WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-four-hour dietary recalls

  1. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Results Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Conclusion Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of

  2. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean

  3. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  4. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in finishing cattle housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, D A; Thomason, J D; Reinhardt, C; Bartle, S; Rethorst, D; Loneragan, G H; Thomson, D

    2017-04-01

    Atrial premature complexes have been reported to be the most common arrhythmia in cattle and is suspected to be secondary to systemic disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmia in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence should be defined. The objective of this study was to determine the normal heart rate, rhythm, number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and atrial premature complexes (APCs) in unrestrained Angus steers. Twenty-seven client owned steers with unremarkable physical examinations and serum biochemical analyses were used. Twenty-four hour Holter monitors, attached by a custom-made harness, were retrospectively evaluated. Three lead electrocardiographic registrations of good quality and normal sinus rhythm were obtained from all steers in the study. The mean heart rate was 66.8 bpm ± 16.4 bpm. Ventricular premature complexes were rare (noted in 14.8% of steers), and APCs were common (noted in 85% of the steers). Simple second degree AV block was observed in 18.5% of the steers. In summary, healthy steers have rare single VPCs, although it is possible for an individual animal to have apparent more frequent VPCs. Mean heart rate varies with a diurnal pattern similar to other species. Atrial premature complexes are the most prevalent abnormality observed in feedlot steers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: The PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, M.A. van; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS: We analyzed data of 3997

  6. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension : the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women.Methods:We analyzed data of 3997 men

  7. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, van M.A.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS:: We analyzed data of 399

  8. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica T. Perrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  9. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.S.G. Monteiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER disorder was studied in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma. Ten children with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis, consecutively attended at the Pediatric Otolaryngology Outpatient Clinic, Federal University of São Paulo, were evaluated. Prolonged esophageal pH monitoring was used to investigate GER disorder. The mean age of the ten patients evaluated (eight males was 7.4 ± 2.4 years. Two patients presented vomiting as a clinical manifestation and one patient presented retrosternal pain with a burning sensation. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring was performed using the Sandhill apparatus. An antimony probe electrode was placed in the lower third of the esophagus, confirmed by fluoroscopy and later by a chest X-ray. The parameters analyzed by esophageal pH monitoring included: total percent time of the presence of acid esophageal pH, i.e., pH below 4 (<4.2%; total number of acid episodes (<50 episodes; number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min (3 or less, and duration of the longest reflux episode (<9.2 min. One patient (1/10, 10% presented a 24-h esophageal pH profile compatible with GER disorder. This data suggest that an association between chronic rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma and GER disorder may exist in children and adolescents, especially in those with compatible GER disorder symptoms. In these cases, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring should be performed before indicating surgery, since the present data suggest that 10% of chronic rhinosinusitis surgeries can be eliminated.

  10. Dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to total intake. The dietary intake data were from a twenty-four hour recall provided by 9,042 individuals ages two and older, except breast-fed children, who par...

  11. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  12. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jacques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W.

  13. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kerr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24, were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01, detailed description (p < 0.05 and portion size matching (p < 0.05. Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods. The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05 and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8% compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  14. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the...

  15. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the food...

  16. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer; Poliakov, Ivan; Jackson, Dan; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers. PMID:28208763

  17. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Simpson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation. Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  18. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Dofkova, M.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Maeyer, de M.; Frost Andersen, L.; Ruprich, J.; Rehurkova, I.; Geelen, Anouk; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.; Crispim, S.P.; Boer, de Evelien; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Huybrechts, I.

    2015-01-01

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the
    present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall
    (24-HDR). Par

  19. Twenty four Hours Circadian Cortisol Profile in Shift Work Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kakooei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It is well established that adrenal hormone cortisol has long been used in human psychobiological studies as a biological marker of circadian rhythm, stress, and anxiety. There is little information, however, about the interrelationships of night work, plasma cortisol levels in females’ nurses of the developing countries. The aim of the present study was to compare circadian cortisol profile between two groups of nurses with shift and permanent work in a Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between January 2006 to September 2008. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, we examined the reproducibility of plasma cortisol levels during one month period in 34 shift work nurses and 10 permanent day shift works. We evaluated potential associations between night work and hormone levels, using current and shift work information for the health care shift workers. Results: The results clearly revealed that shift work significantly increased nighttime cortisol levels (34.93 μg/dl during night shift and decreased the peak levels of cortisol in the morning (39.03 μg/dl. During the work shift the plasma cortisol presented a decreased concentration in the morning and increasing levels (44.93 μg/dl by the end of the evening. In contrast , the permanent day work nurses, who had never worked at night shifts, showed a lowest secretion of cortisol during the first half of night time sleep (10.02 μg/dl , and a peak value of the cortisol after awakening at 07:00 h ( 59.75 μg/ml. We also observed a significant association between night work and increased levels of cortisol over the remaining of the day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nurses with night shift work have an abnormal cortisol secretion profile. Shift work nurses on rotating night shifts seem to experience changes in hormones levels that may be associated with increased of circadian disorders risk observed among night – shift workers.

  20. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and oscillometry. The device avoids some of the pitfalls of conventional office or clinic blood pressure monitoring (CBPM) using a cuff and mercury sphygmomanometer such as observer bias (the phenomenon of measurement error when the observer overemphasizes expected results) and white coat hypertension (the phenomenon of elevated BP when measured in the office or clinic but normal BP when measured outside of the medical setting). Research Questions Is there a difference in patient outcome and treatment protocol using 24-hour ABPM versus CBPM for uncomplicated hypertension? Is there a difference between the 2 technologies when white coat hypertension is taken into account? What is the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of 24-hour ABPM versus CBPM for uncomplicated hypertension? Research Methods Literature Search Search Strategy A literature search was performed on August 4, 2011 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 1997 to August 4, 2011. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Articles with unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established. The quality of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to GRADE methodology. Inclusion Criteria English language articles; published between January 1, 1997 and August 4, 2011; adults aged 18 years of age or older; journal articles reporting on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, or safety for the comparison of interest; clearly described study design and methods; health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or randomized controlled trials. Exclusion Criteria non-English papers; animal or in vitro studies; case reports, case series, or case-case studies; studies comparing different antihypertensive therapies and evaluating their antihypertensive effects using 24-hour ABPM; studies on home or self-monitoring of BP, and studies on automated office BP measurement; studies in high-risk subgroups (e.g. diabetes, pregnancy, kidney disease). Outcomes of Interest Patient Outcomes mortality: all cardiovascular events (e.g., myocardial infarction [MI], stroke); non-fatal: all cardiovascular events (e.g., MI, stroke); combined fatal and non-fatal: all cardiovascular events (e.g., MI, stroke); all non-cardiovascular events; control of BP (e.g. systolic and/or diastolic target level). Drug-Related Outcomes percentage of patients who show a reduction in, or stop, drug treatment; percentage of patients who begin multi-drug treatment; drug therapy use (e.g. number, intensity of drug use); drug-related adverse events. Quality of Evidence The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. As stated by the GRADE Working Group, the following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence: High Further research is very unlikely to change confidence in the estimate of effect. Moderate Further research is likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate. Low Further research is very likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. Very Low Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. Summary of Findings Short-Term Follow-Up Studies (Length of Follow-Up of ≤ 1 Year) Based on very low quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies for non-fatal cardiovascular events. Based on moderate quality of evidence, ABPM resulted in improved BP control among patients with sustained hypertension compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, ABPM resulted in hypertensive patients being more likely to stop antihypertensive therapy and less likely to proceed to multi-drug therapy compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, there is a beneficial effect of ABPM on the intensity of antihypertensive drug use compared to CBPM. Based on moderate quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies in the number of antihypertensive drugs used. Based on low to very low quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies in the risk for a drug-related adverse event or noncardiovascular event. Long-Term Follow-Up Study (Mean Length of Follow-Up of 5 Years) Based on moderate quality of evidence, there is a beneficial effect of ABPM on total combined cardiovascular events compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, there is a lack of a beneficial effect of ABPM on nonfatal cardiovascular events compared to CBPM; however, the lack of a beneficial effect is based on a borderline result. Based on low quality of evidence, there is no beneficial effect of ABPM on fatal cardiovascular events compared to CBPM. Based on low quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies for the number of patients who began multi-drug therapy. Based on low quality of evidence, there is a beneficial effect of CBPM on control of BP compared to ABPM. This result is in the opposite direction than expected. Based on moderate quality of evidence, there is no difference between technologies in the risk for a drug-related adverse event. PMID:23074425

  1. The use of computerised 24 h dietary recalls in the French SU.VI.MAX Study: number of recalls required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, L I; Bertrais, S; Galan, P; Arnault, N; Potier de Couray, G; Hercberg, S

    2002-07-01

    The 24 h dietary recall is a widely used method to estimate nutritional intakes in epidemiological studies. The objective of the present study was to estimate the number of recalls necessary for an accurate estimation of nutrient intake in French adults followed for 4 y. Participants of the SU.VI.MAX study (intervention study on the effects of antioxidant supplementation on chronic diseases) who completed a 24 h dietary recall every 2 months for at least 1 y. Inter- and intra-individual variance ratios (S(w)/S(b)) were calculated by analysis of variance for two time periods: year 1 and 2 (n=4955) and year 3 and 4 (n=1458). The number of recalls necessary was calculated using an accuracy of 0.9. The highest intra-individual/inter-individual variance ratio in the first period was seen for beta-carotene and the lowest for carbohydrate. The number of recalls necessary was five for carbohydrate and calcium intake and 16 for beta-carotene. For proteins, total and saturated fat, fibre, vitamin C and iron eight recalls were required, while nine, 11 and 10 recalls were necessary for mono- and polyunsaturated fat and vitamin E, respectively. The variance ratios in the second period were all lower and fewer recalls were therefore required. The same difference in number of recalls required between the two time periods was observed when only those subjects were included who completed at least 18 recalls (n=727). These results indicate that for an accurate estimation of carbohydrate intake only, already five recalls are necessary. Fewer recalls may be needed during long-time follow-up. The SU.VI.MAX Study has support from public and private sectors: Fruit d'Or Recherche, Candia, Lipton, Kellogg's, Céréal, CERIN, Estée Lauder, L'Oréal, Peugeot, Jet Service, RP Scherer, Sodexho, France Telecom, Santogen, Becton Dickinson, Fould Springer, Boehringer Diagnostic, Seppic Givaudan Lavirotte, Le grand Canal, Danone and Knorr.

  2. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitor...... aspects related to its implementation are reported elsewhere. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, S5-S15; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.83...

  3. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  4. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  5. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  6. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Pope, Benjamin T; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C; Roe, Denise J

    2015-04-01

    The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies.

  7. Dietary intakes of macronutrients among Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans: the San Antonio heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Knapp, J A; Hazuda, H P; Stern, M P; Young, E A

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were obtained on 1254 Mexican Americans (MA) and 916 Anglo Americans (AA), aged 25 to 64, as part of the San Antonio heart study, a population-based survey of cardiovascular risk factors from 1979 to 1982. In order to separate the effects of ethnicity from those of socioeconomic status (SES), we sampled subjects in three distinct neighborhoods: a low income MA neighborhood (barrio), a middle income neighborhood, and an upper income, predominantly Anglo, neighborhood. Intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrate were similar to those found in other dietary surveys (NHANES, LRC). MA females living in the barrio consumed more cholesterol than either Anglos or MAs living in the other two neighborhoods. In MA males, the rise in the Hegsted Score with increasing SES paralleled the rise in LDL cholesterol with rising SES reported previously by our group. Females consumed a less atherogenic diet than males.

  8. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  9. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  10. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M. E.; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M.; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L.; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomar

  11. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-02-14

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.

  12. Feasibility of repeated 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigati...

  13. A review of the design and validation of web- and computer-based 24-h dietary recall tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Claire M; van den Barg, Rinske; Blain, Richard J; Kehoe, Laura; Evans, Katie; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools. Overall, there is generally good to strong agreement between web-based 24HDR and respective reference measures for intakes of macro- and micronutrients.

  14. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3) approximately 6 weeks apart. A food frequency- and dietary pattern-related questionnaire was administered and numerically coded responses were analyzed. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were also collected at V1, V2, and V3. Body weight, fasting blood glucose level, and blood pressure of study participants were also determined at each time period. Total sample population (TSP) had a significant increase in mean weight of 2.79 lb from visit 1 (V1) to visit 3 (V3) (p = .0082). Ten participants gained an average of 9.0 lb (participants who gained weight; n = 10). There was also an increase in the frequency of consumption of high-calorie American food items from V1 to V3. However, there were no significant changes in mean systolic blood pressure and mean fasting blood glucose was significantly lower at V3 than at V1. There was a gradual shift in the dietary patterns of international students towards the American diet. Dietary acculturation led to weight gain among some of the students, which may potentially have a negative impact on their health status if continued for longer time periods.

  15. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients...... with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery...... are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded...

  16. Twenty-four-hour intraocular pressure patterns in a symptomatic patient after ab interno trabeculotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweh Mansouri,1 Felipe A Medeiros,2 Robert N Weinreb2 1Glaucoma Sector, Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: We report the results of repeated ambulatory continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP monitoring with a contact lens sensor (CLS in a glaucoma patient with ocular pain after ab interno trabeculotomy (Trabectome™ surgery. Our findings show that a combined prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment reduced nighttime IOP peaks and relieved the patient’s symptoms. Keywords: 24-hour, Trabectome contact lens sensor, prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment

  17. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in 35 patients with amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, E.; Aghini-Lombardi, F.; Lippi, F.; Baschieri, L.; Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.; Pinchera, A.

    1985-12-01

    Amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis (AAT) occurs in approximately 10% of patients treated with this iodine rich drug in areas of mild iodine deficiency. The thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) is usually undetectable or very low in iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. In the present study, 35 patients with AAT were evaluated. Twelve patients had no thyroid abnormalities by physical exam and all had 24-hr RAIU less than or equal to 4%. In contrast, nine of 11 patients with AAT and diffuse goiters and eight of 12 patients with AAT and nodular goiters had RAIU values greater than 8%. In patients with AAT and goiter it appears possible that the thyroid fails to adapt normally to the excess iodide load, resulting in an inappropriately high RAIU in the presence of excess plasma iodine.

  18. Twenty-Four-Hour Mobility During Acute Hospitalization in Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Merete; Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inactivity during hospitalization in older medical patients may lead to functional decline. This study quantified 24-hour mobility, validated the accelerometers used, and assessed the daily level of basic mobility in acutely admitted older medical patients during their hospitalization...

  19. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelnes, R.

    1986-08-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded that the long-term postreconstructive hyperemia merely is a reflection of the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern.

  20. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raouf S; Carroll, John L; Jeffries, Jenny L; Grone, Charles; Bean, Judy A; Chini, Barbara; Bokulic, Ronald; Daniels, Stephen R

    2004-04-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent elevation of systemic blood pressure (BP) during sleep. To determine whether obstructive apnea in children has a tonic effect on diurnal BP, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained from 60 children with mean age of 10.8 +/- 3.5 years. Thirty-nine children had obstructive apnea and 21 had primary snoring. Children with obstructive apnea had significantly greater mean BP variability during wakefulness and sleep, a higher night-to-day systolic BP, and a smaller nocturnal dipping of mean BP. Variability of mean arterial pressure during wakefulness was predicted by the desaturation, body mass, and arousal indices, whereas variability during sleep was predicted by apnea-hypopnea and body mass indices. Nocturnal BP dipping was predicted by the desaturation index. There were no significant differences in systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial BP during sleep between the groups. Diastolic BP during wakefulness was significantly different between the groups and correlated negatively with apnea-hypopnea index. We conclude that obstructive apnea in children is associated with 24-hour BP dysregulation and that, independent of obesity, the frequency of obstructive apnea, oxygen desaturation, and arousal contributes to abnormal BP control.

  1. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-year recall ability study (33-RAS) included an overlap population of 1721 individuals who joined the Adventist Health Study-1 and Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 72·5 years). Spearman correlation coefficients for recall of vegetarian status were 0·78 and 0·72 for the 5-RAS and 33-RAS, respectively, when compared with 'reference' data. For both time periods sensitivity and positive predictive values were highest for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian patterns (vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians). In the 5-RAS analyses, male, non-black, younger, and more educated participants, lifetime Adventists, and those with more stability of consumption of animal products generally showed higher recall ability. Somewhat similar tendencies were shown for the 33-RAS analyses. Our findings show that the instrument has higher reliability for recalled lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian than for vegan, semi- and pesco-vegetarian dietary patterns in both short- and long-term recalls. This is in part because these last dietary patterns were greatly contaminated by recalls that correctly would have belonged in the adjoining category that consumed more animal products.

  2. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  3. Feasibility of 2 x 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 x 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software de...

  4. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (...

  5. Dietary Patterns are similar using a population specific diet screening tool and multiple 24-hour recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but requires comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort. Thi...

  6. Resemblance of dietary intakes of snacks, sweets, fruit, and vegetables among mother-child dyads from low income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between intake of snacks, sweets, fruit, vegetables, and energy in low-income mother–child dyads. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from Head Start centers in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama. Twenty-four-hour dietary ...

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  8. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  9. Short-term dietary compensation in free-living adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, F; Hollis, J H; Mattes, R D

    2008-03-18

    Evidence suggests that compensatory behaviors operate in infants and pre-school children, such that the high variance characteristic of single eating occasions is much reduced over the day. However, the concept has not been fully explored in adults. The present within-subject, observational study investigated short-term dietary compensation patterns in fifty, weight-stable, normal weight (n=27), overweight (n=14), and obese (n=9) free-living adults (11 M, 39 F; age 30+/-11 y; BMI 26.3+/-5.9). Twenty four-hour diet recalls were obtained for 7 consecutive days, by the multi-pass technique. Each 24-h period was divided into 7 eating occasions. The coefficient of variation for energy intake was calculated for each adult, for each eating occasion, and over each 24-h period. Sub-group variability was assessed by BMI and frequency of consumption of sweetened energy-yielding beverages. The mean coefficient of variation for energy intake for the 7 eating occasions was 110.5%, compared to 28.9% for the day as a whole. Correlations between energy intakes at successive eating events were uniformly negative. No significant differences were noted in the sub-group analyses. Significantly greater variation in energy intake was noted for snacks compared to meals (Pindividual eating occasions, similar to the pattern previously observed in children. Further studies of compensatory responses by larger sub-groups of individuals at risk for weight gain are warranted.

  10. 24-hour dietary recalls as reference calibration measurements in EPIC: from statistical theory to epidemiological application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.

    2002-01-01

    Large multi-centre cohort studies have been set up with the aim of increasing the statistical power to detect an association between diet and disease by including study populations varying both in dietary exposures and outcome diseases. However, such studies raise also new statistical and methodolog

  11. A step towards using urinary nitrogen as a tool for validating 24-hour dietary recall interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, H A

    1987-09-01

    In an active population, can urinary nitrogen output provide a satisfactory basis for estimating protein intake without preliminary screening to rule out metabolic disease? A successful demonstration would justify comparing average protein intake for active groups derived from 24-hour recall interviews with that obtained from 24-hour urine specimens. This could then be a practical test of the hypothesis that 24-hour recall data provide valid estimates for groups. Volunteers (45) from a university population limited their diet for four days to a commercially prepared liquid diet and provided a 24-hour urine specimen beginning on the morning of the fourth day. For men, average daily intake of protein was 112.8 grams and the estimated intake based on urinary nitrogen was 114.5. Corresponding data for women were 84.6 and 83.9. Screening for metabolic disease seems unnecessary but persons restricting their intake to less than their caloric needs will have their protein intake overestimated on the basis of urinary nitrogen measurement.

  12. Stunting prevalence, plasma zinc concentrations, and dietary zinc intakes in a nationally representative sample suggest a high risk of zinc deficiency among women and young children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Nankap, Martin; Killilea, David W; Brown, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Before initiating a mass zinc fortification program, this study assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for low zinc status among Cameroonian women and children. In a nationally representative survey, we randomly selected 30 clusters in each of 3 strata (North, South, and Yaoundé/Douala) and 10 households per cluster, each with a woman aged 15-49 y and a child aged 12-59 mo (n = 1002 households). Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls (with duplicates in a subset) and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and non-fasting blood was collected to measure plasma zinc concentration (PZC) and markers of inflammation. PZC was adjusted for methodologic factors (time of collection and processing, and presence of inflammation). The prevalence of stunting was 33% (32% South; 46% North; 13% Yaoundé/Douala). Among women, 82% had low adjusted PZC (Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG), 29 and 41% of women had inadequate zinc intakes, assuming moderate and low bioavailability, respectively, but only 8% of children had inadequate zinc intake. Depending on the estimated physiologic zinc requirement applied, 17% (IZiNCG) and 92% (Institute of Medicine) of women had inadequate absorbable zinc intakes. Total zinc intakes were greatest in the North region, possibly because of different dietary patterns in this area. Zinc deficiency is a public health problem among women and children in Cameroon, although PZC and dietary zinc yield different estimates of the prevalence of deficiency. Large-scale programs to improve zinc nutrition, including food fortification, are needed.

  13. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P 0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  14. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  15. Wearable cameras can reduce dietary under-reporting: doubly labelled water validation of a camera-assisted 24 h recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemming, Luke; Rush, Elaine; Maddison, Ralph; Doherty, Aiden; Gant, Nicholas; Utter, Jennifer; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-28

    Preliminary research has suggested that wearable cameras may reduce under-reporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of a wearable camera-assisted 24 h dietary recall against the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed over 15 d using the DLW protocol among forty adults (n 20 males, age 35 (sd 17) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2 and n 20 females, age 28 (sd 7) years, BMI 22 (sd 2) kg/m2). EI was assessed using three multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls (MP24) on days 2-4, 8-10 and 13-15. On the days before each nutrition assessment, participants wore an automated wearable camera (SenseCam (SC)) in free-living conditions. The wearable camera images were viewed by the participants following the completion of the dietary recall, and their changes in self-reported intakes were recorded (MP24+SC). TEE and EI assessed by the MP24 and MP24+SC methods were compared. Among men, the MP24 and MP24+SC measures underestimated TEE by 17 and 9%, respectively (Pcamera (MP24+SC) reduced the magnitude of under-reporting by 8% for men and 6% for women compared with the MP24 alone (Pcameras enhance the accuracy of self-report by providing passive and objective information regarding dietary intake. High-definition image sensors and increased imaging frequency may improve the accuracy further.

  16. Recall Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recalls.gov Find recalls from around the world Global Recall Portal Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs International Newsroom ...

  17. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  18. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 h patterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies.

  19. Twenty-four hour predictions of the solar wind speed peaks by the probability distribution function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy-Virat, C. D.; Ridley, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Abrupt transitions from slow to fast solar wind represent a concern for the space weather forecasting community. They may cause geomagnetic storms that can eventually affect systems in orbit and on the ground. Therefore, the probability distribution function (PDF) model was improved to predict enhancements in the solar wind speed. New probability distribution functions allow for the prediction of the peak amplitude and the time to the peak while providing an interval of uncertainty on the prediction. It was found that 60% of the positive predictions were correct, while 91% of the negative predictions were correct, and 20% to 33% of the peaks in the speed were found by the model. This represents a considerable improvement upon the first version of the PDF model. A direct comparison with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model shows that the PDF model is quite similar, except that it leads to fewer false positive predictions and misses fewer events, especially when the peak reaches very high speeds.

  20. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: cardiac, vascular, and respiratory diseases, conditions, and syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    Various medical conditions, disorders, and syndromes exhibit predictable-in-time diurnal and 24 h patterning in the signs, symptoms, and grave nonfatal and fatal events, e.g., respiratory ones of viral and allergic rhinorrhea, reversible (asthma) and non-reversible (bronchitis and emphysema) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, high altitude pulmonary edema, and decompression sickness; cardiac ones of atrial premature beats and tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 3rd degree atrial-ventricular block, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, symptomatic and non-symptomatic angina pectoris, Prinzmetal vasospastic variant angina, acute (non-fatal and fatal) incidents of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac arrest, in-bed sudden death syndrome of type-1 diabetes, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and heart failure; vascular and circulatory system ones of hypertension, acute orthostatic postprandial, micturition, and defecation hypotension/syncope, intermittent claudication, venous insufficiency, standing occupation leg edema, arterial and venous branch occlusion of the eye, menopausal hot flash, sickle cell syndrome, abdominal, aortic, and thoracic dissections, pulmonary thromboembolism, and deep venous thrombosis, and cerebrovascular transient ischemic attack and hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Knowledge of these temporal patterns not only helps guide patient care but research of their underlying endogenous mechanisms, i.e., circadian and others, and external triggers plus informs the development and application of effective chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies.

  1. The Twenty-four Hour Workday: Proceedings of a Symposium on Variations in Work-Sleep Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Md. Tray.: 1971, _j 393-395. .ndlauer,P., Carpentier,J., & Cazamian,P. (Eds.). Ergonomie du travail de nuit et des horaires alternants. Education...and between subjects and suggest that Gaillard’s conclusion may not -be true. 743 REM 0) 2 {3 i4 40[ REM E 0L ɘ U 730-Delta Hour !Igure :2. Comuter

  2. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%, hyperoxaluria (61.4%, hypocitraturia (57.2%, hyperuricouria (19.7%, hypomagnesuria (59.3% and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%. Hyperoxaluria (61.4% was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  3. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: a study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N S; Sadiq, S M; Kamaliah, M D; Norakmal, A W; Gohar, M N

    2013-05-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD) of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%), hyperoxaluria (61.4%), hypocitraturia (57.2%), hyperuricouria (19.7%), hypomagnesuria (59.3%) and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%). Hyperoxaluria (61.4%) was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  4. Prevalence of type 1 brugada electrocardiographic pattern evaluated by twelve-lead twenty-four-hour holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, Natascia; Giustetto, Carla; Gribaudo, Elena; Richiardi, Elena; Barbonaglia, Lorella; Scrocco, Chiara; Zema, Domenica; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with drug-induced type 1 Brugada electrocardiograms (BrECGs) are considered to have good prognosis. Spontaneous type 1 is, instead, considered a risk factor; however, it is probably underestimated because of the BrECG fluctuations. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a large population of patients with Br, the real prevalence of type 1 BrECG using 12-lead 24-hour Holter monitoring (12L-Holter) and its correlation with the time of the day. We recorded 303 12L-Holter in 251 patients. Seventy-five (30%) patients exhibited spontaneous type 1 BrECG at 12-lead ECG (group 1) and 176 (70%) had only drug-induced type 1 (group 2). Type 1 BrECG was defined as "persistent" (>85% of the recording), "intermittent" (Holter, 57% intermittent type 1%, and 31% never had type 1; in group 2, none had persistent type 1, 20% had intermittent type 1%, and 80% never showed type 1. To evaluate the circadian fluctuations of BrECG, 4 periods in the day were considered. Type 1 BrECG was more frequent between 12-noon and 6 p.m. (52%, p Holter than with conventional follow-up with periodic ECGs and this has important implications in the risk stratification. 12L-Holter recording might avoid 20% of the pharmacological challenges with sodium channel blockers, which are not without risks, and should thus be considered as the first screening test, particularly in children or in presence of borderline diagnostic basal ECG.

  5. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    N S Hussein; S M Sadiq; M D Kamaliah; A W NorAkmal; M N Gohar

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospi...

  6. Twenty-four hours or 10 days? A prospective randomised controlled trial in children comparing head bandages following pinnaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S; Narayanan, V; Laing, J H E

    2006-01-01

    The perceived benefits of bandaging for 10 days following pinnaplasty have been questioned by previous studies. The problems arising from these dressings are many [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bartley J. How long should ears be bandaged after otoplasty? J Laryngol Otol 1998;112:531-2. Wong MC, Sylaidis P. Head dressings for pinnaplasty: a tradition not supported by evidence. Br J Plast Surg 2001;54:81-2], including their slippage [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bradbury ET, Hewison J, Timmons MJ. Psychological and social outcome of prominent ear correction in children. Br J Plast Surg 1992;45:97-100. Jeffery SLA. Complications following correction of prominent ears: an audit review of 122 cases. Br J Plast Surg 1999;52:588-90]. Eighty children were recruited into a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the use of a head bandage for only 24 h with a standard practise of a 10-day head bandage. A preoperative measurement of the lateral ear projection (LEP) was made. The outcome measures recorded during the two planned postoperative visits at 10 days (visit 1) and 2 months (visit 2) were: patient satisfaction score, LEP, complications and any unscheduled hospital visits associated with the surgery. There was no significant difference in LEP and patient satisfaction between the two groups at both the scheduled postoperative visits. Differences between the groups in the number of unscheduled visits (p=0.21) did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that it is safe and effective to use head bandage for only 24 h following surgical correction of prominent ears. This study shows no benefit from the application of a formal head bandage for any longer than 1 day.

  7. Twenty-Four-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Predicts Inappropriate Left Ventricular Mass Index in Patients with Primary Aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Primary aldosteronism (PA is associated with inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in relation to a given gender and body size. There is no ideal parameter to predict the presence of LVH or inappropriate LVH in patients with PA. We investigate the performance of 24-hour urinary aldosterone level, plasma renin activity and aldosterone-to-renin ratio on this task. Methods. We performed echocardiography in 106 patients with PA and 31 subjects with essential hypertension (EH in a tertiary teaching hospital. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone level were measured. Results. Only 24-hour urinary aldosterone was correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI and excess LVMI among these parameters. The multivariate analysis revealed the urinary aldosterone level as an independent predictor for LVMI and excess LVMI. Analyzing the ability of urinary aldosterone, plasma aldosterone concentration, and plasma aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify the presence of LVH (ROC AUC = 0.701, 0.568, 0.656, resp. and the presence of inappropriate LV mass index (defined as measured LVMI in predicting LVMI ratio >135% (ROC area under curve = 0.61, 0.43, 0.493, resp. revealed the better performance of 24-hour urinary aldosterone. Conclusions. In conclusion, 24-hour urinary aldosterone level performed better to predict the presence of LVH and inappropriate LVMI in patients with PA.

