEA (drug enforcement administration) number, hospital admitting privileges, and billed using their own provider identifier. Rural NPs more often reported they were fully using their NP skills, practicing to the fullest extent of the legal scope of practice, satisfied with their work, and planning to stay in their jobs. We found lower per capita NP supply in rural areas, but the proportion in primary care increased with rurality. To meet rural primary care needs, states should support rural NP practice, in concert with support for rural physician practice.

  12. Nonmethane Hydrocarbons and Ozone in the Rural Southeast United States National Parks: A Model Sensitivity Analysis and Its Comparison with Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.; Aneja, V. P.; Mathur, R.; Ray, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    A comprehensive modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (July 14th to July 29th, 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emission scenarios including the base scenario are analyzed. Model predictions are compared with and contrasted against observed data at the three locations for the same time period. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O3 concentrations than observation by 10.8% at Cove Mountain, Great Smoke Mountains National Park (GRSM), 26.8% at Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and 17.6% at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park (SHEN). Overall mean ozone concentrations are very similar at GRSM and SHEN (observed data at MACA are not available). Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds match the observed values on the same order, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an order of magnitude higher than the predictions. Sensitivity analyses indicate each location has its own characteristics in terms of the capacity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from production to destruction. Analysis of individual model process budgets shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at these rural locations are transported from other areas, local chemistry is the second largest contributor (13% to 42%), all other processes combined contribute less than 10% of the daytime O3 concentrations. Local emissions (>99%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, while vertical diffusion (>70%) is the predominant process to move VOCs away from the modeling grid. Dry deposition ( ~ 10%) and chemistry (2

  13. Sustainable Development of New Rural Finance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rural finance is the weakest link in China's financial system. There are still many problems in the traditional rural finance, such as poor business conditions, imperfectly competitive financial markets, and credit information asymmetry; the phenomenon of farmers' loans difficulty has not been fundamentally changed. In order to improve the current situation of rural finance, the state proposes to develop new rural finance and innovate upon rural financial system. The new rural finance has man...

  14. Assessment of the risk status of pregnant women presenting for antenatal care in a rural health facility in Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gold Oyibo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria has one of the worst maternal and child health indices globally. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the risk status of pregnant women presenting for antenatal care in a rural health facility in Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of pregnant women selected by systematic random sampling. The study instrument was a pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Result: The age range of the women in the study was 16-43 years. The mean age was 25.3 ± 1.3 years. According to the scoring system used, about one-fourth of the women (26% had a high risk pregnancy while about a tenth (9.1% had very high risk pregnancy. The vast majority of the women with at-risk pregnancies registered for antenatal care late: 58.9 % registered for antenatal care in the second trimester and 37.0 % registered for antenatal care in the third trimester of pregnancy. Of the women with an at-risk pregnancy, 79.5% had their last delivery at home and 67.1 % of them preferred to deliver at home in their current pregnancies. Conclusion: This study revealed that a substantial proportion of rural women with at-risk pregnancies go through their pregnancy period without significant modern antenatal care. The local government health department should intensify efforts through health enlightenment campaigns to educate rural pregnant women of the benefits of utilizing modern antenatal care services.

  15. Rural Supremacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Meera

    2011-01-01

    The success of any brand depends on it acceptance by the consumers. This project highlights the rural buying behaviour. The rural consumers tend to show a closed mind towards branded goods and services. Though the current scenario is improved than the past but still large amount of rural market is untapped. The marketers now understand the potential at the bottom of the pyramid but there are doubts regarding the way this market can be reached and converted into customers. Many factors like in...

  16. Rural Supremacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Meera

    2011-01-01

    The success of any brand depends on it acceptance by the consumers. This project highlights the rural buying behaviour. The rural consumers tend to show a closed mind towards branded goods and services. Though the current scenario is improved than the past but still large amount of rural market is untapped. The marketers now understand the potential at the bottom of the pyramid but there are doubts regarding the way this market can be reached and converted into customers. Many factors like in...

  17. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college inAndhra Pradesh State,

  18. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the

  19. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the con-

  20. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than

  1. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in AndhraPradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the con-

  2. Rural Adult Education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  3. An Analysis of the Twenty-Nine Capabilities of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Hostage Recovery ITG Initial Terminal Guidance JEO JTF Enabling Operations JTF Join Task Force JTT Joint/Combined Training/Instruction Team LAR Light...Limited Expeditionary Airfield Operations (EAO). 27. Show of Force Operations (SOFO). 28. JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO ). 29. Sniping Operations (SNO...Relief (HA/DR) Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Airfield/Port Seizure (APS) Show of Force Operations (SOFO) JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO

  4. U.S. Marine 3rd Tank Battalion Lubrication Evaluation under Hot Ambient Temperatures at Twenty-Nine Palms, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    transmissions, and 50-grade oil in the final drives. TABLE I describes the test oils and their properties. TABUE 1. Test Lubricant Prorties ASTM Method...procedures were established as sho-’w in the program test plan (AppendiA A). Each company was to participate in norma ! -ission/training activities. B

  5. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, A A

    2005-07-01

    Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects.

  6. THE STATE OF THE ART IN RESEARCH INTO RURAL TOURISM IN SPAIN: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Hernández Mogollón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of rural tourism has been addressed from different perspectives, such as geography, sociology, psychology, economics, business management, tourism marketing, etc. This positions it as a multidisciplinary research field of great interest which is growing in strategic importance. However it requires appropriate tools to improve its performance and become more professional. The level of interest it now produces is palpable in the quantitative increase in the attention devoted to it in the scientific literature over recent years. Nevertheless there is a need to improve the quality of this research effort, especially in fields related to economics and the management of businesses and even more so with regard to issues related to marketing, all of which would contribute to a better understanding of issues such as the planning, management and marketing of these destinations and businesses. This paper is an analysis of rural tourism as an area of scientific research that aims to classify the most relevant topics in the field, with particular reference to those that focus on marketing and market research. Its main contribution is a proposal of a research agenda for the coming years.

  7. Rural Science Education: Valuing Local Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether playing outdoors or working on the farm, rural children acquire science and engineering skills throughout their daily lives. Although 11.4 million children in the United States grow up in rural areas, compared to 14.6 million in urban areas, relatively little attention is given to rural science education. This article demonstrates that…

  8. Perspectives of nurse practitioners on health care needs among Latino children and families in the rural Southeastern United States: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Godwin, YeounSoo; McMurry, Megan J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perspectives of nurse practitioners on health care needs among Latino children and families in the rural Southeastern United States. This qualitative research used semi-structured interviews with seven nurse practitioners (NPs) practicing in the rural southeastern part of North Carolina. Flanagan's critical incident technique was used to describe the experiences of NPs providing health care for Latino children and parents. Data analysis indicates that the most commonly reported illnesses by Latino children are upper respiratory infections and asthma, followed by otitis media, obesity, anemia, pneumonia, leukemia, and tumors. Barriers to health care for children included language and cultural differences, lack of access to care (e.g., lack of insurance, cost, and transportation), and health illiteracy/low education level of parents. The findings also suggest that Latinos are preserving their traditional health practices when treating their children's illnesses, such as through use of foods, hot/cold items, herbs, coin on "belly button," traditional juices, healing bracelets, and evil eye. The findings of the study imply the need to incorporate culturally sensitive care when providing care for Latino children and parents. Copyright © 2012 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

    1982-01-01

    The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as

  10. Situating the Rural Teacher Labor Market in the Broader Context: A Descriptive Analysis of the Market Dynamics in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke C.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding accountability systems that impose policies across all schools have amplified assertions that rural teacher labor markets differ from non-rural labor markets in meaningful ways that complicate rural schools' efforts to comply with the policy directives. The analysis presented here examines this claim by exploring teacher labor market…

  11. Atmospheric measurements of CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs in rural and remote locations of the United States in the year 2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleverly, D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States); Winters, D. [Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Ferrario, J.; Dupuy, A.; Byrne, C. [Environmental Chemistry Lab., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); Riggs, K.; Hartford, P.; Joseph, D.; Wisbith, T. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to address three primary objectives: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in remote areas of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range and transboundary transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the United States. Figure 1 shows the locations of NDAMN sites. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through December 19991, and calendar year 2000. The year 1999 measurement at the 9 rural stations indicated an annual mean TEQ{sub DF}-WHO{sub 98} air concentration of about 11.3 fg m{sup -3}. In the year 2000, the mean of 18 rural stations and 8 remote areas were 14.6 fg m{sup -3} and 2.0 fg m{sup -3}, respectively. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. We are reporting the air monitoring results of NDAMN for calendar year 2001 at both rural and remote sites in the U.S. The rural sites are indicated as circles and remote sites are indicted as squares on Figure 1.

  12. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Luiz Vilela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO, an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements.

  13. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  14. Rural Agrobusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  15. The use of National Youth Service Corp members to build AIDS competent communities in rural Edo State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorodion, Francisca; Akpede, Ese; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Agbontean-Eghafona, Kokunre; Onokerhoraye, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    This paper focuses on the community component of a larger action research project on HIV Prevention for Rural Youth (HP4RY), funded by the Global Health Research Initiative (Canada). It began with ethnographic research in 10 communities selected using geographic representative sampling and random assignment to one of three research arms. Using the AIDS Competent Community (ACC) model developed by Catherine Campbell, the ethnographic research identified factors in six domains that contributed to youth vulnerability to HIV infection. This was followed by recruitment, training and deployment of three overlapping cohorts of young adults (n = 40) serving in Nigeria's National Youth Service Corp (NYSC), to mobilize youth and adults in the communities to increase communities' AIDS competence over a nearly 2 year period. Monthly reports of these Corpers, observations of a Field Coordinator, and community feedback supported the conclusion that communities moved towards greater AIDS competence and reduction in youth vulnerability to HIV infection.

  16. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechi Gareth Okpechi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP is a common global cardiovascular (CV disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1; BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2, and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3. RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%, hypertension (31.4%, cigarette smoking (13.3%, use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%, physical inactivity (64.2% and being overweight or obese (33.7%. Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05; while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05. The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

  17. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development committees...

  18. Quality of Diabetes Mellitus Care by Rural Primary Care Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, Stephen A.; Makwana, Sohil; Salanitro, Amanda H.; Safford, Monika M.; Houston, Thomas K.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Curry, William; Estrada, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between degree of rurality and glucose (hemoglobin A1c), blood pressure (BP), and lipid (LDL) control among patients with diabetes. Methods: Descriptive study; 1,649 patients in 205 rural practices in the United States. Patients' residence ZIP codes defined degree of rurality (Rural-Urban Commuting Areas…

  19. Evaluation of Years 1 and 2 of the McKelvey Foundation Program To Distribute Scholarships to Entrepreneurial Rural Students in the States of Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kimberly S.; Finch, Nicole L.; Meehan, Merrill L.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a formative evaluation of the McKelvey Foundation Program to Distribute Scholarships to Entrepreneurial Rural Students in the States of Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. This evaluation provides databased recommendations for making program adjustments to improve delivery of services and/or other…

  20. Professional Preparation of Teachers for Rural Schools: Abstracts of Addresses Delivered at a Conference Called by the United States Commissioner of Education, at the Lenox Hotel, Boston, February 25, 1928. Bulletin, 1928, No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Katherine M.

    1928-01-01

    This bulletin contains abstracts of the addresses delivered at a conference called by the United States Commissioner of Education to consider problems concerned with the professional preparation of teachers for rural schools. They were prepared from copies of the addresses or abstracts of them furnished by the speakers who prepared or delivered…

  1. An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in the United States with respect to solar ultraviolet-B doses, smoking, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2010-04-01

    The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Polling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP ) study failed to find a beneficial role of prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels on risk of seven types of rarer cancer: endometrial, esophageal, gastric, kidney, ovarian and pancreatic cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, ecological studies and studies of oral vitamin D intake have generally found solar ultraviolet B (UVB) and oral vitamin D inversely correlated with incidence and/or mortality rates of these cancers. To explore the discrepancy, I conducted an ecological study of cancer mortality rates for white Americans in the United States for 1950-1994 with data for 503 state economic areas in multiple linear regression analyses with respect to UVB for July, lung cancer, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence. UVB was significantly inversely correlated with six types of cancer (not pancreatic cancer) in both periods. However, the adjusted R(2) values were much lower for cancers with lower mortality rates than those in an earlier ecological study that used state-averaged data. This finding suggests that the VDPP study may have had too few cases. Thus, the VDPP study should not be considered as providing strong evidence against the solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis.

  2. O movimento "vistoria zero" e a resistência do patronato rural às políticas de assentamentos no Rio Grande do Sul The "zero inspection" movement and the rural employers' opposition to the settlement policies in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto da Ros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisaremos o processo de constituição de um movimento de resistência do patronato rural às vistorias de imóveis rurais realizadas pelo Incra no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, buscando verificar os desdobramentos dessa ação na contraposição à implementação das políticas de assentamentos durante os anos de 1999 e 2002. Este movimento eclodiu em março de 1998, e foi protagonizado pelos grandes proprietários fundiários filiados ao Sindicato Rural do município de Bagé que o denominaram como "vistoria zero". Tal movimento, além de ter sido inédito, logo se irradiou pelo Estado, passando a integrar o repertório das ações de contraposição do patronato rural gaúcho à continuidade dos processos de desapropriação por interesse social para fins de reforma agrária. Argumenta-se ao longo do trabalho que o bloqueio imposto pelo patronato rural gaúcho às vistorias repercutiu diretamente numa redução drástica do número de famílias assentadas pelo Incra no quadriênio de 1999/2002, contribuindo para fortalecer ainda mais a opção do segundo governo de Fernando Henrique Cardoso pela reforma agrária de mercado.This article analyzes the formation process of the rural employers' resistance movement against the inspection of rural properties conducted by Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária - INCRA (National Institute of Colonization and Land Reform in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in order to understand the ramifications of this action as opposed to the implementation of settlement policies from 1999 to 2002. This movement broke out in March 1998, led by big landowners from the Rural Union of the Municipality of Bagé, who called it "zero inspection". This unprecedented movement soon spread all over the State, an addition to the rural employers' opposition to the process of expropriation for land reform purposes. Throughout the article, the author maintains that the blockade the rural employers

  3. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B Gomez

    Full Text Available While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI in rural Nigeria.We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730. Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible

  4. Attraction and retention of qualified health workers to rural areas in Nigeria: a case study of four LGAs in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Campbell, Princess C

    2011-01-01

    INTRTODUCTION: A shortage of health workers is a major problem for Nigeria, especially in rural areas where more than 70% of the population live. At the primary care level, trained community health officers provide services normally reserved for doctors or medical specialists. The community health officers must therefore be supported and motivated to provide effective quality healthcare services. This study aimed to determine factors that will attract and retain rural and urban health workers to rural Nigerian communities, and to examine differences between the two groups. A cross-sectional survey measured health workers' work experience, satisfaction with, and reasons for undertaking their current work; as well as reasons for leaving a work location. Data were also gathered on factors that attract health workers to rural settings and also retain them. RESULTS; Rural health workers were generally more likely to work in rural settings (62.5%) than their urban counterparts (16.5%). Major rural motivators for both groups included: assurances of better working conditions; effective and efficient support systems; opportunities for career development; financial incentives; better living conditions and family support systems. The main de-motivator was poor job satisfaction resulting from inadequate infrastructure. Rural health workers were particularly dissatisfied with career advancement opportunities. More urban than rural health workers expressed a wish to leave their current job due to poor job satisfaction resulting from poor working and living conditions and the lack of career advancement opportunities. Motivational factors for attraction to and retention in rural employment were similar for both groups although there were subtle differences. Addressing rural health manpower shortages will require the development of a comprehensive, evidence-based rural health manpower improvement strategy that incorporates a coordinated intersectoral approach, involving partnership

  5. A study of indoor radon levels in rural dwellings of Ezine (Canakkale, Turkey) using solid-state nuclear track detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Sahin, S Y; Ataksor, B; Celebi, N

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon activity level and radon effective dose (ED) rate have been carried out in the rural dwellings of Ezine (Canakkale) during the summer season using Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha track detectors. The range of radon concentration varied between 9 and 300 Bq m(-3), with an average of 67.9 (39.9 SD) Bq m(-3). Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, it has been found that the 222Rn ED rate in the dwellings studied ranges from 0.4 to 5.2 mSv y(-1), with an average value of 1.7 (1.0) mSv y(-1). There is a possibility that low radon concentrations exist indoors during the summer season in the study area because of relatively high ventilation rates in the dwellings. A winter survey will be needed for future estimation of the annual ED.

  6. Rural drinking water issues in India’s drought-prone area: a case of Maharashtra state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udmale, Parmeshwar; Ichikawa, Yutaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Shaowei, Ning; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Kazama, Futaba

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining sufficient drinking water with acceptable quality under circumstances of lack, such as droughts, is a challenge in drought-prone areas of India. This study examined rural drinking water availability issues during a recent drought (2012) through 22 focus group discussions (FGDs) in a drought-prone catchment of India. Also, a small chemical water quality study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of water for drinking purpose based on Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The drought that began in 2011 and further deteriorated water supplies in 2012 caused a rapid decline in reservoir storages and groundwater levels that led, in turn, to the failure of the public water supply systems in the Upper Bhima Catchment. Dried up and low-yield dug wells and borewells, tanker water deliveries from remote sources, untimely water deliveries, and degraded water quality were the major problems identified in the FGDs. In addition to severe drinking water scarcity during drought, the quality of the drinking water was found to be a major problem, and it apparently was neglected by local governments and users. Severe contamination of the drinking water with nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and chlorides was found in the analyzed drinking water samples. Hence, in addition to the water scarcity, the results of this study point to an immediate need to investigate the problem of contaminated drinking water sources while designing relief measures for drought-prone areas of India.

  7. Local knowledge about cacti in rural communities in the mesoregion of Paraíba State (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayze de Almeida Marreiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to record the uses and knowledge of cacti in the rural communities of Barroquinha and Besouro, in the municipality of Lagoa, in Paraíba, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 52 informants (men and women. The cacti cited were organized into eight categories of use. Five species were identified in the communities: Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus sp., Pilosocereus chrysostele (Vaupel Byles & G. D. Rowley, Nopalea cochenillifera (L. Salm-Dyck and Pilosocereus gounellei (F.A.C. Weber Byles & Rowley. We registered 201 citations of use in Barroquinha, which were placed in seven categories, and 76 citations in Besouro, which were placed in eight categories. In both communities, C. jamacaru was the most used specie and forage was the most common category of use. Within the communities, the menand women had similar knowledge about these plants. In relation to the transmission of knowledge, there was a predominance of a vertical transmission, from parents to children. Based on the categories applied to the species, the various uses recorded show that these cacti are important to the Besouro and Barroquinha communities.

  8. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis.

  9. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  10. Rural nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Rhonda L.; Usher, Kim

    2015-01-01

    with descriptive techniques. In-depth interviews were conducted and the transcribed data were analysed using thematic techniques. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that in general rural people are willing to seek mental health care, and that rural nurses are well suited to provide initial care...... to young people. Conclusions: Non-traditional venues such as community, school and justice settings are ideal places where more convenient first conversations about mental health with young people and their families, and rural nurses should be deployed to these settings. Relevance to Clinical Practice......: Rural nurses are able to contribute important initial engagement interventions that enhance the early mental health care for young people when it is needed....