  8. Twenty-four-hour profiles of metabolic and stress hormones in sheep selected for a calm or nervous temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietema, S E; Blackberry, M A; Maloney, S K; Martin, G B; Hawken, P A R; Blache, D

    2015-10-01

    Even in the absence of stressors, temperament is associated with changes in the concentration of stress-responsive hormones and, possibly because of such changes, temperament can affect metabolism. We tested whether, in sheep bred for temperament for 14 generations, "nervous" females have greater concentrations of stress-responsive hormones in the absence of stressors than "calm" females, and whether these differences are associated with changes in the concentrations of metabolic hormones. In resting "calm" (n = 8) and "nervous" (n = 8) sheep, concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, leptin, and insulin were measured in blood plasma sampled via jugular catheter every 20 min for 24 h. The animals were individually penned, habituated to their housing and human handling over 7 wk, and fed before sampling began. Diurnal variation was evident for all hormones, but a 24-h cortisol pattern was detected in only 7 individuals. There was no effect of temperament on any aspect of concentrations of cortisol or prolactin, but "calm" animals had greater concentrations of insulin in the early afternoon than "nervous" animals (14.5 ± 1.1 vs 10.0 ± 1.6 μU/mL; P = 0.038), and a similar tendency was seen for leptin (P = 0.092). We conclude that selection for temperament affects the concentration of metabolic hormones in the absence of stressors, but this effect is independent of stress-responsive hormones.

  9. Twenty-four hours hypothermia has temporary efficacy in reducing brain infarction and inflammation in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Buga, Ana Maria; Balseanu, Adrian Tudor

    2016-01-01

    inflammation and infarct size. However, after 1 week, the infarct size became even larger than in controls and after 2 weeks there was no beneficial effect on regenerative processes such as neurogenesis. Behaviorally, hypothermia also had a limited beneficial effect. Finally, after hydrogen sulfide...

  10. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E

    2010-01-01

    ,5,12,16]tetraazacyclotricosine-5,13-diium dibromide (UCL 1684; inhibitor of SK3) or 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34; inhibitor of IK1). In LF arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxation was markedly reduced, due to a reduction in the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) response. In HF...

  11. Effectiveness of Prompts on Fourth-Grade Children’s Dietary Recall Accuracy Depends on Retention Interval and Varies by Gender1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Royer, Julie A; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J; Miller, Patricia H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary recall accuracy is related to retention interval (RI) (i.e., time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), and possibly to prompts. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated their combined effect. Objective: The combined influence of RI and prompts on children’s recall accuracy was investigated in this study. Two RIs [short (prior-24-h recall obtained in afternoon) and long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] were crossed with 4 prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, lunch, etc.), open (no instructions), and reverse (recent-to-distant)], creating 8 conditions. Methods: Fourth-grade children (n = 480; 50% girls) were randomly selected from consenting children at 10 schools in 4 districts in a southern state during 3 school years (2011–2012, 2012–2013, and 2013–2014). Each child was observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed one time under 1 of the 8 conditions. Condition assignment was constrained so that each had 60 children (30 girls). Accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and energy correspondence rate and inflation ratio. For each measure, linear models determined effects of RI, prompt, gender, and interactions (2-way, 3-way); race/ethnicity, school year, and district were control variables. Results: RI (P values < 0.015) and prompt (P values < 0.005) were significant for all 4 accuracy measures. RI × prompt (P values < 0.001) was significant for 3 accuracy measures (not intrusion rate). Prompt × gender (P = 0.005) was significant for omission rate. RI × prompt × gender was significant for intrusion rate and inflation ratio (P values < 0.001). For the short vs. long RI across prompts and genders, accuracy was better by 33–50% for each accuracy measure. Conclusions: To obtain the most accurate recalls possible from children, studies should be designed to use a short rather than long RI. Prompts affect children’s recall accuracy

  12. Evaluation of the international standardized 24-h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet) for potential application in research and surveillance within African settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom Kouassivi; Landais, Edwige; Nicolas, Geneviève; Margetts, Barrie; Leclercq, Catherine; Allemand, Pauline; Aderibigbe, Olaide; Agueh, Victoire Damienne; Amuna, Paul; Annor, George Amponsah; El Ati, Jalila; Coates, Jennifer; Colaiezzi, Brooke; Compaore, Ella; Delisle, Hélène; Faber, Mieke; Fungo, Robert; Gouado, Inocent; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Hounkpatin, Waliou Amoussa; Konan, Amoin Georgette; Labzizi, Saloua; Ledo, James; Mahachi, Carol; Maruapula, Segametsi Ditshebo; Mathe, Nonsikelelo; Mbabazi, Muniirah; Mirembe, Mandy Wilja; Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Nzi, Clement Diby; Pisa, Pedro Terrence; El Rhazi, Karima; Zotor, Francis; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-06-19

    Collection of reliable and comparable individual food consumption data is of primary importance to better understand, control and monitor malnutrition and its related comorbidities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including in Africa. The lack of standardised dietary tools and their related research support infrastructure remains a major obstacle to implement concerted and region-specific research and action plans worldwide. Citing the magnitude and importance of this challenge, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO) launched the "Global Nutrition Surveillance initiative" to pilot test the use of a standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet), validated in Europe, in other regions. In this regard, the development of the GloboDiet-Africa can be optimised by better understanding of the local specific methodological needs, barriers and opportunities. The study aimed to evaluate the standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet) as a possible common methodology for research and surveillance across Africa. A consultative panel of African and international experts in dietary assessment participated in six e-workshop sessions. They completed an in-depth e-questionnaire to evaluate the GloboDiet dietary methodology before and after participating in the e-workshop. The 29 experts expressed their satisfaction on the potential of the software to address local specific needs when evaluating the main structure of the software, the stepwise approach for data collection and standardisation concept. Nevertheless, additional information to better describe local foods and recipes, as well as particular culinary patterns (e.g. mortar pounding), were proposed. Furthermore, food quantification in shared-plates and -bowls eating situations and interviewing of populations with low literacy skills, especially in rural settings, were acknowledged as requiring further specific considerations and appropriate solutions. An overall

  13. Validation of digital photographs, as a tool in 24-h recall, for the improvement of dietary assessment among rural populations in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarte Claudia E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of traditional methods for dietary assessment is necessary, especially in rural areas where it is more difficult to succeed with self-reporting methods. This study presents and validates a method for improving accuracy when measuring food and nutrient intake of individuals in rural areas. It is called the “Food photography 24-h recall method” (FP 24-hR and is a modified 24-h recall with the addition of a digital food photography record and a photo atlas. Methods The study was carried out in a rural area in the tropical region of Bolivia; 45 women participated. Validation of the method was made by comparing it with a reference method, the Weighed Food Record (WFR. During the FP 24-hR, digital photographs were taken by the subjects of all food consumed during a day and a 24-h recall questionnaire was conducted by an interviewer. An estimate of the amount of food consumed was made using a photo atlas and the photographs taken by the subjects. For validation, comparison was made between the calculations, by both methods, of the levels of food, and nutrient, intake. Results The comparison was made in 10 food categories; most of which were somewhat underestimated from −2.3% (cassava to −6.8% (rice, except for beverages (+1.6% and leafy vegetables (+8.7%, which were overestimated. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were highly significant (r from 0.75 for eggs to 0.98 for potato and cassava. Nutrient intakes calculated with data from both methods showed small differences from -0.90% (vitamin C to -5.98% (fat. Although all nutrients were somewhat underestimated, Pearson′s coefficients are high (>0.93 for all and statistically significant. Bland Altman analysis showed that differences between both methods were random and did not exhibit any systematic bias over levels of food and nutrient intake, with acceptable 95% limits of agreement. Conclusion The FP 24-hR exhibits acceptable differences when compared with

  14. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  15. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  16. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  17. Racial Differences in Misclassification of Healthy Eating Based on Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendzki, B; Procter-Gray, E; Magee, M F; Youssef, G; Kane, K; Churchill, L; Ockene, J; Li, W

    2017-01-01

    To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternate healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by race, among urban older women. Cross-sectional observational study. Urban neighborhoods in Washington, DC, USA. Community-dwelling White and Black women aged 65 and older. In 2014 and 2015, 49 White and 44 Black older women were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24-hour recalls. The correlation coefficients of 55 nutrient intake measures and agreements on healthy eating classification between the two instruments were compared overall and by race. The mean correlation coefficient (rho) was 0.46 for Whites and 0.23 for Blacks. For 47 measures, rho was lower for Blacks. Whites had a strong correlation of ≥0.5 for 28 items, while Blacks had strong correlations for only 3 items. Based on FFQ, the mean (SD) of AHEI were 54.0 (10.3) for Whites and 45.9 (8.8) for Blacks (peating unhealthy based on the 24HR, versus 2.6% and 0% based on the FFQ. The FFQ has limited ability to accurately assess nutrient intake among older Black women, and tends to underestimate racial differences in healthy eating. The FFQ should be further improved for use in racial disparities research of healthy eating in older age, using a larger sample of older women with racial and geographic diversities.

  18. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index – Revised (BHEI-R, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R. The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components (“total fruits”, “whole fruits”, “total vegetables”, “integral cereals”, “saturated fat”, “sodium”, and “energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages” were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for “integral cereals” to 147% for “whole fruits”. The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption.

  19. [Twenty-four hour time and frequency domain variability of systolic blood pressure and heart rate in an experimental model of arterial hypertension plus obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Lazartiques, E; Cabrol, P; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M

    1998-08-01

    Modifications of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) variabilities (V) have been reported in the human syndrome arterial hypertension plus insulin-resistance. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24 h SBPV and HRV in both time and frequency domains during weight increase in dogs fed ad libitum with a high fat diet. Implantable transmitter units for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate were surgically implanted in five beagle male dogs. BP and HR were continuously recorded using telemetric measurements during 24 hours, before and after 6 and 9 weeks of hypercaloric diet in quiet animals submitted to a 12h light-dark cycle. To study nychtemeral cycle of SBP and HR, two periods were chosen: day (from 6.00 h to 19.00 h) and night (from 23.00 h to 6.00 h). Spontaneous baroreflex efficiency was measured using the sequence method. Spectral variability of HR and SBP was analyzed using a fast Fourier transformation on 512 consecutive values and normalized units of low (LF: 50-150 mHz, reflecting sympathetic activity) and high (HF: respiratory rate +/- 50 mHz, reflecting parasympathetic activity) frequency bands were calculated. The energy of total spectrum (from 0.004 to 1 Hz) was also studied. Body weight (12.4 +/- 0.9 vs 14.9 +/- 0.9 kg, p < 0.05). SBP (132 +/- 1 vs 147 +/- 1 mmHg, p < 0.05) significantly increased after 9 weeks of hypercaloric diet. A nycthemeral HR rhythm was present at baseline (day: 79 +/- 1 vs night: 71 +/- 1 bpm) but not after 9 weeks (day: 91 +/- 4 bpm ; night: 86 +/- 2 bpm). Concomitantly, the efficiency of spontaneous baroreflex decreased at 6 weeks (36 +/- 1 vs 42 +/- 2 mmHg/ms, p < 0.05). A significant decrease in HF energy of HRV was found after 6 but not after 9 weeks. LF energy of SBPV was increased at 6 but not at 9 weeks (table). [table: see text] In conclusion, this study shows that an hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet induces transient variations in autonomic nervous system activity which could be the physiopathological link between obesity, insulin-resistance and arterial hypertension.

  20. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    subjects. Blood samples were drawn frequently throughout the 24-h period. An insulin tolerance test was also used to determine whether weight loss altered the ability of insulin to modify plasma concentrations of tryptophan and of the other large neutral amino acids. RESULTS: Plasma tryptophan......BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects were low at all times; these effects persisted after weight reduction. Plasma concentrations of all the large neutral amino acids decreased during insulin infusion in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low 24-h plasma tryptophan ratios in obese and formerly obese...

  1. Twenty-Four-Hour Real-Time Continuous Monitoring of Cerebral Edema in Rabbits Based on a Noninvasive and Noncontact System of Magnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema is a common disease, secondary to craniocerebral injury, and real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral edema is crucial for treating patients after traumatic brain injury. This work established a noninvasive and noncontact system by monitoring the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS which is associated with brain tissue conductivity. Sixteen rabbits (experimental group n = 10, control group, n = 6 were used to perform a 24 h MIPS and intracranial pressure (ICP simultaneously monitored experimental study. For the experimental group, after the establishment of epidural freeze-induced cerebral edema models, the MIPS presented a downward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of −13.1121 ± 2.3953°; the ICP presented an upward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of 12–41 mmHg. The ICP was negatively correlated with the MIPS. In the control group, the MIPS change amplitude was −0.87795 ± 1.5146 without obvious changes; the ICP fluctuated only slightly at the initial value of 12 mmHg. MIPS had a more sensitive performance than ICP in the early stage of cerebral edema. These results showed that this system is basically capable of monitoring gradual increases in the cerebral edema solution volume. To some extent, the MIPS has the potential to reflect the ICP changes.

  2. Twenty-Four-Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring to Predict and Assess Impact of Renal Denervation: The DENERHTN Study (Renal Denervation for Hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Philippe; Cremer, Antoine; Pereira, Helena; Bobrie, Guillaume; Chatellier, Gilles; Chamontin, Bernard; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Delsart, Pascal; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap, Caroline; Ferrari, Emile; Girerd, Xavier; Michel Halimi, Jean; Herpin, Daniel; Lantelme, Pierre; Monge, Matthieu; Mounier-Vehier, Claire; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Ormezzano, Olivier; Ribstein, Jean; Rossignol, Patrick; Sapoval, Marc; Vaïsse, Bernard; Zannad, Faiez; Azizi, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The DENERHTN trial (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) confirmed the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy of renal denervation added to a standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment for resistant hypertension at 6 months. We report here the effect of denervation on 24-hour BP and its variability and look for parameters that predicted the BP response. Patients with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to denervation plus stepped-care treatment or treatment alone (control). Average and standard deviation of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP and the smoothness index were calculated on recordings performed at randomization and 6 months. Responders were defined as a 6-month 24-hour systolic BP reduction ≥20 mm Hg. Analyses were performed on the per-protocol population. The significantly greater BP reduction in the denervation group was associated with a higher smoothness index (P=0.02). Variability of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP did not change significantly from baseline to 6 months in both groups. The number of responders was greater in the denervation (20/44, 44.5%) than in the control group (11/53, 20.8%; P=0.01). In the discriminant analysis, baseline average nighttime systolic BP and standard deviation were significant predictors of the systolic BP response in the denervation group only, allowing adequate responder classification of 70% of the patients. Our results show that denervation lowers ambulatory BP homogeneously over 24 hours in patients with resistant hypertension and suggest that nighttime systolic BP and variability are predictors of the BP response to denervation. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01570777. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Twenty-four-hour Tl-201 delayed scan underestimates myocardial viability in patients with acute myocardial infarction after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Teruhito; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Takanori; Ikezoe, Junpei [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine; Murase, Kenya; Higashino, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Masao

    2001-04-01

    Myocardial viability in area at risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after reperfusion therapy may be underestimated by the 24-hour images due to reverse redistribution (r-RD). Subjects were 37 AMI patients in whom Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP)/Tl-201 dual-isotope SPECT was positive. The 24-hour delayed scan was performed with only a Tl window. One month later, follow up rest Tl SPECT was performed to evaluate myocardial viability. In early (at PYP/Tl-201 dual-isotope SPECT), 24-hour, and one month follow up Tl studies, Tl uptake in the area of AMI was scored into four grades: 3 as normal to 0 as severely reduced. The scores were evaluated. Among the 37 AMI lesions, there were 16 r-RD, 3 RD, 16 fixed defect (FD) and 2 normal (positive PYP and normal Tl). Mean Tl scores were early; 1.4{+-}1.1, 24-hr; 0.9{+-}0.9 and one month; 1.3{+-}1.1. The 24-hour Tl score was lower than the early and one month Tl scores (p<0.01). Reverse redistribution is frequently observed in an area at risk where PYP SPECT was positive. Nuclear medicine physicians should be aware of the existence of frequent r-RD in Tl scan to avoid the underestimation of myocardial viability in the acute phase after PTCA. (author)

  4. Twenty-four-hour simultaneous subcutaneous basal-bolus administration of insulin and amylin in adolescents with type 1 diabetes decreases postprandial hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of continuous subcutaneous (sc) replacement of amylin and insulin for a 24-h period on glucose homeostasis in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Thirteen adolescents with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy participated in a randomized, controll...

  5. Twenty-four hours, or five days, of continuous sleep deprivation or experimental sleep fragmentation do not alter thirst or motivation for water reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Michael A; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2010-12-25

    Sleep disruption results in an increased demand for energy, which typically causes hyperphagia in an attempt to redress the energy metabolism imbalance. Therefore, experiments combining food reward and sleep disruption may underestimate the effect of sleep disruption due to their contradictory influences on behavior (for example on operant measures of attention). In contrast, water is not a central component of energy metabolism and thus thirst may not be affected by sleep disruption. However, little work has been done examining the effect of sleep disruption on thirst and motivation for water. The effect of total sleep deprivation (SD) and experimental sleep fragmentation (SF) on thirst and motivation for water was assessed. In experiment 1 (using 22 month old male Fisher-Norway rats) the amount of water consumed during a 15 min period immediately following a period of 24h SD or SF (in which water was not available) was measured, and, in a separate session, the amount of water consumed during the 24h of SD or SF was measured. Thereafter, the effect of 5 days SD or SF on motivation for water was assessed with the progressive ratio task (using water reward), which is widely used to assess motivation. Experiment 2 (using 6 month, and 22 month, old male Sprague- Dawley rats) followed an identical design except that the SF condition was dropped (due to a lack of any difference between the SD and SF conditions in experiment 1), and only the 6 month old rats experienced the full 5 day SD condition. Daily measurements of body weight and food consumption were recorded in experiment 2 in order to confirm previously published findings that food consumption goes up and body weight declines in sleep deprived rats. In both experiments the quantity of water rats consumed during a 15 min period immediately following the 24h period of sleep disruption, or consumed during the 24h period of SD or SF, did not change compared to control rats. Furthermore, 5 days of SD or SF had no effect on breakpoint in the progressive ratio task indicating that 5 days of SD or SF did not alter motivation for water reward. As previously reported, food consumption increased and body weight decreased during the 5 days of SD. in experiment 2. The findings indicate that although sleep disruption increases food consumption and decreases body weight, it does not alter thirst or motivation for water reward. Thus, water restriction is well suited for experiments examining the effect of sleep disruption on reward motivated behavioral tests in rats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The acute effects of twenty-four hours of sleep loss on the performance of national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumert, Peter A; Crum, Aaron J; Ernsting, Mark; Volek, Jeff S; Hollander, Daniel B; Haff, Erin E; Haff, G Gregory

    2007-11-01

    Currently, the degree to which sleep loss influences weightlifting performance is unknown. This study compared the effects of 24 hours of sleep loss on weightlifting performance and subjective ratings of psychological states pre-exercise and postexercise in national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters. Nine males performed a maximal weightlifting protocol following 24 hours of sleep loss and a night of normal sleep. The subjects participated in a randomized, counterbalanced design with each sleep condition separated by 7 days. Testosterone and cortisol levels were quantified prior to, immediately after, and 1 hour after the resistance training session. Additionally, profile of mood states and subjective sleepiness were evaluated at the same time points. The resistance training protocol consisted of several sets of snatches, clean and jerks, and front squats. Performance was evaluated as individual exercise volume load, training intensity and overall workout volume load, and training intensity. During each training session the maximum weight lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and front squat were noted. No significant differences were found for any of the performance variables. A significant decrease following the sleep condition was noted for cortisol concentration immediately after and 1 hour postexercise. Vigor, fatigue, confusion, total mood disturbance, and sleepiness were all significantly altered by sleep loss. These data suggest that 24 hours of sleep loss has no adverse effects on weightlifting performance. If an athlete is in an acute period of sleep loss, as noticed by negative mood disturbances, it may be more beneficial to focus on the psychological (motivation) rather than the physiological aspect of the sport.

  7. Twenty-four-hour changes of S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine adenosine and their metabolizing enzymes in rat liver; possible physiological significance in phospholipid methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Sánchez, L; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Suárez, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The metabolic control of adenosine concentration in the rat liver through the 24-hr cycle is related to the activity of adenosine-metabolizing enzymes [5'-nucleotidase (5'N), adenosine deaminase (A.D.), adenosine kinase (A.K.) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAH-H)]. 2. Two peaks of adenosine were observed, one at 12:00 hr caused by high activity of 5'N and SAH-H, and the other at 02:00 hr, caused by a decrease in purine catabolism and purine utilization, low activity of SAH-H and de novo purine formation. 3. The similarity of the adenosine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) profiles through the 24-hr cycle suggests a role of adenosine in transmethylation reactions, because, during the night (02:00 hr), the metabolic conditions favor the formation and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), with consequent inhibition of transmethylation reactions. 4. In the 24-hr variation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the lowest ratio of PC/PE was observed at 24:00-02:00 hr when SAH concentration is high, whereas the highest PC/PE ratio occurs at the same time as one of the SAM/SAH ratio maxima.

  8. Twenty-four-hour central blood pressure is not better associated with hypertensive target organ damage than 24-h peripheral blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Armario, Pedro; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Calero, Francesca; Vázquez, Susana; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Oliveras, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) is increasingly considered as a better estimator of hypertension associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-h central BP, in comparison with 24-h peripheral BP, with the presence of target organ damage (TOD). Cross-sectional study of 208 hypertensive patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 34% women. Office (mean of 4 measurements) and 24-h central and peripheral BP were measured by the oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph device. TOD was assessed at cardiac (left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography), renal (reduction of glomerular filtration rate and/or microalbuminuria), and arterial (increased aortic pulse wave velocity) levels. A total of 107 patients (51.4%) had TOD (77, 35% patients left ventricular hypertrophy; 54, 25.9% renal abnormalities; and 40, 19.2% arterial stiffness). All SBP and pulse BP estimates (office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time) were associated with the presence of TOD, after adjustment for age, sex, and antihypertensive treatment, with higher odds ratios for ambulatory-derived values. Odds ratios for central and peripheral BP were similar for all office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time BP. After simultaneous adjustment, peripheral, but not central, 24-h and night-time SBP and pulse pressures were associated with the presence of TOD. TOD in hypertension is associated with BP elevation, independently of the type of measurement (office or ambulatory, central or peripheral). Central BP, even monitored during 24 h, is not better associated with TOD than peripheral BP. These results do not support a routine measurement of 24-h central BP.

  9. Twenty four hour insulin infusion impairs the ability of plasma from healthy subjects and Type 2 diabetic patients to promote cellular cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Removal of cholesterol from peripheral cells by high density lipoproteins (HDL) is regarded as an important defence mechanism against atherosclerosis development. PLTP is involved in the generation of pre beta -HDL that can act as initial accepters of cellular cholesterol. Exogenous

  10. Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. ...

  11. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  12. Sodium intake of the U.S. population: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the sodium intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to total intake. The dietary intake data was from a twenty-four hour recall provided by 8,529 individuals ages two and older who participated in What We Eat In America, ...

  13. Comparison of a Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey with Nationally Representative Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour Dietary Recall Data for Assessing Consumption of Fortifiable Foods by Women and Young Children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-06-01

    Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are potential sources of data on dietary patterns for planning fortification programs, but they rarely have been compared with individual-level dietary assessment methods. To compare apparent consumption of fortifiable foods estimated from the Third Cameroon Household Survey (ECAM3) with the results of a national dietary survey using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) methods among women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 12 to 59 months. We estimated coverage and frequency of consumption in the previous week (ECAM3 and FFQ) and coverage and amount consumed on the previous day (ECAM3 and 24HR) of refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cubes. Coverage in the past week as measured by the ECAM3 and FFQ, respectively, was 64% vs. 54% for oil, 60% vs. 92% for flour, 69% vs. 78% for sugar, and 85% vs. 96% for bouillon cubes. The different methods identified similar patterns of coverage among subgroups for oil, but patterns for other foods were variable. Frequency of consumption and previous-day coverage were lower with the ECAM3 than with the FFQ and 24HR, likely reflecting infrequent acquisition relative to intake. For women, the mean amounts consumed on the previous day (among consumers) were 43 vs. 29 g of oil, 71 vs. 83 g of flour, 42 vs. 32 g of sugar, and 5.0 vs. 2.4 g of bouillon cubes (ECAM and 24HR, respectively). HCES provide useful information on patterns of food access but inadequate information on individual consumption amounts to estimate appropriate food fortification levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Failure to recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  15. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  16. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  17. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  18. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  19. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  20. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  1. THE EVALUATIONAL STUDY ON ACCURACY OF 24 h DIETARY RECALL METHOD ASSISTED WITH ILLUSTRATIVE FOOD PICTURES%食物图谱辅助提高24h回顾法膳食调查准确性的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣耘; 汪之顼; 马秀玲; 武洁姝; 范萍; 李祖文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed food pictures in improving the accuracy of 24 h dietary recall survey. Method Forty inpatients were selected to study the accuracy of recall method in dietary survey with or without illustrative food pictares as compared with the weighing method. The data of food consumption and nutrients intakes were collected for comparison. Results Compared with weighing method, besides egg and beef, all the foods and nutrients were underestimated by 24 h dietary recall method without pictures. The data of fat, vitamin E, sodium, calcium and dietary fiber intakes showed certain degree of positive correlation with those obtained by weighing method, but not correlated in other nutrients and food intakes. The data of foods and nutrients intakes obtained by pictures-assisted 24 h dietary recall method were highly correlated with those obtained by weighing method. Conclusion The newly developed food pictures can improve the accuracy of 24 h dietary recall method. It is easy to carry and use, especially in field work and deserves wider application. IACTA NUTRIMENTA SINICA, 2012,34(6): 558-562].%目的 评价新研制的食物图谱辅助提高24h回顾法膳食调查准确性的效力.方法 选取我院40名普食住院病人,分别用称重法、无图谱辅助的24 h膳食回顾法和有图谱辅助的24 h膳食回顾法对其进行一日膳食调查.将两种24 h膳食回顾法获得的食物消费量和营养素摄入量,与称重法获得的相应数据进行比较,计算与称重法的差值及其比例,比较两种24 h膳食回顾法所获数据与称重法的接近程度,探讨新研制的食物图谱在24 h膳食回顾中的作用.结果 与称重法相比,无图谱辅助的24 h回顾法除鸡蛋和牛内外,其余食物及所有营养素都是低估的,除脂肪、总维生素E、钠、钙和膳食纤维摄入量数据与称重法呈一定程度的正相关,其他营养素和各种食物摄入量

  2. Cognitive aspects of dietary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wirfält, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Imprecise dietary reports are often cited as one reason for weak or non-existent relations between diet and disease in epidemiological studies. Studies in applied cognitive psychology have contributed to the improved utility of general survey questionnaires. However, only a few studies have examined cognitive processes in diet recall, and the designs of dietary assessment instruments that may enhance recall of habitual diet. This paper briefly summarises some research on cognition in diet rec...

  3. Construction of an N-nitroso database for assessing dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuff, Janice E; Goh, Eugenia T; Barrera, Stephanie L; Bondy, Melissa L; Forman, Michele R

    2009-12-01

    Dietary N-nitroso compounds are carcinogens synthesized during food processing from two main classes of precursors, oxides of nitrogen and amines or amides. Quantification of the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds is significant to human cancers, including those of the stomach and upper gastro-intestinal tract, colon, and brain. Previous studies investigating these cancers primarily used proxy estimates of N-nitroso intake and not a full and complete database. In this report, we describe the development of a database to be used in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or twenty-four hour dietary records. Published analytical data for N-nitroso compounds were compiled and evaluated for inclusion in the database. The final database consisted of 23 different N-nitroso compounds for 500 foods from 39 different food subgroups. Next, database foods were matched to foods in a standard FFQ by imputation, or calculated value, or assumed zero. Using the FFQ modified with N-nitroso values, we evaluated the ability to compute N-nitroso intakes for a sample of healthy control subjects of cancer epidemiological studies. N-nitroso content of food items ranged from sausage, smoked meats, bacon, and luncheon meats. The database is useful to quantify N-nitroso intake for observational and epidemiological studies.

  4. Comparisons of four dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Lyu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The combinations of 24-hour recalls for the short-term dietary changes and the CFFQ for long-term dietary patterns are suggested as appropriate dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwan.

  5. Children’s School-Breakfast Reports and School-Lunch Reports (in 24-hour Dietary Recalls): Conventional and Reporting-Error-Sensitive Measures Show Inconsistent Accuracy Results for Retention Interval and for Breakfast Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.; Hitchcock, David B.; Royer, Julie A.; Puryear, Megan P.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Smith, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on accuracy of fourth-grade children’s reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-hour recalls), and accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly-selected fourth-grade children at 10 schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed under one of eight conditions (two RIs [short (prior-24-hour recall obtained in afternoon); long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] crossed with four prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, etc.), open (no instructions), reverse (recent-to-distant)]). Each condition had 60 children (half girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure—report rate—and reporting-error-sensitive measures—correspondence rate and inflation ratio—were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio—but not report rate—showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short than long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select short RIs to maximize accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID:26865356

  6. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged physical exercise is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Cardiac abnormalities found in our study suggest that cardiac fatigue may occur in this specific race modality. The long-term effect of these alterations, while maintaining the routine practice of prolonged strenuous physical activity, is still unknown.

  7. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged physical exercise is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Cardiac abnormalities found in our study suggest that cardiac fatigue may occur in this specific race modality. The long-term effect of these alterations, while maintaining the routine practice of prolonged strenuous physical activity, is still unknown.

  8. Monitorização eletrocardiográfica ambulatorial por 24-horas em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Yamaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se monitorização eletrocardiográfica ambulatorial por 24 horas (ou monitorização Holter em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática, visando principalmente à detecção de arritmias ventriculares não detectadas pela eletrocardiografia convencional (de repouso. Para tanto, avaliaram-se 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática, por meio de exame físico e mensuração indireta da pressão arterial, além de exames eletrocardiográfico, ecocardiográfico, radiográfico de tórax e da monitorização Holter. Extra-sístoles ventriculares foram detectadas, por monitorização Holter, em 97,5% dos animais e taquicardia ventricular, em 45%. Não houve correlação entre o número de extra-sístoles ventriculares e a fração de encurtamento. Considerando as manifestações clínicas, apenas houve associação entre presença de taquicardia ventricular e histórico de síncopes. Conclui-se que a incidência de arritmias ventriculares em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática é bastante alta, sendo a taquicardia ventricular relativamente freqüente, ocorrendo mais sob a forma não sustentada.This study aimed to characterize 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitoring in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Physical examination and indirect (Doppler blood pressure measurement, and also electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic exams were performed in 40 dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Ventricular extrasystoles were detected in 97.5% of the animals, and ventricular tachycardia in 45%. No correlation between the number of ventricular extrasystoles and the shortening fraction was observed. Concerning the clinical symptoms, there was only association between the presence of ventricular tachycardia and past report of syncope. It was concluded that the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias is high in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy, being ventricular tachycardia, mostly non-sustained, relatively frequent.

  9. Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Shimizu, Yoko; Shiina, Takeo; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cellular effects of terahertz (THz) exposure, human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells derived from human eye were exposed to 0.12 THz radiation at 5 mW/cm2 for 24 h, then the genotoxicity, morphological changes, and heat shock protein (Hsp) expression of the cells were examined. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN) frequency of cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, whereas the MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h (positive control) did increase significantly. Similarly, there were no significant morphological changes in cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared to sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, and Hsp expression (Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90α) was also not significantly different between the three treatments. These results indicate that exposure to 0.12 THz radiation using the present conditions appears to have no or very little effect on MN formation, morphological changes, and Hsp expression in cells derived from human eye. PMID:27527204

  10. Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Shimizu, Yoko; Shiina, Takeo; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2016-08-05

    To investigate the cellular effects of terahertz (THz) exposure, human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells derived from human eye were exposed to 0.12 THz radiation at 5 mW/cm² for 24 h, then the genotoxicity, morphological changes, and heat shock protein (Hsp) expression of the cells were examined. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN) frequency of cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, whereas the MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h (positive control) did increase significantly. Similarly, there were no significant morphological changes in cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared to sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, and Hsp expression (Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90α) was also not significantly different between the three treatments. These results indicate that exposure to 0.12 THz radiation using the present conditions appears to have no or very little effect on MN formation, morphological changes, and Hsp expression in cells derived from human eye.

  11. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  12. 称重法和24h膳食回顾法用于评估住院病人一日膳食的比较%Comparison of One-day Diet of Inpatients Assessed by Food Weighted Record and 24h Dietary Recall Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣耘; 汪之顼; 马秀玲; 王彬彬; 范萍; 李祖文

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价我院日常开展的24h膳食回顾在评估住院病人膳食摄入状况的准确性。方法:选取我院40名普通饭住院病人,分别用称重法、24h膳食回顾法对其进行一日膳食调查。将24h膳食回顾法获得的食物消费量和营养素摄入量,与称重法获得的相应数据进行比较,计算两者差值占称重法数据的比例,以此判断24h膳食回顾法数据的准确性。结果:在食物消费量方面,除牛肉和鸡蛋外,其余7种食物的2种方法的差值均有显著差异;但相关分析显示2种方法的数据无相关性。在能量和营养素摄入量方面,2种方法调查结果均有差异;2种方法获得的脂肪、总维生素E、钠、钙和膳食纤维摄入量数据呈一定程度的正相关,能量和其它营养素摄入量则未见相关性。结论:缺少必要辅助工具时,一般专业人员实施的24h膳食回顾调查,往往难以获得良好的质量控制,不能获得理想的评估数据。%【Objective】To assess the accuracy of dietary intake by 24h dietary recall study which was adopted in our hospital.【Method】Select 40 samples of inpatients firstly,then investigate their one-day diet by food weighted record and 24h recall study respectively and get the difference between them to assess the accuracy of 24h recall study.【Result】As for food consumption,there was significant difference in difference value on 7 types of food(except beef and egg) between 2 ways,and data in 2 groups were no correlation.Regarding energy and nutrients intake,the results of 2 methods were different.There was positive relationship among fattiness,total vitamin E,sodium,calcium and dietary fiber by 2 ways,but there was no significant relationship between energy and other nutrition intake.【Conclusion】When lacking of necessary aids,the general implementation of 24h dietary recalls couldn't obtain good quality control and was not impossible to get a good assessment data.

  13. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  14. O recordatório de 24 horas como instrumento na avaliação do consumo alimentar de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de baixa estatura foram excluídas da avaliação. Foram dosados cálcio, fósforo, creatinina, vitamina D, paratormônio fosfatase alcalina no soro e cálcio, fósforo, creatinina e sódio em urina de Recordatório Alimentar de 24h foi empregado para estimar o consumo dietético. RESULTADOS: Foi constatada ingestão reduzida de cálcio e vitamina D, em relação ao recomendado para idade e sexo. Verificou-se correlação negativa entre paratormônio e vitamina D dietética (r= -0,46; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the extent to which the 24 hour recall, used as a tool to assess dietary intake, contributes to the assessment of biological parameters involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in stunted children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 59 stunted children and adolescents seen at the outpatient clinic that specializes in stunting of the Endocrinology Service of Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre, were assessed. Organic, genetic and endocrine causes of stunting were excluded from the assessment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, vitamin D, parathormone and alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and sodium were measured. The 24 hour recall was used to determine dietary intake of these nutrients. RESULTS: Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low according to the values recommended for the two genders and studied age groups. There was a negative correlation

  15. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs....42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A recall strategy that takes into account the following factors... Administration will review the adequacy of a proposed recall strategy developed by a recalling firm and...

  16. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Safety Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Safety Alerts Archive. Sign up to receive Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts . Filter by Keyword(s): Filter ...

  17. Large individual differences in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Using single factor ANOVA I show that there are large individual differences in free recall ({\\eta} ranges from 0.09-0.26) including the total recall, the balance between recency and primacy, and the initial recall (subsequent recalls show smaller individual differences). All three memory properties are relatively uncorrelated. The variance in the initial position may be a measure of executive control and is correlated with total recall (the smaller the variation, the larger the recall).

  18. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  19. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  1. Rehearsal in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2008-06-01

    We report for the first time overt rehearsal data in immediate serial recall (ISR) undertaken at three presentation rates (1, 2.5, and 5 sec/word). Two groups of participants saw lists of six words for ISR and were required either to engage in overt rehearsal or to remain silent after reading aloud the word list during its presentation. Typical ISR serial position effects were obtained for both groups, and recall increased with slower rates. When participants rehearsed, they tended to do so in a cumulative forward order up to Serial Position 4, after which the amount of rehearsal decreased substantially. There were similarities between rehearsal and recall data: Both broke down toward the end of longer sequences, and there were strong positive correlations between the maximum sequence of participants' rehearsals and their ISR performance. We interpret these data as suggesting that similar mechanisms underpin both rehearsal and recall in ISR.

  2. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  3. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  4. Dietary electrolyte balance affects growth performance, amylase activity and metabolic response in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Peixoto, Maria-João; Pereira, Luis; Silva-Brito, Francisca; Fontinha, Filipa; Gonçalves, José F M; Wilson, Jonathan M; Schrama, Johan W; Ozório, Rodrigo O A

    2017-09-01

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69days. Fish fed the DEB 200 diet had 60-66% better growth performance than the DEB 700 group. Meagre consuming the DEB 200 diet were 90-96% more efficient than fish fed the DEB 700 diet at allocating energy from feed into somatic growth. The pH values in blood were significantly lower in the DEB 700 group 2h after feeding when compared to DEB 200, indicating that acid-base balance in meagre was affected by electrolyte balance in diet. Osmolality, and Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in plasma did not vary with the dietary treatment. Gastric chyme in the DEB 700 group had higher pH values, dry matter, protein and energy contents, but lower lipid content than in the DEB 200 group. Twenty-four hours after feeding, amylase activity was higher in the gastrointestinal tract of DEB 700 group when compared to the DEB 200 group. DEB 700 group had lower routine metabolic (RMR) and standard metabolic (SMR) rates, indicating a decrease in maintenance energy expenditure 48h after feeding the alkaline diet. The current study demonstrates that feeding meagre with an alkaline diet not only causes acid-base imbalance, but also negatively affects digestion and possibly nutrient assimilation, resulting in decreased growth performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  6. A randomized, controlled study of an educational intervention to improve recall of auxiliary medication labeling and adherence to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade A Pham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether medication counseling with emphasis on auxiliary labels improves recall of auxiliary label information and adherence to medication schedules. Methods: A prospective, randomized study of an educational intervention in community pharmacies near Baltimore, Maryland. Fifty literate, English-speaking adults receiving one of the 18 commonly dispensed antibiotics were randomized to receive a counseling session or no counseling. Five to seven days after medication pickup, a structured phone interview was conducted to capture data on recall of auxiliary labels and adherence. Results: A total of 39 subjects completed the phone interview (78%. The rate of correct recall was high: 77% correct recall for all three labels. Among those with incorrect recall, 7 out of 9 subjects received no counseling (p = 0.11. The auxiliary labels incorrectly recalled were all related to dietary restrictions. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that medication counseling emphasizing auxiliary label information may lead to improved recall and adherence to antibiotics. Additional studies are required to confirm the preliminary findings and determine whether they correspond to improved adherence. Information most commonly misunderstood were related to dietary restrictions. Additional research focusing on counseling related to dietary restrictions is recommended.

  7. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    . The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations...... were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total...

  8. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  9. Reproducibility of two, three, four and five 24-hour recalls in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... However, the assessment of dietary intake relies on the study of ... transformed values of selected nutrients and food groups, for two, three, four and five repeated 24-hour ... reported number of days of recall among adolescents varies from ... and vitamins were selected based on the fact that they play an.

  10. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  11. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  12. Recall of recent lunch and its effect on subsequent snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Williamson, Amy C; Attwood, Angela S

    2008-06-01

    Recall of food eaten at lunch decreases afternoon snack intake, suggesting that awareness of a recent eating episode may be an important factor influencing appetite. The aim of the present studies was to investigate whether the inhibitory effect of remembering a recent lunch meal on subsequent snack intake is dependent upon 1) the type and palatability of the snack offered; 2) participants' level of dietary restraint and tendency towards disinhibition; and 3) the delay between lunch and recall. Popcorn snacks differing in amount of added salt and rated palatability were offered to male participants in Experiment 1. Participants who recalled the lunch they had eaten that day consumed less of all types of popcorn than participants who recalled lunch eaten the previous day, suggesting that the effect of recent meal recall is not dependent upon the palatability of the snack food. In Experiment 2, a similar pattern of results was observed but only for women who scored low, and not high, on a measure of tendency toward dietary disinhibition, possibly because a tendency toward disinhibition is associated with impaired memory for the lunch. In Experiment 3, decreased cookie intake by women was observed after remembering today's lunch relative to a neutral control condition, but this effect was similarly only observed for participants scoring low in tendency toward disinhibition. In addition, the effect was dependent on the time elapsed between the lunch and recall, since intake was only reduced at a snack tasting session 3-hours post-lunch (when some forgetting of the meal occurred) and not 1-hour post-lunch. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of recalling foods eaten at lunch on subsequent snack intake is a robust phenomenon that is related to memory of that lunch and is moderated by tendency toward dietary disinhibition.

  13. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe.

  14. Chronic dietary chlorpyrifos causes long-term spatial memory impairment and thigmotaxic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana M; Nieto-Escámez, Francisco A; Colomina, María T; Aschner, Michael; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and the role of neurotransmitter systems, other than the cholinergic system, in mediating OP neurotoxicity. In this study, rats were administered 5mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) for 6 months commencing at 3-months-of-age. The animals were examined 7 months later (at 16-months-of-age) for spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and locomotor activity. In addition, we assessed the chronic effects of CPF on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) function using pharmacological challenges with dizocilpine (MK801) and diazepam. Impaired performance related to altered search patterns, including thigmotaxis and long-term spatial memory was noted in the MWM in animals exposed to CPF, pointing to dietary CPF-induced behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety. Twenty-four hours after the 31st session of repeated acquisition task, 0.1mg/kg MK801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected for 4 consecutive days. Decreased latencies in the MWM in the control group were noted after two sessions with MK801 treatment. Once the MWM assessment was completed, animals were administered 0.1 or 0.2mg/kg of MK801 and 1 or 3mg/kg of diazepam i.p., and tested for locomotor activity. Both groups, the CPF dietary and control, displayed analogous performance in motor activity. In conclusion, our data point to a connection between the long-term spatial memory, thigmotaxic response and CPF long after the exposure ended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Child Nutrient Intakes Using a Tablet-Based 24-Hour Recall Tool in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Bess L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Dyer, Brian; Siamusantu, Ward; Klemm, Rolf D W; Palmer, Amanda C

    2015-12-01

    Detailed dietary intake data in low-income populations are needed for research and program evaluation. However, collection of such data by paper-based 24-hour recall imposes substantial demands for staff time and expertise, training, materials, and data entry. To describe our development and use of a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool for conducting dietary intake surveys in remote settings. We designed a 24-hour recall tool using Open Data Kit software on an Android tablet platform. The tool contains a list of local foods, questions on portion size, cooking method, ingredients, and food source and prompts to guide interviewers. We used this tool to interview caregivers on dietary intakes of children participating in an efficacy trial of provitamin A-biofortified maize conducted in Mkushi, a rural district in central Zambia. Participants were children aged 4 to 8 years not yet enrolled in school (n = 938). Dietary intake data were converted to nutrient intakes using local food composition and recipe tables. We developed a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool and used it to collect dietary data among 928 children. The majority of foods consumed were maize, leafy vegetable, or small fish dishes. Median daily energy intake was 6416 kJ (1469 kcal). Food and nutrient intakes assessed using the tablet-based tool were consistent with those reported in prior research. The tool was easily used by interviewers without prior nutrition training or computing experience. Challenges remain to improve programming, but the tool is an innovation that enables efficient collection of 24-hour recall data in remote settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelica Moe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API (attention to positive) and ANI (attention to negative information), and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.

  17. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  18. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David V. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)], E-mail: dvl2101@columbia.edu

    2007-12-15

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process.

  19. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David V.

    2007-12-01

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process.

  20. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  1. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  2. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  4. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall...

  5. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  6. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  7. Three-word recall in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Melanie J; Lacritz, Laura H; Cicerello, Antionette R; Chapman, Sandra B; Honig, Lawrence S; Weiner, Myron F; Cullum, C Munro

    2004-11-01

    Three-word recall tasks are widely used as brief measures of verbal memory function, although interpretation of performance is complicated by variations in test instructions and procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine 3-word recall performance in samples of healthy subjects aged 5275 (M age = 70) and age 7692 (M age = 82) compared to patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) when explicit prompts to remember the words were given. Those in the younger aging group remembered significantly more words than those in the older sample after a brief delay (M= 2.8 and 2.3, respectively). However, the majority of control subjects recalled 2 or 3 words after the delay, with only 3% of the 5075 year old group and 17% of the 76+ year old group recalling 0 or 1 word on delayed recall. This is in stark contrast to the 87% of individuals with AD who recalled 0 or 1 word. Even though 3-word recall performance decreases with age, good recall (2 or 3 words) can be expected in most cases of normal aging.

  8. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  9. Established dietary estimates of net acid production do not predict measured net acid excretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes on Paleolithic-Hunter-Gatherer-type diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L A; Shi, L; Schloetter, M; Sebastian, A; Remer, T

    2013-09-01

    Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for 'Paleolithic-type' (Paleo) diets-which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here, we compare measured NAEs with established NAE estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thirteen subjects with well-controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days. Twenty-four hour urine collections were performed at baseline and end of the diet period, and analyzed for titratable acid, bicarbonate and ammonium to calculate measured NAE. Three formulas for estimating NAE from dietary intake were used; two (NAE_diet R or L) that include dietary mineral intake and sulfate- and organic acid (OA) production, and one that is empirically derived (NAE_diet F) only considering potassium and protein intake. Measured NAE on the Paleo diet was significantly lower than on the ADA-diet (+31±22 vs 112±52 mEq/day, P=0.002). Although all formula estimates showed similar and reasonable correlations (r=0.52-0.76) with measured NAE, each one underestimated measured values. The formula with the best correlation did not contain an estimate of dietary OA production. Paleo-diets are lower in NAE than typical Western diets. However, commonly used formulas clearly underestimate NAE, especially for diets with very high F&V (as the Paleo diet), and in subjects with T2D. This may be due to an inappropriate estimation of proton loads stemming from OAs, underlining the necessity for improved measures of OA-related proton sources.

  10. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall.

  11. Oak Ridge callibration recall program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pritchard, E.W. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

  12. Quantum bounce and cosmic recall

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang singularity of classical general relativity is replaced by a quantum bounce. Because of the extreme physical conditions near the bounce, a natural question is whether the universe can retain, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the universe recall various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce or does it suffer from cosmic amnesia as has been recently suggested? Here we show that this issue can be answered unambiguously by means of an exactly solvable model, derived from a small simplification of loop quantum cosmology, for which there is full analytical control on the quantum theory. We show that if there exists a semi-classical state at late times on one side, peaked around a pair of canonically conjugate variables, then there are very strong bounds on the fluctuations on the other side of the bounce, implying semi-classicality. For a model universe which grows to a size ...

  13. Awareness and recall in outpatient anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennervirta, Johanna; Ranta, Seppo O-V; Hynynen, Markku

    2002-07-01

    We studied the incidence of awareness and explicit recall during general anesthesia in outpatients versus inpatients undergoing surgery. During a 14.5-mo period, we structurally interviewed 1500 outpatients and 2343 inpatients. Among outpatients, there were five cases of awareness and recall (one with clear intraoperative recollections and four with doubtful intraoperative recollections). Of the inpatients, six reported awareness and recall (three with clear and three with doubtful intraoperative recollections). The incidence of clear intraoperative recollections was 0.07% in outpatients and 0.13% in inpatients. The difference in the incidence was not significant. Among outpatients, those with awareness and recall were given smaller doses of sevoflurane than those without awareness and recall (P awareness and recall are rare complications of general anesthesia, and outpatients are not at increased risk for this event compared with inpatients undergoing general anesthesia. Rapid recovery from general anesthesia is a crucial element of outpatient surgery. However, this practice may predispose a patient to receive less anesthetic, with increased risk for awareness and recall. We have shown that outpatients undergoing an operation using general anesthesia are not at increased risk for awareness compared with inpatients.

  14. Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon; Lelièvre, Anna

    2009-09-01

    We consider how theories of serial recall might apply to other short-term memory tasks involving recall of order. In particular, we consider the possibility that when participants are cued to recall an item at an arbitrary position in a sequence, they covertly serially recall the list up to the cued position. One question is whether such "scanning" is articulatory in nature. Two experiments are presented in which the syllabic length of words preceding and following target positions were manipulated, to test the prediction of an articulatory-based mechanism that time to recall an item at a particular position will depend on the number of preceding long words. Although latency was dependent on target position, no word length effects on latency were observed. Additionally, the effects of word length on accuracy replicate recent demonstrations in serial recall that recall accuracy is dependent on the word length of all list items, not just that of target items, in line with distinctiveness assumptions. It is concluded that if scanning does occur, it is not carried out by covert or overt articulation.

  15. Parental dietary patterns and social determinants of children's dietary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana SALLES-COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify dietary patterns in children up to thirty months of age and verify whether they are associated with parental dietary patterns, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a population-based study composed of 1,085 households from a representative sample of a metropolitan region in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The children's food intake was evaluated by two 24-hour recalls, and the dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis stratified into two groups according to the children's age: 6 to 17 months; and 18 to 30 months. The explanatory variables collected by a structured questionnaire were socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, age at introduction of complementary foods, and parental dietary pattern. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to assess parental dietary pattern, which was determined by principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression estimated the effect of each explanatory variable on the children's dietary patterns. Results Three dietary patterns were identified in children aged 6-17 months (basic-mixed; mixed-plus; and milk-flours and two dietary patterns were identified in children aged 18-30 months: basic-mixed and mixed-plus. Multivariate linear regression showed that complementary feeding (b=0.108; p=0.004 was positively associated with the basic-mixed dietary pattern, and family income (b=0.002; p£0.01, with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. A negative association was found between the traditional parental dietary pattern and children's mixed-plus pattern in children aged 6-17 months (b=0.152; p=0.006 and in children aged 18-30 months (b=0.152; p=0.016. In children aged up to 18 months, parental education level (b=0.368; p£0.01 was positively associated with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. Conclusion Family income, parental education level, and parental dietary patterns are

  16. Recalling what was where when seeing nothing there.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudte, Maria; Altmann, Gerry T M

    2017-04-01

    So-called "looks-at-nothing" have previously been used to show that recalling what also elicits the recall of where this was. Here, we present evidence from an eye-tracking study which shows that disrupting looks to "there" does not disrupt recalling what was there, nor do (anticipatory) looks to "there" facilitate recalling what was there. Therefore, our results suggest that recalling where does not recall what.

  17. Characterizing perfect recall in Epistemic Temporal Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Witzel, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We review the notion of perfect recall in the literature on interpreted systems, game theory, and epistemic logic. We give a (to our knowledge) novel frame condition for it, which is local and can straightforwardly be translated to a defining formula in a language that only has next-step temporal operators, such as epistemic temporal logic (ETL). It also gives rise to a complete axiomatization for S5 ETL frames with perfect recall. We then consider how to extend and consolidate the notion of perfect recall in sub-S5 settings, where the various notions discussed are no longer equivalent.

  18. Trends of the dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18-45 in nine provinces(autonomous region)from 1989 to 2006%1989-2006年中国九省(区)居民膳食纤维摄入状况及其变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠君; 张兵; 杜文雯; 刘爱东; 张继国; 王志宏; 苏畅; 马玉霞; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the status and trend of dietary fiber intake and its food sources among Chinese residents aged 18-45 years old in 9 provinces(autonomous region),from 1989 to 2006.Methods Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of three consecutive days from China Health and Nutrition Survey(1989,1991,1993,1997,2000,2004 and 2006)were used.And the 18-45 years old subjects with complete information on dietary survey were included.The sample size of these 7 surveys were 5597,5596,5323,5485,5308,4144 and 3889,respectively.The trends of dietary fiber intake and food sources by time and sex were studied.Results From 1989 to 2000,the total of daily dietary fiber intake of 18-45 years old healthy residents decreased from 15.1 g/d to 11.6 g/d,insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased from 22.6 g/d to 17.8 g/d.In villages,from 1989 to 2000,the insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased 5.1 g/d in males and 5.2 g/d in females(13.2,11.8 g in 2000,respectively; 18.3,17.0 g in 1989,respectively).In 2006,the insoluble dietary intake was 12.6 g/d in males and 11.2 g/d in females in villages.In cities,from 1989 to 2006,the insoluble dietary fiber intake was 9.4-11.8 g/d in males and 8.3-10.8 g/d in females.The total dietary fiber intake was 15.7-17.6 g/d in males and 13.5-16.4 g/d in females.The difference of insoluble and total dietary fiber intake between city and village was decreasing.In 2006,70.6%(8.4/11.9)insoluble dietary fiber came from vegetables((4.1 ± 3.1)g/d),wheat flour and its products((2.6 ± 3.6)g/d),rice and its products((1.7 ± 1.3)g/d).Conclusion Dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18-45 in 9 provinces(autonomous region)decreased from 1989 to 2006.Vegetables,wheat flour,rice and their products were the major food sources of insoluble dietary fiber.%目的 分析1989-2006年中国9个省(自治区)18~45岁健康居民膳食纤维的摄入状况、膳食纤维食物来源及其的变化趋势.方法 以1989、1991、1993、1997、2000、2004和2006年中国

  19. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  20. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  1. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  2. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  3. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  4. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  5. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed... contain irrelevant qualifications, promotional materials, or any other statement that may detract from...

  6. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  7. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  8. Consensus collaboration enhances group and individual recall accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Celia Bernadette; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

    2012-01-01

    We often remember in groups, yet research on collaborative recall finds “collaborative inhibition”: Recalling with others has costs compared to recalling alone. In related paradigms, remembering with others introduces errors into recall. We compared costs and benefits of two collaboration procedu...

  9. Assessing the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in young children: comparison of a simple population survey with 24 hr-recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing focus on obesity prevention there is a need for simple, valid tools to assess dietary indicators that may be the targets of intervention programs. The objective of this study was to determine the relative validity of previous day dietary intake using a newly developed parent-proxy questionnaire (EPAQ for two to five year old children. Methods A convenience sample of participants (n = 90 recruited through preschools and the community in Geelong, Australia provided dietary data for their child via EPAQ and interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 hr-recall. Comparison of mean food and beverage group servings between the EPAQ and 24 hr-recall was conducted and Spearman rank correlations were computed to examine the association between the two methods. Results Mean servings of food/beverage groups were comparable between methods for all groups except water, and significant correlations were found between the servings of food and beverages using the EPAQ and 24-hr recall methods (ranging from 0.57 to 0.88. Conclusion The EPAQ is a simple and useful population-level tool for estimating the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in children aged two to five years. When compared with 24-hour recall data, the EPAQ produced an acceptable level of relative validity and this short survey has application for population monitoring and the evaluation of population-based obesity prevention interventions for young children.

  10. Effects of Recognition on Subsequent Recall: Comments on "Determinants of Recognition and Recall: Accessibility and Generation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Donald E.; Broadbent, Margaret H. P.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts have been made by Rabinowitz, Mandler, and Patterson (AA 527 084) to show that both recall and recognition involve the accessibility of individual words. Their recall tests preceded recognition tests, or vice versa, thus contaminating each other; a fresh experiment is presented to confirm that this is so. (Editor)

  11. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  12. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  13. Directed forgetting in frontal patients' episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Van der Linden, Martial; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2007-03-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex in directed forgetting in episodic memory, i.e. the capacity to actively forget irrelevant information. Four lists of 24 intermixed to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) words were presented for retention. Restricted (TBR only) and unrestricted (TBR and TBF) recall were tested. The results showed that prefrontal patients presented with a general reduction in episodic memory but a normal ability to selectively recall the TBR items during restricted and unrestricted recall. These results are consistent with previous reports of intact directed forgetting in frontal patients and are discussed in terms of their implications for the current debate on the neural substrate of executive functions.

  14. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  15. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  16. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme.

  17. Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1994-12-01

    Form symbolism using squares and circles can aid recall. In Experiment 1, subjects saw 20 words, each presented in a circle or a square. Words like SOFT and MOTHER were presented in circles in the "congruent" condition, whereas the same words were presented in squares in the "incongruent" condition. Two experiments revealed that words in the congruent condition were more likely to be recalled. A comparison of the conditions with a baseline condition, in which 20 listed words were not closely related to either of the shapes, suggests that the effect was more likely due to facilitation produced by the congruent condition than to inhibition from the incongruent condition.