  11. Rural pharmacy closures: implications for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Kelli; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius based on driving distance ("sole community pharmacy"), may affect access to prescription and over-the-counter drugs and, in some cases, leave the community without proximate access to any clinical provider. This policy brief documents the closure of local retail pharmacies in which the pharmacist was the only clinical provider available in the community at the time the pharmacy closed. Characteristics of the community and the retail pharmacy are described. The findings may suggest future policy actions to minimize the risk or mitigate the negative consequences of pharmacy closures. Key Findings. (1) Between May 1, 2006, and October 31, 2010, 119 sole community pharmacies closed. (2) Of those 119 pharmacies, 31 were located in rural communities with no other health professionals or clinical providers. (3) In 16 states, at least 1 community lost a sole community retail pharmacy, and there was no other pharmacy within 10 miles (actual driving distance). (4) Of the 31 pharmacy closures in communities with no other providers, 17% were located in remote rural areas designated with a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) score of 10 or higher. Such a score means that, on average, 60 minutes of travel time is required to reach an urbanized area, and 40 minutes is required to reach a large urban cluster of 20,000 population or more.

  12. Household cost of antenatal care and delivery services in a rural community of Kaduna state, northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasiq Sambo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality remains a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. While Nigeria has only two percent of the global population, it contributes 10% to the global maternal mortality burden. Antenatal care (ANC reduces the incidence of maternal mortality. However, financial capability affects access to antenatal care. Thus, the rural poor are at a higher risk of maternal mortality. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 135 women (pregnant women and those who are 6 weeks postpartum. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences software (version 17. Results: The average amount spent on booking and initial laboratory investigations were N77 (half a dollar and N316 ($2, respectively. Per ANC visit, average amount spent on drugs and transportation were N229 ($1.5 and N139 ($0.9 respectively. For delivery, the average amount spent was N1500 ($9.6. On an average, ANC plus delivery cost about N3,365.00 ($22. There was a statistically significant association between husband′s income and ANC attendance (X 2 = 2.451, df = 2, P = 0.048. Conclusion: Cost of Antenatal care and delivery services were not catastrophic but were a barrier to accessing antenatal care and facility-based delivery services in the study area. ANC attendance was associated with the income of household heads. Pro-poor policies and actions are needed to address this problem, as it will go a long way in reducing maternal mortality in this part of the country.

  13. Implementing and sustaining evidence-based practice in juvenile justice: a case study of a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Welsh, Brandon C; Greenwood, Peter W; King, Erica

    2014-09-01

    US juvenile justice is at the forefront of experimentation with the evidence-based paradigm, whereby the best available research is utilized to help inform more rational and effective practice. Increasingly, state governments are playing a major role in this endeavor. Maine is one of these states and is the focus of this article. Using a case-study design, we set out to develop a fuller understanding of the events and processes that have contributed to the development, implementation, and sustainment of evidence-based practice in juvenile justice in the state. Four major themes emerged. First, Maine has benefited from strong and lasting leadership within its corrections department. These leaders paved the way for the implementation and sustainment of programs, including finding innovative ways to use existing resources. Second, the adoption of the Risk-Need-Responsivity model was important in laying the groundwork for the use of evidence-based programming. Third, collaborations within and among state agencies and public and private groups were essential. Finally, buy-in and support from multiple stakeholders was and continues to be essential to Maine's work. Ongoing problems remain with respect to ensuring agencies prioritize fidelity to the model and locating increasingly scarce funding. Implications for other states are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. The USDA , Economic Research Service, provides insight to rural definitions with an article, Defining the "Rural" in Rural America: The use ...

  15. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  16. Cancer of the Colorectum in Maine, 1995-1998: Determinants of Stage at Diagnosis in a Rural State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Margaret A.; Askland, Kathleen D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Despite screening for colorectal cancer, mortality in the United States remains substantial. In northern New England, little is known about predictors of stage at diagnosis, an important determinant of survival and mortality. Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify predictors of late stage at diagnosis for colorectal cancer…

  17. A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.

  18. Evaluating Farmers Access To Productive Resources Through Cooperative Societies And Its Effects On Their Performance In Rural Communities Of Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The poverty of Nigerian farmers and their inability to increase their output and income above the subsistence level have been identified as one of the factors militating against food production in Nigeria. Yet agricultural cooperative create the ability for the supply of required agricultural inputs so that production of commodities is done timely to enhance productivity. They also provide an assured market for commodities produced by isolated small farmers in the rural areas. This paper was determined to evaluate the effects of cooperative societies on members output. The researchers administered a total of one hundred and twenty-six 126 questionnaires to the respondents with the assistance of the divisional cooperative officers. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of t-test statistic and regression analysis. Results showed that the various Services rendered by farmers cooperative to their members include agric credit improved seedlings fertilizer and market access. They however disagreed that they received extension services the cooperative farmers agreed that they have access to the following agricultural services after joining cooperatives Access to Agric credit Access to Improved Seedlings and Access to Fertilizer. They disagree that they have Access to emerging markets and Access to Extension services. Hence the need to adopt cooperative as a platform for improving farmers productivity and output in Awka South L.G.A of Anambra state. As such the researchers therefore recommends that the Anambra State government should encourage research development and provision of adequate extension services to cooperative farmers through the Ministry in charge of cooperative in the state. Through the extension education the farmers will have knowledge of emerging markets and cooperative farmers should also be encouraged to join cooperative to enable them have access to agricultural credit among others.

  19. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.306 Financing rural development planning. States will be required to...

  20. Patterns and Drivers of Mobile Telephony for Sustainable Livelihood among Rural Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jubril Olayinka Animashaun; Segun Bamidele Fakayode; Kazeem Adebayo Idris; Khairat F Adedokun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is acknowledged that mobile phones, as an asset, exhibits multiple functionalities and diverse applications that cut across all forms of capital accumulation necessary for sustainable livelihood. However, empirical result is sparse in Nigeria as to the impact of mobile phones on asset accumulation. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of mobile phone use and intensity of use for sustainable capital formation in among farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. Spec...

  1. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to

  2. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and

  3. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and

  4. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and

  5. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  6. Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villagrán-Herrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and “indeterminate” stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA. We also performed Western blot (WB analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD, a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests.

  7. Assessment of oral health status and periodontal treatment needs among rural, semi-urban, urban, and metropolitan population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of various etiologic factors in periodontal disease has been investigated by means of epidemiologic surveys and clinical studies. The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN provides a picture of the public health requirements in the periodontal field, which is essential for national oral health policy-making and specific interventions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 4000 individuals among rural, semi-urban, and metro population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State, to find out the oral health status and periodontal treatment needs (TNs using CPITN index. Results: An inference was drawn from the results that among 4000 participants from all the four population groups' maximum, i.e., 63.80% of individuals needed TN2 whereas 18.20% of individuals needed TN3 and 18.10% of individuals needed TN1. Conclusion: It can be concluded with a word of hope and a word of warning. Hope lies in the fact that the measurement of periodontal diseases by epidemiological study of this condition is improving and receiving wide spread attention. The warning lies in the varied nature of the condition which goes to make up periodontal disease and perplexing ways in which these conditions blend. In addition to dental practitioner, periodontist and public health workers must devote more time and effort toward controlling periodontal disease than they seem to be devoting at present.

  8. Beyond the decade of policy and community euphoria: The state of livelihoods under new local rights to forest in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil René Oyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the state of livelihoods under the exercise of new community rights to forest in rural Cameroon. The assessment makes use of a set of livelihoods indicators. The granting and exercise of new community rights, namely, management rights and market rights, are not synonymous with improved livelihoods, despite initial predictions and expectations. The resource base has not changed; it is more and more threatened by poor local level institutional arrangements and social and bio-physical management strategies, in addition to the weak central level regulation and monitoring actions. Similarly, the rights-based reform and community forestry are not improving basic assets and means at the household level. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that this experiment should not be judged hastily, since fifteen years are not enough to judge social and institutional processes like those in progress in Cameroon. The authors draw policy options likely to improve the livelihoods dimension of the reform and launch a debate on the real contribution of community income derived from community forests towards poverty alleviation at the household level.

  9. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; Mejía-Saavedra, José de Jesús; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean's index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect. PMID:25789336

  10. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  11. Phlebotomine sandfly fauna and natural Leishmania infection rates in a rural area of Cerrado (tropical savannah in Nova Mutum, State of Mato Grosso in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Franck Thies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL has been reported in every municipality of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, but the transmission epidemiology remains poorly understood. Our study was developed in a rural area of the Nova Mutum municipality where four autochthonous cases of ACL were reported in 2009. Our aims were to describe the local phlebotomine sandfly fauna and to investigate the infection rates and infecting Leishmania species in the captured sandflies. Methods Entomological captures were performed bimonthly at 10 fixed sites close to the edge of a forested area between June 2011 and April 2012. Results A total of 3,743 phlebotomine sandflies belonging to 31 distinct species were captured. Approximately 75% of the specimens were females. The most abundant species (45.4% was Lutzomyia antunesi, which was consistently captured at every site. Species that are epidemiologically important for ACL, such as L. flaviscutellata, L. whitmani and L. umbratilis, were also captured. L. antunesi and L. ubiquitalis were naturally infected by Leishmania braziliensis or Le. guyanensis, with minimum infection rates of 0.88% and 6.67%, respectively. Surprisingly, L. antunesi was infected by Le. infantum (synonym chagasi. Conclusions The natural infection of L. antunesi and L. ubiquitalis by Leishmania sp. suggests that these species might play a role in the zoonotic cycle of ACL in Nova Mutum. The presence of Le. infantum in L. antunesi suggests that there may be a risk of an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Nova Mutum.

  12. Association between urine fluoride and dental fluorosis as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; de Jesús Mejía-Saavedra, José; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean's index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14±1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  13. Efficiency of onions marketing Ikeduru rural markets of Owerri area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of onions marketing Ikeduru rural markets of Owerri area, Imo State, ... Trading stock and transportation contributed the highest to total variable cost with ... low profit in the structurally inefficient rural markets with its attendant poverty ...

  14. The current state of Contract Law in Australia and why it is important for rural managers to understand it

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Farmers are business managers and as such they must understand the law or they are likely to fall foul of it. This especially applies to contract law, with which they deal constantly. Contract law is made up of the common law – as the courts have decided it – and statute law- as the state and federal parliaments have enacted statutes which modify the common law. The most important and most recent of the latter is the new Australian Consumer Law.

  15. O espírito de horror à vida educativa nos campos: a educação rural paulista nas décadas de 1930 e 1940 - The spirit of horror to educational life in the country: the rural education in the State of São Paulo in the 1930s and 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macioniro Celeste Filho, Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nas décadas de 1930 e 1940 o sistema escolar paulista se consolidou em nova organização institucional em todo o Estado. Administradores escolares, os delegados regionais do ensino, organizaram em novo patamar a educação primária neste período. No espaço urbano, os grupos escolares eram o modelo a ser seguido. Contudo, como se encontravam as escolas rurais? Apresenta-se neste trabalho a visão destes delegados de ensino sobre a situação da educação ruralem São Pauloneste período. O texto aborda o conflito entre a realidade cotidiana do sistema escolar possível e o ideal almejado para a educação rural no Estado de São Paulo. Os documentos utilizados foram os relatórios destes administradores escolares, preservados no Arquivo Público do Estado de São Paulo.Palavras-chave: escolas rurais, escolas isoladas, história da educação, ensino primário paulista.THE SPIRIT OF HORROR TO EDUCATIONAL LIFE IN THE COUNTRY: THE RURAL EDUCATION IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO IN THE 1930s AND 1940sAbstractIn the 1930s and 1940s, the school system was consolidated in new institutional organization in the State of São Paulo. School administrators, the regional teaching delegates organized in a new level the primary education in this period. In urban areas, school groups were the model to be followed. However, how the rural schools were? This paper will present the vision of these teaching delegates about the calamitous situation of the rural education inSão Pauloduring this period. This text will address the conflict between the everyday reality of the feasible school system and the targeted ideal for rural education inSão Paulo. The source material utilized for this study contemplates the reports of the school administrators preserved in the Public Archives of the State of São Paulo.Key-words: rural schools, isolated schools, history of education, primary education of the State of São PauloEL ESPÍRITU DEL HORROR A LA VIDA EDUCATIVA EN EL

  16. Climate Justice in Rural Southeastern United States: A Review of Climate Change Impacts and Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kristie S; LePrevost, Catherine E

    2016-02-03

    Climate justice is a local, national, and global movement to protect at-risk populations who are disproportionately affected by climate change. The social context for this review is the Southeastern region of the United States, which is particularly susceptible to climate change because of the geography of the area and the vulnerabilities of the inhabiting populations. Negative human health effects on variable and vulnerable populations within the Southeast region due to changing climate are concerning, as health threats are not expected to produce parallel effects among all individuals. Vulnerable communities, such as communities of color, indigenous people, the geographically isolated, and those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged and already experiencing poor environmental quality, are least able to respond and adapt to climate change. Focusing on vulnerable populations in the Southeastern United States, this review is a synthesis of the recent (2010 to 2015) literature-base on the health effects connected to climate change. This review also addresses local and regional mitigation and adaptation strategies for citizens and leaders to combat direct and indirect human health effects related to a changing climate.

  17. Climate Justice in Rural Southeastern United States: A Review of Climate Change Impacts and Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie S. Gutierrez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate justice is a local, national, and global movement to protect at-risk populations who are disproportionately affected by climate change. The social context for this review is the Southeastern region of the United States, which is particularly susceptible to climate change because of the geography of the area and the vulnerabilities of the inhabiting populations. Negative human health effects on variable and vulnerable populations within the Southeast region due to changing climate are concerning, as health threats are not expected to produce parallel effects among all individuals. Vulnerable communities, such as communities of color, indigenous people, the geographically isolated, and those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged and already experiencing poor environmental quality, are least able to respond and adapt to climate change. Focusing on vulnerable populations in the Southeastern United States, this review is a synthesis of the recent (2010 to 2015 literature-base on the health effects connected to climate change. This review also addresses local and regional mitigation and adaptation strategies for citizens and leaders to combat direct and indirect human health effects related to a changing climate.

  18. [Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

    2010-12-01

    In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples.

  19. Institutional provisions for administration of rural development programmes: experience from Fadama 111 development programme in Taraba state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Dimelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined institutional provisions in the implementation of Fadama 111 Development Project in Taraba State, Nigeria during 2008-2013. All the staff of the project (57 from eight out of 16 local government areas participated in the programme was used in the study. Data were collected with questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics. The results showed strong linkages of the state Fadama coordinating office with government parastaltals and organizations at different levels of the project implementation. There were strong adherence to rules and regulations guiding staff recruitment, financial management, preparation of local development plan, environmental compliance and friendliness, and group formation. The project was constrained by several institutional factors namely delay in the payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.39, lack of transport and other logistic supports (M=3.06, lack of payment of counterpart fund by the government (M=3.04 and others. The study recommends that policy makers and development planner should ensure functional mechanisms that could foster and enhance linkages, and support adherence to rules and regulations prescribed for implementation of development programmes.

  20. EARLY CHILDHOOD MENTAL HEALTH CONSULTATION: AN EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuyk, M Alexandra; Sprague-Jones, Jessica; Reed, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Little research has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) in rural, applied settings. In this mixed-methods study, we evaluated an approach to ECMHC used in rural Southwest Kansas with individualized services for childcare providers. Twenty-nine home-based and center-based childcare providers completed measures on provider growth, perceptions of child outcomes, and satisfaction with sessions. In total, 162 data points were collected and analyzed using multilevel growth models. In addition, 16 providers participated in qualitative interviews. Both home-based and center-based providers reported very high satisfaction with consultation sessions which increased with time, although home-based providers showed significantly higher satisfaction than did center-based providers. Provider growth, encompassing personal well-being, scheduling and transitions, connections with parents, and positive discipline strategies increased significantly over time. Child outcomes, encompassing prosocial behavior, resilience, and overall well-being also improved significantly in providers' perception. ECMHC as conducted in Southwest Kansas appears to have a positive effect on childcare providers and the children in their care. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Rural Collective Construction Land and State-owned Construction Land Price Appraisal Factors of Differences%集体建设用地与国有建设用地地价评估差异影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡博

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of China’s rural economy,rural collective construction land use rights transfer problem caused the attention of social all circles.Since 2003,our country began to rural collective construction land into unified land market circulation to try,rural collective land will be like state-owned land,according to“the same way,with prices,with the right”principle,into a unified land market.This initiative will help revitalize the original construction of rural land,thus greatly reducing land demand pressure on new construction,and promote rural industrialization,agricultural industrialization and urbanization. However,in the actual operation process,the rural collective construction land and state-owned construction land is difficult to“the same way,with prices, with the right”,this paper reasons in many aspects to analyze this phenomenon and find out the specific methods to solve this problem.%随着我国农村经济的快速发展,农村集体建设用地使用权流转问题引起了社会各界的关注。自2003年开始,我国各地开始对农村集体建设用地按“同地、同价、同权”的原则,纳入统一的土地市场。这一举措将有利于盘活农村原有的建设用地,从而大大减轻对新增建设用地需求的压力,推进农村工业化、农业产业化和城镇化进程。可是,在实际操作过程中,农村集体建设用地与国有建设用地却很难实现“同地、同价、同权”。因此,从多个方面分析这种现象产生原因并从中找出解决问题的具体方法显得尤为重要。

  2. [Common mental disorders and social support in a rural community in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albanita Gomes da; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders and the association with social support in a community located in the Zona da Mata, a sugar cane plantation area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A household survey was carried out and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Medical Outcomes Study, and socioeconomic questions were administered to all residents over 19 years of age. Total prevalence of common mental disorders was 36.0%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with low social support had twice the probability of suffering from common mental disorders (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.35-3.24) as compared to those with greater support, even after adjusting for age, schooling, and work force participation. The results show the importance of investments in social support networks to promote interactions between individuals and increase individuals' self-confidence and power to deal with problems.

  3. 77 FR 2954 - Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program... Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) will hold meetings for stakeholders focusing on Rural Development's... Development State Directors. Stakeholders must contact the appropriate Rural Development State Office in...

  4. Hot Land Created by Rural Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tens of thousands of visitors attended the China national exhibition on "Rural Women's Achievements in Ten Years of the Dual Campaign" that was held recently in Beijing. Through pictures, models, material objects and video shows displayed throughout the 5, 700 square meters of floor space, they got to know of many rural women and their excellent performances. Their economic and social benefits helped the audience to re-appraise them, appreciating them as contributors to the state not just poor rural wom...