  18. 24小时食管多通道腔内阻抗联合pH监测技术在早产儿中的应用%Role of the twenty-four-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 李在玲; 葛颖; 王琨; 徐志杰; 夏至伟; 段丽萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of 24-hour esophageal muhichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring technique in preterm infants.Method This study enrolled 28 preterm(male 20,female 8)infants with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) (frequent regurgitations,apnea,or transcutaneous oxygen saturation decreased).They had postmenstrual age from 26 to 32 weeks,median (28.9 ± 1.9) weeks,had birth weight from 850 to 1 700 g,median (1 250.4 ±272.8)g,range 850-1700 g,and were studied at corrected gestational age from 28 to 40 weeks,median (34.5 ± 2.3) weeks.Combined measurement of esophageal pH and impedance was performed.The 24-hour pH-impedance recording was uploaded onto a portable storage card and for computer-assisted manual analysis,using a specialized software program.When values were distributed normally,they were presented as mean and standard deviation,compared using t test.When values were not distributed normally,they were presented as median,minimum and maximum.Median values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test.SPSS 17.0 software was used.Result In 28 preterm infants,71.4% (20/28) had pathological acid refluxes with pH monitor,while 100% with combined measurement of esophageal pH and impedance.Gestational age,birth weight,corrected gestational age had no association with acid GER.Frequent regurgitations,apnea,or transcutaneous oxygen saturation decreased but there was no statistically significant difference between acid GER group and non-acid GER group.Eight cases had no pathological acid refluxes,but showed an increase of weakly acid refluxes than pathological acid refluxes group (P <0.01).The median number of reflux events in 24 hours for 28 cases was 64.5 (0-377),23.4% were acidic,while 76.4% were weakly acidic; 59.1% were liquid bolus refluxes,while 40.9% were mixed bolus refluxes.The positive ratio of symptoms related index and symptoms association probability were significantly increased combined measurement of esophageal pH and impedance versus pH monitor were used.Conclusion The 24-hour esophageal impedance-pH monitoring technique was safe and had good tolerance.We confirmed that it detected more weakly acidic refluxes,liquid bolus refluxes,and mixed bolus refluxes.And it provided more evidence for explaining the relationship between GER and clinical manifestation.%目的 评价24 h食管多通道腔内阻抗(MⅡ)联合pH监测技术在早产儿中的临床应用情况.方法 28例临床考虑有胃食管反流(GER)症状(呕吐、呼吸暂停、氧饱和度下降)的早产儿.其中男20例,女8例,胎龄26 ~ 32周,平均(28.9±1.9)周,出生体重850 ~1 700 g,平均(1 250.4±272.8)g,检查时矫正胎龄28 ~40周,平均(34.5±2.3)周.行24 h食管MⅡ及pH监测,数据被保存在便携式记录器的储存卡内用专业软件分析.将传统pH值监测指标阳性患儿归为GER阳性组,阴性为GER阴性组.采用SPSS 17.0软件,计量资料呈正态分布的以均数±标准差表示,采用t检验;非正态分布的用中位数(范围)表示,采用Mann-Whitney U非参数检验.结果 28例早产儿中,pH值监测法GER检出率为71.4%(20/28),MⅡ联合pH值法检出率为100%,优于pH值检测法.胎龄、出生体重、矫正胎龄与GER无关.氧饱和度下降、呼吸暂停、呕吐症状在GER阳性组及GER阴性组间差异无统计学意义.8例GER阴性组无病理性酸反流,但阻抗监测提示弱酸反流较GER阳性组增加(P<0.01).28例患儿24h总反流事件中位数为64.5(0~377)次,其中酸反流占总反流事件的23.4%,弱酸反流占所有反流事件的76.4%.液体反流占总反流的59.1%,混合反流占总反流40.9%.MⅡ联合pH监测使症状相关指数和症状联合概率阳性比率较应用pH监测时明显升高.结论 24 h MⅡ联合pH监测技术应用于早产儿安全性高,具有较好的耐受性.可发现弱酸反流及液体、混合反流,为更好地解释GER与临床表现的关系提供了可能.

  19. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  20. Dietary patterns in Them and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A;

    1982-01-01

    Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...... daily intake of dietary fiber was higher in Them than in Copenhagen. These observations document changes due to industrialization of food production, modern distribution, and marketing methods....

  1. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Pan, X.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhou, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Shi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing reco

  2. Food Insecurity or Poverty? Measuring Need-Related Dietary Adequacy. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven

    This study examined the extent to which food insecurity questions and the standard poverty measure were correlated with various dietary and physiologic outcomes. It used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, which between 1994-98 collected dietary recall information, surveyed respondents, and analyzed blood samples.…

  3. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face

  4. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Pan, X.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhou, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Shi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing

  5. Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Boonstra, A.; Shi, Z.; Pan, X.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhao, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Kok, F.J.; Zhou, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three con

  6. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face interv

  7. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A stimulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Yuan, B.; Pan, X.; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct

  8. Training Older Adult Free Recall Rehearsal Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Frederick A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three groups of older adults were compared on a free recall task with categorizable lists. Data showed that older adults' memory performance is modifiable and that efficient performance is obtained when instructional training is aimed at the processes that are crucial to task performance. (Author)

  9. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hyun Sik

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness ...

  10. Planning for Recall of Maintenance Manpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    time between maintenance NTB nominal-the-best OSD/RA Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs RAM reliability , availability...RECALL OF MAINTENANCE MANPOWER by Yang Siang Kelvin Poh September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Gary O. Langford Second Reader: Mark Stevens THIS...

  11. Accessibility Limits Recall from Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Swan, Garrett; Wilson, Daryl E.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate limitations of accessibility of information in visual working memory (VWM). Recently, cued-recall has been used to estimate the fidelity of information in VWM, where the feature of a cued object is reproduced from memory (Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009; Wilken & Ma, 2004; Zhang & Luck, 2008). Response…

  12. Improving text recall with multiple summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans; Meij, van der Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in

  13. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and...

  14. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their…

  15. Rehearsal and recall in immediate memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F.

    1961-01-01

    Experiments on the influence of rehearsal on the retention and recoil of digit combinations are described, from the results of which it appears that a rehearsal period facilitates recall by producing a transition from immediate to permanent memory. It further seems that some parts of the material pr

  16. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kaynak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall phenomenon is an acute, egzematous reaction that develops throughout a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the administration of docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. We report a 52-year-old woman with breast cancer who received locoregional radiotherapy followed by trastuzumab monotherapy. Three day after the first cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis developed in the previously irradiated skin.

  17. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  18. Young Children's Scripted-Story Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Renee; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    A study investigated the effects of presentation mode and type of content on young children's recall of nouns in a scripted narrative. Forty-nine children in the second month of first grade were presented a fictional narrative in which were embedded 18 target nouns classified as high-scripted, medium-scripted, or low-scripted. Subjects then viewed…

  19. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  20. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    achieve very high recall, including methods that include a human assessor in the loop [6]. We submitted six automated runs for the small At home task and...Evaluation of Machine-learning Protocols for Technology - assisted Review in Electronic Discovery. In Proc of SIGIR, 2014. [3] Aldo Lipani, Mihai Lupu, Allan

  1. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldine Huini Lim; Jia Ying Toh; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ai-Ru Chia; Wee Meng Han; Seang Mei Saw; Keith M. Godfrey; Gluckman, Peter D.; Yap-Seng Chong; Fabian Yap; Yung Seng Lee; Kramer, Michael S; Mary Foong-Fong Chong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using mult...

  2. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined.

  3. Exploring the relationship between retrieval disruption from collaboration and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-07-01

    When people recall together in a collaborative group they recall less than their potential. This phenomenon of collaborative inhibition is explained in terms of retrieval disruption. However, collaborative recall also re-exposes individuals to items recalled by others that they themselves might otherwise have forgotten. This re-exposure produces post-collaborative benefits in individual recall. The current study examined whether reduced retrieval disruption during group recall is related not only to less collaborative inhibition, but also to greater post-collaborative recall benefits. To test this we devised a paradigm to calculate the extent to which each individual experienced retrieval disruption during group recall. We also included two types of collaborative groups, one of which was expected to experience greater retrieval disruption than the other. Results suggest that the relationship between retrieval disruption and recall performance depends on the level at which retrieval disruption is measured. When retrieval disruption was assessed at the individual level, then minimising retrieval disruption was associated with higher recall (i.e., less collaborative inhibition and greater post-collaborative individual recall). However, when retrieval disruption was assessed at the group level there was no relationship with recall. Furthermore, the findings from this design suggest a role of cross-cueing in modulating group recall levels.

  4. Associative relatedness enhances recall and produces false memories in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald

    2010-12-01

    The influence of permanent lexical network in immediate serial recall is well established. The corresponding influence of permanent semantic networks is less clear, although such networks are known to both facilitate memory in long-term memory tasks and to produce false memories in those same tasks. The current experiment involves the study of Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists for immediate serial recall. The trials in the experiment involved presenting the six strongest items from the DRM lists either in intact associatively related lists or where those items had been randomly mixed to produce unrelated lists. The results of the experiment indicated that the associatively related lists were better recalled in order than unrelated lists and the nonpresented critical lure was falsely recalled relatively frequently. The results of the experiment confirm the importance of associative semantic networks in short-term memory.

  5. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  6. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  7. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Montazerifar; Mansour Karajibani; Ali Reza Dashipour

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionna...

  8. Monkeys recall and reproduce simple shapes from memory

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    If you draw from memory a picture of the front of your childhood home, you will have demonstrated recall. You could also recognize this house upon seeing it. Unlike recognition, recall demonstrates memory for things that are not present. Recall is necessary for planning and imagining, and can increase the flexibility of navigation, social behavior, and other cognitive skills. Without recall, memory is more limited to recognition of the immediate environment. Amnesic patients are impaired on r...

  9. Using Pictographs To Enhance Recall of Spoken Medical Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Peter S.; Bachrach, Rebecca; Witmer, Judith T.; Tringali, Carol A.; Bucher, Julia A.; Localio, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that pictographs can improve recall of spoken medical instructions. Junior college subjects (N=21) listened to two lists of actions, one of which was accompanied by pictographs during both listening and recall while the other was not. Mean correct recall was 85% with pictographs and 14% without, indicating that pictographs can…

  10. Bender Test Recall in Children: An Unreliable Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dan L.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the utility and reliability of Bender test recall in children, 304 children (ages 5 through 14) were individually administered the copy and recall phases using Koppitz's directions. The recall phase was judged to be of doubtful utility in assessing intellectual functioning in children. (Author/SJL)

  11. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  12. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the basis of total service during the recall period and months of marriage during such period. If the... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service....

  13. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported.

  14. On Recall Rate of Interest Point Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    in relation to the number of interest points, the recall rate as a function of camera position and light variation, and the sensitivity relative to model parameter change. The overall conclusion is that the Harris corner detector has a very high recall rate, but is sensitive to change in scale. The Hessian......In this paper we provide a method for evaluating interest point detectors independently of image descriptors. This is possible because we have compiled a unique data set enabling us to determine if common interest points are found. The data contains 60 scenes of a wide range of object types......, and for each scene we have 119 precisely located camera positions obtained from a camera mounted on an industrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D ground truth. We have investigated a number of the most popular interest point detectors. This is done...

  15. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  16. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  17. Accelerating Deep Learning with Shrinkage and Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shuai; Vishnu, Abhinav; Ding, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Deep Learning is a very powerful machine learning model. Deep Learning trains a large number of parameters for multiple layers and is very slow when data is in large scale and the architecture size is large. Inspired from the shrinking technique used in accelerating computation of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm and screening technique used in LASSO, we propose a shrinking Deep Learning with recall (sDLr) approach to speed up deep learning computation. We experiment shrinking Deep Lea...

  18. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation.

  19. Radiation recall pneumonitis induced by gemcitabine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarte, S.; Karstens, J.H.; Bremer, M. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wagner, K. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Hematology, Hemastaseology and Oncology

    2007-04-15

    Background: Radiation recall pneumonitis describes a very rare reaction in a previously irradiated area of pulmonary tissue after application of pharmacological agents. A case of recall pneumonitis induced by gemcitabine is reported. Case Report: A 64-year-old female patient with metastasized esophageal carcinoma received simultaneous chemoradiotherapy of the upper mediastinum with 50.4 Gy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. 8 months later she was scheduled for salvage chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2 days 1 and 8) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 day 8) due to locally progressive disease. After having received gemcitabine on day 1 of the second course, the patient developed dry cough, subfebrile temperatures and dyspnea within 48 h. A CT of the thorax revealed newly developed bilateral pulmonary ground-glass opacity corresponding to the previous radiation fields. Chemotherapy was stopped and systemic application of prednisolone was initiated. 2 months later symptoms had resolved with a control CT of the thorax showing complete regression of the pulmonary changes. Conclusion: Gemcitabine-induced recall pneumonitis is a rarely reported phenomenon and should be taken into account even after extended time interval to the previous radiotherapy.

  20. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  1. Induced arousal and orienting tasks as determinants of intentional recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, C B

    1992-07-01

    In this study, the author examined the effects of intention to learn, noise, and different types of orienting tasks on short-term and long-term recall for 15 Hindi paired-associates. Intention to learn improved recall, as did encoding of semantic features, and noise impaired both short-term and long-term recall. The analysis of short-term recall scores indicated that there were no significant interactions between these factors, but the analysis of long-term recall scores indicated that there were significant interactions between noise and orienting tasks and between intentionality and orienting tasks.

  2. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  3. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... and the role of expert cultures for the elaboration and communication of messages about health and sustainability. Finally, the article briefly points to some answers to the complexity of issues surrounding the creation of dietary guidelines...

  4. Part-list cuing and the dynamics of false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbal, Daniel R; Bjork, Elizabeth L; Bjork, Robert A; Smith, Troy A

    2008-04-01

    False recall of an unpresented critical word after studying its semantic associates can be reduced substantially if the strongest and earliest-studied associates are presented as part-list cues during testing (Kimball & Bjork, 2002). To disentangle episodic and semantic contributions to this decline in false recall, we factorially manipulated the cues' serial position and their strength of association to the critical word. Presenting cues comprising words that had been studied early in a list produced a greater reduction in false recall than did presenting words studied late in the list, independent of the cues' associative strength, but only when recall of the cues themselves was prohibited. When recall of the cues was permitted, neither early-studied nor late-studied cues decreased false recall reliably, relative to uncued lists. The findings suggest that critical words and early-studied words share a similar fate during recall, owing to selective episodic strengthening of their associations during study.

  5. The effects of social pressure on group recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B

    2003-12-01

    In two experiments, individual subjects worked in conjunction with two perceived group members to recall six 30-item categorized word lists. The perceived group members' recall levels were manipulated to establish either high or low group standards. After participating in the perceived group, subjects completed a surprise final individual recall test that covered all of the presented material. On the basis of the hypothesis that the subjects' performance would be affected by social pressure, it was predicted that subjects working in high-performing groups would recall more words than subjects working in low-performing groups on both the group recall tests and the final individual recall test. These predicted results were observed. Thus, a complete analysis of the group recall environment should include a consideration of conformity theory whereby subjects' memories can be affected by their group members' output levels.

  6. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography plus recall in overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Willis, Erik A; Honas, Jeffery J; Mayo, Matthew S; Washburn, Richard A; Herrmann, Stephen D; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that used pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water (TDEE(DLW)). Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 years, body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.2±5.6, female=49%) over 7 days of ad libitum eating in a university cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (ie, snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures, using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEE(DLW) was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEE(DLW) were not significantly different (DP+R=2912±661 kcal/d; TDEE(DLW)=2849±748 kcal/d, P=0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEE(DLW) by 63±750 kcal/d (6.8±28%). Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEE(DLW). Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography + recall in overweight and obese young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Washburn, Richard A.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that utilized pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. Objective To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labelled water (TDEEDLW). Methods Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 yrs., BMI=31.2 ± 5.6 kg·m2, female = 49%) over 7-days of ad libitum eating in a University cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (i.e., snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEEDLW was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. Results The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEEDLW were not significantly different (DP+R = 2912 ± 661 kcal/d; TDEEDLW = 2849 ± 748 kcal/d, p = 0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEEDLW by 63 ± 750 kcal/d (6.8 ± 28%). Conclusion Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEEDLW. PMID:26122282

  8. Involuntary conscious memory facilitates cued recall performance: further evidence that chaining occurs during voluntary recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conscious recollection of the past occurs spontaneously when subjects voluntarily recall their own past experiences or a list of previously studied words. Naturalistic diary studies and laboratory studies of this phenomenon, often called involuntary conscious memory (ICM), show that it occurs in 2 ways. One is direct ICM retrieval, which occurs when a cue spontaneously triggers a conscious memory; the other is chained ICM retrieval, which occurs when a retrieved conscious memory spontaneously triggers another. Laboratory studies investigating ICM show that chained ICM retrieval occurs on voluntary autobiographical memory tasks. The present results show that chained ICM retrieval also occurs on a voluntary word list memory task (cued recall). These results are among a handful suggesting that ICM retrieval routinely occurs during voluntary recall.

  9. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  10. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sik

    2014-05-01

    Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness can develop serious post-traumatic stress disorders that should not be overlooked. In this review, we introduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia and discuss the mechanisms of consciousness, as well as risk factors, various monitoring methods, outcome and prevention of intraoperative awareness.

  11. Memory as a hologram: an analysis of learning and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Donald R J; Mewhort, D J K

    2015-03-01

    We present a holographic theory of human memory. According to the theory, a subject's vocabulary resides in a dynamic distributed representation-a hologram. Studying or recalling a word alters both the existing representation of that word in the hologram and all words associated with it. Recall is always prompted by a recall cue (either a start instruction or the word just recalled). Order of report is a joint function of the item and associative information residing in the hologram at the time the report is made. We apply the model to archival data involving simple free recall, learning in multitrial free recall, simple serial recall, and learning in multitrial serial recall. The model captures accuracy and order of report in both free and serial recall. It also captures learning and subjective organisation in multitrial free recall. We offer the model as an alternative to the short- and long-term account of memory postulated in the modal model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Using recall to reduce false recognition: diagnostic and disqualifying monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false recognition. Manipulation checks indicated that the latter instructions did elicit a recall-to-reject strategy. However, false recognition was selectively reduced only when all the words from a category could be recalled (Experiment 1). When longer categories were used, thereby minimizing exhaustive recall, a recall-to-reject strategy was ineffective at reducing false recognition (Experiment 2). It is suggested that exhaustively recalling a category allowed subjects to disqualify the lure as having occurred, analogous to recall-to-reject demonstrations in other tasks. In contrast, partially recalling a category did not help to diagnose the lure as nonstudied. These findings constrain theories of recall-based monitoring processes. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  13. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  14. Self-serving confabulation in prose recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Conway, Martin A; Solms, Mark; Tyrer, Stephen; Kopelman, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the content of confabulation is mainly positive and self-enhancing. In this group study, we aimed to investigate whether this positive bias is specific to self-referent information. Confabulating amnesic patients, amnesic non-confabulating patients and healthy controls were asked to reproduce a series of short stories. We manipulated the emotional valence of the material by including positive, negative and neutral story plots. We also manipulated the self-reference of the material by including self-referent versus other-referent encoding instructions. Confabulating patients were as impaired as a group of amnesic patients in the amount of information they recalled, both groups being worse than healthy controls. Importantly, confabulating patients showed a selective bias in the negative self-referent condition, in that they recalled such information in a manner which portrayed a more positive image of themselves. This positive bias was not present in stories that were not encoded in a self-referent manner and it was not significantly correlated to patients' self-reported mood. We propose that both confabulation and its motivated content result from a deficit in the control and regulation of memory retrieval, which allows motivational factors to acquire a greater role than usual in determining which memories are selected for retrieval. To this extent, the self-enhancing content of confabulation could be explained as a neurogenic exaggeration of normal self-serving memory distortion.

  15. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...

  16. The Effect of Semantic Categorisation on Recall Memory in Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Channon

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different parts of the lists revealed that the control group derived greater benefit from semantic relatedness in recall of items from the middle positions. This effect was not shown by the amnesic group, who showed similar U-shaped serial position curves for recall of all three lists, and appeared to use a more passive recall strategy than the control group. The findings are discussed in relation to our current understanding of amnesic deficits.

  17. Presentation duration and false recall for semantic and phonological associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardini, Nicole; Yamashita, Jill A; Wallace, William P

    2008-03-01

    Two experiments examined false recall for lists of semantically and phonologically associated words as a function of presentation duration. Veridical recall increased with long exposure durations for all lists. For semantically associated lists, false recall increased from 20-250 ms, then decreased. There was a high level of false recall with 20 ms durations for phonologically associated lists (47 and 44% for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively), which declined as duration increased. In Experiment 2, for lists presented at 20 and 50 ms rates, false recall given zero correct recall was observed frequently, suggesting that conscious recollection of studied words was not necessary for phonological false memory. Differences between phonologically and semantically associated lists were consistent with a feature integration model based on automatic initial processing of phonetic features of words.

  18. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  19. Mood-congruent free recall bias in anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Riccardo; Fox, Elaine; Lynn, Bellinger; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Dominic P.

    2001-01-01

    The present study evaluated the status of mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals following incidental encoding of target words. In the first experiment, high trait anxiety individuals showed increased recall of threat-related information after an orienting task promoting lexical processing of target words. In a second experiment, both lexical and semantic orienting tasks were performed at study. In this experiment, anxious individuals displayed a mood-congruent recall bias onl...

  20. Evidence review of technology and dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, JoAnn D; Littlefield, Laurel A; Estep, Gary; Martin, Hope; Rogers, Toby J; Boswell, Carol; Shriver, Brent J; Roman-Shriver, Carmen R

    2010-12-01

    Diets high in fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with a decrease in chronic diseases. Dietary factors are linked to 4 of the 10 leading noncommunicable causes of death: cardiovascular disease, some cancers, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Accurately measuring dietary patterns has many challenges. Dietary intake measurement has traditionally relied on self-report instruments such as 24-hour recall, food record, and food frequency questionnaires to record consumption history. These methods have inherent limitations in detecting small but important changes in fruit and vegetable consumption patterns. Promising advances in technology have made more sophisticated techniques for recording dietary intake possible. Computers and Web-based programs, handheld personal digital assistants with cameras and telephone cards, smart phones, cameras, and video recorders options may reduce the burden of recording what has been consumed. Furthermore, technology-based methods of dietary assessment may provide a higher degree of reliability and validity in visually determining fruit and vegetable consumption, and additional study is warranted. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based methods for dietary assessment, which included fruit and vegetable consumption. One hundred and eighty-seven articles published between 1998 and 2008 were initially identified. Fifteen met the study inclusion criteria and were evaluated by an interdisciplinary team using the Stetler Strength of Evidence Scale. Six technology-based methods for dietary assessment were identified. Findings from validity and reliability testing of technology-based methods are encouraging and need replication. Clinically important features offered through technology may reduce reporting burden and offer behavioral feedback to users. Methodologically sound, empirical research into using technology-based application for dietary assessment in a variety of

  1. Dietary adequacy in Asian Indians with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, N; Bhatt, S P; Sakhuja, A; Srivastava, S; Agarwal, S

    2008-03-01

    Malnutrition is endemic in developing countries, which also bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. HIV and its complications have a significant impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition and HIV have deleterious interactions. Dietary inadequacy is a major cause of malnutrition and few studies have been done to assess dietary adequacy in HIV-infected individuals and the factors affecting intake. Dietary intake of 71 consecutive patients was determined using 24-hour dietary recall, with the help of a questionnaire and a structured interview, and then compared with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The dietary intake of energy, total fat, fibre, vitamin C and iron were significantly less than the recommended RDA. There was no difference in protein intake. Only 5.7% of males and 16.7% of females reached the recommended energy allowance. The recommended protein allowance was reached by 43.4% males and 44.4% females and 41.5% males and 38.9% females consumed more than the upper limit of the recommended fat intake. Intake of major nutrients was also significantly less when compared to the national average intake. On bivariate analysis, the factors affecting these inadequacies were found to be annual per-capita income, dependency on another for livelihood, CD4 counts more than 200/cubic millimeter and absence of antiretroviral therapy. On multivariate analysis, only dependency on another was found to significantly influence energy intake. Dietary intake of many food constituents is significantly less in HIV patients than that recommended. Dietary counselling and efforts to improve food security are important in management of these patients.

  2. Radiation Recall Reaction Induced by Adjuvant Trastuzumab (Herceptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chung

    2009-01-01

    trastuzumab (Herceptin administration, there has been no published case of radiation recall reaction associated with trastuzumab. This case describes a clinical presentation consistent with a radiation recall reaction following administration of adjuvant trastuzumab after neoadjuvant FEC-D chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy for HER2-positive, locally advanced breast cancer in a premenopausal woman. Although the mechanism and etiology of radiation recall dermatitis remain unclear, this case raises further hypotheses regarding a possible drug dose-dependence and possible predisposing risk factor for the development of radiation recall reactions.

  3. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women t...

  4. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  5. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marcinkevage

    Full Text Available To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren.A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers of 6-11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child's dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls.Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City.Caregivers (n = 145 of 6-11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3.The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein to 0.54 (cholesterol for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs.Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6-11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations.

  6. Recall Oriented Search on the Web using Semantic Annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, A.M.; Broek, E.L. van den; Koot, G.; Huis in't Veld, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Web search engines are optimized for early precision, which makes it difficult to perform recall oriented tasks with them. In this article, we propose several ways to leverage semantic annotations and, thereby, increase the efficiency of recall oriented search tasks, with a focus on forensic investi

  7. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  8. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  9. Functional neuroimaging of sex differences in autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is episodic memory for personally experienced events. The brain areas underlying AM retrieval are known to include several prefrontal cortical and medial temporal lobe regions. Sex differences in AM recall have been reported in several behavioral studies, but the functional anatomical correlates underlying such differences remain unclear. This study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of AM recall between healthy male and female participants (n = 20 per group). AM recall in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words was compared to a semantic memory task involving the generation of examples from a category using emotionally valenced cues. Behaviorally, females recalled more negative and fewer positive AMs compared with males, while ratings of arousal, vividness, and memory age did not differ significantly between sexes. Males and females also did not differ significantly in their performance on control tasks. Neurophysiologically, females showed increased hemodynamic activity compared to males in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsal anterior insula, and precuneus while recalling specific AMs (all valences combined); increased activity in the DLPFC, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus while recalling positive AMs; and increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, amygdala, and temporopolar cortex when recalling negative AMs. When comparing positive to negative AMs directly, males and females differed in their BOLD responses in the hippocampus and DLPFC. We propose that the differential hemodynamic changes may reflect sex-specific cognitive strategies during recall of AMs irrespective of the phenomenological properties of those memories. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Recall oriented search on the web using semantic annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; van den Broek, Egon; Koot, Gijs; Huis in 't Veld, Mirjam A.A.; Bennett, P.N.; Gabrilovich, E.; Kamps, J.; Karlgren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Web search engines are optimized for early precision, which makes it difficult to perform recall oriented tasks with them. In this article, we propose several ways to leverage semantic annotations and, thereby, increase the efficiency of recall oriented search tasks, with a focus on forensic

  11. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  12. The insurability of product recall in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insurers face growing difficulties with insuring food-related risks among others due to an increasing number of product recalls and an increasing amount of claims being pushed back into the chain. This paper focuses on the risk of product recall in dairy supply chains. The paper aims at providing

  13. A Developmental Analysis of Story Recall and Comprehension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Rhonda G.; Johnson, Nancy S.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the role of organization in adults' processing of stories. Canonical stories were better recalled than noncanonical stories by all three age groups (young, middle-aged, and old adults), and a variety of measures indicated that older adults' recall was both quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that of young adults. (SL)

  14. Temporal associations and prior-list intrusions in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Franklin M; Howard, Marc W; Dolan, Emily D; Sirotin, Yevgeniy B; Tully, Michele; Wingfield, Arthur; Kahana, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    When asked to recall the words from a just-presented target list, subjects occasionally recall words that were not on the list. These intrusions either appeared on earlier lists (prior-list intrusions, or PLIs) or had not appeared over the course of the experiment (extra-list intrusions). The authors examined the factors that elicit PLIs in free recall. A reanalysis of earlier studies revealed that PLIs tend to come from semantic associates as well as from recently studied lists, with the rate of PLIs decreasing sharply with list recency. The authors report 3 new experiments in which some items in a given list also appeared on earlier lists. Although repetition enhanced recall of list items, subjects were significantly more likely to make PLIs following the recall of repeated items, suggesting that temporal associations formed in earlier lists can induce recall errors. The authors interpret this finding as evidence for the interacting roles of associative and contextual retrieval processes in recall. Although contextual information helps to focus recall on words in the target list, it does not form an impermeable boundary between current- and prior-list experiences. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the pric

  16. Temporal texture of associative encoding modulates recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon, Roni; Levy, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Binding aspects of an experience that are distributed over time is an important element of episodic memory. In the current study, we examined how the temporal complexity of an experience may govern the processes required for its retrieval. We recorded event-related potentials during episodic cued recall following pair associate learning of concurrently and sequentially presented object-picture pairs. Cued recall success effects over anterior and posterior areas were apparent in several time windows. In anterior locations, these recall success effects were similar for concurrently and sequentially encoded pairs. However, in posterior sites clustered over parietal scalp the effect was larger for the retrieval of sequentially encoded pairs. We suggest that anterior aspects of the mid-latency recall success effects may reflect working-with-memory operations or direct access recall processes, while more posterior aspects reflect recollective processes which are required for retrieval of episodes of greater temporal complexity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  18. Priming guesses on a forced-recall test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Janet M; Meade, Michelle L

    2004-07-01

    The forced-recall paradigm requires participants to fill all spaces on the memory test even if they cannot remember all the list words. In the present study, the authors used that paradigm to examine the influence of implicit memory on guessing--when participants fill remaining spaces after they cannot remember list items. They measured explicit memory as the percentage of targets that participants designated as remembered from the list and implicit memory as the percentage of targets they wrote but did not designate as remembered (beyond chance level). The authors examined implicit memory on guessing with forced recall (Experiment 1), forced cued recall with younger and older adults (Experiment 2), and forced free and cued recall under a depth-of-processing manipulation (Experiment 3). They conclude that implicit memory influences guesses of targets in the forced-recall paradigm.

  19. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  20. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  1. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face int......OBJECTIVE: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face......-to-face interviews using the EPIC-SOFT software. These have been used to present a graphic multi-dimensional comparison of the adjusted mean consumption of 22 food groups. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 men and women, aged 35-74 years, participating in the EPIC nested calibration study. RESULTS: Although wide...

  2. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Gilsing, Anne M.; Hobin, Erin; Solbak, Nathan M.; Wallace, Angela; Haines, Jess; Mayhew, Alexandra J.; Orr, Sarah K.; Raina, Parminder; Robson, Paula J.; Sacco, Jocelyn E.; Whelan, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-h (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents), in public schools (children in grades 5–8; aged 10–13 years), and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research. PMID:28146125

  3. Dietary patterns and functional disability in older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Lee, Soon Young; Kim, Young Ok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Park, Sat Byul

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary patterns and disability in the Korean elderly. We used data from a cross-sectional study of 327 men and 460 women aged ≥65 years who completed the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A single 24-h dietary recall method was used to assess dietary intake and dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Functional disability was assessed by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scales. The association of dietary patterns with ADL and IADL disability was analyzed by logistic regression adjusting for age, marital status, education, household income, region, chronic conditions, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and energy intake. Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women: the modified traditional dietary pattern, characterized by a relatively lower consumption of white rice, but higher consumption of fruits, dairy products, and legumes, and the traditional dietary pattern, characterized by high consumption of white rice. After controlling for covariates, in men, those who engaged in modified traditional dietary pattern, compared with traditional dietary pattern, showed a lower likelihood of ADL disability (odds ratio [OR]=0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.56). In women, the modified traditional dietary pattern compared with the traditional pattern was associated with a significantly decreased risk of ADL (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.90) and IADL disability (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.28-0.72). The modified traditional dietary pattern is associated with a decreased risk of functional disability in older Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated......Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables...... and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I.Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2–19 years old...

  5. Frontoparietal cognitive control of verbal memory recall in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Novraj S; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-01

    Episodic memory retrieval is reliant upon cognitive control systems, of which 2 have been identified with functional neuroimaging: a cingulo-opercular salience network (SN) and a frontoparietal executive network (EN). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathology is distributed throughout higher-order cortices. The hypotheses were that this frontoparietal pathology would impair activity associated with verbal memory recall; and that central cholinesterase inhibition (ChI) would modulate this, improving memory recall. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study normal participants and 2 patient groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Activity within the EN and SN was observed during free recall of previously heard sentences, and related to measures of recall accuracy. In normal subjects, trials with reduced recall were associated with greater activity in both the SN and EN. Better recall was associated with greater activity in medial regions of the default mode network. By comparison, AD patients showed attenuated responses in both the SN and EN compared with either controls or MCI patients, even after recall performance was matched between groups. Following ChI, AD patients showed no modulation of activity within the SN, but increased activity within the EN. There was also enhanced activity within regions associated with episodic and semantic memory during less successful recall, requiring greater cognitive control. The results indicate that in AD, impaired responses of cognitive control networks during verbal memory recall are partly responsible for reduced recall performance. One action of symptom-modifying treatment is partially to reverse the abnormal function of frontoparietal cognitive control and temporal lobe memory networks. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  6. Development and Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's Dietary Screener Questionnaire Scoring Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frances E; Midthune, Douglas; Kahle, Lisa; Dodd, Kevin W

    2017-06-01

    Background: Methods for improving the utility of short dietary assessment instruments are needed.Objective: We sought to describe the development of the NHANES Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ) and its scoring algorithms and performance.Methods: The 19-item DSQ assesses intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, added sugars, dairy, fiber, and calcium. Two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the DSQ were administered in NHANES 2009-2010 to respondents aged 2-69 y (n = 7588). The DSQ frequency responses, coupled with sex- and age-specific portion size information, were regressed on intake from 24-h recalls by using the National Cancer Institute usual intake method to obtain scoring algorithms to estimate mean and prevalences of reaching 2 a priori threshold levels. The resulting scoring algorithms were applied to the DSQ and compared with intakes estimated with the 24-h recall data only. The stability of the derived scoring algorithms was evaluated in repeated sampling. Finally, scoring algorithms were applied to screener data, and these estimates were compared with those from multiple 24-h recalls in 3 external studies.Results: The DSQ and its scoring algorithms produced estimates of mean intake and prevalence that agreed closely with those from multiple 24-h recalls. The scoring algorithms were stable in repeated sampling. Differences in the means were algorithms is an advance in the use of screeners. However, because these algorithms may not be generalizable to all studies, a pilot study in the proposed study population is advisable. Although more precise instruments such as 24-h dietary recalls are recommended in most research, the NHANES DSQ provides a less burdensome alternative when time and resources are constrained and interest is in a limited set of dietary factors. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  8. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  9. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. PMID:23142268

  10. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: the differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J; Cleary, Anne M; Seger, Carol A

    2013-01-25

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed.

  11. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Charlton; Yasmine Probst; Gabriella Kiene

    2016-01-01

    To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Phys...

  12. Dietary Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Relation to Weight Status

    OpenAIRE

    K Bidad; Sh Anari; Tavasoli, S; L Nazemi; N Gholami; S Zadhush; Moayeri, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To examine macronutrient and micronutrient intake of adolescent girls of Tehran, capital of Iran to discover any malnutrition in relation to weight status and dieting.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Four hundred 11- to 17-year-old students were selected by multistage clus­ter sampling from secondary and high schools of Tehran. The information about dietary intakes was taken by food fre­quency questionnaire and 24-hour recall form. The students'...

  13. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  14. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  15. Recalling the Past of My Husband

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Song Xiaohan is the widow of the patriotic general He Jifeng, who served in the War of Resistance Against Japan, He Jifeng was once a brigade commander of the 110th Brigade in the 29th Corps under the Kuomintang. In September 1935, he was transferred to Beiping (the old name of Beijing], and was put in charge of defending Wanping County Seat, Fengtai Township, the Pinghan Railway and Lugouqiao areas. On July 7th, 1937, when the Lugouqiao Incident happened he took his place in front of the troups to direct the battle, and issued an order to fight back the Japanese invaders. The commanders and soldiers of the 29th Corps shot the first bullet in the War of Resistance Against Japan.Song Xiaohan met General He Jifeng after the Lugouqiao Incident, and accompanied him through the disturbances of a half century. He Jifeng died in 1980. Now 80 years old Song Xiaohan lives in Beijing and spends her remaining years quietly. She recalled her old days as follows.

  16. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  17. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., Tulving & Patkau, 1962; Cowan, Chen, & Rouder, 2004), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan, 1975). We investigated this question by teaching new paired associations between words to create two-word chunks. The results suggest that both chunk capacity limits and length limits come into play. For the free recall of 12-word lists, 6 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 6 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a chunk limit. However, for the serially-ordered recall of 8-word lists, 4 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 8 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a length limit. Other conditions yielded intermediate results suggesting that sometimes both limits may operate together. PMID:16393043

  18. Rehearsal development as development of iterative recall processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLehmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much is known about the critical importance of active verbal rehearsal for successful recall, knowledge about the mechanisms of rehearsal and their respective development in children is very limited. To be able to rehearse several items together, these items have to be available, or, if presented and rehearsed previously, retrieved from memory. Therefore, joint rehearsal of several items may itself be considered recall. Accordingly, by analyzing free recall, one cannot only gain insight into how recall and rehearsal unfold, but also into how principles that govern children’s recall govern children’s rehearsal. Over a period of three and a half years (beginning at grade 3 54 children were longitudinally assessed seven times on several overt rehearsal free recall trials. A first set of analyses on recall revealed significant age-related increases in the primacy effect and an age-invariant recency effect. In the middle portion of the list, wave-shaped recall characteristics emerged and increased with age, indicating grouping of the list into subsequences. In a second set of analyses, overt rehearsal behavior was decomposed into distinct rehearsal sets. Analyses of these sets revealed that the distribution of rehearsals within each set resembled the serial position curves with one- or two-item primacy and recency effects and wave-shaped rehearsal patterns in between. In addition, rehearsal behavior throughout the list was characterized by a decreasing tendency to begin rehearsal sets with the first list item. This result parallels the phenomenon of beginning recall with the first item on short lists and with the last item on longer lists.

  19. Conscious recall of different aspects of skill memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbin eSong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of memories necessary for daily living. For example, different memory representations are formed for the practiced transitions between key-presses (i.e. pressing key 2 after 3 in 4-3-2-1 and for the ordinal position of each key-press (i.e. pressing key 2 in the third ordinal position in 4-3-2-1 in a motor sequence. Whether the resulting transition-based and ordinal-based memories (Song & Cohen, in press can be consciously recalled is unknown. Here, we studied subjects who over a week of training and testing formed transition and ordinal-based memory representations of skill for a 12-item sequence of key-presses. Afterwards, subjects were first asked to recall and type the trained sequence and then to perform random key-presses avoiding the trained sequence. The difference in the ability to purposefully recall and avoid a trained sequence represents conscious recall (Destrebecqz & Cleeremans, 2001. We report that (a the difference in the ability to purposefully recall and to avoid the trained sequence correlated with ordinal-based but not with transition-based memory, (b subjects with no ability to recall or avoid the trained sequence formed transition-based but not ordinal-based memories, and (c subjects with full ability to recall and avoid the trained sequence formed both transition-based and ordinal-based memories. We conclude that ordinal-based memory can be voluntarily recalled when transition-based memory cannot, documenting a differential capacity to recall memories forming a motor skill. Understanding that different memories form a motor skill, with different neural substrates (Cohen & Squire, 1980, may help develop novel training strategies in neurorehabilitation of patients with brain lesions.

  20. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition, three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47 and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43 supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete

  1. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval......, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD...

  2. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  3. Effects of Immediate Recall Trial on One-Year Delayed Recall Performance in Rey Complex Figure Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2016-04-18

    This study aimed to examine the effects of the presence or absence of an immediate recall trial on university students' (n = 39) performance on the one-year delayed recall test in the Rey complex figure test (RCFT). Participants were divided into two groups that took either one or two tests, respectively. In the first year, the participants in the two-test condition completed a copy trial and an immediate recall trial, whereas those in the one-test condition underwent the copy trial only. In the second year, all participants completed a delayed recall test. Those in the two-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the one-test condition on the one-year delayed recall test. Thus, we found that omitting the immediate recall trial caused a decline in performance on the one-year delayed recall test. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was considered.

  4. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  5. Murdock free recall data: The initial recall search identifies the context by the location of the least remembered item and produces only better remembered items in proportion to the total recall difference.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The curious free recall data of Murdock (1962) shows an additional surprise that seems to have gone undetected until now: the probability of guessing an item in the initial recall is not identical to the overall free recall curve. Initial recall of an item is well correlated with the total recall of that item using a straight line but with an unexpected offset. The offset varies with the presentation rate and the total number of list items but in each case it is the same as the total recall ...

  6. Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W R; Bowman, K; Mohler, L

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers rated a series of words for pleasantness while hearing a particular background music. The subjects in Experiment 1 received, immediately or after a 48-h delay, an unexpected word-recall test in one of the following musical cue contexts: same cue (S), different cue (D), or no cue (N). For immediate recall, context dependency (S-D) was significant but same-cue facilitation (S-N) was not. No cue effects at all were found for delayed recall, and there was a significant interaction between cue and retention interval. A similar interaction was also found in Experiment 3, which was designed to rule out an alternative explanation with respect to distraction. When the different musical selection was changed specifically in either tempo or form (genre), only pieces having an altered tempo produced significantly lower immediate recall compared with the same pieces (Experiment 2). The results support a stimulus generalization view of music-dependent memory.

  7. Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sponsorship recall and recognition of official sponsors of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ ... which was the world's largest football event hosted in South Africa (SA), offered ... use the confusion in consumers to market their products and brands.

  8. Nothing concentrates the mind: thoughts of death improve recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Joshua; Burns, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    ... selected to operate more efficiently when death thoughts (e.g., survival concerns) are activated. If so, then the mortality salience as a general psychological state should be sufficient to increase recall...

  9. The effect of auditory stimulation on autobiographical recall in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N A; Valentine, E R

    2001-01-01

    Elderly individuals with mild-moderate ("high ability") or moderate ("low ability") dementia, answered autobiographical memory questions drawn from three life eras (remote, medium-remote, and recent), in familiar music, novel music, cafeteria noise or quiet. Recall was significantly better in the high-ability than the low-ability group, in sound than in quiet, and in music than in noise. Recall was significantly related to life era, declining from remote to recent memory. The superiority of recall in music compared with noise was apparent for recall from remote and medium-remote but not recent eras. The results are interpreted as favoring an explanation of the beneficial effect of auditory stimulation, predominantly in terms of enhanced arousal or attention deployment, with a possible subsidiary role for associative facilitation.

  10. #DDOD Use Case: Consolidated reporting of medical device recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case request for consolidated, consistent reporting of medical device recalls. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case” is a request that was made by the...

  11. Recalling of Images using Hopfield Neural Network Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramya, C; Shreedhara, Dr K S

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, an effort has been made for storing and recalling images with Hopfield Neural Network Model of auto-associative memory. Images are stored by calculating a corresponding weight matrix. Thereafter, starting from an arbitrary configuration, the memory will settle on exactly that stored image, which is nearest to the starting configuration in terms of Hamming distance. Thus given an incomplete or corrupted version of a stored image, the network is able to recall the corresponding original image. The storing of the objects has been performed according to the Hopfield algorithm explained below. Once the net has completely learnt this set of input patterns, a set of testing patterns containing degraded images will be given to the net. Then the Hopfield net will tend to recall the closest matching pattern for the given degraded image. The simulated results show that Hopfield model is the best for storing and recalling images.

  12. The distinctiveness heuristic in false recognition and false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

    2006-07-01

    The effects of generative processing on false recognition and recall were examined in four experiments using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In each experiment, a Generate condition in which subjects generated studied words from audio anagrams was compared to a Control condition in which subjects simply listened to studied words presented normally. Rates of false recognition and false recall were lower for critical lures associated with generated lists, than for critical lures associated with control lists, but only in between-subjects designs. False recall and recognition did not differ when generate and control conditions were manipulated within-subjects. This pattern of results is consistent with the distinctiveness heuristic (Schacter, Israel, & Racine, 1999), a metamemorial decision-based strategy whereby global changes in decision criteria lead to reductions of false memories. This retrieval-based monitoring mechanism appears to operate in a similar fashion in reducing false recognition and false recall.

  13. Environmental context effects of background color in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Taeo; Isarin, Tosmko K

    2007-10-01

    In four experiments, we investigated background-color context effects in free recall. A total of 194 undergraduates studied words presented one by one against a background color, and oral free recall was tested after a 30-sec filled retention interval. A signal for recall was presented against a background color throughout the test. Recalled items were classified as same- and different-context items according to whether the background colors at study and test were the same or different. Significant context effects were found in Experiments I and 2, in which two background colors were randomly alternated word by word. No context effects were found in Experiments 3 and 4, in which a common background color was presented for all items (Experiment 3) or for a number of successive items (Experiment 4). The results indicate that a change in background colors is necessary and sufficient to produce context effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed.

  14. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-06-28

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The present study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children.

  15. Incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    jahanbakhshe Rezanejad; behroz farzan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Experience of awareness and recall during general anesthesia can be very distressing for patients. There is no doubt that surgery pain is the most distressing feature of awareness. This condition can cause neurosis in patients. If patient be aware during surgery and be able to hear some comment, she or he senses weakness, paralysis, feeling of helpless and anxiety, panic and death. The main goal of this study is determine the incidence of awareness with recall during general anest...

  16. Design of general bidirectional associative memories with improved recall capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donq-Liang; Chuang, Thomas C

    2004-10-01

    The concept of qth order Hamming ball for general bidirectional associative memories (GBAMs) is presented, which results in an enhanced recall capability. A technique based on the minimum overlap algorithm (MOA) is proposed to deal with the separability problem of the qth order Hamming balls. Simulation results show that the recall capability obtained by using the proposed method is indeed larger than that obtained by using the conventional method.

  17. CA3 size predicts the precision of memory recall

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    How does the brain allow us to recall numerous life experiences despite there often being a high degree of similarity between memories? This is a key question in neuroscience. Moreover, there is also keen interest in understanding why some people are able to recall memories with greater clarity than other people. In this study, we identified a specific brain region, CA3, an area within a structure called the hippocampus, and a mechanism within it that helps to explain individual differences i...

  18. Prose recall and amnesia: more implications for the episodic buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P A; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R

    2005-01-01

    Baddeley and Wilson [Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, F. B. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia 40, 1737-1743.] have argued that their finding of a positive association between amnesics' immediate prose recall scores and their scores on measures of executive function and fluid intelligence supports the view that an episodic buffer exists. However, the pattern of data from amnesics tested in our laboratory presented some problems for this conceptualisation of the episodic buffer.

  19. Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela H; Yoon, Carolyn; Luo, Ting; Feinberg, Fred; Hedden, Trey; Jing, Qicheng; Nisbett, Richard E; Park, Denise C

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young adults. The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical organization in younger and older adults. Cultural differences in the use of categories should be larger for elderly than young because categorization is a well-practiced strategy for Westerners, but age-related cognitive resource limitations may make the strategy difficult for elderly Easterners to implement. Therefore, we expect that cultural differences in categorization will be magnified in elderly adults relative to younger adults, with Americans categorizing more than Chinese. Across two studies, 112 young and 112 elderly drawn from two cultures (American and Chinese) encoded words presented in their native language. One word list contained categorically-unrelated words and the other, categorically-related words; both lists were presented in the participants' native language. In experiment 1, the words were strong category associates, and in experiment 2, the words were weak category associates. Participants recalled all the words they could remember, and the number of words recalled and degree of clustering by category were analyzed. As predicted, cultural differences emerged for the elderly, with East-Asians using categories less than Americans during recall of highly-associated category exemplars (experiment 1). For recall of low-associate exemplars, East-Asians overall categorized less than Americans (experiment 2). Surprisingly, these differences in the use of categories did not lead to cultural differences in the number of words recalled. The expected effects of age were apparent with elderly recalling less than young, but in contrast to previous studies, elderly also categorized less than young. These studies provide support

  20. Part-list Cuing and the Dynamics of False Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Bjork, Elizabeth L.; Bjork, Robert A.; Smith, Troy A.

    2008-01-01

    False recall of an unpresented critical word after studying its semantic associates can be reduced substantially if the strongest and earliest-studied associates are presented as part-list cues during testing (Kimball & Bjork, 2002). To disentangle episodic and semantic contributions to this decline in false recall, we factorially manipulated the cues' serial position and their strength of association to the critical word. Presenting cues comprising words that had been studied early in a list...

  1. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall.

  2. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety.

  3. Memory recall in arousing situations - an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-07-24

    Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  4. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  5. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  6. Effects of language dominance on item and order memory in free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Baca, Yuzeth

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 144) performed free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction tasks in both English and Spanish. Long-term memory for both item and order information was worse in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1). Item scores exhibited a stronger disadvantage for the L2 in serial recall than in free recall. Relative order scores were lower in the L2 for all three tasks, but adjusted scores for free and serial recall were equivalent across languages. Performance of English-speaking monolinguals (N = 72) was comparable to bilingual performance in the L1, except that monolinguals had higher adjusted order scores in free recall. Bilingual performance patterns in the L2 were consistent with the established effects of concurrent task performance on these memory tests, suggesting that the cognitive resources required for processing words in the L2 encroach on resources needed to commit item and order information to memory. These findings are also consistent with a model in which item memory is connected to the language system, order information is processed by separate mechanisms and attention can be allocated differentially to these two systems.

  7. Recall initiation strategies must be controlled in training studies that use immediate free recall tasks to measure the components of working memory capacity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time.

  8. Characteristics of fast-food/takeaway-food and restaurant/café-food consumers among New Zealand adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Claire; Gray, Andrew Robert; Fleming, Elizabeth Ann; Parnell, Winsome Ruth

    2014-01-01

    ...) describe the specific types of foods reported from both sources. Twenty-four hour diet recalls from the cross-sectional 2008/09 NZ Adult Nutrition Survey were used to identify fast-food and restaurant-food consumers. NZ households...

  9. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  10. 76 FR 38184 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... place during fiscal years 2008 to 2010. The resulting number of total recalls (9,303) and terminations.... Total Annual Reporting A. Recall Strategy Request firms develop a recall strategy including provision... Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  11. Maternal recall of birthweight and birth size in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Swaib A; Webb, Emily L; Ndibazza, Juliet; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Akello, Florence; Kakande, Muhammed; Kizindo, Robert; Elliott, Alison M

    2012-12-01

    To assess the reliability of maternally recalled birthweight and size in Entebbe, Uganda. The study population comprised 404 mothers, who were participants in the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study (EMaBS). Mothers were recruited to EMaBS during antenatal care, maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, and birthweight was recorded at delivery. Four to seven years after delivery, mothers were asked to recall the child's birthweight and size. Their responses were compared with the birthweight recorded in the EMaBS database. Of 404 interviewed mothers, 303 (75%) were able to give an estimate of birthweight and for 265 of these EMaBS data on recorded birthweights were available. Women who were educated and whose children had low birth order were more likely to be able to give an estimate: 37 (14%) recalled the exact recorded birthweight; a further 52 (20%) were accurate to within 0.1 kg of the recorded weight. On average, mothers overestimated birthweight by 0.06 kg (95% CI: 0.00-0.13 kg, P = 0.04). Recalled and recorded birthweights showed moderate agreement with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.64. Four hundered mothers gave an estimate of birth size: the sensitivity and specificity of recalled birth size for classifying low birthweight were 76% (95% CI: 50-93%) and 70% (95% CI: 65-75%), respectively. Mothers' recall of birthweight was not precise but in absence of other data, recall of birthweight and size may have some value in epidemiological studies in these settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Effects of adult aging on utilization of temporal and semantic associations during free and serial recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Julie D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Addis, Kelly M.; Kahana, Michael J.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Older adults show poorer performance than young adults at word list recall, especially for order information. In contrast with this temporal association deficit, older adults are generally adept at using preexisting semantic associations, when present, to aid recall. We compared the use of temporal and semantic associations in young and older adults’ word list recall following both free recall and serial recall instructions. Decomposition of serial position curves confirmed that older adults showed weakened use of temporal context in recall in relation to young adults, a difference that was amplified in serial recall. Older adults’ temporal associations were also less effective than young adults’ when correlated with serial recall performance. The differential age decrement for serial versus free recall was accompanied by a persistent influence of latent semantic associations in the older adults, even when maladaptive for serial recall. PMID:18630201

  13. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  14. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  15. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients.

  16. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  17. Initial Free Recall Data Characterized and Explained By Activation Theory of Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2011-01-01

    The initial recall distribution in a free recall experiment is shown to be predictably different from the overall free recall distribution including an offset which can cause the least remembered items to be almost completely absent from the first recall. Using the overall free recall distribution as input and a single parameter describing the probability of simultaneous reactivated items per number of items in the presented list, activation theory not only qualitatively but quantitatively d...

  18. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  19. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  20. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyue Xu; John Hall; Julie Byles; Zumin Shi

    2015-01-01

    Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dieta...

  1. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  2. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  3. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...... was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. Subjects. A total of 1163 (61% women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age...... of 38.6 (range: 18–68) years, volunteered to participate. Results. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5.8 to 8.6 MJ/d among women and from 7.2 to 10.5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55.7% and 74...

  4. Long-term psychosocial outcomes after intraoperative awareness with recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkala, Tanja; Ranta, Seppo; Wennervirta, Johanna; Henriksson, Markus; Suominen, Kirsi; Hynynen, Markku

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder, a common psychiatric disorder in the general population, may follow a traumatic experience of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. We conducted a matched cohort design with 9 subjects after intraoperative awareness with recall during general anesthesia. A psychiatric diagnostic interview and questionnaire were performed on 9 matched controls and 9 subjects, a median of 17.2 years from their documented awareness episode. The subjects and the matched controls completed a battery of questionnaires related to psychosocial well-being, after which they participated in a diagnostic Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders. Patients with awareness did not seem to differ from their matched controls in subsequent psychosocial outcome, psychiatric morbidity, or quality of life. We found no indication that intraoperative awareness with recall had any deleterious long-term effects on patients' psychosocial outcome.

  5. Memory recall and modifications by activating neurons with elevated CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Josselyn, Sheena A; Han, Jin-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Memory is supported by a specific ensemble of neurons distributed in the brain that form a unique memory trace. We previously showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala expressing elevated levels of cAMP response-element binding protein are preferentially recruited into fear memory traces and are necessary for the expression of those memories. However, it is unknown whether artificially activating just these selected neurons in the absence of behavioral cues is sufficient to recall that fear memory. Using an ectopic rat vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and capsaicin system, we found that activating this specific ensemble of neurons was sufficient to recall established fear memory. Furthermore, this neuronal activation induced a reconsolidation-like reorganization process, or strengthening of the fear memory. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between the activation of specific ensemble of neurons in the lateral amygdala and the recall of fear memory and its subsequent modifications.

  6. Content and Epistemic Relations: A Developmental Study of Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Verbrugge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the types of coherence relations adults and children can recall after having read a text. We discerned content and epistemic relations (Dancygier, 1998; Sweetser, 1990. Content relations express relations between events in reality. Epistemic relations typically express relations between states of thinking (premise-conclusion relations. The relations between the two parts of a content or epistemic relation is often made explicit by means of connectives. The differences between these types of sentences have been shown in different areas (e.g., reasoning, clause integration, acquisition. However, no clear results could be reached as for recall of these relations and the interaction with connectives. We aim to clarify this debate by means of an experiment involving 539 participants. The experiment revealed that the difficulty associated with epistemic relations decreases as participants get older. Interestingly, connectives play a larger role in participants' ability to recall epistemic compared to content relations.

  7. Recency and suffix effects in serial recall of musical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, R L; Samuel, A G

    1986-10-01

    Auditory presentation of verbal items leads to larger recency effects in recall than visual presentation. This enhanced recency can be eliminated if a stimulus suffix (an irrelevant sound) follows the last item. Four experiments tested the hypothesis that recency and suffix effects in serial recall result from a speech-specific process. It was demonstrated that serial recall of musical notes played on a piano exhibited substantial recency effects. These recency effects were reduced when the list items were followed by either a piano chord or the word start. However, a white-noise suffix had no effect on recency. This pattern of data is consistent with current work on auditory perception and places constraints on theories of recency and suffix effects.

  8. Relationships between personality variables and bizarreness effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Brett J; Worthen, James B; Haydel, Leslie A; Mahon, Blaithin D Mac; Savoy, Sarah C

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between 6 personality variables and each of 3 different measures of recall for bizarre and common sentences were examined. The personality variables investigated included measures of sensation seeking, novelty experiencing, desire for novelty, arousal-seeking tendency, social potency, and conservatism. Recall was measured in terms of sentences accessed, target words recovered per accessed sentence, and misplaced target words. The results indicated the typical pattern of bizarreness effects on recall and significant relationships between personality variables and these effects. Arousal seeking and conservatism were positively related to a bizarreness advantage in sentences accessed. Additionally, high social potency was related to the recovery of more details from common than bizarre sentences, and high desire for novelty was related to a greater bizarre misplacement effect. The results are discussed in terms of orienting and defensive responses to bizarreness.

  9. Reduction and elimination of format effects on recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Krusemark, Daniel C

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the recall advantage of pictures and spoken words over printed words in working memory (Foos & Goolkasian, 2005; Goolkasian & Foos, 2002) could be reduced by manipulating letter case and sequential versus simultaneous presentation. Participants were required to remember 3 or 6 items presented in varied presentation formats while verifying the accuracy of a sentence. Presenting words in alternating uppercase and lowercase improved recall, and presenting words simultaneously rather than successively removed the effect of presentation format. The findings suggest that when forcing participants to pay attention to printed words you can make them more memorable and thereby diminish or remove any disadvantage in the recall of printed words in comparison with pictures and spoken words.

  10. Age differences in learning, immediate and one week delayed recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N G; Gritz, E R; Jarvik, M E

    1975-01-01

    In an initial study, differences in learning and immediate recall were observed for groups of young and aged subjects on several measures. Retest date showed some differential loss for aged subjects after 1 week. Conclusions regarding long-term retention per se were not possible due to the nature of the design. In a second study, additional aged and young groups of subjects were run under delayed recall conditions. The data from these two groups were combined with data from the first study, with care taken to match subjects on a number of variables (health, education, intelligence). The results showed age-related differences for measures of learning and immediate recall but not for delayed 1 week retention.

  11. Reexamining the phonological similarity effect in immediate serial recall: the roles of type of similarity, category cuing, and item recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Lipinski, John; Aktunc, Emrah

    2005-09-01

    Study of the phonological similarity effect (PSE) in immediate serial recall (ISR) has produced a conflicting body of results. Five experiments tested various theoretical ideas that together may help integrate these results. Experiments 1 and 2 tested alternative accounts that explain the effect of phonological similarity on item recall in terms of feature overlap, linguistic structure, or serial order. In each experiment, the participants' ISR was assessed for rhyming, alliterative, and similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. The results were consistent with the predictions of the serial order account, with item recall being higher for rhyming than for alliterative lists and higher for alliterative than for similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these item recall differences are reduced when list items repeat across lists. Experiment 5 employed rhyming and dissimilar one-syllable and two-syllable lists to demonstrate that recall for similar (rhyming) lists can be better than that for dissimilar lists even in a typical ISR task in which words are used, providing a direct reversal of the classic PSE. These and other previously published results are interpreted and integrated within a proposed theoretical framework that offers an account of the PSE.