  5. Sandfly frequency in a clean and well-organized rural environment in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Machado de Oliveira Legriffon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sandflies caught in Santa Juliana Farm in Sarandi, State of Paraná, Brazil, were assessed in terms of their fauna, seasonality, and frequency in the homes and in shelters of domestic animals around the homes, as well as in the nearby forest. METHODS: In Santa Juliana Farm, there are no records of cases of ACL, differing from other relatively clean and organized areas where surveys of sandflies have been conducted in Paraná. Samples were collected with Falcão light traps, fortnightly from 22:00 to 02:00 hours, from November 2007 to November 2008. RESULTS: A total of 4,506 sandflies were captured, representing 13 species, predominantly Nyssomyia whitmani (71.8%. More sandflies were collected in the forest (52.6% than outside the forest (residences and pigsty (47.4%. However, Ny. whitmani was collected in greater numbers outside (38.3% than inside the forest (33.5%. Most sandflies were collected in the warmer months and during periods with regular rainfall. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cleaning and organization around the houses could reduce sandfly population in peridomicile. Constructing shelters for animal at a distance of approximately 100m from domiciles is recommended to prevent the invasion of sandflies, as this farm has an area of preserved forest, with wild animals and sandflies present to maintain the enzootic cycle of Leishmania.

  6. Review of Fruit & Vegetable Food System in South Dakota: Application and Policy Suggestions for Other Rural States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Stluka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been recognized as a possible reason for dietary deficiencies that contribute to rising chronic health issues and medical costs. Based on data generated by the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, South Dakota was listed as one of five states with the lowest daily adult vegetable intake (1.5 times per day. To continue the effort to promote a healthy diet, three independent surveys were developed and distributed to consumers, grocers, and growers (producers to investigate factors that affected low consumption of fruits and vegetables and to identify opportunities to increase future consumption. To highlight the influences of geographic and socioeconomic disadvantages on fruit and vegetable consumption, the surveys specifically included the consideration of consumers’ income; access and preparation of available fruits and vegetables; preparation skills and available time; perceptions of fresh, canned, and frozen products; and knowledge and role fruits and vegetables play in prevention of chronic disease in the sample selection and data analysis. Survey respondents were divided into two regions: non-food desert (Region 1 and food desert (Region 2. This paper provides a summary of the survey results and policy suggestions generated based on our findings.

  7. Rural Education as Rural Development: Understanding the Rural School-Community Well-Being Linkage in a 21st-Century Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant proportions of rural Americans, schools, and public school students situated in the geographic peripheries of an increasingly urbanizing country, rural education in the United States has consistently occupied both scholarly and policy peripheries. This is to the detriment of rural America, especially to the extent that…

  8. Information needs of rural health professionals: A case study of the tuberculosis and leprosy referral center (tb/l, Eku, Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esoswo Francisca Ogbomo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In developing countries, many rural health professionals have little or no access to basic practical information. The "information poverty" of health professionals in rural area is exacerbating what is clearly a public health emergency on a massive scale. It is against this background that the researcher is investigating the information needs of rural health professionals in the tuberculosis and leprosy referral centre (TB/L, Eku, Nigeria. The study employed the ex-post facto research method. The population of the study is 69. Percentages and frequency counts were used to analyze the data. The following are the findings derived from the study. The rural health professionals in the area need information on the diagnosis of ailment, availability of medical facilities, and research reports on causes and cures of ailments. Some of the sources of information to rural health professionals include department of health and human services, telephone contact with colleagues/agencies/local hospital libraries and rural health resources directory and research information. The major problems faced by them include lack of access to the Internet, inadequate interpretation skills and unreliable phone services. Recommendation were however made to ameliorate the situations.

  9. Dynamics of land-use change and conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States: environmental and economic implications with linkages to rural community well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William; Hoag, Dana; Johnson, Rex; Koontz, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Rural America has changed dramatically over the last century, from having over half the population living in rural settings to only 20 percent residing in a rural area today, and outmigration of younger populations from rural communities remains a constant issue for local governing officials. A declining tax base and concurrent rising costs for maintenance and repair of aging infrastructure add further challenges to policy decisions. Reduced enrollment has caused school closures or mergers. Farm consolidation and technical advances reduced the demand for local labor. On the positive side, however, record-high commodity prices have amplified farm income to new heights. The increased revenues can lead to farmers spending additional money within the local region, while at the same time increased transportation of products has impacted local infrastructure such as roads and bridges. Such dynamics present challenges for municipal leaders charged with promoting economic development and balanced spending, while at the same time maintaining the way of life and rural character that are so important to area residents. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States covers much of the Northern Great Plains, including parts of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and a small part of Montana, and extends across a broad swath of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The region is defined largely by its rural character but has experienced extensive land conversion over the last century, with agricultural areas replacing native prairie habitat. Additional pressures arise from oil and gas development, global markets for agricultural production, and increased demands for biofuel feedstocks. Record-high commodity prices increase pressure on the native prairie as farmers look for new cropland acres. The volatility of commodity prices has raised fears over the intensity of land conversion to row-crop agriculture, the economic health and resiliency of rural communities, and ultimately

  10. Análise estrutural de folhas de Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae coletadas em ambientes rural e urbano, SP, Brasil Leaf anatomy of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae in urban and rural environments, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenise Segala Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo verificar se plantas de Eugenia uniflora que crescem na cidade de São Paulo, diferem quanto à estrutura foliar, de exemplares encontrados em área rural, isenta de poluentes aéreos urbanos. Foram avaliadas, comparativamente, as dimensões da folha e, em microscopia de luz, a espessura dos tecidos foliares, a densidade de estômatos e de cristais da espécie, coletada em área rural e em dois pontos da cidade de São Paulo: canteiro central da Avenida dos Bandeirantes, com tráfego veicular intenso, portanto com alta carga de poluentes primários, e no Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI submetido a altas concentrações de poluentes secundários. Buscaram-se variações que possam ser decorrentes da poluição urbana. As folhas coletadas no meio urbano mostraram menores dimensões, menor espessura do mesofilo, maior densidade estomática e maior quantidade de cristais. A espessura do parênquima lacunoso sofreu redução, quando se comparam as plantas do ambiente rural e urbano; observou-se a menor espessura nas folhas submetidas a poluentes secundários. Não foram observadas variações qualitativas entre as folhas dos três locais avaliados. Considerando que folhas coletadas no meio urbano variaram menos entre si, quando comparadas àquelas de área rural, acredita-se que a poluição aérea da cidade possa ser responsável, pelo menos em parte, pelas variações observadas. Exposições padronizadas, em ambiente monitorado, devem ser realizadas para comprovar tal hipótese.The aim of this study was to compare leaves of Eugenia uniflora from the city of São Paulo with leaves of plants from a rural site. Leaf size, tissue thickness, and stomatal and crystal density of E. uniflora growing at two sites in the city of São Paulo were investigated by light microscopy and compared with samples from a rural area. The level and types of air pollutants varied at the urban sites. Primary pollutants were present

  11. Foliar Uptake of Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen Pollution Along an Urban-Rural Gradient in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) pollution in terrestrial ecosystems, and when soil N is limiting, foliar N uptake can be a source of plant-available N. A proxy for pollution derived N, and in particular foliar assimilated N, would be useful to quantify the impact of the foliar uptake pathway on plant metabolism. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (15N/14N) are practical for this purpose because forms of plant-available N often have varying isotopic compositions. However, the mechanisms driving differences in foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) are still unresolved. Current understanding of foliar δ 15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of the soil water solution δ15N, direct foliar uptake of atmospheric reactive N, within-plant fractionations, and fractionation due to the fungus to root transfer in mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the influence of direct foliar uptake, soil solution δ 15N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in seedlings of two dominant Northeastern tree species, red maple (Acer rubrum) and red oak (Quercus rubra), along an N deposition gradient in New York State. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we compared foliar δ15N values directly to soil solution δ15N values while controlling for mycorrhizal associations. Both species showed higher foliar δ15N when exposed to fractionation by mycorrhizal associations. Overall, A. rubrum showed higher foliar δ15N than Q. rubra across all sites. In both species, patterns of foliar δ15N values were coupled with soil solution δ15N values across the N deposition gradient. Additionally, increasing atmospheric N deposition was correlated with higher foliar δ15N values in Q. rubra, but not in A. rubrum. Using a mixing model, we estimated that Q. rubra seedlings incorporated up to 7% of their assimilated N via direct foliar uptake of atmospheric N pollution. However, foliar uptake was not detectable in A. rubrum seedlings. Results

  12. An unceasing problem: soil-transmitted helminthiases in rural Malaysian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Atiya, A S; Lim, Y A L; Mahdy, A K Mohammed; Ariffin, W A Wan; Abdullah, H Che; Surin, Johari

    2007-11-01

    Despite great development in socioeconomic status throughout 50 years of independence, Malaysia is still plagued with soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). STH continue to have a significant impact on public health particularly in rural communities. In order to determine the prevalence of STH among rural Orang Asli children and to investigate the possible risk factors affecting the pattern of this prevalence, fecal samples were collected from 292 Orang Asli primary schoolchildren (145 males and 147 females) age 7-12 years, from Pos Betau, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The samples were examined by Kato-Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Socioeconomic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infections were 67.8, 95.5 and 13.4%, respectively. Twenty-nine point eight percent of the children had heavy trichuriasis, while 22.3% had heavy ascariasis. Sixty-seven point seven percent of the children had mixed infections. Age > 10 years (p = 0.016), no toilet in the house (p = 0.012), working mother (p = 0.040), low household income (p = 0.033), and large family size (p = 0.028) were identified as risk factors for ascariasis. Logistic regression confirmed low income, no toilet in the house and working mother as significant risk factors for ascariasis. The prevalence of STH is still very high in rural Malaysian communities. STH may also contribute to other health problems such as micronutrient deficiencies, protein-energy malnutrition and poor educational achievement. Public health personnel need to reassess current control measures and identify innovative and integrated ways in order to reduce STH significantly in rural communities.

  13. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issues that impact rural health in RHIhub’s Topic Guides. Recently updated: Social Determinants of Health for Rural People Browse all 50+ topics Community Health Gateway Find rural project examples in Rural Health Models and Innovations and proven strategies for strong rural programs with ...

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  15. Prevalence of anaemia among Quranic school (Khalawi) students (Heiran)in Wad El Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, Central Sudan: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Mohammed Saeed Elsamani; Elsaeed, Awad Eseed; Mohamedani, Ahmed Abdalla; Assayed, Abbas Abdalrahman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This is a cross sectional descriptive community-based study. The aim was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among quranic schoolchildren in khalawi Wad EL Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, central Sudan. Methods A sample of 180 male participants were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the hematological parameters and blood films for malaria parasites. Urine and stool analyses were also done. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results The mean age of participants was 12.31 years (SD +/- 2.26). The mean Hb value was 11.75g/dl and it was statistically significant correlation when compared with the mean Hb reference value (13.5g/dl) P value 0,000 (95% CI). Regarding period of stay in the khalwa up to the time of the study, 88 (49.28%) for one year, 54 (30.24%) for 2 years, 22 (12.32%) for 3 years and 16 (8.96%) for more than 3 years. About 77 students (42.78%) were pale on clinical examination. The Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) mean value was 25.58 pg ( 3.55). Many conditions known to be associated with anemia were found; 49 students (27.2%) had a positive blood films for falciparum malaria, 14 students (7.8%) were found to have haematuria and ova of S. haematobium, In169 students (93.4%) stool examination was negative , while 11 students (6.6%) had intestinal worms (Enterobius vermicularis). Conclusion Majority of the study participants had iron deficiency anaemia, followed by haemolytic, macrocytic and sickle cell anaemia. This might have negative health and educational implications. PMID:27800099

  16. Prevalence of anaemia among Quranic school (Khalawi) students (Heiran)in Wad El Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, Central Sudan: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Mohammed Saeed Elsamani; Elsaeed, Awad Eseed; Mohamedani, Ahmed Abdalla; Assayed, Abbas Abdalrahman

    2016-01-01

    This is a cross sectional descriptive community-based study. The aim was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among quranic schoolchildren in khalawi Wad EL Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, central Sudan. A sample of 180 male participants were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the hematological parameters and blood films for malaria parasites. Urine and stool analyses were also done. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The mean age of participants was 12.31 years (SD +/- 2.26). The mean Hb value was 11.75g/dl and it was statistically significant correlation when compared with the mean Hb reference value (13.5g/dl) P value 0,000 (95% CI). Regarding period of stay in the khalwa up to the time of the study, 88 (49.28%) for one year, 54 (30.24%) for 2 years, 22 (12.32%) for 3 years and 16 (8.96%) for more than 3 years. About 77 students (42.78%) were pale on clinical examination. The Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) mean value was 25.58 pg ( 3.55). Many conditions known to be associated with anemia were found; 49 students (27.2%) had a positive blood films for falciparum malaria, 14 students (7.8%) were found to have haematuria and ova of S. haematobium, In169 students (93.4%) stool examination was negative , while 11 students (6.6%) had intestinal worms (Enterobius vermicularis). Majority of the study participants had iron deficiency anaemia, followed by haemolytic, macrocytic and sickle cell anaemia. This might have negative health and educational implications.

  17. Ethnobotanical study of useful vegetal species in two rural communities in the semi-arid region of Paraíba state (Northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleilton Marques Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trying to understand the relationship between man/natural resources, from ethonobotanical studies, this study aimed to estimate the use value of vegetal species in two Caatinga areas in the Cariri of Paraíba state, besides knowing the multiple uses of plants by the residents of rural communities of Brito (Queimadas - PB and Lagoa Salgada (Montadas, Areial, Pocinhos - PB. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local specialists and the community. It was used by the specialists the technique “snow ball” and the technique “guided tour”. It was identified 77 species, being 40 in Brito community and 37 in Lagoa Salgada community, all of them distributed into use categories, since food up to technological uses. Seven species had the higher use value: 1: Croton blanchetianus, Mimosa caesalpinefolia, Prosopis julifora, Mimosa tenuiflora, Opuntia ficus-indica, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva. The used categories were equal between the two communities and among the general informants and local specialists, which show great resemblance of use and their preference for certain species. The lowest cited species were those for food and domestic building purposes, and the most used were those ones for medicinal use. The most cited species are Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae. Regarding the species, the most valued in both communities were Croton blanchetianus, Pilosocereus gounellei, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis julifora.  Although the current communities have a great dependence of the local flora for surviving, the extraction and the lack of conservation of species are notorious in both communities.

  18. Typology and development characteristics of rural areas in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Perpar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the typology of rural areas in Slovenia is presented. In theresearch some important indicators of the rural areas have been analysedand three basic types of rural areas have been defined: suburban, typicalrural areas and depopulation areas. In the continuation detailed comparisonanalysis of the situation in defined rural areas on the sample of ruralareas is stated. The analysis is based on demographic, agricultural, economicand social indicators. A sociological part of the research is based oninterviews with leaders of local communities including opinions about thesituation and opportunities of sample rural areas and their proposals andremarks for the rural development policy makers.

  19. About The Rural Developm ent Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one juniorcollege in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and

  20. Distance Education Use in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Wallace H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Banks, Jonathan B.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    A national survey of rural school systems in the United States was conducted to determine the extent to which distance education is being utilized by rural schools, the technologies used, the curriculum areas impacted, the perceived needs for distance education, their satisfaction with distance education, and the barriers to distance education…

  1. The Digital Divide and Rural Community Colleges: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Moeck, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the seriousness of the digital divide-the discrepancy between technology-literate and -illiterate people-in rural areas in the United States. Reports that rural young, minority, and single-parent households lag behind the national average in both personal computer ownership and Internet access. Offers suggestions for ways rural community…

  2. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides…

  3. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides various case…

  4. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides…

  5. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  6. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  7. Epidemiology and molecular analysis of hepatitis A, B and C in a semi-urban and rural area of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drositis, I; Bertsias, A; Lionis, C; Kouroumalis, E

    2013-12-01

    An observational seroepidemiological study was carried out in a well-defined primary-care district on the island of Crete in order to determine the recent endemicity of viral hepatitis in Cretan-population. The setting consisted of a semi-urban group and a remote & rural group. Serum samples were collected from 876 subjects (437 males, 439 females) aged 15 years or above. Subjects were randomly selected from the permanent population of the area that consisted of 5705 individuals. The aim was to measure the prevalence of selected viral-hepatitis markers. Hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) was found positive in twenty-nine individuals, (3.3%). Antibodies to hepatitis B virus core-antigen (HBcAb) were detected in 287 subjects (32.8%) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were detected in nineteen subjects (2.2%). Seropositivities for the semi-urban group were: 3.4%, 19.1%, 2.1% and 3.2%, 48.8%, 2.2% in remote & rural group respectively. Virtually, all subjects >45 years old were seropositive for antibodies to hepatitis A, whereas approximately 80% of those in the 15-44 age-group were found to be seropositive. A threefold increase in the HBV exposure and carrier proportion was found in Cretan native-population and in rural-areas compared to older studies carried out in other rural-populations of the island. It is still unknown whether the recent economic crisis or the demographic changes in Cretan-population contributed to these findings. HCV endemicity remains relatively constant, however an alteration of hepatitis C genotypes was observed. Exposure to HAV was found to be higher in remote and rural areas compared to semi-urban areas. © 2013.

  8. CONVERGENCE OF REAL WAGES IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Adamczyk

    2016-01-01

    The article concerns the spatial diversity of rural areas. The aim of the article is to evaluate whether the process of convergence of real wages in rural areas in Poland can be observed. The author focuses on two concepts of convergence: absolute (unconditional) beta convergence and sigma convergence. The analysis regards rural districts at NUTS-4 level for 2002–2014. It was stated that rural areas in Poland became similar (converge) in terms of real wages what can help reducing the di...

  9. Rural waste management:challenges and issues in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Liviu; Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2012-01-01

      Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems in compliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural pop...

  10. State of the educational research project: “the efficacy and the quality of skill acquisition in rural education: is this model transferable to different types of schools?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Domingo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a State of the Art regarding the research project “the efficacy and the quality of skill acquisition in rural education: is this model transferable to different types of schools?” (EDU2009-13460, Subprograma EDUC. This 3-year project was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, within the Work Programme of the National R&D&I Plan for Fundamental Oriented Research Projects. The study, now in its third year, was carried out in both Latin America and Europe. It analyses the skill acquisition of primary students in rural schools in Chile, Uruguay, France, Portugal and Spain, according to the active and participatory didactic methodologies that were applied in specific schools and in relation to the degree of influence each local territory has at a cultural-pedagogical level. This study uses an interpretive paradigm, combining quantitative methods such as the design and application of a survey, and qualitative techniques including semi-structured interviews and ethnography. The investigation is now in its last phase, during which we will carry out an analysis of documents and participant observation. The results intend to show whether the pedagogic model found in rural schools that use participatory and active didactic methodologies is transferable to urban schools, and will generate conclusions that will aid in improving the quality of education in schools of all types.

  11. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  12. Rural Older Americans: Unanswered Questions. Hearing Before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    The hearing's purpose was to begin building a record, from a national perspective, regarding older Americans who live in smaller towns and rural areas. It is not fully known what the real impact is of such matters as lack of transportation, nutritional deficiencies, distance to and shortage of health care, non-availability of adult education…

  13. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  14. Income status of urban and rural areas and poverty-alleviation strategies in Xiangxi State%湘西州城乡收入现状与减贫对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 蔡清俭

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析湘西州城乡收入现状与减贫对策,为促进湘西州经济发展及提高人们生活水平提供参考.[方法]对2001~2009年湘西州的经济发展概况进行统计分析,并从收入水平的横向和纵向比较来分析湘西州贫困现状.[结果]湘西州城乡收入水平低,且差距大,其原因是人口增长快且素质较低、资本投资不足、企业缺乏先进技术.[建议]降低人口自然增长率、加大教育投资、发展小额信贷、加强基础设施建设、鼓励技术引进和创新来降低贫困程度,促进湘西州经济发展,提高人们生活水平.%[Objective]Urban and rural income status and poverty-alleviation strategies in Xiangxi State were presented in this paper to provide references for faster economic growth and better livelihood in the State. [Method]On the basis of analysis of statistical data of economics, the poverty status was compared from different income levels. [Results]Due to rapid population growth, lack of capital investment and advanced technology enterprises, the income of urban and rural areas of Xiangxi State was reduced, and the differences between income of urban and rural areas became higher. [Suggestion] Reducing population growth, increasing investment in education, developing micro-credit business, strengthening infrastructure construction and encouraging technology introduction and innovation may reduce the poverty level, boost e-conomic development and improve people's wellbeing.

  15. A Logic Model for Coaching Experienced Rural Leaders: Lessons from Year One of a Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindle, Jane Clark; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Reese, Kenyae L.; Klar, Hans W.; Knoeppel, Robert Charles; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2017-01-01

    Rural schools dominate the United States, yet scant research exists on rural school leaders' development. Urban districts can transfer leaders to different locations, but rural districts, with few school sites, need leaders who stay and adapt to changing conditions. Mid-career rural leaders require a refreshed set of skills to carry school…

  16. A Logic Model for Coaching Experienced Rural Leaders: Lessons from Year One of a Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindle, Jane Clark; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Reese, Kenyae L.; Klar, Hans W.; Knoeppel, Robert Charles; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2017-01-01

    Rural schools dominate the United States, yet scant research exists on rural school leaders' development. Urban districts can transfer leaders to different locations, but rural districts, with few school sites, need leaders who stay and adapt to changing conditions. Mid-career rural leaders require a refreshed set of skills to carry school…

  17. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq.) O.F. Cook as a rural biotype for Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, in Caçu, State of Goiás.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Elisa Neves; de Andrade, Andrey José; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2014-01-01

    Rhodnius neglectus is a triatomine that colonizes different palm species. In this study, we aimed to describe the presence of this triatomine bug in the royal palms (Roystonea oleracea) in a rural region of the State of Goiás. Palm infestation was investigated by dissecting the palms or by using live-bait traps. Two palm trees were infested by R. neglectus negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease. In the study area, R. neglectus is frequently found in households. The adaptation of this species to palm trees introduced in Brazil for landscaping purposes poses another challenge for controlling the vectors of Chagas disease.

  18. The Rural Development Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Louis E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…

  19. Rural-Urban Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  20. Dispersion of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 in the rural zone of north Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-two tyres were placed in four transects (Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western, every 5 km, from the Londrina city limits to the rural areas, to verify the dispersion of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus vectors. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from August 1998 to August 1999. Data were organized according to the average number of larvae collected for each species in each collection site. A total of 62,517 mosquito larvae were collected and distributed into the following species: Aedes albopictus (21.71%; Ae. aegypti (5.54%; Ae. terrens (0.53%; Ae. fluviatilis (0.36%; Anopheles argyritarsi (0.01%; Culex quinquefasciatus (48.37%; Cx. mollis (8.88%; Cx. eduardoi (8.65%; Cx. corniger (0.61%; Cx. bigoti (0.24%; Cx. grupo coronator (0.12%; Limatus durhanii (4.61% e Toxorhynchites sp. (0.32%. There was a drastic decrease in the Ae. aegypti population from the city limits to the rural area (x1= 21.72 ± 4.71; x2=0.00 and an increase in the population of Ae. albopictus (x1 = 15.64 ± 2.73; x2 = 38.37 ± 8.87. Aedes aegypti was not present in the collection sites located 30 km away from the urban area; however, Ae. albopictus was found in all the sites. Although the frequency rate for the Aedes aegypti was low, both species were dispersed in the rural area studied. The redimensioning of these vectors’ control areas is recommended since rural areas can function as reservoirs for these species.Com o objetivo de avaliar a dispersão de Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus para a área rural, foram instalados pneus em quatro transectos (Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste, a cada 5 Km, do limite da zona urbana de Londrina em direção a zona rural. Larvas de Culicidae foram coletadas quinzenalmente de agosto de 1998 a agosto de 1999. Um total de 62.517 larvas de Culicidae foram coletadas, distribuídas entre as seguintes espécies: Aedes albopictus (21.71%; Ae. aegypti (5.54%; Ae. terrens (0.53%; Ae. fluviatilis (0.36%; Anopheles argyritarsi (0

  1. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  2. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and apply concepts. RDF does this through special programs such as Social Awareness,Youth Empowerment,

  3. Prevalência de cárie dentária em escolares da região rural de Itapetininga, São Paulo, Brasil Prevalence of dental caries in schoolchildren in the rural area of Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ribeiro de Campos Mello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa mensurar a prevalência de cárie dentária em escolares residentes na área rural de Itapetininga, São Paulo, Brasil. Uma única dentista efetuou o exame bucal de 291 crianças de 5 e 12 anos em escolas rurais, seguindo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Características sócio-econômicas e hábitos das crianças foram informados pelos pais ou responsáveis. Dados secundários relativos aos escolares da área urbana foram utilizados para análise comparativa. Os índices de cárie observados foram: ceo-d (5 anos de 2,63 e CPO-D (12 anos de 2,45. O componente cariado correspondeu a 85,6% do ceo-d e 34,2% do CPO-D, indicando a menor utilização de serviços odontológicos pelas crianças com cáries na dentição decídua. A prevalência de cárie foi mais elevada na área rural do que na área urbana de Itapetininga. O presente estudo apresenta informações epidemiológicas inéditas para o município, oferecendo subsídios para o planejamento estratégico e normativo das ações de saúde bucal no sistema local de saúde.The present study is an attempt to characterize dental needs of the rural population in Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil. One single dentist examined 291 children ages 5 and 12 years in rural schools, adopting WHO criteria for oral health surveys. Parents reported their children's socioeconomic characteristics and habits. Non-primary data gathered by the Brazilian health authority supplied information regarding the schoolchildren in the urban area of the town. Caries indices ranked as follows: dmft = 2.63 (5-year-old children and DMFT = 2.45 (12-year-old children. The decayed component comprised 85.6% of the dmft and 34.2% of the DMFT, indicating limited utilization of dental treatment by children with decayed deciduous teeth. Caries prevalence was higher in rural schoolchildren than in their urban counterparts. Analysis of the results aims to improve planning of dental care.

  4. Leadership development for rural health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Size, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is the capacity to help transform a vision of the future into reality. Individuals who can and will exercise leadership are like a river's current--a part past where we now stand, a part yet to come. We have an ongoing need to remember and to look toward the next "generation." A key responsibility of those here now, is to mentor and to create structures for mentoring, in order to maximize the flow and effectiveness of tomorrow's leaders. When recruiting organizational leaders, the recruitment and interview process must seek individuals who in addition to technical competence, also have demonstrated leadership in their prior work and activities. To exercise effective leadership, we must work to know who we are, how we relate to others, and the environment around us. "Servant leadership" is a perspective held by many throughout the rural health community and offers a key set attributes of leadership useful to rural health. To implement the Institute of Medicine's recommendations in Through Collaboration: the Future of Rural Health, we must develop leaders skilled in collaboration, both internal to their organization and across organizations. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services had it right when they said to the Secretary and to the rest of us, "the best way to honor Jim is to consciously work to help develop the next generation of rural health leaders." There are, of course, a multitude of leadership institutes, programs, and courses throughout America; this is not a call for yet another separate entity. But it is a call to each of us in rural health to assure that we are deliberate in how we identify "emerging leaders from and for rural communities and provide them with the training and resources to play a lead role in ensuring access to quality healthcare in their states and communities." Let's get started.

  5. Sistemas Silvipastoris como Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Rural para a Região Sudoeste do Rio Grande do Sul Silvopastoral Systems as a Support for Rural Development in the Southwest Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aparecida Guetten Ribaski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizada a análise da viabilidade econômica de diferentes sistemas de produção de madeira de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden em duas propriedades rurais, no Município de Alegrete, RS. A análise econômica considerou a comparação entre um sistema tradicional de pecuária da região e dois sistemas alternativos de conversão da área de pecuária para plantios homogêneos de eucalipto em duas densidades com 2.222 e 1.111 árvores.ha-1 e dois sistemas silvipastoris: com 1.000 e 500 árvores.ha-1. A análise dos resultados foi realizada a partir da determinação da Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR e da sua comparação com a Taxa Mínima de Atratividade (TMA. As alternativas com e sem o valor da terra foram avaliadas considerando uma variação do preço (aumento e diminuição de 5% e do volume da madeira (aumento e diminuição de 10%. Considerando o valor da terra, todas as alternativas analisadas apresentaram TIR inferior a TMA (3,72%. A análise de sensibilidade mostrou que, havendo aumento do preço e do volume de madeira, a maioria das alternativas com desbaste apresentou TIR superior a TMA, exceto a alternativa do sistema silvipastoril com 500 árvores.ha-1. Dessa forma, a implantação do componente florestal na propriedade rural, quando não se considerou o valor da terra, apresentou-se economicamente viável para o produtor rural.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.27

    An economic viability analysis was performed for different eucalypt wood production systems (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden in two rural properties located in Alegrete County, RS. The traditional pasture system was compared with two other alternative systems, one of them represented by a pasture land converted to homogeneous eucalypt plantation by using two plant densities (2,222 and 1,111 trees.ha-1 and the other represented by a silvopastoral system containing 1,000 and 500 trees.ha-1. The results were analyzed by determining the

  6. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF RURAL ROADS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Maletin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to revise the existing classification of rural roads in Serbia, which is rather old and defined on administrative criteria, the research developed a proposal for functional classification and categorization of primary rural roads. This resulted in four classes of rural roads based on their basic function and, with the introduction of five spatial accessibility levels, road classes are subdivided in eight road types. Based on the Serbia State Spatial Plan data, centers of gravitation together with border crossings are classified in four categories and desire lines of major transport function levels are defined. Based on this information and traffic count data the proposal of new primary rural road network in Serbia reduces the total length of the existing one with approximately the same overall accessibility level. Proposed categorization of rural roads as primary, regional and local ones is founded on functional classification and coincides with reorganization of governmental structure in Serbia.

  7. Use of acai core as possibility of sustainable development of rural areas, the sustainable agriculture and rural electrification in Para state, Brazil; Uso do caroco de acai como possibilidade de desenvolvimento sustentavel do meio rural, da agricultura familiar e de eletrificacao rural no estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ivete Teixeira da; Almeida, Arthur da Costa [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: pjulio@ufpa.br; Monteiro, Jose Humberto Araujo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao; Silva, Isa Maria Oliveira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Meteorologia; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The core of acai comes from a palm tree native to the Amazon, which grows in clumps. It is composed of several stems, reaching to form up to 25 feet in each clump. From Its fruits is obtained a drink (juice) and consumed daily by people in the Para state, especially the capital Belem and riverside communities. The state of Para is the largest producer of acai with 112,676 tons/year of fruit. Of this total 93.521 tons/year is residue (seed), or approximately 83 %. The community of Maroon that lives on the margin of the Genipauba River, in Abaetetuba, in Para state, has no electricity and is a major producer of acai, which is traded during the season 'in natura'. This paper presents the sustainable use of seeds, a byproduct of processing the fruits of acai. With appropriate methodology, natural pellets were obtained without compression, the acai biofuels. The work presents the technological innovation that has this type of pellet. The calorific value of the core, obtained in the laboratory, was in medium 4.505 kcal/kg and the average potential energy around 40.800 MWh/month. The pellets have great potential for export due to their use. It can be used in gasifiers, boilers for power generation, mechanical and gas ovens at bakeries, biomass stoves, replacing old coal irons, etc..

  8. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    ” and “space” from human geography are applied to develop a nuanced understanding of rural entrepreneurship as a spatial phenomenon. Space consists of processes of movement and mobility, while places consist of localized material, social and economic relations. Findings: Two ideal types are developed, namely......Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place...... (i) entrepreneurship in the rural and (ii) rural entrepreneurship. The former represents entrepreneurial activities that have limited embeddedness and enact a profit-oriented and mobile logic of space. The latter represents entrepreneurial activities that leverage local resources to re-connect place...

  9. A evolução das ocupações das famílias na região não-metropolitana rural do Estado do Paraná: 1992-99 Evolution of rural family occupations in the state of Paraná, Brazil: 1992-99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisaram-se as tabulações especiais dos microdados das PNADs relativas às ocupações das famílias no Estado do Paraná entre 1992 e 1999. Os dados evidenciaram um crescimento das famílias ocupadas em atividades não-agrícolas, a redução das famílias ocupadas em atividades exclusivamente agrícolas e o aumento do número de famílias de aposentados e pensionistas. Pode-se, assim, afirmar que o meio rural paranaense sofre tanto de uma espécie de "urbanização" como também de uma transformação crescente em local de moradia. Informações complementares conduzem a inferir-se que ocorre redução importante no universo denominado agricultura familiar.This article analyses the special processes of the National Home Research Sample’s (PNAD micro data relative to the occupations of rural families in the state of Paraná between 1992 and 1999. The data show growth in the number of families working in non-agricultural activities, a reduction of the number of families working in exclusively agricultural activities, and growth in the number families headed by pensioners and/or retired people. It is possible to assume that the Paranaense rural environment is experiencing a type of "urbanization" and increasing transformation in the housing area. Further information leads us to conclude that an important reduction in the universe of Brazilian family agriculture is occurring.

  10. Observations on a rural health manpower project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchoff, D M; Ingall, J R; Crage, W D

    1977-02-01

    The Rural Externship Program was developed by the Lakes Area Regional Medical Program in conjunction with the State University of New York at Buffalo and the health professionals of western New York and northwestern Pennsylvania. It was designed to encourage health science students to practice in a rural area following graduation. This interdisciplinary program provides health science students with an eight-week summer living-working experience in a rural environment, supervised by practitioner-preceptors. The intent is to develop their appreciation of rural health care and life-styles. Since the summer of 1970, 240 students have participated. This paper describes and discusses the project and presents measures of the externs' changes in attitudes toward rural practice which occurred after they participated in the program. A survey of externs who have graduated shows the effect of the program on their decision to locate. Of the 61 externs contacted, 55 percent indicated that they were in rural practice, and 53 percent of the latter indicated that their experience in the Rural Externship Program was an important factor in their decision to practice in a rural area.

  11. Office of Rural Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Hub Rural Health Research Gateway Rural Community Health Gateway White House Rural Council  Eligibility Analyzer Contact Us Subscribe to FORHP weekly announcement for rural health grantees and stakeholders by e-mail Subscribe to ...

  12. Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current status of rural informatization construction in China,including the relatively weak rural informatization,asymmetric market information,low level of information sharing,dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other are analyzed.The importance of informatization in rural logistic system is introduced:firstly,decision making of logistics system plan is based on information.Secondly,improvement of the overall efficiency of logistics system is based on information.Thirdly,logistics transmission takes the Internet as the carrier.Necessity of rural logistics system is discussed from five aspects of increasing the employment of farmers,enhancing the income of farmers,reducing the blindness of agricultural production and circulation,sharing the risks of agricultural management,and promoting the rural economic restructuring.According to the above five steps,five countermeasures are posed in order to improve the rural logistics system.The countermeasures cover the aspects of deepening the information awareness of government,establishing a rural informatization system suited to the national condition of China,strengthening the information infrastructure in rural areas,promoting the integration of rural information resources and establishing the training system for agricultural information talents.

  13. Comparative analysis of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school children and rural farmers in Obollo-Eke, Enugu State, Nigeria:Implications for control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Celestine Chidi Ogbonna; Geme Urge Dori; Emeka Innocent Nweze; Gilbert Muoneke; Innocent Ejike Nwankwo; Nkiru Akputa

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence, sex-age related intensity of urinary schistosomiasis and to compare such parameters among rural school children and rural farmers in selected communities in Obollo-Eke located in Southeast, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 1 337 school children and farmers was conducted in Obollo-Eke community between September 2006 and July 2007. Demographic data of subjects was collected using a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. Urine samples were collected and examined for haematuria and ova of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) using Medi-test Combi 9 and sedimentation technique respectively. Results:The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis based on microscopic examination of the urine sediment for the ova of S. haematobium was 17.5%while the prevalence of haematuria was 15.6%. Infection intensity varied from light to heavy. In general, the prevalence was higher among males (20.8%) than females (14.6%;P>0.05) and was slightly higher among primary school children (18.0%;n=762) than farmers (16.9%;n=575;P>0.05).The age-specific prevalence of schistosomiasis among the study subjects ranged from 8.3%to 21.2%in 0-5 years and 11-15 years age groups respectively. Conclusions:Haematuria and mean egg/10 mL urine (r= 0.95;P<0.01) showed that both procedures are reliable for the diagnosis of the disease and can be used to ascertain the prevalence of the disease in any community. The comparative analysis of urinary bilharziasis among primary school children and rural farmers demonstrated that the infection is moderately high in these two risk population groups at Obollo-Eke. A robust intervention strategy is clearly needed.

  14. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ... Data Grassroots Action Center Policy Documents Legislative and Regulatory Agenda Medicaid News Response to 2013 OIG CAH ...

  15. Rural Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and International Patterns , the authors found that rural American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth have a higher mortality rate than their urban counterparts. Additionally, the rate of substance abuse admissions was higher for rural AI/AN ...

  16. 78 FR 56654 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Rural Community Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Development Initiative (RCDI) for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... Development Initiative (RCDI) program. This action is taken to correct the Rural Development State Office... 49451, in the second column, the Rural Development Arizona State Office phone number should read...

  17. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  18. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.9 million rural beneficiaries participated in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans, accounting for 13.4% of MA enrollees. While rural participation is not proportionate to urban participation, strong rural enrollment in ... Medicare Advantage – The ACA reduces the payments to companies providing ...