  12. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A

    2016-12-12

    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  13. Using pictographs to enhance recall of spoken medical instructions II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, P S; Witmer, J T; Egeth, H E; Loscalzo, M J; Zabora, J R

    2001-06-01

    The first study in this series [Houts PS, Bachrach R, Witmer JT, Tringali CA, Bucher JA, Localio RA. Patient Educ. Couns. 1998;35:83-8] found that recall of spoken medical instructions averaged 14% but that, when pictographs (drawings representing the instructions) accompanied the spoken instructions and were present during recall, 85% of medical instructions were remembered correctly. Those findings suggested that spoken instructions plus pictographs may be a way to give people with low literacy skills access to medical information that is normally available only in written form. However, there were three important limitations to that study: (1) the subjects were literate and perhaps literate people remember pictograph meanings better than people with low literacy skills; (2) only short term recall was tested and, for medical information to be useful clinically, it must be remembered for significant periods of time and (3) a maximum of 50 instructions were shown in pictographs, whereas managing complex illnesses may require remembering several hundred instructions. This study addresses those limitations by investigating 4-week recall of 236 medical instructions accompanied by pictographs by people with low literacy skills. Subjects were 21 adult clients of an inner city job training program who had less than fifth grade reading skills. Results showed 85% mean correct recall of pictograph meanings immediately after training (range from 63 to 99%) and 71% after 4 weeks (range from 33 to 94%). These results indicate that people with low literacy skills can, with the help of pictographs, recall large amounts of medical information for significant periods of time. The impact of pictographs on symptom management and patient quality of life remains to be studied.

  14. Simulated recalls of fish products in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Storøy, J.; Lievonen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    traceable step of the raw material vary considerably. However, the existing traceable information seemed to be easily accessible. Altogether, the fish industry in the Nordic countries seems not to be fully prepared for a recall.. Improved traceability awareness and practices in the whole chain can limit......Simulated recalls of fish products sampled in retailer shops were conducted in five Nordic countries to indicate the effectiveness and accuracy of chain traceability systems. The results suggested poor traceability practices at the vessels/auctions and revealed that batch sizes at the last...

  15. Pet food recalls and pet food contaminants in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2012-03-01

    Most pet foods are safe, but incidents of chemical contamination occur and lead to illness and recalls. There were 11 major pet food recalls in the United States between 1996 and 2010 that were due to chemical contaminants or misformulations: 3 aflatoxin, 3 excess vitamin D3, 1 excess methionine, 3 inadequate thiamine, and 1 adulteration with melamine and related compounds and an additional 2 warnings concerning a Fanconilike renal syndrome in dogs after ingesting large amounts of chicken jerky treat products. This article describes clinical findings and treatment of animals exposed to the most common pet food contaminants.

  16. Drivers Recall and Attitudes Towards Road Safety Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Fonseca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse Portuguese drivers recall and attitudes towards road safety advertising campaigns. Through a quantitative method the authors used a sample of Portuguese drivers. More than a half of the subjects didn’t recall any road safety advertising campaign. The appeals that most influenced driving behaviour were moderate speed and use of seatbelt. The dramatic approach was the one that had most impact, and the death of familiars of the driver the consequence that most influenced drivers. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i2.2112

  17. Measuring children's diets: evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, L A; Carlgren, G

    1984-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of dietary habits in infancy and childhood face a number of difficulties, which are more or less specific for these ages. In connection with studies on dietary habits of Swedish infants and children an evaluation of different dietary assessment techniques was performed. Breastfeeding data obtained in retrospective interviews at six months had good validity. The reliability of breastfeeding and weaning data decreased over time. Short questions on food frequencies, often used in research and clinical practice, were shown to be a poor screening instrument and suffered from biases when used in groups of four- and eight-year-old children. Group mean estimations of dietary intake of four- and eight-year-old children obtained by 24-hour recalls were close to those of seven-day records from the same individuals. Dietary intake in a 13-year-old group according to 24-hour recall and dietary history differed significantly; the dietary history gave much higher estimations. The reliability of dietary history in a small group of 13-year-old boarding school children was fairly good. The internal validity of food recording was examined by use of chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Generally, there was good agreement between the records and the analysed duplicates. The intake of a number of nutrients varied during the week, often showing a maximum towards the weekend. The intake of vitamin C was higher in winter time, otherwise no seasonal variation was found. The intra-individual variation in dietary intake is illustrated and its consequences for dietary studies are discussed.

  18. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  19. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  20. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: Similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Smith, Jessica; Hayes, Louise

    2009-07-01

    In five experiments, rehearsal and recall phenomena were examined using the free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of eight words, were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR, and rehearsed out loud during presentation. The patterns of rehearsal were similar in all the conditions, and there was little difference between recall in the precued and postcued conditions. In Experiment 2, both free recall and ISR were sensitive to word length and presentation rate and showed similar patterns of rehearsal. In Experiment 3, both tasks were sensitive to word length and articulatory suppression. The word length effects generalized to 6-item (Experiment 4) and 12-item (Experiment 5) lists. These findings suggest that the two tasks are underpinned by highly similar rehearsal and recall processes.

  1. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  2. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  3. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  4. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  5. Incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jahanbakhshe Rezanejad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of awareness and recall during general anesthesia can be very distressing for patients. There is no doubt that surgery pain is the most distressing feature of awareness. This condition can cause neurosis in patients. If patient be aware during surgery and be able to hear some comment, she or he senses weakness, paralysis, feeling of helpless and anxiety, panic and death. The main goal of this study is determine the incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study carried out on 1500 patients (ASA Class I that underwent elective surgery in Shohadie-Ashayer hospital. The assessment tool was a questionnaire filled out by interview with patients after 20 – 36 hrs post-operation. Results: 1056 (70.59% of patients were males and 442 (29.41% were female. for 900 patients (60%, Benzodizepines (Midazolame or diazepam was used as a pre-medication and for all patients opioids were used for analgesia. Inductive drug was Thiopental sodium for all patients. Only 6 patients (0.4% were aware and recalled some comments during general anesthesia. Conclusion: regarding the undesired effects of awareness and recall during general anesthesia, use of drugs such as benzodizepines for premedication, opioids for analgesia and acceptable concentration of inhaled anesthetics for preventing these terrible events are necessary.

  6. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hengeveld, Hester M. E.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from

  7. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205.59 Section 205.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.59...

  8. The Endurance of Children's Working Memory: A Recall Time Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hamilton, Z.; Pirrie, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the timing of recall as a source of information about children's performance in complex working memory tasks. A group of 8-year-olds performed a traditional operation span task in which sequence length increased across trials and an operation period task in which processing requirements were extended across trials of constant sequence…

  9. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hengeveld, Hester M. E.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from

  10. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall.

  11. Age differences in recall and liking of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.J.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Kleemans, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and

  12. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  13. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  14. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  15. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  16. Age differences in recall and liking of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, M.J. van der; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Kleemans, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and the

  17. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Goot; E. van Reijmersdal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effect

  18. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  19. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  20. Communicating with older cancer patients: impact on information recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis was to unravel the relationship between patient characteristics, communication between patient and clinician, and subsequent patient information recall in the context of medical consultations with older cancer patients. Chapter 2 reviewed the literature to explore age

  1. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Retrieval Model for Both Recognition and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    1984-01-01

    The Search of Associative Memory (SAM) model for recall is extended by assuming that a familiarity process is used for recognition. The model, formalized in a computer simulation program, correctly predicts a number of findings in the literature as well as results from an experiment on the word-frequency effect. (Author/BW)

  3. 75 FR 3355 - Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... apply to mandatory recall orders and the Commission declines to duplicate these provisions in the rule... Act (``FOIA'') rights. Response--The Commission declines to address FOIA issues in the rule because a... products second-hand or receive them as gifts. Considering the popularity of certain Web sites that...

  4. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  5. Optimal Dietary and Plasma Magnesium Statuses Depend on Dietary Quality for a Reduction in the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chen; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kao, Mei-Ding; Wang, Jui-Lien; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2015-07-13

    The association between dietary or plasma magnesium (Mg) with diabetes incidence and with mortality in free-living elderly was investigated. A total of 1400 participants from the Taiwanese Nutrition Survey, aged ≥ 65 years, and diabetes-free from the 1999-2000 were assessed. The dietary intake and plasma Mg concentration were obtained through 24h dietary recall and health examination at baseline. Participants were classified by quartiles (Q) of dietary Mg or by the plasma Mg normal range (0.75-0.95 mmol/L). Dietary diversity score (DDS, range 1-6) represented the dietary quality. During 8 and 10 years, 231 incident diabetes cases and 475 deaths were identified. Cox's proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between Mg and health outcomes. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for death in Q2 and Q3 of Mg intakes with DDS > 4 were 0.57 (0.44-0.74) and 0.59 (0.39-0.88), respectively, compared with the lowest intake and DDS ≤ 4 participants. Participants with normal and high plasma Mg in conjunction with high DDS had relative risks of 0.58 (0.37-0.89) and 0.46 (0.25-0.85) in mortality compared with low plasma Mg and lower DDS. Optimal dietary Mg intake and plasma Mg depend on dietary quality to reduce the mortality risk in older adults.

  6. Exploring the Retrieval Dynamics of Delayed and Final Free Recall: Further Evidence for Temporal-Contextual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval dynamics in free recall were explored based on a two-stage search model that relies on temporal-contextual cues. Participants were tested on both delayed and final free recall and correct recalls, errors, and latency measures were examined. In delayed free recall, participants began recall with the first word presented and tended to…

  7. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient recall in advanced education in prosthodontics programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Koslow, Alyson H; Knoernschild, Kent L; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2010-06-01

    This study surveyed program directors of Advanced Education Programs in Prosthodontics (AEPP) in the United States to determine the extent, type, incidence, and perceived effectiveness of implemented recall systems. Surveys were sent to AEPP directors across the United States to assess their program's recall protocol. This survey first identified whether an active recall program existed. For programs with recall systems, rigor in promoting ongoing oral health was surveyed by focusing on recall frequency, patient tracking protocol, involved personnel, interaction with other university departments, provided clinical procedures, and therapy completion protocol. Whether the directors perceived that their recall system was successful was also investigated. Thirty-three of 46 programs responded, giving a response rate of 72%. Of these 33 programs, only 21 (64%) had an active recall system, although 30 (91%) believed recall to be important. Twelve (57%) directors with recall programs considered their system to be effective. Prosthodontic program directors felt their program's recall effectiveness could be improved. Due to the numerous potential benefits of an active recall system, AEPPs should consider implementing or enhancing their recall programs. Further studies are indicated to determine specific criteria that describe an effective recall system for prosthodontic programs within the context of patient health promotion, program curriculum, and financial ramifications.

  9. Event History Data and Survey Recall. An Analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Recall Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    To test the effect of less-frequent interviews on data quality in longitudinal surveys, event history data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 regarding welfare and employment were analyzed. Due to the longer recall period, respondents failed to report short spells of welfare, employment, and unemployment. (SK)

  10. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  11. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (Pprotein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  12. A Potential Tool for Clinicians; Evaluating a Computer-Led Dietary Assessment Method in Overweight and Obese Women during Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne M. Widaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight/obese women. Known dietary intake was compared to Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24 reported intake in women (n = 45, 19–50 years, with body mass index of 27–39.9 kg/m2. Participants received nutrition education and reduced body weight by 4%–10%. Participants completed one unannounced dietary recall and their responses were compared to actual intake. Accuracy of the recall and characteristics of respondent error were measured using linear and logistic regression. Energy was underreported by 5% with no difference for most nutrients except carbohydrates, vitamin B12, vitamin C, selenium, calcium and vitamin D (p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, p = 0.022, p = 0.010, p = 0.008 and p = 0.001 respectively. Overall, ASA24 is a valid dietary assessment tool in overweight/obese women participating in a weight loss program. The automated features eliminate the need for clinicians to be trained, to administer, or to analyze dietary intake. Computer-led dietary assessment tools should be considered as part of clinician-supervised weight loss programs.

  13. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  14. The Accuracy with Which Children Judge the Composition of Their Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Elizabeth Kelly; Lange, Garrett

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four children at each of 3 grade levels (preschool, 2, and 5) were asked to judge which of a presented set of stimulus items they could recall in a subsequent period of verbal free recall. (Author/JMB)

  15. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment.

  16. Sex differences in memory estimates for pictures and words with multiple recall trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Marcos D

    2004-04-01

    Undergraduate students (23 men and 23 women) provided memory performance estimates before and after each of three recall trials involving 80 stimuli (40 pictures and 40 words). No sex differences were found across trials for the total recall of items or for the recall of pictures and words separately. A significant increase in recall for pictures (not words) was found for both sexes across trials. The previous results of Ionescu were replicated on the first and second recall trials: men underestimated their performance on the pictures and women underestimated their performance on the word items. These differences in postrecall estimates were not found after the third recall trial: men and women alike underestimated their performance on both the picture and word items. The disappearance of item-specific sex differences in postrecall estimates for the third recall trial does not imply that men and women become more accurate at estimating their actual performance with multiple recall trials.

  17. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  18. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed.

  19. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  20. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  1. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  2. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  3. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  4. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Hennesser, Yvonne; Kaufmann, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  5. Long-Term Knowledge Effects on Serial Recall of Nonwords Are Not Exclusively Lexical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Frankish, Clive R.

    2005-01-01

    S. Roodenrys and M. Hinton (2002) reported superior recall for nonwords with large rather than small lexical neighborhoods when constituent biphone frequency was controlled, but comparable recall of high and low biphone frequency nonwords when neighborhood size was controlled, suggesting that long-term knowledge effects on nonword recall are…

  6. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic

  7. Effects of Long-Term Representations on Free Recall of Unrelated Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory stores vast amounts of information. Yet recalling this information is often challenging when specific cues are lacking. Here we consider an associative model of retrieval where each recalled item triggers the recall of the next item based on the similarity between their long-term neuronal representations. The model predicts that…

  8. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  9. Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Thai EFL Readers' Words and Text Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasigijtamrong, Jenjit

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of using multimedia annotations on EFL readers' word recall and text recall and to explore which type of multimedia annotations--L1 meaning, L2 meaning, sound, and image--would have a better effect on their recall of new words and text comprehension. The participants were 78 students who enrolled in an…

  10. Establishing a System for Food Recalls to Protect Food Quality and Safety in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are no explicit laws concerning food recalls in China; moreover, some related regulations have weaknesses. China should first create a system of laws and regulations governing food recalls, establish a system to recall defective food, and strengthen administrative and legal remedial mechanisms related to consumer rights.

  11. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Motivation on Recall among Old and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; Scioli, Anthony; Weaver, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-eight elderly subjects and 77 young adults were compared on implicit and explicit motive levels and on recall of introductions and working memory. Significantly fewer of the elderly scored high in the implicit motives. The elderly participants showed major recall deficits on both tasks but the implicit motives studied enhanced recall for the…

  12. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Motivation on Recall among Old and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; Scioli, Anthony; Weaver, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-eight elderly subjects and 77 young adults were compared on implicit and explicit motive levels and on recall of introductions and working memory. Significantly fewer of the elderly scored high in the implicit motives. The elderly participants showed major recall deficits on both tasks but the implicit motives studied enhanced recall for the…

  13. REcall Venice - Exploring disciplines of visual literacy through difficult heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Møller, Hans Ramsgaard

    2015-01-01

    According to James Elkin visual literacy is interpreted as material representations, which communicate knowledge and create insight through their visual appearance. Based on the EU Cultural Heritage project REcall, we argue that visual literacy can also relate to interdisciplinary knowledge rooted...... in architectural environments. The project REcall seeks to formulate a new role of the architectural environment based on invigorated research on the cultural landscapes of WWI and WWII. Based on interdisciplinary workshops employing creative approaches and tools, artists, architects, museologists......, and archeologists question the role of architectural environments when dealing with war heritage. Today, there are still traces left from WWII in the European architectural environments, traces that by visual literacy represent unpleasant memories. However, these visual literacies have shaped our environment, yet...

  14. Latent semantic analysis: a new method to measure prose recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Barclay, Lee; Waterreus, Anna; Flicker, Leon

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare traditional methods of scoring the Logical Memory test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III with a new method based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LSA represents texts as vectors in a high-dimensional semantic space and the similarity of any two texts is measured by the cosine of the angle between their respective vectors. The Logical Memory test was administered to a sample of 72 elderly individuals, 14 of whom were classified as cognitively impaired by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results showed that LSA was at least as valid and sensitive as traditional measures. Partial correlations between prose recall measures and measures of cognitive function indicated that LSA explained all the relationship between Logical Memory and general cognitive function. This suggests that LSA may serve as an improved measure of prose recall.

  15. Changing the working self alters the emotions prompted by recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, John J; Sedikides, Constantine; Xie, Wenwen; Zhou, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    Results from three studies indicated that emotional responses to memories can be changed by altering the working self. In particular, these results showed that emotional reactions to memories: (1) were especially positive when memories were perceived to be central to the working self (Experiment 1); (2) were muted when the working self was changed by adopting a third-person perspective during recall (Experiment 1); (3) of an event in the life of each participant's mother weakened when an individual was induced to experience a self that felt less close to their mother (Experiment 2) and (4) of a childhood event provoked especially positive emotional reactions after exposure to a mortality salience manipulation that increased perceived self-worth (Experiment 3). The extent to which mother was included in the self (Experiment 2) and self-worth (Experiment 3) plausibly mediated the effects of the manipulations on participants' emotional reactions to recalled events.

  16. Encoding and recall of parsed stories in hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzur, A; Fabbro, F; Clarici, A; Braun, S; Bava, A

    1998-12-01

    To define the relationship between aspects of memory concerning encoding and recall of short texts and hypnosis, standardized stories were narrated to 12 subjects, both during ordinary state of consciousness and after hypnotic induction by means of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (Form C). The narrative material used as a stimulus was based on several stories taken from popular oral tradition, previously analyzed according to the classic criteria proposed by Rumelhart in 1975 and Mandler and Johnson in 1977. The subjects' memory performance during both experimental conditions was tape-recorded and compared with the analysis of the original stories (Terminal Nodes) as well as with the higher linguistic structures of the scheme (Basic Nodes), according to Rumelhart's typology. During hypnosis, the subjects recalled significantly fewer narrative elements at both levels of analysis (Terminal Nodes and Basic Nodes). We conclude that hypnosis does not enhance recent memory.

  17. Longitudinal analysis of dietary patterns in Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence to these dietary patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We analysed dietary data collected during seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9253 adults with complete dietary data for three or more waves. Dietary intake assessment was carried out over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave, we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour and maize/coarse grains and the modern high-wheat dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy root/tuber products, fruits, eggs/egg products, soya milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern dietary pattern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat dietary pattern had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity levels were positively associated with both the dietary patterns, but the association became weaker in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China, the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat dietary pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods, is a cause of concern.

  18. Intake of energy-dense snack foods and drinks among Dutch children aged 7-12 years: how many, how much, when, where and which?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, D.W.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.; de Vries, N.K.; van Assema, P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the energy-dense snack food (EDSF) and energy-dense drink (EDD) consumption of children in the Netherlands and investigate subgroup differences. The amounts consumed, eating occasions, places of consumption and consumed types are reported. DESIGN: Twenty-four hour dietary reca

  19. Economics of Traceability for Mitigation of Food Recall Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Resende-Filho, Moises; Buhr, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Traceability of food products and particularly meats is increasingly advocated as a means to provide consumer confidence in credence attributes (e.g., range fed, organic, country of origin) as well as for improved quality control. In the case of food safety, where there are failures in testing and there is not likely to be zero failure rates, traceability may also improve the overall process efficiency and cost effectiveness of recalls. This study relies on case observations to develop a gen...

  20. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  1. MOJIBAKE – The Rehearsal of Word Fragments In Verbal Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christiane eLange-Küttner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005. In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF English words versus geographical UK town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT non-words and names of international (INT European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  2. Sex differences in recall of real or nonsense words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen; Seal, Brooke N

    2003-08-01

    Women perform better than men on tests of verbal memory, but the nature of this advantage has not been precisely established. To examine whether phonemic memory is a factor in the female advantage, we presented, along with other verbal memory tasks, one containing nonsense words. Overall, there was the expected female advantage. However, an examination of the individual tests showed female superiority in recall of the real words but not the nonsense words.

  3. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  4. Recall-promoting physician behaviors in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Jordan; Tentler, Aleksey; Ramgopal, Rajeev; Epstein, Ronald M

    2008-09-01

    Effective treatments can be rendered useless by poor patient recall of treatment instructions. Studies suggest that patients forget a great deal of important information and that recall can be increased through recall-promoting behaviors (RPBs) like repetition or summarization. To assess how frequently RPBs are used in primary care, and to reveal how they might be applied more effectively. Recordings of 49 unannounced standardized patient (SP) visits were obtained using hidden audiorecorders. All SPs presented with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. Transcripts were coded for treatment recommendations and RPBs. Forty-nine primary care physicians. Of 1,140 RPBs, 53.7% were repetitions, 28.2% were communication of the rationale for a treatment, 11.7% were categorizations of treatments (i.e., stating that a treatment could be placed into a treatment category, such as medication-related or lifestyle-related categories), and 3.8% were emphasis of a recommendation's importance. Physicians varied substantially in their use of most RPBs, although no physicians summarized or asked patients to restate recommendations. The number of RPBs was positively correlated with visit length. Primary care physicians apply most RPBs inconsistently, do not utilize several RPBs that are particularly helpful, and may use RPBs inefficiently. Simple principles guiding RPB use may help physicians apply these communication tools more effectively.

  5. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia. Facts and feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, N; Bonke, B; Oosting, J

    1993-09-01

    Experiences of awareness and recall during general anesthesia can be most distressing for patients. To obtain relevant information, the authors systematically interviewed patients in whom awareness during surgery had occurred, and questioned them about their experiences. Twenty-six patients, referred by colleagues, described the facts and feelings they had experienced during the period of awareness, and whether these had had any consequences. Available anesthetic records were independently judged by three experienced anesthesiologists for relevant parameters. Auditory perception and the sensation of paralysis were most frequently mentioned, followed by the sensation of pain. Patients' feelings were mostly related to anxiety, panic, powerlessness, and helplessness. Eighteen patients (70%) experienced unpleasant aftereffects, including sleep disturbances, dreams and nightmares, and flashbacks and anxiety during the day. Only nine patients (35%) had informed their anesthesiologists about what had taken place. Twelve anesthetic records were assessed. In three, the occurrence of awareness had been indicated, while, in a fourth, it was noted that an amnesic drug had been given at a moment of increased blood pressure. Experienced anesthesiologists were unable to reliably distinguish awareness cases from matched controls when judging the records. Details recalled from the period of awareness correspond with data from the literature. The anesthesiologist's role in discussing, and dealing with, traumatic experiences related to anesthesia may be of great importance. The hand-written anesthetic record is of limited value in retrospectively explaining why awareness and recall have occurred.

  6. Word list recall in youngsters and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogol Gerami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A word-list recall is an experiment examines the effect of age on the change in memory. The ability to understand or use language is more or less dependent on the memory capacity. Any person may know what s/he wants to say but may not be able to say it if the memory does not help. We use some form of memory in all aspects of language processing. Whatever we have in our mind is stored whether for seconds, hours, or years. By short-term memory, a person can remember different things for a period of seconds or minutes only. By rehearsal, the duration and the quantity of storage will increase. Therefore, rehearsal transforms the short-term memory into the long-term memory. This experiment, which examines the number of words recalled by different age groups after presenting a word list, reveals that the younger a person the more are the words he or she recalls. The experiment also reveals that semantically related words have greater chance to be remembered when they are compared with unrelated words.

  7. Word frequency of irrelevant speech distractors affects serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Axel; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    In this study, participants memorized frequent or rare target words in silence or while ignoring frequent or rare distractor words. Distractor words impaired recall performance, but low-frequency distractor words caused more impairment than did high-frequency distractor words. We demonstrate how to solve the identifiability problem for Schweickert's (1993) multinomial processing tree model of immediate recall, and then use this model to show that irrelevant speech affected both the probability with which intact target word representations were available for serial recall and the probability of successful reconstruction of item identities based on degraded short-term memory traces. However, the type of irrelevant speech--low-versus high-frequency words--selectively affected the probability of intact target word representations. These results are consistent with an explanation of the irrelevant speech effect within the framework proposed by Cowan (1995), and they pose problems for other explanations of the irrelevant speech effect. The analyses also confirm the validity of Schweickert's process model.

  8. Free recall and outdoor running: cognitive and physical demand interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Samantha L; Blakely, Megan J; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive resource theory is a proposed explanation for people's limited ability to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Reallocation of a restricted supply of cognitive resources to two or more tasks may be detrimental to performance on one or both tasks. Many professionals in high-risk fields, such as those engaged in firefighting, military, and search and rescue missions, face simultaneous mental and physical demands, yet little is known about the resources required to move over the natural terrain these operators may encounter. In the present research, we investigated whether interference was found between outdoor running and a word recall task. As hypothesized, a reduction in word recall was observed in the dual task compared to a recall-alone task; however, the distance run was not significantly different between the dual task and the run-alone task. Subjective reports of workload, task focus, and being "spent" (measures calculated from responses on a questionnaire) were greatest in the dual task. These results support the cognitive resource theory and have important theoretical and practical implications. Further research is required to better understand the type and extent of cognitive resources required by such physical tasks and the potential interference with simultaneous mental tasks.

  9. Dietary diversity is related to socioeconomic status among adult Saharawi refugees living in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morseth, Marianne Sandsmark; Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Kaasa, Ida Sophie; Hatloy, Anne; Barikmo, Ingrid; Henjum, Sigrun

    2017-07-03

    There is limited knowledge about dietary quality among the adult population in low- and middle income countries (LMICs). This study aims to describe dietary quality among the adult Saharawi refugee population and to investigate whether dietary quality is associated with socioeconomic status. In 2014, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Saharawi refugee camps, Algeria. A three-staged cluster sampling was performed and 180 women and 175 men, aged 18-82 years, were randomly selected. The dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall and dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated. Socioeconomic status was assessed using the WAMI index (sanitation, assets, education and income). The mean DDS among the total sample was 3.8 ± 1.4 and 2/3 of participant were at risk of low dietary adequacy. The main food groups consumed were starchy staple foods, flesh foods, and dairy. Vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds and eggs were the food groups least consumed. The multiple regression model showed a positive association between DDS and the WAMI index (P < 0.001) and a negative association between DDS and age (p = 0.01). Low DDS was associated with low socioeconomic status. Programmes to improve the dietary quality among the Saharawi refugees should be implemented.

  10. Patterns of dietary calcium intake in south Indian rural, urban and metropolitan city subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinarayan CV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate dietary calcium intake favours bone mineral accrual. Sparse published data are available on dietary calcium intake of metropolitan city population from south India. Methods: We recorded the dietary intake of calcium and phytates of 524 healthy subjects from Bengaluru, a metropolitan city, by recalling the diet consumed in the previous 5 to 7 days and compared it with dietary intake of calcium of 325 healthy subjects from rural areas around Tirupati, and 508 healthy subjects from urban Tirupati. Results: The dietary calcium intake of the Tirupati rural subjects was the least compared to that of the urban and metropolitan city subjects. In the metropolitan and urban groups the diet was high in calories, milk, milk products and vegetables compared to rural subjects. Dietary calcium intake was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in the rural subjects compared to the urban and metropolitan city subjects. The dietary phytate were significantly different in both the rural, urban as well as the metropolitan city groups (p<0.0001. The dietary phytate/calcium ratio was significantly higher in rural subjects compared to urban and metropolitan city group (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Improving the quality of diet by reducing the phytate and enriching/supplementing with calcium will be of benefit for maintaining bone health.

  11. Measurement of low dietary fiber intake as a risk factor for chronic constipation in children

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Mauro B. [UNIFESP; Vitolo, Marcia R.; Aguirre, Andrea NC [UNIFESP; Fagundes-Neto, Uyssis [UNIFESP

    1999-01-01

    Background: Scarce information exists regarding dietary fiber intake in children with chronic constipation. the objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the intake of fiber as a risk factor for chronic constipation.Methods: Fifty-two children with a mean age of 6.8 +/- 3.2 years who had chronic constipation were age and gender matched with 52 children with normal intestinal habits. the fiber content of the diet was evaluated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Two tables of fiber compo...

  12. Serum hs-CRP varies with dietary cholesterol, but not dietary fatty acid intake in individuals free of any history of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, M; Heidari-Bakavoli, A; Khayyatzadeh, S S; Azarpazhooh, M R; Nematy, M; Safarian, M; Esmaeili, H; Parizadeh, S M R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Kengne, A P; Ferns, G A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration varies with dietary fatty acid intake in Iranian adults free of any history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional study involved 8105 adults (3142 men) aged 35-65 years. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. The relationship between anthropometric, cardiometabolic risk factors and dietary data and serum hs-CRP was assessed using SPSS software. Median crude dietary saturated fat decreased across hs-CRP quarters (P =0.009 for linear trend), whereas energy-adjusted total fat (P =0.017), trans-fat (P =0.016), monounsaturated fatty acids (P =0.030) and cholesterol (P =0.005) monotonically increased, with some evidence of statistical interactions by gender. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP concentrations were associated with some components of dietary fatty acid intake in our population of individuals without CVD, suggesting that dietary fat intake could be associated with subclinical inflammation.

  13. Dietary patterns with special reference to calcium intake in 2-16-year-old Urban Western Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbote, Veena H; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Mughal, Zulf

    2017-01-01

    It is important to establish good dietary practices in childhood that promote adequate calcium intake throughout life and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures in later life. To assess dietary patterns of 2-16-year-old children with special reference to calcium and suggest strategies and develop recipes suitable to identified patterns to increase dietary calcium intake. We studied 220 schoolchildren (2-16 years) around Pune city, India. The study duration was June 2013-July 2014. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary patterns were derived by cluster analysis in two age groups; children (2-9 years) and adolescents (10-16 years). As per the dietary patterns, calcium-rich recipes were developed. Among children, "rice-pulse" (RP) and "wheat, milk, and milk products" (WM) patterns were observed. Among adolescents, RP, "wheat, milk, and bakery" (WMB), and "mixed food" patterns were observed. Children who consumed "WM" and "WMB" patterns had greater intake of calcium (P patterns. The daily calcium intake of whole group was 53% of the recommended dietary allowance. From this, 30% calcium came from milk. Each serve of the developed recipe provided an average of 254 mg of calcium. Majority of children had cereal-pulse-based dietary patterns. By replacing foods from existing dietary patterns with calcium-rich foods, the dietary calcium content may be increased in a sustainable manner.