  19. Rural health care in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo, L

    1974-09-27

    A very large percentage of Mexico's population living in rural areas lacks resources for health care. Any new effort to provide such care must emphasize the health of the infant population because of the high percentage of infants in the country. Plans made at the national level have not been correlated with the conditions that exist in rural areas. For example, the majority of university programs are oriented toward urban medical practice, and the construction of more schools of medicine to solve the problem of doctors in rural areas is based on a mistaken premise. This problem has not been solved even in developed countries such as the United States where, as in Mexico, graduates in medicine migrate to the cities where optimal conditions are met for practicing the type of medicine for which they have been trained. Furthermore, it is both expensive and illogical to maintain urban doctors in rural areas where they cannot practice their profession for lack of resources; to do so is to deny the purpose of their education (27). Conventional schools of medicine, for reasons of investment and of structure, should teach only very selected groups of students who, on finishing their training, are fully capacitated to practice specialized medicine. A different system is required if we are to provide adequate health care in the rural communities. A system such as that described herein, adapted to the real need of rural communities, would avoid the necessity to create dysfunctional bureaucracies and would not destroy those institutions which have proved useful in the past. This study should be considered as one of the many pilot programs that should be initiated in order to determine the type of program that would best solve the problem of health care in rural Mexico. Other programs already being considered at the National Autonomous University of Mexico include the A36 plan of the Faculty of Medicine, now in operation; the work of C. Biro carried out in Netzahualcoyotl City

  20. A transitoriedade nos estados de saúde e doença: construção do cotidiano individual e coletivo em uma comunidade rural The transitory states of health and disease: the construction of the individual and collective daily life in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Lisboa Riquinho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é o de conhecer e compreender as necessidades em saúde, por meio da autopercepção do estado de saúde e doença, considerando as desigualdades sociais presentes na localidade rural de Rincão dos Maia, Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. Utilizou-se a triangulação de métodos. No desenho qualitativo entrevistaram-se vinte sujeitos. A amostra foi intencional, ilustrativa das diferentes situações de vida, e a análise, temática. Os resultados indicaram que a sensação de estar adoecido é fortemente vinculada ao modo como se vivencia essa enfermidade, tendo em vista a incapacidade que este estado impõe, seja ela física ou mental. A alternância entre sentir-se doente ou saudável vem da constatação prática de que nenhum estado é contínuo. A observação do meio natural sinaliza o quão tênue são os estados de saúde e doença. A 'situação de vida', elaborada a partir das condições de vida e mobilização de recursos sociais, demonstrou que, apesar das diferenças econômicas, esse grupo apresentava uma coesão social, especialmente em sua matriz cultural de trabalhadores rurais. Enfatiza-se, assim, a necessidade de considerar o significado do fenômeno saúde e doença como ferramenta imprescindível para a formulação de programas de promoção e prevenção à saúde da população rural.The aim of this article is to get to know and understand the health needs, through one's self-perception of the state of health and disease, considering the social inequalities there are in the rural town of Rincão dos Maia, Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. The method triangulation approach was used. Twenty subjects were interviewed in the qualitative design. The sample was intentional, illustrative of the different life situations, and the analysis was thematic. The results indicated that the feeling of being ill is strongly tied to how one experiences the disease, in view of the inability this state brings about, whether

  1. 76 FR 8334 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and.... SUMMARY: This Notice is to invite applications for loans and grants under the Rural Economic Development... in the USDA Rural Development State Office is: Third Quarter, March 31, 2011; and Fourth...

  2. Photovoltaic solar energy at CEMIG - Electric Power Company of Minas Gerais state, Brazil - a technology viable for the rural pre-electrification in the state of Minas Gerais; Energia solar fotovoltaica na CEMIG - uma tecnologia viavel para a pre-eletrificacao rural em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, A.S.A.C.; Carvalho, F.W.; Franca, E.; Tome, J.L.; Villefort, M.H.; Rezende, M.; Araujo, L.A.; Rosa, J.G.F.; Burgoa, J.A. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, (Brazil)]. E-mail: asacd@cemig.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the development of using the photovoltaic solar energy by CEMIG - Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, from the evaluation phase of photovoltaic energy technology to the large scale use of the photovoltaic systems in the 'Solar Light Program - Rural Pre-electrification with Voltaic Systems'. The paper also discusses the sustainability model of the photovoltaic technology.

  3. Risk profile of patients developing nonunion of the clavicle and outcome of treatment-analysis of fifty five nonunions in seven hundred and twenty nine consecutive fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The most common complication following treatment of a clavicle fracture is nonunion. Most nonunions are symptomatic and treatment is mostly operative. The aim of this study was to describe risk profiles of patients developing nonunion and what outcome is observed following operative...... treatment of clavicle nonunions. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 729 clavicle fractures we retrospectively identified 55 that developed nonunion (49 diaphysial and six lateral). All were treated operatively by reconstruction with (n = 28) or without (n = 27) autologous bone graft. Assessment...... was anatomic site, fracture complexity, female gender, smoking habits and initial treatment. A total of eight post-operative complications were found. Remission of symptoms was reported by 29 of the 33. Outright satisfaction with current shoulder condition was reported by 24. The overall median DASH was 8...

  4. High Prevalence of Pseudotumors in Patients with a Birmingham Hip Resurfacing Prosthesis A Prospective Cohort Study of One Hundred and Twenty-nine Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, R.; Boomsma, M. F.; Van Raay, J. J. A. M.; Tiebosch, A. T. M. G.; Maas, M.; Gerritsma, C. L. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, concern has emerged about pseudotumors (lesions that are neither malignant nor infective in the soft tissues surrounding total hip arthroplasty components) after hip arthroplasties with metal-on-metal bearings. Patients treated in our hospital for degenerative arthritis of the

  5. [Nutritional status of children under 6, according to land tenure, in rural areas of the State of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira, P I; Cartagena, H A; Romani, S de A; Torres, M A; Batista Filho, M

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the distribution of protein-energy malnutrition, anemia and hypovitaminosis A in relation to accessibility and size of rural lands. About 689 families from the Agreste rural area (Pernambuco, North-East Brazil) were studied. A total of 1,257 children under 6 years of age were distributed in four groups according to the size of the land. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Gómez, Ariza-Macías and Seoane-Latham, modified by Batista Filho. In accordance with the Gómez' method, 55.1% of the children suffered from some degree of malnutrition. About 67.0% of the landless families suffered from malnutrition, in contrast to 25% of the landowners who had 50 or more than 50 hectares of land (p less than 0.01). Hemoglobin was determined in 976 children; 38.9% of them suffered from anemia. No significant differences were detected among the several groups of land tenants. Serum retinol levels were measured in 412 children and a high incidence of hypovitaminosis A was detected: 24% had serum retinol levels below 20 mcg/100 ml. No significant association was found in relation to the different land tenure groups. These data demonstrate a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition, anemia and hypovitaminosis A. A significant correlation between protein-energy malnutrition and the size of the land was also found, demonstrating that this region is one of the most affected by food and nutritional problems.

  6. Treatment and Survival of Medicare Beneficiaries with Colorectal Cancer: A Comparative Analysis Between a Rural State Cancer Registry and National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Pallavi B; Madhavan, S Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Sita, Kalidindi; Kurian, Sobha; Pan, Xiaoyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim was to examine and compare with "national" estimates, receipt of colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment in the initial phase of care and survival following a CRC diagnosis in rural Medicare beneficiaries. A retrospective study was conducted on fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with CRC in 2003-2006, identified from West Virginia Cancer Registry (WVCR)-Medicare linked database (N = 2119). A comparative cohort was identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare (N = 38,168). CRC treatment received was ascertained from beneficiaries' Medicare claims in the 12 months post CRC diagnosis or until death, whichever happened first. Receipt of minimally appropriate CRC treatment (MACT) was defined using recommended CRC treatment guidelines. All-cause and CRC-specific mortality in the 36-month period post CRC diagnosis were examined. Differences in usage of CRC surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation were observed between the 2 populations, with those from WVCR-Medicare being less likely to receive any type of CRC surgery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.73-0.93]). Overall, those from WVCR-Medicare had a lower likelihood of receiving MACT, (AOR = 0.85; 95% CI = [0.76-0.96]) compared to their national counterparts. Higher hazard of CRC mortality was observed in the WVCR-Medicare cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.26; 95% CI = [1.20-1.32]) compared to the SEER-Medicare cohort. Although more beneficiaries from WVCR-Medicare were diagnosed in early-stage CRC compared to their SEER-Medicare counterparts, they had a lower likelihood of receiving MACT and a higher hazard of CRC mortality. This study highlights the need for an increased focus on improving access to care at every phase of the CRC care continuum, especially for those from rural settings.

  7. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq. O.F. Cook as a rural biotype for Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, in Caçu, State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Neves Vianna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rhodnius neglectus is a triatomine that colonizes different palm species. In this study, we aimed to describe the presence of this triatomine bug in the royal palms (Roystonea oleracea in a rural region of the State of Goiás. Methods Palm infestation was investigated by dissecting the palms or by using live-bait traps. Results Two palm trees were infested by R. neglectus negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease. In the study area, R. neglectus is frequently found in households. Conclusions The adaptation of this species to palm trees introduced in Brazil for landscaping purposes poses another challenge for controlling the vectors of Chagas disease.

  8. Migration history, remittances and poverty in rural mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Lopez-feldman

    2011-01-01

    During the last twenty years, Mexico experienced a big increase in the migration of rural labor force to the United States. This phenomenon has been accompanied by an increase in remittances; by 2002, remittances accounted on average for more than 10% of rural households' income. In this context, the present work analyses the way in which the migration history of the recipient village affects the impact that reductions in remittances have on rural poverty levels. The hypothesis is that for a ...

  9. Ethics and rural healthcare: what really happens? What might help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ann Freeman; Hoas, Helena

    2008-04-01

    Relatively few articles discuss the ethical issues that accompany healthcare in rural areas. This article presents and discusses the key findings obtained from multi-method research studies conducted over a 9-year period of time in a multi-state rural area. It challenges the efficacy of current models for bioethics, shows what kinds of ethical issues develop in rural communities, and offers a framework for envisioning resources and approaches that may be more appropriate.

  10. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  11. Rural-urban disparities in school nursing: implications for continuing education and rural school health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M; Fullerton, Lynne; Sapien, Robert; Greenberg, Cynthia; Bauer-Creegan, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the professional and educational challenges experienced by rural school nurses. We conducted this study to describe disparities between the urban and rural professional school nurse workforce in New Mexico and to identify how best to meet the continuing education needs of New Mexico's rural school nurse workforce. We analyzed state data from a 2009 New Mexico Department of Health school nurse workforce survey (71.7% response rate). We included all survey respondents who indicated working as a school nurse in a public school setting in any grade K-12 and who identified their county of employment (N = 311). Rural school nurses were twice as likely as metropolitan nurses to provide clinical services to multiple school campuses (67.3% compared to 30.1%, P LGBT) health (P = .0004), and suicide risk identification and prevention (P = .015). Online courses and telehealth were identified by rural school nurses as among the preferred means for receiving continuing education. Our findings support the provision of online courses and telehealth content to address urban-rural disparities in school nursing education and support rural school health. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Eradication of H pylori infection in a rural population:One-day quadruple therapy versus 7-day triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Zhang; Wei-Cheng You; Lin Shen; Jun-Ling Ma; Kai-Feng Pan; Wei-Dong Liu; Jie Li; Shu-Dong Xiao; San-Ren Lin; Meinhard Classen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the one-day quadruple therapy with a standard 7-d triple therapy for H pylori eradication in a rural population of China.METHODS: A total of 396 patients with 13C-urea breath test positive for H pylori were assigned into two groups:239 patients received one-day quadruple therapy (amoxicillin 2000 mg qid; metronidazole 500 mg qid; bismuth citrate 900 mg qid and lansoprazole 60 mg once daily)and 157 patients received 7-d standard triple therapy (amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; clarithromycin 500 mg bid and lansoprazole 30 mg bid). All the patients underwent a 13C-UBT to assess the eradication of H pylori infection six weeks after treatment.RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients completed the one-day therapy (95.8%) and 148patients completed the 7-d therapy (94.2%). The oneday therapy eradicated H pylori infection in 64 patients (27.95%). In contrast, 103 patients (69.59%) were H pylori negative after the 7-d therapy (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests there is no beneficial effect of the one-day therapy in treatment of H pylori infection compared with the 7-d standard therapy.

  13. O conhecimento sobre os recursos vegetais alimentares em bairros rurais no Vale do Paraíba, SP, Brasil Knowledge regarding vegetable food resources in rural neighborhoods in the Paraíba Valley, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Andrea Curitiba Pilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inventário das plantas alimentares cultivadas e coletadas da vegetação nativa e ruderal, em região de Mata Atlântica, conhecidas pela população rural residente dentro da área do Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (bairros Puruba e Guaricanga e nos arredores (bairro Vargem Grande. Os 23 entrevistados amostrados atenderam aos seguintes critérios: origem na área rural dos municípios onde se localiza o Núcleo; idade superior a 45 anos; intimidade no trato com a terra. Ao todo, foram levantadas 146 espécies botânicas, distribuídas em 43 famílias botânicas, sendo as famílias Solanaceae e Cucurbitaceae as mais representativas e basicamente hortícolas. Os índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener e equidade de Pielou foram 1,90 (Base 10 e 0,95, respectivamente, para o grupo residente no Núcleo; e 1,97 e 0,92 para a população que se localiza nos arredores do Núcleo. Os dois grupos de bairros apresentaram uma similaridade de citação de plantas alimentares de 75%. Cerca de 17% das plantas citadas são nativas da Mata Atlântica e há uma significante riqueza de espécies e de variedades cultivadas nos quintais e nas roças que complementam a dieta, cujos itens principais são adquiridos no comércio local. As comunidades rurais estudadas se revelaram como um importante sistema de conservação de germoplasma de plantas cultivadas, pois foram identificadas 96 etnovariedades para 12 espécies botânicas e a maioria delas é mantida nas comunidades.The objective of this study was to conduct an inventory of food plants cultivated and collected from the native and ruderal vegetation in the Atlantic Forest region by the rural population residing in the Santa Virginia Nucleus of the Serra do Mar State Park (Puruba and Guaricanga neighborhoods and surroundings (Vargem Grande neighborhood. The 23 interviewees were sampled to meet the following criteria: originating from the rural

  14. Rural Poverty Rate Edges Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Although rural poverty began to decline, 1994-95, many rural households had incomes just above poverty. Rural minorities were especially disadvantaged; racial differences in educational attainment accounted for 20-33% of income gaps. One-quarter of rural children lived in poverty, most in single-parent households. Most rural poor families lived in…

  15. Construções negativas na fala de moradores da zona rural do município de Piranga, Estado de Minas Gerais: uma análise variacionista=Negative constructions in the speech of residents of the rural area of Piranga, Minas Gerais State: a variational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Canella Seixas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever e analisar construções negativas na fala de moradores da zona rural do município de Piranga, estado de Minas Gerais. As construções selecionadas foram: [Não V]; [Não V Não] e [V Não]. O arcabouço teórico-metodológico utilizado para a realização do trabalho foi a Sociolinguística. Para efeito de descrição, foram considerados dois fatores externos: o sexo e a faixa etária. A partir da análise do corpus e da comparação com outros trabalhos sobre as negativas no dialeto mineiro – Camargos (1998, Alkmim (2001 e Sousa (2004 –, verificou-se que as variantes inovadoras [Não V Não] e [V Não] apresentam um perfil de uma possível mudança em progresso e que o sexo masculino estaria levando à frente esta mudança.This paper aims to describe and to analyze negative constructions in the speech of residents of the rural area of Piranga, Minas Gerais State. The selected constructions were: [Não V], [Não V Não] and [V Não]. The theoretical framework used to perform the work was the Quantitative Sociolinguistics. For purposes of description, we used two external factors: sex and age. From the corpus analysis and the comparison with other works about the negatives in the Mineiro Dialect - Camargos (1998, Alkmim (2001 and Sousa (2004 - it was found that the innovative variants [Não V Não] and [V não] present a profile of a possible change in progress and that males would be taking forward this change.

  16. Influence of feeding practices and associated factors on the nutritional status of infants in rural areas of Madhya Pradesh state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Indrapal Ishwarji; Kodavanti, Mallikharjun Rao; Chitty, Gal Reddy; Manchala, Ravindranath; Kumar, Sharad; Kakani, Sreerama Krishna; Kodavalla, Venkaiah; Avula, Laxmaiah; Narsimhachary Veera, Brahmam Ginnela

    2015-03-01

    A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in rural Madhya Pradesh (MP). The nutritional status of infants was assessed using WHO Child Growth Standards. Only 26% of infants received breast-feeding within 1 hour of birth. About 57% of children 6 to 11 months old received complementary feeding (CF). The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 41%, 29%, and 33%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of underweight and stunting was 1.4 times higher among children belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes compared with others, 1.4 to 1.6 times among children from households with the lowest wealth index, and 1.5 times among children of illiterate mothers. Hygienic practices, birth weight, home delivery, and CF practices were also significantly (P < .01) associated with undernutrition in multivariate analysis. Undernutrition is an important health problem in MP, and urgent steps are required to formulate policies and strategies to improve infant and young child feeding practices, socioeconomic conditions, and literacy and encouraging institutional delivery and personal hygiene.

  17. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in urban and rural children of northern hilly state, Himachal Pradesh, India: A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs have been recognized as a common orofacial painful condition. Many epidemiological studies of TMDs in children and adolescents have been performed. However, the results of such studies have varied, and a comprehensive view of the prevalence and severity of symptoms and signs is difficult to obtain. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMDs among school children of Himachal Pradesh and to establish a baseline for comparison with future studies. Study Design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: A sample of 1188 school children in the age group of 9 and 12 years (males n = 650 and females n = 538, from randomly selected schools of rural and urban areas of Himachal Pradesh were included as study subjects. The survey was done according to the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (modified. Results: The results of TMDs, i.e., clicking, tenderness and reduced jaw mobility showed that overall prevalence was 2.5% and the rest 96.5% were not suffering from these disorders. In 9 years age group, the prevalence was 1.6% whereas it was more than double, 3.5% in 12 years age group. Signs and symptoms of TMDs were determined to assess their oral health status. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 15. Conclusion: This study contrasts with what is found in the other societies regarding the high prevalence of TMDs disorders.

  18. Rural placements in Tasmania: do experiential placements and background influence undergraduate health science student's attitudes toward rural practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Lisa M; Routley, Georgina K; Peek, Karla J

    2008-01-01

    Each year growing numbers of undergraduate health science students, from a variety of disciplines, participate in a University of Tasmania Department of Rural Health supported rural placement program in Tasmania. This study aimed to investigate the influence rural placement and rural background had on students' intentions to live and work in a rural or remote location after graduation. Between January 2005 and December 2006, 336 students participated in the placement program. Students were requested to complete a survey at the completion of their placement. A response rate of 239 was achieved (71%). The survey measured students' stated rural career intentions and rural background status according to location of primary and secondary school attendance. A demographic analysis of respondents was undertaken and results cross tabulated according to the rural, remote and metropolitan area (RRMA) classification system. Statistical analyses, including paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test, were conducted to compare reported mean intention to practise rurally both prior to and after placement. The results from this survey show that rural placements in the undergraduate health science programs have a predominantly positive influence on students' intention to work in a rural community post-graduation. While these findings were significant for the disciplines of nursing, medicine and allied health, the results were not significant for pharmacy students. Students' average intention to practise rurally significantly increased after the placement for students from RRMA classifications 1 and 3-5. The value of rural placements as a method for increasing health science students' intentionality to take up rural practice as a positive and viable career option is considerable.

  19. Administratory knowledge and state control in colonial Zimbabwe: The invention of the rural-urban divide in Buhera district, 1912-1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The power of the state to impose its self-produced categories of thought poses a major problem to Zimbabwe historiography which has often taken as unproblematic the relation between knowledge about, and control over, African societies as presented in the state's archives. This article challenges thi

  20. Exploration of Rural Informatization and Urban-rural Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status quo of rural informatization and information service,this article conducts analysis and discussion of problems in rural informatization and urban-rural information fusion,using statistics. And corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: building rural information platform; strengthening information literacy training in rural areas and cultivating new farmers; making information network serve production and operation to increase jobs and income for farmers; developing rural e-commerce; enhancing network information security and prevention.

  1. Education for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one out of six people in the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimension...

  2. Psychometric Testing of the FACES III with Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Bette; Dingmann, Colleen; Cuevas, Elizabeth; Meehan, Maurita

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the validity and reliability of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) in two samples of rural adolescents. The underlying theory is the linear 3-D circumplex model. The FACES III was administered to 1,632 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 in two counties in a rural western state. The FACES III Scale and the…

  3. Factors Related to Rural School Administrators' Satisfaction with Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; de la Varre, Claire; Farmer, Thomas W.; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rural school district administrators' satisfaction with distance education in the United States and to identify factors that may contribute to their satisfaction. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators in randomly selected rural districts across the country. Analyses revealed that students'…

  4. Predicting Children's Asthma Hospitalizations: Rural and Urban Differences in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is the number one chronic health condition facing children today; however, little is known about rural-urban inequalities in asthma. This "area effects on health" study examines rural-urban differences in childhood asthma hospitalizations within the state of Texas using negative binomial regression models. Effects associated with…

  5. Predicting Children's Asthma Hospitalizations: Rural and Urban Differences in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is the number one chronic health condition facing children today; however, little is known about rural-urban inequalities in asthma. This "area effects on health" study examines rural-urban differences in childhood asthma hospitalizations within the state of Texas using negative binomial regression models. Effects associated with…

  6. Evidence of a Housing Decision Chain in Rural Community Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christine C.; Crull, Sue R.; Bruin, Marilyn J.; Yust, Becky L.; Shelley, Mack C.; Laux, Sharon; Memken, Jean; Niemeyer, Shirley; White, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and explain the role housing plays in rural community vitality. Community vitality refers to economic strength and social well-being. In spring 2002 we collected primary interview data from informants in 134 small rural communities in nine north-central states and identified related secondary data from…

  7. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  8. Entrepreneurial In-Migration and Neoendogenous Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Gary; Atterton, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The social, cultural, and economic transitions in rural areas across the globe lead us to critique the traditional "top-down" or "bottom-up" distinction as being outdated for contemporary rural policy. In Europe and the United States in particular, high rates of counterurbanization heighten the need for new ways of thinking…

  9. Management strategies and financial performance in rural and urban hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B B; Wan, T T; Falk, J A; Goodwin, D

    2001-08-01

    This study identifies the difference in financial performance between rural and urban hospitals and examines whether or not that difference may be attributed to the emphasis of revenue enhancement over cost management strategies. Hospitals in Virginia were included in this study except for the two state university medical centers. Rural and urban hospitals were compared on 10 performance indicators grouped into four categories: revenues, costs, profits, and productivity. The results suggest that rural hospital profitability is dependent on cost management. Since rural hospitals achieved lower cost, better efficiency and productivity level than urban hospitals in Virginia, they demonstrate a significant higher level of profit.

  10. People's participation in rural electrification - a successful case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalapur, G.D. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal (India); Udaykumar, R.Y. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Department of Electrical Engineering, Surathkal (India)

    2012-06-15

    Rural electrification is an integral component of poverty alleviation and rural growth of a nation. A developing nation, like India has 72.2 percent people living in rural areas. Still, electricity has not played an effective role in the socio-economic growth of villages. The Government of India has an ambitious target of providing electricity to all villages by 2008 and all rural households by 2012. Steps are already initiated with Rural Electric Corporation, Rural Electricity Supply Technology Mission, State Electricity Boards led reforms, Reforms in Power Sector, Electricity Act 2003, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana etc. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the present status of rural electrification in India and the major factors contributing to rural electrical distribution. Steps initiated by the Government of India through Rural Electric Corporation (REC) and a successful case study of the people's participation model is presented. (orig.)

  11. Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Pesquisa sorológica para hantavírus em uma população rural do norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni Oliveira Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.INTRODUÇÃO: Hantavirus é um gênero de vírus RNA incluído na família Bunyaviridae. Hantaviroses são zoonoses transmitidas por roedores que nos últimos 18 anos tornou-se um problema emergente da saúde pública nas Américas causando uma síndrome cardiopulmonar. Esta doença não tem nenhum tratamento específico e apresenta alta letalidade. A transmissão do hantavirus ao homem ocorre pela inalação de aerossóis dos excrementos de roedores. O

  12. Priorities in Investment Decisions for Rural Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Popa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania joined the European Union- EU -in 2007, as an emerging economy and rural by excellence and this feature is keeping even in 2012. Difficulty in establishing investment priorities for rural development in Romania is caused by the large size and fragility of the rural area and the fact that all inputs have an inadequate level. The objectives of rural development are strongly influenced by national policy and European policy of the European Union, but also by the politics of international organizations (World Bank Group-WBG, Food and Agriculture Organization-FAO. Investment for climate changes and for infrastructure is strongly correlated and is vital in all states, including Romania. The six EU Priorities for rural development in the period 2014-2020 are also considering priorities for increasing education level and social inclusion in the rural areas, which are other pressing needs in Romania in order to move to a modern agriculture.

  13. Sustainable Development of New Rural Finance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rural finance is the weakest link in China’s financial system. There are still many problems in the traditional rural finance, such as poor business conditions, imperfectly competitive financial markets, and credit information asymmetry; the phenomenon of farmers’ loans difficulty has not been fundamentally changed. In order to improve the current situation of rural finance, the state proposes to develop new rural finance and innovate upon rural financial system. The new rural finance has many good development advantages, such as adequate information, flexible operation, and good potential quality of the assets. It is necessary to innovate upon financial products and services, establish the purpose of serving agriculture, countryside and farmers, strengthen the supervision of credit, and improve the financial infrastructure construction, so as to achieve sustainable developments.

  14. Atividade física e fatores associados em adultos de área rural em Minas Gerais, Brasil Actividad física y factores asociados en adultos de área rural en Minas Gerais, Sureste de Brasil Adult physical activity levels and associated factors in rural communities of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gonçalves Bicalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar os níveis de atividade física e sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos em moradores de áreas rurais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, incluindo 567 adultos de duas comunidades rurais do Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, entre os anos de 2008 e 2009. Os níveis de atividade física foram coletados por meio do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física, versão longa adaptada. Utilizou-se o ponto de corte de 150 minutos de atividade física semanal entre os domínios: trabalho, domicílio, lazer e deslocamento. Os fatores sociodemográficos pesquisados foram sexo, cor da pele, idade, estado marital, escolaridade e autopercepção de saúde. Foram realizadas análise bivariada (qui-quadrado, pOBJETIVO: Estimar los niveles de actividad física y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos en moradores de áreas rurales. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, de base poblacional, incluyendo 567 adultos de dos comunidades rurales del Vale do Jequitinhonha, Sureste de Brasil, entre los años de 2008 y 2009. Los niveles de actividad física fueron colectados por medio de Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física, versión larga adaptada. Se utilizó el punto de corte de 150 minutos de actividad física semanal entre los dominios: trabajo, domicilio, ocio y traslados. Los factores sociodemográficos investigados fueron sexo, color de la piel, edad, estado marital, escolaridad y autopercepción de salud. Se realizaron análisis bivariado (Chi-cuadrado, p£0,05 y análisis múltiple de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de individuos que practicaron 150 minutos o más de actividad física en el trabajo fue de 82,9% (IC 95%: 77,8;88,0 entre los que trabajan actualmente. Esa proporción para los otros dominios fueron: 63,5% (IC 95%: 59,6;6;67,4 en el domicilio. 10,1% (IC 95%: 7,6;12,6 en el ocio y 32,0% (IC 95%: 28,2;35,8 en traslados. Los hombres fueron más activos que las mujeres en el ocio

  15. A comparison of stigma among patients with leprosy in rural Tanzania and urban United States: a role for public health in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Neda; Black, David S; Rea, Thomas H

    2013-04-01

      Leprosy is a chronic infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae, which causes peripheral insensitivity and disfigurements of the skin, limbs, and digits. Social stigma is a common consequence of leprosy and may differ according to level of physical disfigurement and geographic location. The objective of this study was to assess social stigma encountered by patients with leprosy in clinical settings located in rural Tanzania and urban USA and to compare the social stigma reported in these regions.   A total of 56 respondents were recruited from one leprosy inpatient facility in Shirati, Tanzania (n = 28), and one outpatient clinic in Los Angeles, USA (n = 28). Cross-sectional data were obtained from face-to-face interviews, which were conducted with respondents at each clinic location. Measures of perceived stigma were assessed in family relationship, vocational, social interaction, and interpersonal contexts.   Patients in Tanzania, as compared with those in the USA, reported significantly higher levels of stigma in family relationship and vocational contexts. Tanzanian patients also reported higher levels of stigma in social interaction and self-esteem contexts, but these differences were marginally significant and may reflect the small sample size.   Leprosy-related social stigma is a major problem in regions of both developed and developing countries; however, patients with leprosy in developing countries reported higher levels of stigma in four social contexts. A public health role in dermatology is discussed as an agent of early diagnosis, control, and education in order to reduce social stigma and promote social rehabilitation. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. The Role of Rural Communities in the Postsecondary Preparation of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, rural education has been critiqued for contributing to brain drain and social stratification that saps the human, social, and economic resources of rural communities. This article, based on an investigation of six small rural school districts in the same state, offers an alternative view of the role of community groups and…

  17. Literacy in Rural America: A Study of Current Needs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Gwen; And Others

    This report examines rural practice in adult literacy programs and estimates the extent and nature of rural illiteracy. Surveys were sent to 3,287 rural literacy programs; more than 700 program directors responded for a return rate of 22 percent. In addition, 150 program directors and key state literacy contacts were interviewed by telephone.…

  18. Human Resources in the South: Rural Sociology in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peggy J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the condition of human resources in the rural South, particularly educational attainment, outmigration, illiteracy, and quality of rural schools. Discusses strategies for the development of human resources in the 1990s involving local, state, and federal governments and the role of rural sociologists. Contains 40 references. (Author/SV)

  19. Human Resource Management in Small Rural Districts: The Administrator's Role in Recruitment, Hiring and Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the rural area administrator's role in the areas of teacher recruitment, hiring and staff development. State and Regional Policies reveal that these areas are chief among the concerns of rural school leaders (Johnson, 2005). The rural school administrator's role often requires him/her to become involved in…

  20. Rural Revitalization in New Mexico: A Grass Roots Initiative Involving School and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzel, Gerald R.; Benavidez, Alicia C.; Bianchi, Barbara C.; Croom, Linda L.; de la Riva, Brandy R.; Grein, Donna L.; Holloway, James E.; Rendon, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The Rural Education Bureau of the New Mexico Public Education Department has established a program to address the special needs of schools and communities in the extensive rural areas of the state. High poverty rates, depopulation and a general lack of viable economic opportunity have marked rural New Mexico for decades. The program underway aims…

  1. Something Old, Something New: The Wedding of Rural Education and Rural Development. SGPB Alert: Analysis of Emerging Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that rural communities will have to alter their economic patterns as the United States economy shifts and rural areas cannot compete successfully with cities for emerging industries and future jobs. Instead of catering to the large firms and high-tech companies that are expected to predominate in the future,…

  2. The 2000 Census and Growth Patterns in Rural America. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaff, Katharine

    The 2000 Census reveals four patterns of change in rural America. Rural areas in states such as Florida and Arizona are gaining population due to high retiree growth. These areas will experience growth in service sector jobs that have low pay and low educational requirements. Florida and Arizona trail the nation in high school and college…

  3. Reflections on Beijing Rural Energy Policies and New Rural Construction ——Using Digital Information Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the Beijing construction in accordance with the philosophy of environmental protection, solid depth to carry out a series of policies and measures, such as rural energy structure optimization and adjustment; rural residential seismic energy-saving; village green landscaping. If displaying and recording movement states and regulars of the beautiful countryside construction through this information process, It will greatly strengthen regulation of the relationship between new rural people, to realize system optimization, make urban and rural become conducive to human survival and sustainable development of space.

  4. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devadas M.B,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term development in its broadest sense in the context of India refers to rural development. Rural development has been viewed as an economic planned change to achieve desirable social goals in India since independence. Eapen (1988: 67, in his diagnosis and analysis opens up the Pandora of problems related to the inherent conflicts and contradiction between the state policy regarding electronic media and actual use for development. This study quantitatively analyses the role of television in igniting development among rural women. Thiruvarur, one of the most back ward district in Tamil Nadu is taken as the locale of the study. Hundred rural women samples are selected for the research. This research paper underscores that TV has profound impact on social, economic, cultural and political life of rural women

  5. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  6. Improving collected rainwater quality in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, S; Aviles, M; Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A; Montellano, L; Gonzalez, B; de la Paz, J; Ramirez, R M

    2011-01-01

    The country of Mexico is facing serious problems with water quality and supply for human use and consumption in rural communities, mainly due to topographic and isolation. In Mexico the average annual precipitation is 1,500 cubic kilometers of water, if 3% of that amount were used, 13 million Mexicans could be supplied with drinking water that they currently do not have access. Considering the limited infrastructure and management in rural communities, which do not receive services from the centralized systems of large cities, a modified pilot multi-stage filtration (MMSF) system was designed, developed, and evaluated for treating collected rainwater in three rural communities, Ajuchitlan and Villa Nicolas Zapata (Morelos State) and Xacxamayo (Puebla State). The efficiencies obtained in the treatment system were: colour and turbidity >93%. It is worth mentioning that the water obtained for human use and consumption complies with the Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994.

  7. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  8. Through the Looking Glass: A Comparative Analysis of the Career Patterns of Rural Female Administrators in Saskatchewan and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2005-01-01

    This article stems from research that examined the effect of the rural context on the career patterns of female administrators in rural public school divisions in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, and in the state of Texas, United States. These two studies examined (a) the nature of rural communities and its relationship to women's career…

  9. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water tr

  10. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  11. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water tr

  12. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  13. Uso e diversidade de plantas medicinais da Caatinga na comunidade rural de Laginhas, município de Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (Nordeste do Brasil Use and diversity of medicinal plants from Caatinga in the rural community of Laginhas, Caicó Municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State (Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Roque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar as formas de uso de plantas medicinais nativas do bioma Caatinga, em comunidade rural no município de Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (Nordeste do Brasil. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas e estruturadas buscando informações, junto a especialistas locais, sobre o uso das plantas. São descritos os usos medicinais de 62 espécies, reportadas por 12 informantes (mateiros, rezadeiras, raizeiros, agricultores e donas-de-casa com idade superior a 35 anos. As famílias com maior representatividade na consulta foram Fabaceae (13 spp., Euphorbiaceae (6 spp. Cactaceae (3 spp. e Lamiaceae (3 spp.. Para revelar as espécies mais importantes foi considerado o grau de consenso entre as respostas dos informantes. A aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão e o cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemão A. C. Sm. destacaram-se como as espécies com o maior número de citações, sendo estas também as que obtiveram o maior número de indicações de usos terapêuticos. As cascas e as raízes foram as partes predominantemente consumidas. Os dados levantados por esta pesquisa evidenciaram uma diversidade de espécies da flora seridoense com potencial medicinal e reforçam a importância que a biodiversidade tem sobre as comunidades rurais, viabilizando o início do estudo de manejo da vegetação local.The present study aimed to identify the different uses of medicinal plants native to Caatinga biome in a rural community from Caicó Municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Semi-structured and structured interviews with local specialists were used to collect information about the use of such plants. The medicinal uses of 62 species were described by 12 informants (woodsmen, faith healers, herb doctors, farmers and housewives older than 35 years. The most representative families reported in the survey were Fabaceae (13 spp, Euphorbiaceae (6 spp., Cactaceae (3 spp., and Lamiaceae (3 spp.. The degree of

  14. Previdência social rural e gênero Rural Social Welfare and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Brumer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta uma análise das principais transformações da previdência social rural no Brasil, que culminaram com a inclusão das mulheres trabalhadoras rurais como beneficiárias (direito à aposentadoria por idade e salário-maternidade na legislação aprovada pelo Congresso Nacional em 1988. Paralelamente, faz-se um exame do papel do Estado e da sociedade civil na evolução da legislação relativa à previdência social rural, procurando-se evidenciar seu caráter de "doação" por parte do Estado ou da "conquista" polos próprios trabalhadores(as. Finalmente, são examinados alguns impactos da implantação da previdência social rural no Sul do Brasil, ressaltando-se seu papel na diminuição da pobreza rural e da desigualdade na distribuição da renda, assim como sua importância material e simbólica na mudança de relações de gênero no meio rural.The work analyzes the main transformations in the rural Social Welfare in Brazil. The outcome of these transformations has been the inclusion of rural hard-working women in the welfare system as of the legislation approved by the National Congress in 1988. Rural-work women in Brazil have become entitled to the benefits of paid maternity leave and retirement accordant to a legal age limit. Concurrently, the article examines the role played by the State and the civil society in the unfolding of the legislation related to rural Social Welfare, in an attempt of exposing its character of either a "donation" given by the State or the workers' own "conquest". Finally, the author queries the impact of rural Social Welfare implementation in the South of Brazil, emphasizing its achievements in the decrease of rural poverty and unequal income distribution, as well as its material and symbolic importance in the gender relationship shift in rural areas.

  15. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  16. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  17. Reasons for schizophrenia patients remaining out of treatment: results from a prospective study in a rural south indian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few studies have examined the factors associated with schizophrenia patients remaining untreated in India. Materials and Methods: We identified 184 schizophrenia patients in a rural community, offered the treatment with antipsychotics and followed them up in their Primary Health Centers for 1-year. Twenty-nine (15.8% patients remained untreated at both the baseline and 1-year follow-up despite our best attempts to keep them under the treatment umbrella. They were interviewed in detail regarding the reasons for remaining untreated. This group was compared with another group of patients (n = 69 who had stopped the treatment at baseline but were successfully brought under the treatment umbrella throughout the 1-year follow-up period. Results: The reasons for remaining untreated were (n; %: (a Unsatisfactory improvement with previous treatment attempts (19; 65.5%, (b poor bond between the patients and the families (6; 20.7%, (c active symptoms not allowing any treatment efforts from the family members (6; 20.7%, (d magico-religious beliefs about the illness and its treatment (4; 13.8%, (e poor social support (3; 10.3%, (f adverse effects of the medications (2; 6.9%, and (g perception of recovery and cure (1; 3.4%. For many patients, a constellation of these reasons was responsible for them remaining untreated. In contrast, the common reasons for those who restarted medications to have stopped the treatment at some time were the lack of awareness, the need to continue medications (47; 68.1%, and the financial constraints (28; 40.6%. Conclusion: The predominant reason for schizophrenia patients not remaining on the treatment in this rural community was the families′ lack of faith in antipsychotic treatment. Provision of comprehensive treatment package including medical, psychosocial and rehabilitative services, and sensitizing the community about benefits of the treatment may help in ensuring that all patients with psychosis receive

  18. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  19. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  20. Rural health service managers' perspectives on preparing rural health services for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe

    2017-08-17

    To determine health service managers' (HSMs) recommendations on strengthening the health service response to climate change. Self-administered survey in paper or electronic format. Rural south-west of New South Wales. Health service managers working in rural remote metropolitan areas 3-7. Proportion of respondents identifying preferred strategies for preparation of rural health services for climate change. There were 43 participants (53% response rate). Most respondents agreed that there is scepticism regarding climate change among health professionals (70%, n = 30) and community members (72%, n = 31). Over 90% thought that climate change would impact the health of rural populations in the future with regard to heat-related illnesses, mental health, skin cancer and water security. Health professionals and government were identified as having key leadership roles on climate change and health in rural communities. Over 90% of the respondents believed that staff and community in local health districts (LHDs) should be educated about the health impacts of climate change. Public health education facilitated by State or Federal Government was the preferred method of educating community members, and education facilitated by the LHD was the preferred method for educating health professionals. Health service managers hold important health leadership roles within rural communities and their health services. The study highlights the scepticism towards climate change among health professionals and community members in rural Australia. It identifies the important role of rural health services in education and advocacy on the health impacts of climate change and identifies recommended methods of public health education for community members and health professionals. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. 76 FR 38604 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...) 585-2562. Nebraska USDA Rural Development State Office, Federal Building, Room 152, 100 Centennial... sufficient outlets), (2) creating or supporting renewable energy generation, (3) using broadband or other...