  14. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena; Grujičić Maja; Rađen Slavica; Novaković Budimka

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using...

  15. [Evaluation of dietary intake of indigenous and alien populations in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Asaulenko, V I; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Baĭgarin, E K

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the investigation of the actual food consumption in 102 adult residents of both sexes in settlements Harp, Aksarka and Beloyarsk in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District - YNAD. The dietary intake of individuals were studied by 24-hour recall methodology adopted for Russian features in the Institute of Nutrition of RAMS. An assessment of differences of the actual consumption of energy and nutrients for newcomers and indigenous populations were performed.

  16. Free recall behaviour in children with and without spelling impairment: the impact of working memory subcapacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malstädt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin

    2012-11-01

    This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with spelling deficits. Video analyses revealed that recall behaviour was similar in impaired and unimpaired children, indicating that both groups applied similar learning activities. Group differences in number of recalled items were attributed to differences in working memory subcapacities between children with and without spelling impairment, especially with regard to central executive and phonological loop functioning.

  17. Program director perceived factors for an enhanced advanced education program in prosthodontics recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Knoernschild, Kent L

    2011-10-01

    A survey study of program directors in Advanced Education Programs in Prosthodontics (AEPPs) was conducted to determine the barriers to and factors that can lead to an enhanced patient-centered recall system. Surveys were sent to AEPP directors across the United States to assess their program's recall protocol. This survey first identified whether an active recall program existed. Based on the existence of recall, the survey then delved into benefits of recall systems for patients and residents, barriers to the formation of a successful recall system, and factors that can be improved upon for an enhanced recall system. Thirty-two of the 45 programs responded; however, only 28 of the surveys were completed entirely, giving a response rate of 62%. Of these 32 programs, 19 (59.4%) reported having a recall system. A majority of the AEPPs with recall (87.5%) indicated that their system can be further improved. Almost all of the programs without recall (91.7%) indicated that if solutions to the most common barriers to recall were found, they would like to implement one within their program. Some hindrances faced by all programs included budget for initiating and maintaining a recall system, personnel to perform hygiene, a patient tracking system, patient education, and time allocation in the residents' curriculum. Mann-Whitney analyses indicated no statistically significant difference in each factor between programs with and without a recall system. Power analysis suggested that differences in perceived barriers between programs with and without recall systems may have been found if the response rate was 71% or greater. Necessary budget and facilities for initiating or maintaining a recall system may be the greatest difference in barrier importance between programs with and without recall. Prosthodontic program directors perceived their program's recall system could be improved. If solutions to the most common hindrances were found, almost all program directors desired

  18. Ordered recall in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta: Can monkeys recall the correct order of sequentially presented images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E O'Neil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta are capable of identifying sequentially shown images in any order among distractors (i.e. images not part of the list sequence. We investigated ordered recall in rhesus monkeys in which subjects were expected to recognize the correct order of images during a “test” phase (simultaneous presentation of images after they had seen the images presented sequentially in a “presentation” phase (sequential presentation of images. If subjects were successfully able to execute the ordered recall task, the first trial accuracy data would appear close to 100% accuracy and it would only take one day to learn the list since the lists used were short, 3-item lists. While this study did not conclusively demonstrate monkeys are capable of ordered recall of sequentially presented, trial unique images (i.e. a list sequence presented only once per session, the data suggests that when the stimuli are not trial unique the monkeys treat each sequence as a simultaneous chaining task. A simultaneous chaining paradigm entails simultaneous presentation of all items without any previous sequential presentation of the images. It is unclear whether results resembling simultaneous chaining are seen because these animals have previous experience with simultaneous chaining, if the training procedure needs to be modified for the monkeys to understand the task, or if the task is beyond their cognitive abilities. Further research with serial learning will clarify this finding and also seek to prove whether rhesus monkeys are in fact capable of such ordered recall tasks.

  19. [Dietary Fiber and Pubertal Development among Children and Adolescents--a Cross-sectional Study in Chengdu, Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hong-mei; Luo, Jiao; Chen, Yan-rong; Bao, Yu-xin; Duan, Ruo-nan; Yang, Ming-zhe; Cheng, Guo

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between intake of dietary fiber and pubertal development among children and adolescents in Chengdu. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1 340 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years. Data about dietary intake were collected through 24-h dietary self-recall. Pubertal development was measured by trained investigators using Tanner criteria. Consumptions of total fiber and fiber from different sources were compared among the participants with different stages of pubertal development. Data from 1 328 children and adolescents were analyzed. Boys (n = 667) at a later stage of pubertal development consumed less total fiber and fruit fiber than those at an earlier stage (P fiber than those at an earlier stage (P Dietary fiber intake, especially fruit fiber, is lower in children and adolescents with early commencement of puberty development. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between dietary fiber and pubertal development.

  20. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  1. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  2. What types of learning are enhanced by a cued recall test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Pashler, Harold; Vul, Edward

    2006-10-01

    In two experiments, we investigated what types of learning benefit from a cued recall test. After initial exposure to a word pair (A+B), subjects experienced either an intervening cued recall test (A-->?) with feedback, or a restudy presentation (A-->B). The final test could be cued recall in the same (A-->?) or opposite (?-->B) direction, or free recall of just the cues (Recall As) or just the targets (Recall Bs). All final tests revealed a benefit for testing as opposed to restudying. Tests produced a direct benefit for information that was retrieved on the intervening test (B). This benefit also "spilled over" to facilitate recall of information that was present on the test but not retrieved (A). Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Denholm J; Delfabbro, Paul; Proeve, Michael

    2015-05-01

    There are two methods commonly used to measure dream recall in the home setting. The retrospective method involves asking participants to estimate their dream recall in response to a single question and the logbook method involves keeping a daily record of one's dream recall. Until recently, the implicit assumption has been that these measures are largely equivalent. However, this is challenged by the tendency for retrospective measures to yield significantly lower dream recall rates than logbooks. A common explanation for this is that retrospective measures underestimate dream recall. Another is that keeping a logbook enhances it. If retrospective measures underestimate dream recall and if logbooks enhance it they are both unlikely to reflect typical dream recall rates and may be confounded with variables associated with the underestimation and enhancement effects. To date, this issue has received insufficient attention. The present review addresses this gap in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Invariance of cognitive triage in the development of recall in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marche, Tammy A; Howe, Mark L; Lane, David G; Owre, Keith P; Briere, Jennifer L

    2009-07-01

    Past research has demonstrated that cognitive triage (weak-strong-weak recall pattern) is a robust effect that optimises children's recall. The aim of the current research was to determine whether adults' free recall also exhibits triage and whether cognitive triage is less marked with older than younger adults' recall. Younger and older adults memorized 16 unrelated words until all items were recalled perfectly. The triage pattern existed for both the younger and older adults' recall and there was evidence for age differences in triage. Our results are consistent with claims of greater verbatim forgetting and increased susceptibility to output interference with age in adulthood. Further research is needed to determine whether fuzzy-trace theory adequately explains the ageing of triage and what factors play a role in the development of this pattern of recall in adulthood.

  5. The recall of information from working memory. Insights from behavioural and chronometric perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N; Cowan, Nelson; Hitch, Graham J; Horton, Neil J

    2008-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a recall reconstruction hypothesis for working memory (WM), according to which items can be recovered from multiple memory representations. Across four experiments, participants recalled memoranda that were either integrated with or independent of the sentence content. We found consistently longer pauses accompanying the correct recall of integrated compared with independent words, supporting the argument that sentence memory could scaffold the access of target items. Integrated words were also more likely to be recalled correctly, dependent on the details of the task. Experiment 1 investigated the chronometry of spoken recall for word span and reading span, with participants completing an unfinished sentence in the latter case. Experiments 2 and 3 confirm recall time differences without using word generation requirements, while Experiment 4 used an item and order response choice paradigm with nonspoken responses. Data emphasise the value of recall timing in constraining theories of WM functioning.

  6. Examining the Relationship between Immediate Serial Recall and Immediate Free Recall: Common Effects of Phonological Loop Variables but Only Limited Evidence for the Phonological Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by…

  7. Digestion Modelling in the Small Intestine : Impact of Dietary Fibre

    CERN Document Server

    Taghipoor, Masoomeh; Georgelin, Christine; Licois, Jean-René; Lescoat, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we continue the modelling of the digestion in the small intestine, started in a previous article, by investigating the effects of dietary fibre. We recall that this model aims at taking into account the three main phenomena of the digestion, namely the transit of the bolus, the degradation of feedstuffs and the absorption through the intestinal wall. In order to study the role of dietary fibre on digestion, we model their two principal physiochemical characteristics which interact with the function of the small intestine, i.e. viscosity and water holding capacity. This leads us to consider some features of digestion which have not been taken into account previously, in particular the interrelationship between the evolution of dry matter and water in the bolus. The numerical results are in agreement with the positive effect of insoluble dietary fibre on the velocity of bolus along the small intestine and on its degradation. These results highlight the negative effect of soluble dietary fibre on d...

  8. Do Implant Overdentures Improve Dietary Intake? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, N.M.; Gray-Donald, K.; Awad, M.A.; Johnson-Down, L.; Wollin, S.; Feine, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    People wearing mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD) chew food with less difficulty than those wearing conventional complete dentures (CD). However, there is still controversy over whether or not this results in better dietary intake. In this randomized clinical trials (RCT), the amounts of total dietary fiber (TDF), macronutrients, 9 micronutrients, and energy in diets consumed by persons with IOD and CD were compared. Male and female edentate patients ≥ 65 yrs (n = 255) were randomly divided into 2 groups and assigned to receive a maxillary CD and either a mandibular IOD or a CD. One year following prosthesis delivery, 217 participants (CD = 114, IOD = 103) reported the food and quantities they consumed to a registered dietician through a standard 24-hour dietary recall method. The mean and median values of TDF, macro- and micronutrients, and energy consumed by both groups were calculated and compared analytically. No significant between-group differences were found (ps > .05). Despite quality-of-life benefits from IODs, this adequately powered study reveals no evidence of nutritional advantages for independently living medically healthy edentate elders wearing two-implant mandibular overdentures over those wearing conventional complete dentures in their dietary intake at one year following prosthesis delivery (International Clinical Trials ISRCTN24273915). PMID:24158335

  9. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  10. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements to be proven safe to FDA's satisfaction before they are marketed. For most claims made ... the manufacturer or seller to prove to FDA's satisfaction that the claim is accurate or truthful before ...

  11. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  12. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  13. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    complications. A potential pathophysiological role of dietary AGEs in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been discussed, as the contribution of dietary AGEs has been estimated to be larger than the amount of endogenously formed AGEs. Furthermore, the increased mortality associated with type 2...... diabetes and cardiovascular disease underlines the importance of identifying possible risk factors in the Western lifestyle. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if intake of dietary AGEs increases risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In an acute meal study, effects...... sensitivity, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress of dietary AGEs with different molecular size were investigated over 2 weeks. It was concluded that the diet with low molecular weight AGEs was most efficient in up-regulating expression of AGE receptors in whole blood, but no effects on insulin...

  14. Adult recall of tobacco advertising on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Delnevo, Cristine D; Lewis, M Jane

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of New Jersey adults who reported seeing tobacco products advertised on the Internet and described the means by which these products were advertised. Data were analyzed from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey (NJATS), a repeated, cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted with a statewide representative sample. We used logistic regression to determine factors associated with recall of tobacco Internet advertising, adjusting for demographics, smoking behavior variables, and receipt of tobacco industry direct mail. Participants included 3,930 adults who completed the 2001 NJATS, 4,004 adults who completed the 2002 survey, and 3,062 adults who completed the 2005 survey. The proportion of adult Internet users reporting exposure to tobacco product advertising on the Internet has increased each year (6.9% in 2001, 15.6% in 2002, 17.8% in 2005). Based on 2005 data, recall of tobacco product advertising on the Internet was higher among males young adults aged 18-24 years, Asians, adults who reported receipt of direct mail advertising, and adults with a postcollege education. In addition, adult Internet users most often reported seeing tobacco products advertised on the Internet via pop-up or banner ads (60.7%), followed by E-mail messages (24.6%), and Web sites (14.9%). Recall of tobacco advertising by Internet users increased between 2001 and 2005 and was particularly high among certain subgroups. An urgent need exists for expanded surveillance of Internet tobacco sales and marketing practices.

  15. A potential tool for clinicians; evaluating a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight and obese women during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Dietary assessment methods used in overweight/obese participants have been scrutinized for underreporting energy. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-administered, 24-hour recall method (ASA24) to measure energy and nutrient intake in overweight/obese women and to further...

  16. Dietary intakes of HIV-infected adults in urban UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, K; Goff, L M

    2013-08-01

    Maintaining a good nutritional status is important for immune health and for managing metabolic comorbidities in adults with HIV infection. Little is known about the dietary habits of adults living with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. The aims of this study were to characterise their dietary intakes, and to identify subgroups of patients who may require nutritional counselling and/or food support services. An observational study of adults attending a London HIV out-patient clinic who completed a demographics questionnaire and a structured 24 h diet recall interview was conducted. In all, 196 (162 men, 34 women) adults participated. Forty-three percent (n=66) of men and thirty-six percent (n=11) of women did not consume enough energy to meet their basal metabolic requirements and activity factor. The majority of both men (64%) and women (56%) consumed more than the recommended amount of saturated fat. Self-report of lipodystrophy (B coefficient -2.27 (95% CI -3.92 to -0.61), P=0.008) was associated with lower dietary fibre intake/1000 kcal per day, and a more recent diagnosis of HIV (B coefficient -0.11 (95% CI -0.20 to -0.02), P=0.013) was associated with a higher dietary fibre/1000 kcal intake per day. Recreational drug use was associated with a higher overall calorie (P=0.003) and protein (P=0.001) intake than non-usage after adjusting for basal metabolic requirements and weight, respectively. Our data describe the dietary intakes of a diverse group of adults with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. These dietary habits may have an impact on their overall health and development of other metabolic comorbidities common in people with HIV.

  17. Dietary taurine and nutrient intake and dietary quality by alcohol consumption level in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is related to various negative healthy consequences. To investigate difference of taurine intake according to the alcohol consumption level, we studied body composition, intake of dietary nutrients including taurine, and dietary quality in Korean male college students that were divided according to their alcohol consumption level. Surveys were conducted using a questionnaire and a 3-day recall method for assessing dietary intake in 220 male college students residing in Incheon, Korea. The subjects were divided into two groups by alcohol consumption level: heavy drinking group (average drinking over 5 cans (355 ml) of beer or 7 shots (45 ml) of soju) and light drinking group (average drinking less than 5 cans of beer or 7 shots of soju or not drinking any alcohol at all at one time during the previous month). The average body mass index (BMI) in the heavy drinking group was significantly higher compared to the light drinking group (p nutrition education for heavy drinking Korean male college students may be needed to improve balanced nutritional status and further studies such as case-control study or taurine intervention study are required to know the relationship between dietary taurine intake and alcohol consumption.

  18. Student-perceived factors for an enhanced advanced education program in prosthodontics recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Knoernschild, Kent L

    2011-07-01

    A qualitative study of Advanced Education Programs in Prosthodontics (AEPPs) students was conducted to identify best practices to effectively promote ongoing health and student learning within the context of a patient-centered recall system. Ten students from seven AEPPs nationwide were invited to participate in a focus group on recall systems within AEPPs. The discussion first identified whether an active recall program existed and then delved into benefits for patients and students, positive and negative features of existing recall systems, and factors that can be improved upon for an enhanced recall system. Participants advocated the highest standard of patient care, including regular ongoing care once restorative therapy is complete. Discussion indicates that not only does regular patient recall lead to health promotion, disease prevention, and monitoring of existing prostheses for the patient, but also provides for an enhanced learning experience for the students. Recognizing this, several students from AEPPs lacking an official recall system have established a "makeshift" system, encompassing a treatment completion letter, final intraoral photographs, patient education, and regular prosthetic evaluations, for their existing patients. Prosthodontic program students perceived their program's recall effectiveness could be improved. Due to the numerous potential benefits of an active recall system for both patients and students, some perceived factors to be improved upon include treatment completion protocol, patient education, and establishment of a patient-centered recall system managed by a team of hygienists, receptionists, attending faculty, and residents. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Dietary magnesium intake improves insulin resistance among non-diabetic individuals with metabolic syndrome participating in a dietary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinsong; Persuitte, Gioia; Olendzki, Barbara C; Wedick, Nicole M; Zhang, Zhiying; Merriam, Philip A; Fang, Hua; Carmody, James; Olendzki, Gin-Fei; Ma, Yunsheng

    2013-09-27

    Many cross-sectional studies show an inverse association between dietary magnesium and insulin resistance, but few longitudinal studies examine the ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for magnesium intake through food and its effect on insulin resistance among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The dietary intervention study examined this question in 234 individuals with MetS. Magnesium intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were collected at each time point; and insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The relation between magnesium intake and HOMA-IR was assessed using linear mixed models adjusted for covariates. Baseline magnesium intake was 287 ± 93 mg/day (mean ± standard deviation), and HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were 3.7 ± 3.5, 99 ± 13 mg/dL, and 15 ± 13 μU/mL, respectively. At baseline, 6-, and 12-months, 23.5%, 30.4%, and 27.7% met the RDA for magnesium. After multivariate adjustment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance (P 3.6) over time was 71% lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.72] in participants in the highest quartile of magnesium intake than those in the lowest quartile. For individuals meeting the RDA for magnesium, the multivariate-adjusted OR for high HOMA-IR over time was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.77). These findings indicate that dietary magnesium intake is inadequate among non-diabetic individuals with MetS and suggest that increasing dietary magnesium to meet the RDA has a protective effect on insulin resistance.

  20. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-hour recall. Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns from 22 food groups as predictor variables and four dietary factors related to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: 1) the balanced pattern was characterized by high intake of various kinds of foods including white rice, and 2) the rice-oriented pattern was characterized by a high intake of white rice but low intake of vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products. Both patterns had considerable amounts of total carbohydrate, but GI values differed. The rice-oriented pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia in men and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both men and women. The balanced pattern had no overall significant association with the prevalence of dyslipidemia or diabetes, however, men with energy intake above the median showed a reduced prevalence of diabetes across quintiles of balanced pattern scores. The results show that dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes in the Korean adult population. PMID:22977690

  1. A changing landscape: web-based methods for dietary assessment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Kate E

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents' dietary intake is an important determinant of health and well-being and is influenced by a complex interaction of environmental, social, psychological, and physiological factors. The complexity of the adolescent diet makes its assessment prone to error, which has prompted researchers and clinicians to turn to technology to reduce this error. Previous reviews have been conducted regarding the use of technology in dietary assessment for adults; however, there are no known reviews for adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe the practical considerations for web-based dietary assessment methods and to evaluate recent evidence on their validity and implications. There are numerous web-based dietary assessment methods that are available, valid, and reliable for use in the adolescent population. Web-based methods include both native and web-based applications (or 'apps'), and have been developed for use as food records, 24-h dietary recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. Web-based methods provide an efficient, cost-effective and practical solution to assess dietary intake; they are less burdensome to respondents and reduce errors and bias. Furthermore, adolescents are technologically savvy and often prefer the use of technology. Web-based methods should be considered when assessing adolescents' dietary intake.

  2. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Bonnell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41 were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted.

  3. Modest validity and fair reproducibility of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funtikova, Anna N; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A; Fitó, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Cluster analysis is widely used to analyze dietary patterns. We aimed to analyze the validity and reproducibility of the dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We hypothesized that the dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis have fair to modest reproducibility and validity. Dietary data were collected from 107 individuals from population-based survey, by an FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and after 1 year (FFQ2), and by twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDR). Repeatability and validity were measured by comparing clusters obtained by the FFQ1 and FFQ2 and by the FFQ2 and 24-HDR (reference method), respectively. Cluster analysis identified a "fruits & vegetables" and a "meat" pattern in each dietary data source. Cluster membership was concordant for 66.7% of participants in FFQ1 and FFQ2 (reproducibility), and for 67.0% in FFQ2 and 24-HDR (validity). Spearman correlation analysis showed reasonable reproducibility, especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern, and lower validity also especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern. κ statistic revealed a fair validity and reproducibility of clusters. Our findings indicate a reasonable reproducibility and fair to modest validity of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate and obesity in a group of women from Ahvaz

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    Farideh Shishehbor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Obesity and being overweight are one of current nutritional disorders found in many developed and developing countries such as Iran, it seems that recently the role of carbohydrates in the formation of such illness has been considered. Studies conducted in the field of obesity and quality and quantity of carbohydrate (glycemic index and glycemic load have had inconsistent results. Therefore, This study evaluates the relationship between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and some indicators of obesity. Material & Methods: The subjects were 95 healthy Iranian females aged 25-55 y .dietary GI, GL assessed from six24 hour food recalls. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standard methods. Information such as history of disease and genetics was collected by a questionnaire. Independent sample t test, correlation confident ، one–way ANOVA Were used to investigate the correlation between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and anthropometric measurements. Results: The mean dietary GI was 72.8 and the mean dietary GL was 154.4. After making the necessary adjustments for potential dietary and non-dietary confounding factors, no significant association was seen between dietary GI, GL and BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio in healthy women. Conclusion: The fact that there was no relation between dietary GI and GL and anthropometric measurements in healthy women may be due to the fact that results obtained from overweight samples were not reported in the current study.

  5. Dietary Patterns and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Results from a Household-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Xia, Shichang; Huang, Lichun; Meng, Jia; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2017-05-05

    The key dietary pattern other than dietary factors influencing obesity has been reported by several large epidemiological studies. This study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 including 1613 adult residents in Zhejiang Province. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis based on 24-h dietary recall. Associations with dietary patterns and obesity were examined and adjusted for age and gender by logistic regression. Five dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis with their eigenvalues greater than 1: 'cereal, animal, and plant food', 'high protein food', 'plant food', 'poultry', and 'beverage'. After adjustment for age and gender, the 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' pattern was associated with obesity (OR = 2.924, 3.257; 95% CI = 1.147-7.463, 1.372-7.692). In conclusion, 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity. 'Cereal, animal, and plant food' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased protein and fat intake; while a 'beverage' dietary pattern may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased carbohydrate intake. The findings are valuable in targeting future nutrition education.

  6. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS

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    Xiaoyue Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years. Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  7. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered.

  8. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  9. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (pnutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  10. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; Abelson, James L.; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 hours prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 hours after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. PMID:22796109

  11. OS EFEITOS DO RECALL DE PRODUTOS NAS ATITUDES DOS CONSUMIDORES

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    Celso Augusto de Mattos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente têm sido comuns mensagens das montadoras de automóveis convidando os consumidores a comparecerem em lojas autorizadas para efetuar consertos ou trocas preventivas de peças. Essas mensagens, conhecidas por recall ou chamadas, são usualmente veiculadas em mídias de massa, como TV e jornais impressos, a fim de ter ampla divulgação. Embora pareça uma postura honesta e proativa, não se conhecem 05 seus efeitos sobre o comportamento do consumidor. Como este percebe essas mensagens? Quais as suas Intenções em relação a essas empresas que fizeram o recall? O uso de citações de fomecedores na mensagem faz alguma diferença? A fim de Investigar essas questões, foi realizada uma pesquisa com 204 consumidores, dos quais 142 (70% possuiam automóvel. Os resultados mostraram que somente a avaliação da imagem apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos, tendo sido negativa no grupo com referência ao fornecedor e positiva no grupo sem referência, principalmente para os consumidores de alto envolvimento com o produto. As implicações gerendais e recomendações para novas pesquisas são também apresentadas.

  12. Robust sequential working memory recall in heterogeneous cognitive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Sokolov, Yury; Kozma, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often caused by partial heterogeneous disinhibition in cognitive networks, controlling sequential and spatial working memory (SWM). Such dynamic connectivity changes suggest that the normal relationship between the neuronal components within the network deteriorates. As a result, competitive network dynamics is qualitatively altered. This dynamics defines the robust recall of the sequential information from memory and, thus, the SWM capacity. To understand pathological and non-pathological bifurcations of the sequential memory dynamics, here we investigate the model of recurrent inhibitory-excitatory networks with heterogeneous inhibition. We consider the ensemble of units with all-to-all inhibitory connections, in which the connection strengths are monotonically distributed at some interval. Based on computer experiments and studying the Lyapunov exponents, we observed and analyzed the new phenomenon—clustered sequential dynamics. The results are interpreted in the context of the winnerless competition principle. Accordingly, clustered sequential dynamics is represented in the phase space of the model by two weakly interacting quasi-attractors. One of them is similar to the sequential heteroclinic chain—the regular image of SWM, while the other is a quasi-chaotic attractor. Coexistence of these quasi-attractors means that the recall of the normal information sequence is intermittently interrupted by episodes with chaotic dynamics. We indicate potential dynamic ways for augmenting damaged working memory and other cognitive functions. PMID:25452717

  13. Children’s Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katie S.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7–13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker’s perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer’s perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD. PMID:27649299

  14. Protoplasmic Computing to Memorize and Recall Periodic Environmental Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tero, Atsushi; Saigusa, Tetsu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    Single-celled organisms might be more intelligent than previously envisaged [1]-[5]. The acts of anticipating and recalling events are higher functions performed by the brains of higher animals; their evolutionary origins and the way they self-organize, however, remain open questions. Here we show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favorable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favorable conditions. For example, plasmodia exposed to low temperature and low humidity, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When favorable conditions were subsequently reintroduced, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the point in time when the next unfavorable episode would have occurred. This implies that the plasmodia are able to anticipate impending environmental change. After this anticipatory response had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal speed; however, the slowing down could subsequently be induced by a single unfavorable pulse, implying recall of the periodicity that had been memorized. We have explored the mechanisms underlying this behavior from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results suggest that this primitive intelligence is of cellular origin and that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence. abstract environment.

  15. Controlled recall of verbal material in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Flowers, Kenneth A; Roberts, Kathrine A

    2009-09-01

    This study used a guided process-dissociation procedure to examine the contribution of controlled and automatic uses of memory to a cued-recall task in 24 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE: 12 left-sided; 12 right-sided), and 12 neurotypical controls. In an inclusion task, participants attempted to complete three-letter word stems using previously studied words, in an exclusion task they aimed to avoid using studied words to complete stems. Patients with left TLE produced fewer target completions under inclusion conditions. Completion rates were not significantly different under exclusion conditions. Estimates derived from process dissociation calculations, confirmed that the cued-recall deficit in left TLE patients arose entirely from impairment in controlled memory processes. There were no group differences in the estimates of automatic processes. Recognition judgements of stems corresponding to studied words did not differ between the groups. Overall the results support the view that controlled and automatic memory processes are mediated by separable neural systems. Hippocampal and related structures within the left MTL are more important than corresponding right hemisphere structures for the controlled retrieval of verbal material. In contrast, the findings from this study do not suggest that the left and right temporal lobes make a differential contribution to automatic memory processing. The theoretical and clinical relevance of these findings are discussed.

  16. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach Lehrkrankenhaus der Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg i. Br., Radio-Onkologie, Offenburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal {sup registered}) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlen-Recall-Dermatitis (RRD) ist eine akute Hauttoxizitaet, die durch verschiedene Chemotherapeutika oder Antibiotika innerhalb eines frueheren, komplett abgeheilten Bestrahlungsfelds hervorgerufen wird. Praediktive Faktoren fuer die RRD sind nicht bekannt und ihr Mechanismus ist nicht vollstaendig geklaert. Es wird ein Fallbericht einer durch Docetaxel induzierten RRD dargestellt, die erfolgreich mit einer antioxidativen Salbe (Mapisal {sup registered}) behandelt wurde. Solche Salben koennten nicht nur zur Therapie der RRD, sondern auch bei der Behandlung einer akuten Dermatitis waehrend der Strahlentherapie nuetzlich sein und damit zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet der Patienten und zur planmaessigen Durchfuehrung der Tumortherapie beitragen. (orig.)

  17. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects.

  18. List and Text Recall Differ in Their Predictors: Replication Over Samples and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kayan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that latent list and text recall invoke somewhat different processes. A bivariate outcome path model of latent list and text recall evaluated the effects of age, latent speed, working memory, and vocabulary as their predictors. Independent of age, working memory reliably predicted both recall variables, whereas speed reliably predicted list recall only. The relationship between vocabulary and recall was mediated by age, working memory, and speed. The generalizability of this model, based on data from the 1994 testing of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study, was evaluated across samples by testing its invariance on baseline data from an additional panel and for eventual attrition at baseline and at a subsequent testing of retested participants and dropouts. Results showed that the model was invariant over all groups, supporting a replicable distinction between list and text recall. PMID:20498454

  19. Subjective organisation in the free recall learning of adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2008-01-01

    Single trial methods reveal unimpaired free recall of unrelated words in Asperger's syndrome (AS). When repeated trials are used (free recall learning), typical individuals show improved recall over trials, subjective organisation of material (SO) and a correlation between free recall and SO. We tested oral (Experiment 1) and written (Experiment 2) free recall over 16 trials in adults with AS and typical individuals. Across both experiments AS participants showed marginally diminished recall. Poorer SO was seen in the Asperger group only in Experiment 2, but in both experiments, individual differences in SO in the Asperger group were less likely to converge over trials. This lack of convergence suggests that the AS group organise material in idiosyncratic ways.