  2. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... on children's family characteristics, parents' socio-economic characteristics; and their dietary habits.

  3. Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production And Marketing In Ezinihitte Local Government Area Of Imo State, Nigeria. ... On the other hand, education and income were negative and statistically significant at 1% and 5% ...

  4. Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Catherine

    Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…

  5. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  6. Light for rural regions; Licht aufs Land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, John [California Univ., Santa Barbara (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    The history of solar power: Kenia is the first state in which more of the inhabitants use solar power than the national electricity grid. The 13th instalment of the series based on John Perlin's book ''From Space to Earth'' shows how solar power reached the rural regions of developing countries. (orig.)

  7. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being......, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal...

  8. Material culture in rural Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The objective of this thesis is to explore theatrical space and the cultural relationship of materials as they are experienced by people in rural Ireland. The method involved the investigation of five handball alleys in Co.Mayo, the identification of materials and the location of the sources of those materials. The results found that one of these handball alleys was part of an urban arrangement of theatrical spaces. The alley was no longer in use, in a state of disrepair ...

  9. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  10. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Beijing Rural Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the status quo of Beijing rural infrastructure, I probe into the SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal. Among them, the strengths of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal are analyzed from two aspects, namely, the strong financial support and great importance attached to by the government; the weaknesses are analyzed in terms of the serious shortage of funds invested and disparate investment in rural infrastructure; the opportunities faced by the rural infrastructure construction are analyzed in terms of support form the macrocontrol of the state and the threats are analyzed from the aspects of land preservation and environmental protection. Thus in order to further promote the Beijing rural infrastructure construction and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction, the following countermeasures are put forward. In the first place, the government should adjust the fiscal policies and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction. In the second place, the laws should be perfected to provide constitutional guarantee for infrastructure construction. In the third place, healthy supervision system of rural infrastructure should be managed well and use well. In the fourth place, the government should attach importance to disparate demands and shift from the unified standard to classified standard. In the fifth place, the government should enforce the supervision on capital and operation so as to improve the service efficiency of capital.

  11. Rural Literacy Issues in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.

    This paper reviews results of a questionnaire distributed to literacy workers in rural Alberta (Canada) to ascertain their views on rural literacy. The questionnaire was designed to identify: (1) distinctive features of the issue of adult illiteracy in rural areas; (2) the strengths of literacy efforts in rural Alberta; (3) the weaknesses of…

  12. Rural development as economic category

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTYRKO I.G.; GROMIAK T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Is conducted scientific analysis of such concepts as “steady development of village”, “development of rural territories”, “development of rural locality”, “rural development”, “steady economic development”, “economic relations”. Reasonably and the vision of determination of rural development is given from the economic point of view.

  13. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  14. [Evaluation of the inclusion of organic food from family-based agriculture in school food in municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda; Fernandes, Patrícia Fogaça; Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Organic food enables the promotion of Food and Nutritional Safety (FNS) and sustainable regional development. In this context, the National School Food Program (NSFD) seeks to comply with the requirements of FNS. This study evaluated the inclusion of organic food in school food in the municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul by means of interviews with local managers. Eight territories were visited, albeit of its 153 municipalities only 102 comprised the sample for this study. Of these, 20.58% said they buy organic produce from family farms. The Center South Territory revealed the highest percentage of purchase, in which 40% of the municipalities visited purchased organic produce, followed by the Center Mountain Territory with 33.3%, while the lowest percentage was 7.1% in the Countryside Territory. The study identified the need for intersectoral action to develop organic production, as well as stimulate the consumption of these foods in the school environment, in order to meet the requirements of FNS.

  15. Psychometric properties of the OHIP-14 and prevalence and severity of oral health impacts in a rural riverine population in Amazonas State, Brazil Avaliação das propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 e da prevalência dos impactos da saúde bucal, em população rural ribeirinha no Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cohen-Carneiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: (1 test the psychometric properties of OHIP-14 in a rural population; and (2 compare the oral health impacts in two riverine communities in the Brazilian Amazon that were living at different distances from an urban center. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study in a consecutive sample (n = 126. The validity was assessed through the association of OHIP with clinical and subjective variables, which showed a more significant association with: pain, caries, need of extraction or endodontic treatment; than with tooth loss, periodontal disease or need of prostheses. The stability and internal consistency were good (ICC = 0.97; Cronbach's α = 0.89. The prevalence of oral impacts was greater in the community far from the urban center [70.3 (59.9-80.7] than in the community closer to it [44.3 (30.7-57.7], and in women [66.7 (56.0-77.3] in comparison with men [49.1 (35.3-62.7]. The OHIP-14 adapted to rural populations in Amazonas State was valid, reproducible, and consistent. There was high prevalence of impacts, especially for riverine communities that lived far from urban centers.Os objetivos do trabalho foram: (1 testar as propriedades psicométricas do OHIP-14 em população rural e (2 comparar os impactos da saúde bucal em duas comunidades ribeirinhas amazônicas, com diferentes distâncias do centro urbano. Os dados foram obtidos de uma amostra consecutiva de pacientes (n = 126 em estudo de corte transversal. A validade do instrumento foi testada pela associação do OHIP com variáveis clínicas e subjetivas, sendo mais significativa para as variáveis: dor, cárie, necessidade de extração e de endodontia que para perda dentária, doença periodontal e necessidade de prótese. Estabilidade e consistência interna foram boas (CCI = 0,97; α Cronbach = 0,89. A prevalência de impactos foi maior na comunidade mais distante do centro urbano [70,3 (59,9-80,7] que na mais próxima [44,3 (30,7-57,7], e nas

  16. Informe rural 2006

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi; Peter Pfaumann; Nicolás Mateo; Rocío González; Alejandra Palma; José Rente Nascimento; Mark D. Wenner; María Eugenia Kyburz

    2007-01-01

    Esta edición del Informe Rural contiene siete artículos: La influenza aviar y el sector avícola de América Latina, Biocombustibles y oportunidades para el desarrollo rural, Enfoques sectoriales amplios en desarrollo rural: ¿instrumento viable para mejorar el impacto de la cooperación internacional?, Financiamiento de las cadenas agroalimentarias de valor, Cómo mejorar el clima para los negocios forestales, Avances en el Fondo Regional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (FONTAGRO) y Financiamiento rur...

  17. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2016-01-01

    paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...... in a position at the very centre of a commodification of “the rural” and rural communities. The article therefore concludes with a discussion of currents trends in regional and rural development and the...

  18. 'Click Rural' - the rural program for rural electrification: his effects and implications the western Parana, Brazil after 20 years later; O programa de eletrificacao rural 'Clic rural': seus efeitos e implicacoes na regiao oeste do Parana 20 anos depois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    This study verified through a sampling the technical standard of attendance adopted by the greater program for rural electrification denominated 'Clic Rural' ever implanted in the state of Parana, Brazil, in the period of 1984-1992 at the concession area of COPEL - Parana Energy Company. The work was based on a field research with visits and a questionnaire applied of rural proprietaries.

  19. [Analysis of different cultural aspects regarding oral health care in citizens of the rural riverside region in Rondônia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da; Castro, Roberta Francisca Martins de; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães; Camargo, Luis Marcelo de Aranha

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the popular practices in oral health care on pathologies such as dental caries, periodontal disease and others, in Tabajara District, Rondonia State, Brazil as folklore has a great importance on cultural aspects of the Brazilian people, and can be considered a social and cultural aspect at the same time, reaching and influencing people in oral health care. It was based in a quanti-qualitative study, being the sample composed by 14 women and 6 men. The research instrument comprehends a questionnaire with direct and subjective questions, for data analysis in descriptive form. The results show a low knowledge about oral health aspects, as well as many alternative methods for "treatment" and "prevention" of oral diseases. There is a need of deeply knowledge about the target population on health programs, as many times it can insert cultural changes and, in order to avoid being destructives, must analyses the social-cultural structure of the community.

  20. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qi; Yang Chunyue; Li Juan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rela-tionships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and sustainable development in rural areas of China. The typical case study is done and 288 questionnaires are collected from five villages in Hebei and Guangxi provinces, China. The migration and remittance status, household income and sustainable devel-opment of rural areas are analyzed on the basis of questionnaires. Rural-urban migration is becoming a part of routine life in rural areas. And remittance is an important component in rural house-hold income. Rural-urban migration increases the arable land area per labor, which releases the tight human-land relationship in villages. In total, the migration increases the rural household in-come and accelerates the sustainable development of rural areas.

  1. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  2. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural...

  3. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  5. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs. How does Medicaid impact rural healthcare and the economy? In many ways, Medicaid plays a larger role ... supporting the social services infrastructure; and contributing to the economy through revenue and jobs it generates.” Findings in ...

  7. The coming vitality of rural places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B. HOWLEY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn many parts of the world, whether “developing” or “developed,” the concept of a rural sort of education is largely ignored by national ministries. The United States is just one notable example of silence at the bureaucratic center, despite scholarly interest in provincial universities. The future may change the “terms of engagement,” however, and this essay considers the leadership of rural schools and communities from the vantage of the daunting, but clearly visible, challenges of the future. The challenges described in the essay relate to a variety of visible, perhaps even familiar, economic, environmental, political, and cultural threats confronting life in the coming century. Though increasingly important and relevant to education, these threats are not a common part of discussions in education policy. The essay explains why, and why the threats are important to rural villages and districts. Discussion concludes with five rurally appropriate shifts of thinking that might help rural citizens and subjects around the world engage the challenges and counter the threats.

  8. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  9. Rural road maintenance management

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    1999-01-01

    This manual summarizes relevant Cambodian government policies regarding rural road maintenance. Chapter 2 defines the various components of road maintenance and describes an effective strategy and organization which addresses the maintenance requirements of rural roads in Cambodia. Chapter 3 is a brief description of the planning, implementation and reporting cycle required in an effective road maintenance management system. Chapter 4 summarizes the contracts management procedures, and finall...

  10. producto turismo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca García Henche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural lleva un largo periodo establecido en Europa, pero en los últimos años crece su importancia ya que supone un nuevo producto turístico y una fuente de ingresos para la economía rural. Actualmente, los turistas buscan experiencias distintas al tradicional turismo de sol y playa, prefieren un turismo más individualizado y flexible, buscan nuevas formas de alojamiento y muestran un interés creciente por el contacto con la naturaleza. La oferta turística rural ha de adaptarse a las exigencias de esta demanda, lo que implica más flexibilidad y alojamientos y pueblos adaptados a las necesidades emergentes. Se ha de definir el turismo rural como una alternativa de adaptación a los cambios en las necesidades de los consumidores. El presente documento muestra los componentes del turismo rural. Los recursos turísticos son la materia prima, a la que se ha de añadir los servicios. Estos servicios pueden ser básicos o complementarios. Además de los servicios hay que añadir las actividades complementarias e infraestructuras No hay duda de que el turismo rural puede beneficiarse de la aplicación del marketing. El marketing implica entender qué es lo que los consumidores desean y crear productos para satisfacer sus necesidades, además de comercializar el producto correctamente.

  11. Institutional determiners of rural entrepreneurship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Usyuk

    2013-12-01

    -regression model and poll results. Analyzing the parameters of correlation-regression model it was determined that business economic situation 80,3% depends on these institutional determinants and 19,7% on other undetermined factors. When planning and implementing innovative technologies, rural entrepreneurs must also take into account the effect of such factors as legal government innovation, the amount of transaction costs, «the rules of the game» in the market, as well as, the formation of company financial and credit supply. The author found the major reserves for business improvement that mark the reduction of negative impact of government institutions. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Thus, the implementation of highlighted methodological approaches to estimating the impact of institutional determinants of rural entrepreneurship development allowed conducting a comprehensive analysis of the major problems in operation. The research results prove that the most favorable determinants of economic impact on state businesses should be considered the transaction cost reduction, proper legislation and support of rural entrepreneurs from the state. The prospects for future research should be oriented towards finding a reasonable institutional mechanism that will improve the efficiency of business activities in rural areas. The development of the innovation management methods of rural entrepreneurship structures will balance the effect of institutional «traps».

  12. CONVERGENCE OF REAL WAGES IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Adamczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the spatial diversity of rural areas. The aim of the article is to evaluate whether the process of convergence of real wages in rural areas in Poland can be observed. The author focuses on two concepts of convergence: absolute (unconditional beta convergence and sigma convergence. The analysis regards rural districts at NUTS-4 level for 2002–2014. It was stated that rural areas in Poland became similar (converge in terms of real wages what can help reducing the diff erences in living standard of inhabitants. An estimated regression function confi rms the existence of absolute beta convergence process. The growth rate of real wages was relatively higher in the districts with lower initial level. Moreover, the research carried out by the author indicates a decreasing dispersion of wages among rural districts. It shows the existence of sigma convergence process.

  13. Human intestinal parasitism, potable water availability and methods of sewage disposal among nomadic Fulanis in Kuraje rural settlement of Zamfara state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godwin T Jombo; James G Damen; Hauwa Safiyanu; Friday Odey; Emmanuel M Mbaawuaga

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the level of intestinal parasites vis-à-vis the quality of housing and water supply, and sanitary conditions among the people of Kuraje village in Zamfara state. Methods:The study was cross sectional in nature. Individual households were selected using systematic random sampling methods and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to all the members of each household. Stool samples were collected and processed using standard laboratory procedures. Housing conditions, sources of water and sanitary conditions of the households were also inspected. Results were analysed using Epi Info 2006 model. Results:The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 67.0%(347/519). 72.3%(251/347), 17.0%(59/347), and 10.7%(37/347) had one, two and three or more parasites, respectively. The associated factors with intestinal parasites were poor housing and sanitary conditions, lack of potable water and illiteracy. The commonest parasites encountered were hookworm (22.0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (15.6%) while the least common was Enterobius vermicularis (1.6%). Others were Giardia lamblia (5.7%), Hymenolepsis nana (5.0%), Trichuris trichiura (8.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (14.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni (8.4%). Conclusions:The infection rate of intestinal parasites in Kuraje village is high. More efforts should be intensified towards improvement in sanitary and housing standards, supply of potable water and institution of a more comprehensive literacy programme for the people of the community.

  14. [Multiple exposure to pesticides and impacts on health: a cross-section study of 102 rural workers, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Alberto José; de Lima, Jaime Silva; Moreira, Josino Costa; Jacob, Silvana do Couto; Soares, Mônica de Oliveira; Monteiro, Marcos César Monassa; do Amaral, Alexandre Muza; Kubota, Alexandre; Meyer, Armando; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes; das Neves, Cesar; Markowitz, Steven

    2007-01-01

    A cross section study was carried out in a farming community from Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, to examine epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of multiple exposure to pesticides in a representative sample of 102 small farmers. Both males and females were submitted to an extensive protocol which included an occupation questionnaire, biological sample collection for toxicology analysis and clinical - general and neurological - evaluation. The toxicology test results showed light to moderate episodes of acute intoxication by organophosphorates either described by the farmers or observed during clinical examination. Thirteen cases of delayed neuropathies (12,8%) as well as 29 cases of neural behavioral syndromes and psychiatric disorders associated to the continued use of pesticides were diagnosed. These results indicate recurrent multiple overexposures to high concentrations of different chemicals, with serious damage to vital functions, especially considering their young age (average 35 +/- 11 years old) and the productive period in their lifetime. These results show how important it is to monitor multiple exposure to pesticides - a chain of events that may have major impacts on public health and the environment.

  15. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  16. An overview of distribution of births in United States hospitals in 2008 with implications for small volume perinatal units in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of births among United States (U.S.) hospitals in 2008 as part of the background for the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' Guidelines for Professional Registered Nurse Staffing for Perinatal Units. Descriptive analysis of birth volumes in U.S. hospitals using American Hospital Association Annual Survey: 2008. U.S. hospitals providing obstetric (OB) services were identified based on information in any of three fields: OB services, OB beds, or number of births. Data were verified via telephone and/or website for the top 100 hospitals based on volume, hospitals with "Healthcare System" as part of their names, hospitals reporting births but no OB service, and hospitals reporting births. Hospitals with births were queried regarding nurse staffing. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Approximately 3,265 U.S. hospitals offered OB services in 2008. The top 500 hospitals based on volume (15.3%) accounted for almost one half (47.4%) of births, the top 1,000 for 69.2%, and the remaining 2,265 for 30.8%. Fourteen percent of hospitals with births in 2008 reported discontinuing OB services in 2010, in part due to lack of physician coverage and costs. Most hospitals (n=159, 72.3%) with births routinely maintained two OB-skilled nurses in-house in 2010. U.S. births are unevenly distributed among hospitals; 15% have a disproportionate share of nearly one half of all births. Most hospitals (69.4%) are operating medium- to small-volume OB units. Most hospitals (72.3%) with births annually reported currently meeting minimum staffing guidelines. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. Epidemiological study of hepatitis B and C in a municipality with rural characteristics: Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Valdiane Luz Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B and C viral infections remain an important cause of global morbidity and mortality. Studies have been conducted in population groups of large cities, leaving gaps in the knowledge regarding the situation in small municipalities. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers and presence of infection-associated factors. METHODS: All inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros aged ≥18 years who agreed to participate in the research were included. We collected blood as well as information via a questionnaire between March 2011 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Among the 1,001 participants, 41 (4.1% participants had a serological profile of hepatitis B viral exposure, and only one (0.1% participant was considered a virus carrier. The frequency of isolated antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs markers was 17.8% for the overall population. In the multivariate analysis, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection was associated with age, birth outside the State of São Paulo, history of hepatitis, ≥2 sexual partners in the last 6 months, and tattoos. Four (0.4% participants had a serological profile of hepatitis C viral exposure. However, after confirmation using viral ribonucleic acid (RNA evaluation, only one (0.1% individual remained positive. CONCLUSIONS: The positivity rates for hepatitis B and C were low, despite greater sexual freedom and the recent emergence of illicit drugs, as observed by the health personnel working in Cássia dos Coqueiros.