  20. Dissociative effects of true and false recall as a function of different encoding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kerri A

    2007-01-01

    Goodwin, Meissner, and Ericsson (2001) proposed a path model in which elaborative encoding predicted the likelihood of verbalisation of critical, nonpresented words at encoding, which in turn predicted the likelihood of false recall. The present study tested this model of false recall experimentally with a manipulation of encoding strategy and the implementation of the process-tracing technique of protocol analysis. Findings indicated that elaborative encoding led to more verbalisations of critical items during encoding than rote rehearsal of list items, but false recall rates were reduced under elaboration conditions (Experiment 2). Interestingly, false recall was more likely to occur when items were verbalised during encoding than not verbalised (Experiment 1), and participants tended to reinstate their encoding strategies during recall, particularly after elaborative encoding (Experiment 1). Theoretical implications for the interplay of encoding and retrieval processes of false recall are discussed.

  1. The recall of information from working memory: insights from behavioural and chronometric perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Cowan, Nelson; Hitch, Graham J.; Horton, Neil J

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments we test a recall reconstruction hypothesis for working memory, according to which reading span items can be recovered or specified from multiple memory representations. Each reading span experiment involves memoranda either embedded within or unrelated to the sentence content. This manipulation affected the timing of recall, with longer pauses accompanying items that are linked to processing. Levels of recall accuracy vary between these task formats, dependent on the orienting task for processing. Experiment 1 compares the chronometry of spoken recall for word span and reading span, in which participants complete an unfinished sentence. Experiment 2 and 3 confirm recall time differences without using word generation requirements, while Experiments 4 used an item and order response choice paradigm with nonspoken responses. We argue that verbal and manual recall timing offers an informative measure for understanding working memory. PMID:19130763

  2. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P carotenoids (P carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study, serum carotenoids were mediators of dietary carotenoids and CVD risk biomarker associations. Serum β-carotene was also a moderator of the dietary β-carotene and CRP association. These findings may help in the design of future intervention studies on dietary carotenoids in the prevention of CVD.

  3. Assessment of dietary diversity and nutritional status of pregnant women in Islamabad, Pakistan. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fatima; Thaver, Inayat; Khan, Shahzad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition is one of the most important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Maternal nutrition has direct association with foetal nutrition. This study aimed to identify dietary diversity and determine any relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Rawalpindi Islamabad region. It was a cross sectional survey involving 350 pregnant women in their second and third trimesters, conducted in outpatient department of Maternal and Child health centre at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad. A semi qualitative questionnaire was used that contained structured questions regarding socio-demographic features, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, and three day dietary recall. A second section comprising of questions regarding dietary perceptions was also Out of total, 47% of pregnant women had normal pre-gestational BMI while, 22% were overweight, 17% obese, and only 12% of pregnant women were under weight. Similarly 28.1% were anaemic. Medium dietary diversity was observed in 89% of pregnant women, while only 5% showed low, and high dietary diversity. Dietary diversity was not associated with sociodemographic, or socioeconomic status of pregnant women. Even though weight gain during second (p=0.2) and third trimesters (p=0.049) had a positive relationship with dietary diversity, more than 74% of pregnant women gained less than recommended level of weight gain. No association could be proven between haemoglobin and dietary diversity (p=0.51). Dietary diversity is a good proxy indicator for micronutrient adequacy in pregnant women, however if quantity of food consumed is added it can give better indication of determinants of nutritional status of pregnant women.

  4. Respondents' recall of injury events: an investigation of recall bias in cross-sectional injury data from the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Safa; Abdelgadir, Nahid; Shahraz, Saeid; Bhalla, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Recall bias is a well-documented limitation of population-based cross-sectional injury surveys. To fill some gaps in this area, we investigated the extent and nature of recall bias in Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS 2010) injury data. The extent of incomplete recall was measured by comparing the total reported injuries over 12 months with the annualised number of injuries in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of socio-demographic variables, injury attributes and interviewee characteristics with differential recall. Relevant interactions were tested. Overall, reported injuries were 33% of the expected. Injuries among children 1-4 years had lower odds of being reported to have occurred earlier than the four weeks preceding the survey than people aged 65 years and over (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.47). Injuries that received inpatient care in the first week were more likely to be recalled than those that did not receive care (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.14-3.75). Respondent's age was associated with differential recall. Differential injury recall should be considered when using SHHS 2010 to compare injury occurrence between children under five and older groups or at the level of health care received.

  5. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A

    2009-10-01

    The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8). The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).

  6. The Reliability and Validity of the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire for People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Asaad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition therapy is essential for diabetes treatment, and assessment of dietary intake can be time consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure diabetic patients’ adherence to Canadian diabetes nutrition recommendations. Specific information derived from three, repeated 24-h dietary recalls of 64 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.2 ± 9.7 years, was correlated with a total score and individual items of the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire (PDAQ. Test-retest reliability was completed by 27 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 62.8 ± 8.4 years. The correlation coefficients for PDAQ items versus 24-h recalls ranged from 0.46 to 0.11. The intra-class correlation (0.78 was acceptable, indicating good reliability. The results suggest that PDAQ is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes nutrition recommendations. Because it is quick to administer and score, it may be useful as a screening tool in research and as a clinical tool to monitor dietary adherence.

  7. Relations of nostalgia with music to emotional response and recall of autobiographical memory

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 麻美; 岩永, 誠; 生和, 秀敏

    2002-01-01

    Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...

  8. When does word meaning affect immediate serial recall in semantic dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Jones, Roy; Bateman, David; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia can show superior immediate recall of words that they still understand relatively well, as compared with more semantically degraded words, suggesting that conceptual knowledge makes a major contribution to phonological short-term memory. However, a number of studies have failed to show such a recall difference, challenging this view. We examined the effect of several methodological factors on the recall of known and degraded words in 4 patients with semantic de...

  9. The recall of information from working memory : insights from behavioural and chronometric perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Towse, John N.; Cowan, Nelson; Hitch, Graham J; Horton, Neil

    2008-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a recall reconstruction hypothesis for working memory (WM), according to which items can be recovered from multiple memory representations. Across four experiments, participants recalled memoranda that were either integrated with or independent of the sentence content. We found consistently longer pauses accompanying the correct recall of integrated compared with independent words, supporting the argument that sentence memory could scaffold the access of target items....

  10. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselbach Simone; Rüsseler Jascha; Wiswede Daniel; Münte Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This...

  11. Valence of distractor words increases the effects of irrelevant speech on serial recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buchner, Axel; Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; Mehl, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    .... Distractor words impaired recall performance, but valent distractor words caused more disruption than neutral distractors, and negative distractors caused more disruption than positive distractors...

  12. What can we learn about immediate memory from the development of children's free recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Hall, Debbora; Harvey, Caroline E; Tam, Helen; Towse, John N; Zarandi, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    We ask the question: Which aspects of immediate memory performance improve with age? In two studies, we reexamine the widely held view that primary memory capacity estimates derived from children's immediate free recall are age invariant. This was done by assessing children's immediate free-recall accuracy while also measuring the order in which they elected to recall items (Experiment 1) and by encouraging children to begin free recall with items from towards the end of the presented list (Experiment 2). Across samples aged between 5 and 8 years we replicated the previously reported age-related changes in free-recall serial position functions when aggregated across all trials of the standard task, including an absence of age differences in the recency portion of this curve. However, we also show that this does not reflect the fact that primary memory capacity is constant across age. Instead, when we incorporate order of report information, clear age differences are evident in the recall of list-final items that are output at the start of a participant's response. In addition, the total amount that individuals recalled varied little across different types of free-recall tasks. These findings have clear implications for the use of immediate free recall as a means of providing potential indices of primary memory capacity and in the study of the development of immediate memory.

  13. Comparison of the neural correlates of retrieval success in tests of cued recall and recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kayoko; Vilberg, Kaia L.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The neural correlates of successful retrieval on tests of word stem recall and recognition memory were compared. In the recall test, subjects viewed word stems, half of which were associated with studied items and half with unstudied items, and for each stem attempted to recall a corresponding study word. In the recognition test, old/new judgments were made on old and new words. The neural correlates of successful retrieval were identified by contrasting activity elicited by correctly endorsed test items. Old > new effects common to the two tasks were found in medial and lateral parietal, and right entorhinal cortex. Common new > old effects were identified in medial and left frontal cortex, and left anterior intra-parietal sulcus. Greater old > new effects were evident for cued recall in inferior parietal regions abutting those demonstrating common effects, whereas larger new > old effects were found for recall in left frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. New > old effects were also found for the recall task in right lateral anterior prefrontal cortex, where they were accompanied by old > new effects during recognition. It is concluded that successful recall and recognition are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of recollection-sensitive parietal regions, and that the greater activation in these regions during recall reflects the greater dependence of that task on recollection. Larger new > old effects during recall are interpreted as reflections of the greater opportunity for iterative retrieval attempts when retrieval cues are partial rather than copy cues. PMID:21455941

  14. Infrequent dream recall associated with low performance but high overnight improvement on mirror-tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumel, Gaëlle; Carr, Michelle; Marquis, Louis-Philippe; Blanchette-Carrière, Cloé; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-08-01

    Although sleep facilitates learning and memory, the roles of dreaming and habitual levels of recalling dreams remain unknown. This study examined if performance and overnight improvement on a rapid eye movement sleep-sensitive visuomotor task is associated differentially with habitually high or low dream recall frequency. As a relation between dream production and visuospatial skills has been demonstrated previously, one possibility is that frequency of dream recall will be linked to performance on visuomotor tasks such as the Mirror Tracing Task. We expected that habitually low dream recallers would perform more poorly on the Mirror Tracing Task than would high recallers and would show less task improvement following a night of sleep. Fifteen low and 20 high dream recallers slept one night each in the laboratory and performed the Mirror Tracing Task before and after sleep. Low recallers had overall worse baseline performance but a greater evening-to-morning improvement than did high recallers. Greater improvements in completion time in low recallers were associated with Stage 2 rather than rapid eye movement sleep. Findings support the separate notions that dreaming is related to visuomotor processes and that different levels of visuomotor skill engage different sleep- and dream-related consolidation mechanisms. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Genetic influences on free and cued recall in long-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Heather E; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L; Todd, Richard D

    2006-10-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) problems are associated with many psychiatric and neurological illnesses and are commonly measured using free and cued recall tasks. Although LTM has been linked with biologic mechanisms, the etiology of distinct LTM tasks is unknown. We studied LTM in 95 healthy female twin pairs identified through birth records in the state of Missouri. Performance on tasks of free recall of unrelated words, free and cued recall of categorized words, and the vocabulary section of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) were examined using structural equation modeling. Additive genetic and unique environmental factors influenced LTM and intelligence. Free recall of unrelated and categorized words, and cued recall of categorized words, were moderately heritable (55%, 38%, and 37%). WAIS-R vocabulary score was highly heritable (77%). Controlling for verbal intelligence in multivariate analyses of recall, two components of genetic influence on LTM were found; one for all three recall scores and one for free and cued categorized word recall. Recall of unrelated and categorized words is influenced by different genetic and environmental factors indicating heterogeneity in LTM. Verbal intelligence is etiologically different from LTM indicating that these two abilities utilize different brain functions.

  16. Can the survival recall advantage be explained by basic memory processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Bugg, Julie M; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-07-01

    Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) demonstrated a striking phenomenon: Words rated for relevance to a grasslands survival scenario were remembered better than identical words encoded under other deep processing conditions. Having replicated this effect using a novel set of words (Experiment 1), we contrasted the schematic processing and evolutionary accounts of the recall advantage (Experiment 2). Inconsistent with the schematic processing account, the grasslands survival scenario produced better recall than did a city survival scenario requiring comparable schematic processing. Recall in the grasslands scenario was unaffected by a self-reference manipulation. The findings are consistent with an evolutionary account that attributes the recall advantage to adaptive memory biases.

  17. The Effects of Reading Ability and Sex Difference on Recall Protocols of Japanese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the concurrent validity of a recall test as a measure of reading comprehension and the effects of the level of reading ability and sex difference on the written recalls of 70 Japanese EFL university students. Results showed that there were moderate significant correlations between a recall test and a standardized reading test (i.e., FCE): for all the students, r = .64, p < .01; for males, r = .61, p < .01; for females, r = .67, p < .01, suggesting that a recall test is...

  18. Total retrieval time and hypermnesia: investigating the benefits of multiple recall tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2005-03-01

    Hypermnesia is an increase in recall over repeated tests. A core issue is the role of repeated testing, per se, versus total retrieval time. Prior research implies an equivalence between multiple recall tests and a single test of equal total duration, but theoretical analyses indicate otherwise. Three experiments investigated this issue using various study materials (unrelated word lists, related word lists, and a short story). In the first experimental session, the study phase was followed by a series of short recall tests or by a single, long test of equal total duration. Two days later, participants took a final recall test. The multiple and single test conditions produced equivalent performance in the first session, but the multiple test group exhibited less forgetting and fewer item losses in the final test. In a fourth experiment, using a brief delay (15 min) between the recall sessions, the multiple recall condition produced greater hypermnesia as well as fewer item losses. In addition, final recall was significantly higher in the multiple than in the single test condition in three of the four experiments. Thus, single and repeated recall tests of equal total duration are not functionally equivalent, but rather produce differences observable in subsequent recall tests.

  19. Getting under the hood: exploring issues that affect provider-based recall using an immunization information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Alison W; Albright, Karen; Nowels, Carolyn; Barnard, Juliana; Daley, Matthew F; Stokley, Shannon; Irby, Kimberly; Kempe, Allison

    2011-01-01

    To assess 1) pediatric practices' use of provider-based recall using an immunization information system 8 months after training on the recall process; 2) initiation and sustainability barriers to provider-based recall using an immunization information system; 3) strategies that facilitated recall initiation; and 4) recommendations for alternative approaches for conducting recall. In 2008, 11 practices received training on the automatic recall function in the Colorado Immunization Information System (CIIS) for both infants and adolescents. The 2-hour computer-based training provided an opportunity for attendees to run real-time recall reports with CIIS staff assistance. Eight months later, key informant interviews were conducted with 24 providers and staff from these practices. Eight months after training, only 4 of 11 practices had implemented recall using CIIS: 3 practices recalled children ≤2 years of age, and 1 practice recalled adolescent girls for human papillomavirus vaccine. Initiation barriers included lack of awareness of baseline immunization rates, distrust in the accuracy of CIIS-generated data, and perceived difficulties recalling adolescents. Having unrealistic expectations about recall effectiveness was a barrier to sustainability. Strategies that facilitated recall included having a dedicated staff person for recall efforts and recalling children ≤2 years of age. Most key informants viewed population-based recall conducted by public health departments or schools as an acceptable alternative to provider-based recall. Even with a promising tool to assist pediatric offices, implementing provider-based recall is challenging for pediatric practices. Given existing barriers, providers expressed support for alternative recall methods. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  1. Promoting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S

    1995-01-01

    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  2. Perceptions and dietary intake of self-described healthy and unhealthy eaters with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nancy E; Blake, Christine E; Saunders, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine how community-dwelling adults with severe mental illness describe themselves as eaters and how these eating identities relate to dietary intake. Twenty participants completed one in-depth qualitative interview and three 24-h dietary recalls. Two distinct groups were identified; self-described healthy eaters (n = 10) and self-described unhealthy eaters (n = 10). Healthy eaters emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting sweets, three meals a day, overcoming cost concerns, and benefits of healthy eating. Unhealthy eaters emphasized junk foods, fried foods, few fruits and vegetables, cost and household barriers to healthy eating, and concerns about consequences of unhealthy eating. Self-described healthy eaters consumed significantly more vegetables and less kilocalories, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat than self-described unhealthy eaters. Understanding how eating identities relate to dietary intake provides important insights for development of more effective approaches to promote healthy eating in this high risk population.

  3. Acculturation and dietary change among Chinese immigrant women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Marilyn; Wright, David J; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2015-04-01

    US Chinese immigrants undergo a transition to increased chronic disease risk commonly attributed to acculturative and dietary changes. Longitudinal data to confirm this are lacking. We examined acculturation and diet over time in 312 Chinese immigrant women in Philadelphia, recruited October 2005 to April 2008 and followed with interviews and dietary recalls until April 2010. Associations were modeled using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures over time. Increasing length of US residence was associated with a small (~1%/year) but significant increase in acculturation score (p acculturation increases with length of US residence and is accompanied by dietary changes. However, the changes were small enough that their health impact is unclear. Factors besides acculturation that affect immigrant health and that affect the acculturation trajectory itself warrant investigation.

  4. Dietary salt intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association among dietary salt, fluid, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and weight status in a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 2 to 16 years. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Consumption of dietary salt, fluid, and SSB was determined via two 24-hour dietary recalls. BMI was calculated from recorded height and weight. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between salt, fluid, SSB consumption, and weight status. Of the 4283 participants, 62% reported consuming SSBs. Older children and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to consume SSBs (both Ps consumption (r = 0.42, P consumption (r = 0.35, P consumption and SSB consumption within consumers of SSBs. Furthermore, SSB consumption was associated with obesity risk. In addition to the known benefits of lowering blood pressure, salt reduction strategies may be useful in childhood obesity prevention efforts.

  5. Awareness during general anaesthesia--implications of explicit intraoperative recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, D; Radovanovic, Z

    2011-09-01

    Anaesthesia awareness (AA) is postoperative recall of events experienced under general anaesthesia. Most frequently patients remember an auditory perception, the feeling of motor function lost, pain, helplessness, anxiety, panic, impending death. The prevalence of awareness in nonobstetric and noncardiac surgical cases is 0.1%-0.2%. The prevalence is higher in cardiac surgery, obstetric and major trauma cases. According to the results of many studies light anaesthesia is the most common cause of the AA. Posttraumatic stress disorder appears in 33%-56% of patients who experienced awareness during general anaesthesia. Extreme awareness experiences are very uncommon, but traumatic and can have lasting effects on patients. Several brain-function monitors based on the processed electroencephalogram or evoked potentials have been developed to assess anaesthetic depth. Measures to prevent awareness include avoidance of light anesthesia, gaining more knowledge about patient anaesthetic requirements and development of methods to detect consciousness during anesthesia.

  6. Can audio recording improve patients' recall of outpatient consultations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    Introduction In order to give patients possibility to listen to their consultation again, we have designed a system which gives the patients access to digital audio recordings of their consultations. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables the audio recording and gives the patients access...... to replay their consultation. The intervention is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with 5.460 patients in order to determine whether providing patients with digital audio recording of the consultation affects the patients overall perception of their consultation. In addition to this primary...... objective we want to investigate if replay of the consultations improves the patients’ recall of the information given. Methods Interviews are carried out with 40 patients whose consultations have been audio recorded. Patients are divided into two groups, those who have listened to their consultation...

  7. Recall of Personal Dosimeters Not Presently in Use

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service requests all persons who do not require access to radiation areas in the foreseeable future to return their personal dosimeter to the Dosimetry Service. This concerns, for example, experimental physicists whose beam time is over until 2009, or persons whose work profile has changed and therefore no longer need regular access to radiation areas. When regular access to radiation areas is needed again at a later date, a new dosimeter can be attributed if the prerequisites (medical fitness certificate, RP course) are met. This recall will allow personal dosimeters to be attributed to personnel who will soon be working in newly created radiation areas at the LHC. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Thomas Otto on behalf of the Dosimetry Service Radiation Protection Group

  8. Story and Recall in First-Person Shooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pinchbeck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Story has traditionally been seen as something separate to gameplay—frequently relegated to an afterthought or epiphenomenon. Nevertheless, in the FPS genre there has been something of a renaissance in the notion of the story-driven title. Partially, this is due to advances in technology enabling a greater capacity for distributed storytelling and a better integration of story and gameplay. However, what has been underrecognised is the dynamic, epistemological, and psychological impact of story and story elements upon player behaviour. It is argued here that there is evidence that story may have a direct influence upon cognitive operations. Specifically, evidence is presented that it appears to demonstrate that games with highly visible, detailed stories may assist players in recalling and ordering their experiences. If story does, indeed, have a more direct influence, then it is clearly a more powerful and immediate tool in game design than either simply reward system or golden thread.

  9. Dream recall frequency: impact of prospective measures and motivational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Antonio; Robert, Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency (DRF) but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log (n = 165) or checklist log (n = 193) for 2-5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly fewer dreams were reported per week on the narrative logs and only checklist logs yielded significantly higher DRF than participants' questionnaire estimates. The interactions between DRF measures did not vary across groups with low, medium or high baseline levels of DRF. Keeping a dream log does not necessarily increase DRF and narrative logs' time consuming nature can impact subjects' motivation to report all of their dreams over time.

  10. Acute antidepressant drug administration and autobiographical memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Williams, J Mark G

    2012-01-01

    of reboxetine on emotional memory extends to recall of personally experienced events. Such effects may be relevant to the cognitive improvements found with recovery from depression and with the mechanism of action of contemporary antidepressant drugs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).......Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration...... in the processing of positive versus negative memories was reduced following reboxetine compared with placebo in the left frontal lobe (extending into the insula) and the right superior temporal gyrus. This was paired with increased memory speed in volunteers given reboxetine versus placebo. The effect...

  11. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  12. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrigen Kr. Deka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Results: Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%. Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs. The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%, more girls (46% were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001, those with better educated parents (P < 0.000, and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000. Conclusion: Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  13. Awareness of Dietary and Alcohol Guidelines Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nikki A; Berkowitz, Zahava; Rodriguez, Juan L

    2015-12-01

    Although dietary habits can affect colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors' health, it is unclear how familiar survivors are with dietary guidelines, what they believe about healthy eating and alcohol consumption, and what hinders healthy dietary habits after cancer. This study assessed CRC survivors' familiarity with dietary guidelines, their eating and drinking habits, and perceived facilitators and barriers to healthy eating after cancer, including social support and self-efficacy for maintaining a healthy diet and limiting alcohol. A total of 593 individuals (50% female; mean age, 74 years) diagnosed with CRC approximately 6 years prior to study entry in early 2010 were identified through California Cancer Registry records and participated in a cross-sectional mailed survey assessing health behavior after cancer (46% adjusted response rate). Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. Survivors were most familiar with-and most likely to follow-recommendations to choose low-fat foods; 15% had never heard of recommendations to limit alcohol. Survivors were more aware of recommendations involving messages to limit/avoid versus approach/choose certain foods. The most common barrier to a healthy diet involved the effort required (26%). Survivors received more family/friend support and provider recommendations for healthy eating than limiting alcohol. Results provide an overview of awareness of and adherence to dietary recommendations among CRC survivors, highlighting the need for increasing awareness of recommendations that are especially relevant for survivors. Suggestions are made for modifying diet-related messages to facilitate comprehension and recall among CRC survivors, and increasing awareness among groups with the lowest awareness levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Dietary changes among breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Emran, Nor Aina; Akmal, Sharifah Noor

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer patients often show an interest in making dietary changes after diagnosis of breast cancer to improve their health condition and prevent cancer recurrence. The objective of the study was to determine changes in dietary intake 2 years after diagnosis among breast cancer patients. One hundred sixteen subjects were asked to complete a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, diet recalls, and dietary changes questionnaire to assess dietary intake before and after diagnosis. The information on sociodemographic background, cancer treatment history, and anthropometric indices was also collected. Seventy-two subjects considered diet as a contributing factor to breast cancer, and 67 subjects changed their dietary habits after breast cancer diagnosis. The reasons for changes in diet were physician and dietitian advice and desire to cure cancer. The sources of information were derived from their physician, mass media, and family members. Total energy, protein, total fat, fatty acids, and vitamin E intake were significantly decreased after diagnosis. Meanwhile, the intake of β-carotene and vitamin C increased significantly after diagnosis. The changes included reduction in red meat, seafood, noodles, and poultry intake. An increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, low-fat milk, and soy products was observed. The subjects tended to lower high-fat foods intake and started to eat more fruits and vegetables. Breast cancer patients had changed to a healthier diet after breast cancer diagnosis, although the changes made were small. This will be helpful to dietitians in providing a better understanding of good eating habits that will maintain patients' health after breast cancer diagnosis.

  15. Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia later in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, S H; Hanley, A J; Sermer, M; Zinman, B; O'Connor, D L

    2013-11-01

    Beneficial effects of vitamin E on insulin sensitivity have been reported in observational and short-term intervention studies in non-pregnant populations. We aimed to investigate whether dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester would be associated with glucose metabolism later in pregnancy and whether this association would be influenced by an insulin-sensitizing hormone adiponectin. Women with singleton pregnancies (n=205) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test at 30 weeks gestation and were asked to recall second trimester dietary intake. Higher dietary vitamin E intake was associated with lower fasting glucose, lower HOMA insulin resistance, and higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index after covariate adjustment including serum adiponectin among women consuming daily multivitamin supplements (all P≤0.03). Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance later in pregnancy among women consuming daily multivitamin supplementations. Further, these associations are not influenced by adiponectin.

  16. The hidden effects of recalling secrets: Assimilation, contrast, and the burdens of secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Masicampo, E J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-08-01

    Three high-power studies (N = 3,000 total) demonstrated that asking participants to recall an experience as a manipulation can have unintended consequences. Participants who recalled preoccupying secrets made more extreme judgments of an external environment, supporting the notion that secrecy is burdensome. This influence was found, however, only among a subset of participants (i.e., participants who successfully recalled secrets that corresponded to their condition). We introduce the concept of manipulation correspondence to understand these patterns of results. Without taking into account whether participants' recalled secrets corresponded to their manipulation, there was no main effect of the recall manipulation on hill slant judgments. Among participants whose secrets did not correspond with the manipulation, a contrast effect emerged (i.e., influences on perceptual judgments opposite to the intention of the recall prompts). Moreover, the very process of recalling a secret in response to a prompt can lead to contrast from that prompt. Exposing participants to extreme exemplar secrets can experimentally produce, or counteract, this contrast effect. Preoccupying secrets are burdensome but tests of this phenomenon must take into account whether participants are actually preoccupied with their secrets (i.e., whether their recalled secrets correspond with the experimental manipulation), or experimentally ensure that participants judge their secrets as in line with the manipulation. More broadly, the current research speaks to a fundamental principle of recall manipulations; when recalling a particular experience, correspondence with the manipulation will determine its effects, and the process of recalling an experience (and comparing it to a prompt) might change how one perceives that experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Optimal Dietary and Plasma Magnesium Statuses Depend on Dietary Quality for a Reduction in the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between dietary or plasma magnesium (Mg with diabetes incidence and with mortality in free-living elderly was investigated. A total of 1400 participants from the Taiwanese Nutrition Survey, aged ≥ 65 years, and diabetes-free from the 1999–2000 were assessed. The dietary intake and plasma Mg concentration were obtained through 24h dietary recall and health examination at baseline. Participants were classified by quartiles (Q of dietary Mg or by the plasma Mg normal range (0.75–0.95 mmol/L. Dietary diversity score (DDS, range 1–6 represented the dietary quality. During 8 and 10 years, 231 incident diabetes cases and 475 deaths were identified. Cox’s proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between Mg and health outcomes. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval for death in Q2 and Q3 of Mg intakes with DDS > 4 were 0.57 (0.44–0.74 and 0.59 (0.39–0.88, respectively, compared with the lowest intake and DDS ≤ 4 participants. Participants with normal and high plasma Mg in conjunction with high DDS had relative risks of 0.58 (0.37–0.89 and 0.46 (0.25–0.85 in mortality compared with low plasma Mg and lower DDS. Optimal dietary Mg intake and plasma Mg depend on dietary quality to reduce the mortality risk in older adults.

  18. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  19. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  20. Evaluation of different recall periods for the US National Cancer Institute's PRO-CTCAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Tito R; Dueck, Amylou C; Bennett, Antonia V; Mitchell, Sandra A; Reeve, Bryce B; Atkinson, Thomas M; Li, Yuelin; Castro, Kathleen M; Denicoff, Andrea; Rogak, Lauren J; Piekarz, Richard L; Cleeland, Charles S; Sloan, Jeff A; Schrag, Deborah; Basch, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    The US National Cancer Institute recently developed the PRO-CTCAE (Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). PRO-CTCAE is a library of questions for clinical trial participants to self-report symptomatic adverse events (e.g. nausea). The objective of this study is to inform evidence-based selection of a recall period when PRO-CTCAE is included in a trial. We evaluated differences between 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week recall periods, using daily reporting as the reference. English-speaking patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were enrolled at four US cancer centers and affiliated community clinics. Participants completed 27 PRO-CTCAE items electronically daily for 28 days, and then weekly over 4 weeks, using 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week recall periods. For each recall period, mean differences, effect sizes, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate agreement between the maximum of daily ratings and the corresponding ratings obtained using longer recall periods (e.g. maximum of daily scores over 7 days vs 1-week recall). Analyses were repeated using the average of daily scores within each recall period rather than the maximum of daily scores. A total of 127 subjects completed questionnaires (57% male; median age: 57). The median of the 27 mean differences in scores on the PRO-CTCAE 5-point response scale comparing the maximum daily versus the longer recall period (and corresponding effect size) was -0.20 (-0.20) for 1-week recall, -0.36 (-0.31) for 2-week recall, -0.45 (-0.39) for 3-week recall, and -0.47 (-0.40) for 4-week recall. The median intraclass correlation across 27 items between the maximum of daily ratings and the corresponding longer recall ratings for 1-week recall was 0.70 (range: 0.54-0.82), for 2-week recall was 0.74 (range: 0.58-0.83), for 3-week recall was 0.72 (range: 0.61-0.84), and for 4-week recall was 0.72 (range: 0.64-0.86). Similar results were