  18. Use of an iron superoxide dismutase excreted by Trypanosoma cruzi in the diagnosis of Chagas disease: seroprevalence in rural zones of the state of Queretaro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, María E; Marín, Clotilde; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Isabel; De Diego, Jose A; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2005-09-01

    Four iron superoxide dismutase (SODI, SODII, SODIII, and SODIV) activities with pI values of 6.9, 6.8, 5.25, and 3.8, respectively, were isolated from epimastigote forms of the Maracay strain of Trypanosoma cruzi cultivated at 28 degrees C in Grace's medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum. The activity of SODe (pI 3.8), which coincides with that of SODIV, was detected in Grace's medium without serum in which T. cruzi epimastigotes were cultivated for 24 hours at 28 degrees C. SODe, which was excreted into the medium by the parasite, was immunogenic and antibodies to SODe were detected in serum to a dilution of 1:2,500 by Western blot. The role of SODe is related to the establishment of the parasite within the host, and its high immunogenicity and specificity make it a useful molecular marker in diagnosing infection with this parasite. To validate a Western blot result using SODe as a antigen fraction, 1,029 sera of individuals from 11 municipalities in the state of Queretaro, Mexico were analyzed. Sampling was done randomly and results were compared with those for the same sera with three conventional serologic methods: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect hemagglutination (IHA), and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect antibodies to T. cruzi SODe. Samples that were positive by these three techniques were also positive by the Western blot method. The seroprevalence values for SODe (8.16% by ELISA and Western blot) in Queretaro were considerably higher than those reported in regions of Mexico considered to be endemic for Chagas disease. These results support the use of SODe in the serodiagnosis of Chagas disease.

  19. Bridging implementation, knowledge, and ambition gaps to eliminate tuberculosis in the United States and globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kenneth G; LoBue, Philip

    2011-03-01

    We reflect on remarkable accomplishments in global tuberculosis (TB) control and identify persistent obstacles to the successful elimination of TB from the United States and globally. One hundred and twenty nine years after Koch's discovery of the etiologic agent of TB, this health scourge continues to account for 9.4 million cases and 1.7 million deaths annually worldwide. Implementation of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course strategy from 1995 through 2009 has saved 6 million lives. TB control is increasingly being achieved in countries with high-income economies, yet TB continues to plague persons living in countries with low-income and lower-middle-income economies. To accelerate progress against the global effects of disease caused by TB and achieve its elimination, we must bridge 3 key gaps in implementation, knowledge, and ambition.

  20. State-dependent alterations in inhibitory control and emotional face identification in seasonal affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depressed individuals often exhibit impaired inhibition to negative input and identification of positive stimuli, but it is unclear whether this is a state or trait feature. We here exploited a naturalistic model, namely individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), to study...... this feature longitudinally. AIM: The goal of this study was to examine seasonal changes in inhibitory control and identification of emotional faces in individuals with SAD. METHOD: Twenty-nine individuals diagnosed with winter-SAD and 30 demographically matched controls with no seasonality symptoms completed...... an emotional Go/NoGo task, requiring inhibition of prepotent responses to emotional facial expressions and an emotional face identification task twice, in winter and summer. RESULTS: In winter, individuals with SAD showed impaired ability to inhibit responses to angry (p = .0006) and sad faces (p = .011...

  1. General surgery at rural Tennessee hospitals: a survey of rural Tennessee hospital administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Joseph B; Petros, Tommy J; Burkholder, Hans C; Clarke, P Chris

    2011-07-01

    Rural communities face an impending surgical workforce crisis. The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of rural Tennessee hospital administrators regarding the importance of surgical services to their hospitals. In collaboration with the Tennessee Hospital Association, we developed and administered a 13-item survey based on a recently published national survey to 80 rural Tennessee hospitals in August 2008. A total of 29 responses were received for an overall 36.3 per cent response rate. Over 44 per cent of rural surgeons were older than 50 years of age, and 27.6 per cent of hospitals reported they would lose at least one surgeon in the next 2 years. The responding hospitals reported losing 10.4 per cent of their surgical workforce in the preceding 2 years. Over 53 per cent were actively recruiting a general surgeon with an average time to recruit a surgeon of 11.8 months. Ninety-seven per cent stated that having a surgical program was very important to their financial viability with the mean and median reported revenue generated by a single general surgeon being $1.8 million and $1.4 million, respectively. Almost 11 per cent of the hospitals stated they would have to close if they lost surgical services. Although rural Tennessee hospitals face similar difficulties to national rural hospitals with regard to retaining and hiring surgeons, slightly more Tennessee hospitals (54 vs 36%) were actively attempting to recruit a general surgeon. The shortage of general surgeons is a threat to the accessibility of comprehensive hospital-based care for rural Tennesseans.

  2. Mechanism Research on Standardized Development of Rural Private Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In generalizing the researching conditions of researchers on private finance,the paper introduces the connoted meaning of rural private finance broadly and narrowly.The paper states the forms of rural private finance(including private loaning,private bank,rural private collecting,financing organizations,cooperatives,NGO,small loaning organizations and so on),the relations between rural private finance and rural economic relations,pointing out that it is the combination of the strong and the weak,which may generate benefits with the operation of marketing mechanisms.The paper analyzes the historical causes,supervision causes and cultural causes of rural private finance,discussing mechanisms of standardized development of rural private finance:firstly,standardize the organization management mechanisms,including scaled controlling mechanisms and bank management mechanisms;secondly,complete finance supervision mechanisms;thirdly,moderate government intervention,including affording liberal policy environment and reducing the improper intervention;fourthly,upgrading qualities mechanisms,including cultivating the rural credit culture and improving the quality of regulatory personnel.

  3. Pedagogy for rural health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    As the body of literature on rural health has grown, the need to develop a unifying theoretical framework has become more apparent. There are many different ways of seeing the same phenomenon, depending on the assumptions we make and the perspective we choose. A conceptual and theoretical basis for the education of health professionals in rural health has not yet been described. This paper examines a number of theoretical frameworks that have been used in the rural health discourse and aims to identify relevant theory that originates from an educational paradigm. The experience of students in rural health is described phenomenologically in terms of two complementary perspectives, using a geographic basis on the one hand, and a developmental viewpoint on the other. The educational features and implications of these perspectives are drawn out. The concept of a 'pedagogy of place' recognizes the importance of the context of learning and allows the uniqueness of a local community to integrate learning at all levels. The theory of critical pedagogy is also found relevant to education for rural health, which would ideally produce 'transformative' graduates who understand the privilege of their position, and who are capable of and committed to engaging in the struggles for equity and justice, both within their practices as well as in the wider society. It is proposed that a 'critical pedagogy of place,' which gives due acknowledgement to local peculiarities and strengths, while situating this within a wider framework of the political, social and economic disparities that impact on the health of rural people, is an appropriate theoretical basis for a distinct rural pedagogy in the health sciences.

  4. A rural cancer outreach program lowers patient care costs and benefits both the rural hospitals and sponsoring academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, C E; Grasso, M A; McCue, M J; Buonaiuto, D; Grasso, K; Johantgen, M K; Shaw, J E; Smith, T J

    1999-01-01

    The Rural Cancer Outreach Program (RCOP) between two rural hospitals and the Medical College of Virginia's Massey Cancer Center (MCC) was developed to bring state-of-the-art cancer care to medically underserved rural patients. The financial impact of the RCOP on both the rural hospitals and the MCC was analyzed. Pre- and post-RCOP financial data were collected on 1,745 cancer patients treated at the participating centers, two rural community hospitals and the MCC. The main outcome measures were costs (estimated reimbursement from all sources), revenues, contribution margins and profit (or loss) of the program. The RCOP may have enhanced access to cancer care for rural patients at less cost to society. The net annual cost per patient fell from $10,233 to $3,862 associated with more use of outpatient services, more efficient use of resources, and the shift to a less expensive locus of care. The cost for each rural patient admitted to the Medical College of Virginia fell by more than 40 percent compared with only an 8 percent decrease for all other cancer patients. The rural hospitals experienced rapid growth of their programs to more than 200 new patients yearly, and the RCOP generated significant profits for them. MCC benefited from increased referrals from RCOP service areas by 330 percent for cancer patients and by 9 percent for non-cancer patients during the same time period. While it did not generate a major profit for the MCC, the RCOP generated enough revenue to cover costs of the program. The RCOP had a positive financial impact on the rural and academic medical center hospitals, provided state-of-the-art care near home for rural patients and was associated with lower overall cancer treatment costs.

  5. Medical graduates becoming rural doctors: rural background versus extended rural placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tyler R; Freedman, Saul B; Croft, Amanda J; Dalton, Hazel E; Luscombe, Georgina M; Brown, Anthony M; Tiller, David J; Frommer, Michael S

    2013-12-16

    To determine whether recruitment of rural students and uptake of extended rural placements are associated with students' expressed intentions to undertake rural internships and students' acceptance of rural internships after finishing medical school, and to compare any associations. Longitudinal study of three successive cohorts (commencing 2005, 2006, 2007) of medical students in the Sydney Medical Program (SMP), University of Sydney, New South Wales, using responses to self-administered questionnaires upon entry to and exit from the Sydney Medical School and data recorded in rolls. Students' expressed intentions to undertake rural internships, and their acceptance of rural internships after finishing medical school. Data from 448 students were included. The proportion of students preferring a rural career dropped from 20.7% (79/382) to 12.5% (54/433) between entry into and exit from the SMP. A total of 98 students took extended rural placements. Ultimately, 8.1% (35/434) accepted a rural internship, although 14.5% (60/415) had indicated a first preference for a rural post. Students who had undertaken an extended rural placement were more than three times as likely as those with rural backgrounds to express a first preference for a rural internship (23.9% v 7.7%; χ(2) = 7.04; P = 0.008) and more than twice as likely to accept a rural internship (21.3% v 9.9%; χ(2) = 3.85; P = 0.05). For the three cohorts studied, rural clinical training through extended placements in rural clinical schools had a stronger association than rural background with a preference for, and acceptance of, rural internship.

  6. Sobre regimes demográficos restritos: comportamento reprodutivo e cultura familiar entre os ucranianos no meio rural paranaense (1895-1980 Sobre regímenes demográficos restringidos: comportamiento reproductivo y cultura familiar entre los ucranianos en el medio rural paranaense (1895-1980 On restricted demographic regimes: reproductive behavior and ukrainian family culture in rural areas of the Brazilian state of Paraná (1895-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Andreazza

    2008-06-01

    esto restó considerar que el comportamiento reproductivo es fruto de un complejo sistema de representaciones, en el cual interactúan modos de concebir las relaciones de género y las inter-generacionales, así como el papel del casamiento y de la constitución familiar. Si así fuera, las prácticas concernientes a la fecundidad corresponden, sobremanera, al ejercicio social de una determinada visión del mundo. En especial en los grupos que viven en cierto aislamiento social, las posibilidades de reproducir modelos ancestrales de reposición generacional son favorecidas. Entre los inmigrantes estudiados, casi un siglo en Brasil fue insuficiente para cambiar el sistema familiar que vino en su bagaje: aquí continuaron reproduciendo una prole extensa, aunque por eso hubieran activado una continuada migración de los hijos excedentes.This study focuses on the family dynamics of immigrants from the present country of the Ukraine. the ancestors of these families came to Brazil in 1895 and settled in a rural area of the State of Paraná known as Colônia Antonio Olynto. Due to the group's high legitimate fertility rate in the cohorts established for the study (1895-1949/1950-1980, the research focused on understanding the maintenance of this high rate during the period analyzed (between 8 and 9 children in the first group and 7 and 8 in the second and the consequences in terms of family, home and social organization. In other words, the analysis questions the reasons why this group tried to perpetuate a reproductive system that historically corresponded to the realities of a quite different social space, when, in their adopted country the gross fertility rate was quickly reduced, particularly in the period that corresponded to the second group of the study. the only conclusion possible would seem to be that reproductive behavior is the result of a complex system of representation interfacing the different ways of conceiving gender-based and inter-generational relations

  7. Preserving Access with Excellence: Financing for Rural Community Colleges. Policy Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Alexander, King F.; Opp, Ronald D.

    This document argues that for the 1.8 million students attending the 731 rural community colleges in the United States, the community college is often the only option for higher education. However, both access and excellence for rural students are being negatively impacted by recent federal and state policy that has decreased funding to community…

  8. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  9. Incorporating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into program evaluation: lessons from a rural medicine initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booza, Jason C; Bridge, Patrick D; Neale, Anne Victoria; Schenk, Maryjean

    2010-01-01

    To address the shortage of physicians practicing in rural areas of Michigan, the Wayne State University School of Medicine developed an integrated rural core curriculum to interest students in rural practice careers. Here we focus on the evaluation strategy used to determine the extent to which students in the new rural medicine interest group who self-identified as selecting a rural clerkship or externship did secure a clinical training experience in a rural setting. Three measures of rurality were compared to determine whether students were placed in rural training settings: (1) the percentage of the county living in rural areas; (2) a county-level dichotomous measure of rural/nonrural; and (3) a dichotomous measure based on urban area boundaries within the county. Practice address and geographic data were integrated into geographic information systems software, which we used to map out rural characteristics of Michigan counties through a process called thematic mapping; this shows characteristic variation by color-shading geographic features. In addition, reference maps were created showing the boundaries of urban areas and metropolitan/micropolitan areas. Once these processes were completed, we overlaid the practice location on the contextual-level geographic features to produce a visual representation of the relationship between student placement and rural areas throughout the state. The outcome of student placement in rural practices varied by the definition of rural. We concluded that, although students were not placed in the most rural areas of Michigan, they received clerkship or externship training near rural areas or in semirural areas. This process evaluation had a direct impact on program management by highlighting gaps in preceptor recruitment. A greater effort is being made to recruit physicians for more rural areas of the state rather than urban and semirural areas. Geographic information systems mapping also defined levels of ruralism for students

  10. Rurality, Region, Ethnic Community Make-Up and Alcohol Use among Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As the most widely used substance among adolescents in the United States, alcohol remains a critical public health issue. The majority of research in this area has focused on individual-level variables. This study examined the contextual effects of rurality, geographic region, and community ethnicity in the prediction of alcohol use among…

  11. Soil contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural community from Mirante do Paranapanema, São Paulo State, BrazilContaminação do solo por ovos de Toxocara spp. em assentamento rural de Mirante do Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Catherine Alves Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati. The mematoda infect dogs and cats, respectively. Human become infected particularly by accidental ingestion of larvated eggs present in the soil. The disease has a cosmopolitan distribution, but it is more frequent in disadvantaged populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural community from the Mirante do Paranapanema, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples from 31 out of 105 plots were collected in eight different places on each house. The samples were submitted to flotation technique in zinc sulphate solution (d=1.20 g/cm3. Eggs of Toxocara spp. were recovered in 12 (38.7% out of the 31 plots. At least one dog was registered in 26 (83.87% of the 31 plots examined and at least one cat in 21 (67.74%. In 15 (48.38% plots, the presence of both dogs and cats was observed, but no relation between the presence of pets in the plots and soil contamination (p=1.0; Odds Ratio= 0.611; CI 95%= 0.03457-10.802. However the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs associated to the poor conditions of the inhabitants can be an important risk factor for the human population to ocular or visceral larva migrans.A toxocaríase é uma zoonose ocasionada pelos nematódeos Toxocara canis e T. cati, que infectam, respectivamente, cães e gatos. A infecção humana é ocasionada principalmente pela ingestão acidental de ovos larvados presentes no solo. A doença é de caráter cosmopolita, mas ocorre com maior freqüência em populações de fragilidade social. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação de solo por ovos de Toxocara spp. em um assentamento rural no município de Mirante do Paranapanema, São Paulo. Amostras (n=31 de 100 gramas de solo foram colhidas de oito pontos diferentes de cada lote, ao redor da residência, sendo duas na face frontal, duas nas respectivas laterais e duas nos fundos

  12. Rural Science Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intress, C. [New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.

  13. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  14. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  15. Chewing tobacco use: perceptions and knowledge in rural adolescent youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hudson, Diane Brage; Fleck, Margaret Ofe

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were to describe the incidence of chewing tobacco use among rural midwestern adolescents and to describe rural midwestern adolescents' perceptions and knowledge about chewing tobacco use. A Smokeless Tobacco Use Survey was administered to 34 adolescent subjects who attended 5th-8th grades in two rural towns. None of the subjects reported trying chewing tobacco products. However, a group of male subjects who stated they may chew tobacco sometime in the future, performed less well on the test about chewing tobacco facts and perceptions of use, indicating some education needs are warranted. Risk factors and deterrent factors to using chewing tobacco are reported.

  16. Rural Community Variation in Physician RecruitmentReadiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ed Baker[1; David Schmitz[2; Lisa MacKenzie[1; Bradley Morris[1; Ted Epperly[2

    2014-01-01

    The capacity at which a rural community can mobilize resources involved in recruiting physicians has positive implicationsfor community health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether rural communities varied in their physician recruitmentreadiness. Methods: The Critical Access Hospital Community Apgar Questionnaire (CAH CAQ) was the instrument used in this study.Seventy one (71) rural communities in five US states who participated in the Community Apgar Program were included in this researchIn each rural community, the administrator of the critical access hospital and the physician/clinician with recruiting responsibilitiesparticipated individually in a structured interview. A total of 71 administrators and 71 physician/clinicians participated in the study(total N = 142). Cumulative Community Apgar scores were calculated for each rural community. Descriptive statistics were calculatedfor this measure including means, standard deviations and coefficient of variations. No statistical differences were discerned acrossstate mean cumulative Community Apgar scores. Cumulative Community Apgar scores demonstrated variability within states and inthe aggregate across states. The five rural states included in this study showed similar distributions/patterns of cumulative CommunityApgar scores within their respective states. These distributions/patterns demonstrated variability in the cumulative Community Apgarscores in every state. Likewise, the aggregate distribution of cumulative Community Apgar scores demonstrated variability across thefive states. These rural communities vary in their physician recruitment readiness as measured by the CAH CAQ. As such,improvement efforts need to be customized for the specifics of the individual community. One size does not fit all.

  17. Results,Effects and Countermeasures of Rural Human Resource Development in Western Minority Areas:A Case Study of Three Prefecture-level States of Southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region%西部民族地区农村人力资源开发:成效、影响及对策--以新疆南疆三地州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明明; 龚新蜀; 李光明

    2016-01-01

    Rural human resource development is not only an important measure of sustainable precise poverty alleviation ,but also a critical route to rural comprehensive well-off society in western minority areas .Based on three prefecture-level states in southern Xinjiang Uygur autono-mous region ,this paper systematically analyzes the effectiveness ,influencing factors and counter-measures of rural human resource development in western minority areas .It draws the results as follows :the overall effectiveness of rural human resource development in western minority re-gions experiences a slowly growth trend ,and shifts from low level to medium level after 2009 ;the effectiveness in terms of rural labor migration and human resources quality improves signifi-cantly ,but the effectiveness in terms of human resources size and structure adjustment worsens constantly .Individual and family characteristics of farmers (family income ,the number of chil-dren and the consciousness ﹠ behavior of human resource development ) ,rural development con-ditions (government support ,basic education ,skills training ,cultural environment and opportu-nities for migrant workers ) and rural social security system (labor rights ,legal popularization and security order ) play an important role in the results of rural human resource development . Through guiding peasants to establish the consciousness of human resource development ,west-ern minority regions should place emphasis on soft and hard environment construction of rural human resource development and increasingly perfect institutional guarantee mechanism of hu-man resource development ,to improve the results of rural human resource development .%人力资源开发不仅是西部民族地区可持续精准扶贫的重要举措,也是西部民族地区农村全面建成小康社会的根本途径。文章以新疆南疆三地州为例,对西部民族地区农村人力资源开发成效、影响因素和实施对策展开系统研究。结

  18. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra

  19. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providin gquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  20. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools