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Sample records for twenty-four wistar rats

  1. Evaluating Oxidative Stress Factors Induced by Chlorpyrifos Poisoning in Plasma of Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, M.; A Zare’i Mahmoudabadi; M Fasihi Ramandi; A Kazemi; J Rasouli Vani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide that has been used abundantly over the globe during the past 40 years. Chemical pesticides may induce oxidative stress via generating free radicals and altering antioxidant levels of the free radical scavenging enzyme activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in the plasma samples of Wistar rat. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were selected r...

  2. in wistar rats (Rattus Novergicus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traction in fresh wounds inflicted on wistar rats was car- ried out. Method: Twenty .... be pertinent in addition to its effect on specific fibroblast cell lines like myofibroblast. ... nism of wound contraction: first that the contractile force is located in the ...

  3. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra kumar Roy; Naveen Kumar; Reetu Toppo; Priscilla Kerketta; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Ravuri Halley Gora

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE) against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determin...

  4. Twenty-four hours, or five days, of continuous sleep deprivation or experimental sleep fragmentation do not alter thirst or motivation for water reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Michael A; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2010-12-25

    Sleep disruption results in an increased demand for energy, which typically causes hyperphagia in an attempt to redress the energy metabolism imbalance. Therefore, experiments combining food reward and sleep disruption may underestimate the effect of sleep disruption due to their contradictory influences on behavior (for example on operant measures of attention). In contrast, water is not a central component of energy metabolism and thus thirst may not be affected by sleep disruption. However, little work has been done examining the effect of sleep disruption on thirst and motivation for water. The effect of total sleep deprivation (SD) and experimental sleep fragmentation (SF) on thirst and motivation for water was assessed. In experiment 1 (using 22 month old male Fisher-Norway rats) the amount of water consumed during a 15 min period immediately following a period of 24h SD or SF (in which water was not available) was measured, and, in a separate session, the amount of water consumed during the 24h of SD or SF was measured. Thereafter, the effect of 5 days SD or SF on motivation for water was assessed with the progressive ratio task (using water reward), which is widely used to assess motivation. Experiment 2 (using 6 month, and 22 month, old male Sprague- Dawley rats) followed an identical design except that the SF condition was dropped (due to a lack of any difference between the SD and SF conditions in experiment 1), and only the 6 month old rats experienced the full 5 day SD condition. Daily measurements of body weight and food consumption were recorded in experiment 2 in order to confirm previously published findings that food consumption goes up and body weight declines in sleep deprived rats. In both experiments the quantity of water rats consumed during a 15 min period immediately following the 24h period of sleep disruption, or consumed during the 24h period of SD or SF, did not change compared to control rats. Furthermore, 5 days of SD or SF had no

  5. Twenty-four-hour changes of S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine adenosine and their metabolizing enzymes in rat liver; possible physiological significance in phospholipid methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Sánchez, L; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Suárez, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The metabolic control of adenosine concentration in the rat liver through the 24-hr cycle is related to the activity of adenosine-metabolizing enzymes [5'-nucleotidase (5'N), adenosine deaminase (A.D.), adenosine kinase (A.K.) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAH-H)]. 2. Two peaks of adenosine were observed, one at 12:00 hr caused by high activity of 5'N and SAH-H, and the other at 02:00 hr, caused by a decrease in purine catabolism and purine utilization, low activity of SAH-H and de novo purine formation. 3. The similarity of the adenosine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) profiles through the 24-hr cycle suggests a role of adenosine in transmethylation reactions, because, during the night (02:00 hr), the metabolic conditions favor the formation and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), with consequent inhibition of transmethylation reactions. 4. In the 24-hr variation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the lowest ratio of PC/PE was observed at 24:00-02:00 hr when SAH concentration is high, whereas the highest PC/PE ratio occurs at the same time as one of the SAM/SAH ratio maxima.

  6. Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats differ in the affective and locomotor effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhut, Anthony S; Zentner, Isaac J; Mardekian, Stacey K; Tanenbaum, Jason B

    2008-01-28

    Anhedonia is a characteristic of clinical depression and has been associated with dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, a system also involved in mediating nicotine reward. To further examine the relationship between anhedonia, clinical depression and nicotine reward, the present experiment determined if Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of clinical depression, differed from Wistar rats in nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Strain differences in nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity also were determined simultaneously. To determine if strain differences were specific to reward-based learning, nicotine or lithium chloride (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) experiments were conducted. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) during a multi-trial, biased CPP training procedure or received vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) or lithium chloride (LiCl; 0.0375, 0.075 or 0.15 M) during a multi-trial CTA training procedure. Whereas both nicotine doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) initially induced hypoactivity, only the moderate nicotine dose (0.4 mg/kg) induced hyperactivity with repeated administration and produced a CPP in Wistar rats. Both nicotine doses failed to alter locomotor activity or produce a CPP in WKY rats. WKY rats also acquired a LiCl CTA more slowly and less robustly compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, nicotine dose-dependently produced a CTA in both strains and WKY rats were more sensitive to the avoidance effects of nicotine compared to Wistar rats. Collectively, these results suggest that WKY rats show deficits in nicotine reward and specific aversive drug stimuli compared to Wistar rats.

  7. The effect of calabash chalk on some hematological parameters in female adult Wistar rats

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    Amabe Otoabasi Akpantah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calabash chalk is a naturally occurring mineral consumed among the Nigerian community for pleasure and commonly by pregnant women as a remedy for morning sickness. Reports have shown that it contains different toxic substances, with lead being the most abundant. This study was therefore undertaken to ascertain the effect of two commonly available preparations of this chalk on some hematological parameters.Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats with average weight of 100 g were assigned into three groups (1, 2, 3. Group 1 served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while Groups 2 and 3 were treated by oral gavage with 40 mg/kg of non-salted (NSCC and salted calabash chalk (SCC, respectively, for 14 days.Results: The hemoglobin (Hb concentration and red blood cell (RBC count were significantly (p<0.05, 0.001 respectively lower in the NSCC group, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the NSCC group compared to the control. There were no significant differences in packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC and platelet (Pl counts compared to the control. The SCC group presented no significant difference in all blood count parameters compared to the control.Conclusion: This infers that calabash chalk, particularly the non-salted form, alters the normal concentration of Hb, RBC and Pl counts, and ESR, as observed in the female Wistar rats studied.

  8. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

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    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  9. Methylphenidate reduces impulsive behaviour in juvenile Wistar rats, but not in adult Wistar, SHR and WKY rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Jean-Charles; Chenault, Nicolas; Houzé, Bérengère; Herpin, Alexandre; David, Sabrina; Pothion, Stéphanie; Trovero, Fabrice

    2007-08-01

    Impulsivity is a core symptom of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is a strain commonly used as an animal model of ADHD. However, there is no clear evidence that psychostimulants, which are used for treatment of ADHD, reduce impulsivity in SHR. Because ADHD mainly affects children, it may be relevant to study psychostimulants on juvenile animals. Using tolerance to delay of reward as index of impulsivity, the effects of methylphenidate were assessed in adult SHR, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar rats and in juvenile Wistar rats. Animals were trained in a T-maze to choose between a small-but-immediate and a large-but-delayed reward. Adult SHR, WKY and Wistar rats were compared for their ability to tolerate a 15-s delay. The effect of methylphenidate on the tolerance to a 30-s delay was studied in adult rats of the three strains and in juvenile (4.5 to 6.5-week-old) Wistar rats. In adult rats, the waiting ability was lower in SHR than in control strains. Waiting ability was improved by methylphenidate (3 and 5 mg/kg) in juveniles, but not by methylphenidate (3 mg/kg) in adults. These data support the idea that SHR are more impulsive than control strains. However, at the dose studied, methylphenidate fails to improve tolerance to delay in adult rats whatever the strain used. The reduction of impulsivity induced by methylphenidate in juvenile Wistar rats indicates that juvenile animals may be suitable for testing the therapeutic potential of drugs intended to the treatment of ADHD in children.

  10. Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the pituitary-gonadal axis of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuquo OR; Oko OOK; Brownson ES; Umoetuk GB; Utin IS

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (S. mombin) on the histology of the anterior pituitary, ovary and uterus; and on the serum sex hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats per group. The animals in the treatment groups were administered orally ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaves at the doses of 250, 350 and 500 mg/kg body weight daily for fourteen days. Rats in the control group received distilled water. The body weights of the rats were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment. Histological analysis of pituitary, ovary and uterus was carried out. Hormonal assay for estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH were done using Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in relative organ weights of extract-treated rats compared to the control. Pituitary showed accumulation and aggregation of cells in experimental animals. Uteri of treated groups showed thickening of endometrial lining and presence of cysts, ovarian tissues were damaged. Furthermore, the extract caused reduction in serum concentration of sex hormones of the treated animals relative to the control. Conclusion: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaf may have antifertility property, confirming its use as a local contraceptive.

  11. Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats

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    Birendra kumar Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, haematological parameter analysis and histomorphological examination are carried out with estimation of arsenic concentration in tissues. Results: Oral administration of sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant decrease in Hb%, TEC and TLC, significant increase of serum glucose, cholesterol, calcium and significant increase in arsenic accumulation in tissues. Histopathological results of intestine revealed haemorrhagic enteritis along with loss of villi. Treatment with Tephrosia purpurea @ 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the elevated glucose, LDH levels, along with significant increase haematological levels towards normal. There was reduced haemorrhagic enteritis and presence of intact villi, as compared to arsenic treated group. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum cholesterol and arsenic concentration in tissues, when compared with arsenic treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of TPE (500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against arsenic induced toxicity by its protective effect. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 493-496

  12. Antiulcer Effects of Melatonin in Wistar Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The effect of melatonin was investigated on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer and gastric mucus cell counts in rats were measured. ..... N. (2004): Protective effects of melatonin on the ionizing radiation induced DNA damage in the rat brain.

  13. Development of Wistar rat model of insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ai; Ning Wang; Mei Yang; Zhi-Min Du; Yong-Chun Zhang; Bao-Feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simplified and reliable animal model of insulin resistance with low cost in Wistar rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were treated with a high fat emulsion by ig for 10 d. Changes of the diets, drinking and body weight were monitored every day and insulin resistance was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemicclamp techniques and short insulin tolerance test using capillary blood glucose. Morphologic changes of liver, fat, skeletal muscles, and pancreatic islets were assessed under light microscope. mRNA expressions of GLUT2 and α-glucosidase in small intestine epithelium, GLUT4 in skeletal muscles and Kir6.2 in beta cell of islets were determined by in situ hybridization.RESULTS: KITT was smaller in treated animals (4.5±0.9)than in untreated control Wistar rats (6.8±1.5), and so was glucose injection rate. Both adipocyte hypertrophy and large pancreatic islets were seen in high fat fed rats,but no changes of skeletal muscles and livers wereobserved. mRNA levels of GLUT2, α-glucosidase in small intestinal epithelium and Kir6.2 mRNA in beta cells of islets increased, whereas that of GLUT4 in skeletal muscles decreased in high fat fed group compared with normal control group.CONCLUSION: An insulin resistance animal model in Wistar rats is established by ig special fat emulsion.

  14. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation and lacta......Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation...

  15. [Individual sensitivity of Wistar rats to piracetam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skaia, K A; Kondrashevskaia, M V; Eremina, L V

    2007-11-01

    Effects of repeated piracetam (PIR) injections in a dose of 40 and 250 mg/kg/day on the learning in Water rats were studied. It has been found that character of the effects depends on typological features of the animals. Rats with strong predominance of excitation (choleric type) showed low sensitivity to PIR. Small dose of PIR provoked clear negative effect in rats with relative balance of the basic nervous processes: excitation and inhibition (sanguine and phlegmatic types). Despite of expressed activation of associative process, it complicated integrative activity. Small dose of PIR showed anxiolytic and psycho-stimulant actions only in initially unlearned rats characterized by high level of fear. Large dose of PIR had negative influence on the learning process in all animals, irrespective of typological features. Thus, the results of this study allow to suppose that the individual sensitivity of an animal to action of a pharmacological medication is caused by morpho-functional and neurochemical intraspecific heterogeneity.

  16. Effects of trace acrylamide intake in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko; Fujioka, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180 degrees C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein.

  17. Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Markers in Wistar Rats following Oral and Repeated Exposure to Fijk Herbal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effect of the oral and repeated administration of Fijk herbal mixture on rat biochemical and morphological parameters. Twenty-four Wistar rats were distributed into four groups of 6. Group A served as control and received oral administration of distilled water daily. The experimental groups B, C, and D were daily and orally exposed to Fijk herbal mixture at 15, 30, and 45 mg/kg, respectively. Treatments lasted for 21 days. The rats were sacrificed under mild diethyl ether anesthesia 24 hr after cessation of treatment. The blood and liver samples were collected and used for the biochemical and morphological analyses. Oral exposure to Fijk caused elevated levels of rat plasma ALT, AST, triglycerides, LDL, and MDA. In contrast, rat plasma HDL, GSH, and ALP levels were lowered by Fijk oral exposure. Also, the herbal remedy caused a dose-dependent elevation in the plasma atherogenic index. The histopathology examinations of rat liver sections revealed inimical cellular alterations caused by repeated exposure to Fijk. Study provides evidence that oral and repeated exposure to Fijk in rats raised the atherogenic index and potentiated oxidative stress as well as hepatic injury.

  18. Effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

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    Giliano Nicolini Verzeletti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13, which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11 regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P<0.05. Alveolar bone loss [mean (SD, mm] was not statistically different between obese and non-obese groups [0.71 (0.09 and 0.65 (0.07 mm, respectively]. However, when palatal sides are analyzed separately, obese group presented significantly higher alveolar bone loss (P<0.05 as compared to non-obese [0.68 (0.12 and 0.53 (0.13 mm, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the weak differences, it is possible to conclude that the progression of alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis can be potentially influenced by body weight in rats.

  19. [Pathologic changes of spontaneous tumors in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y N; Zhang, S C; Zhang, H M

    2017-04-08

    Objective: To investigate the spontaneous neoplastic lesions and their incidences in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar rats, and to accumulate background data for carcinogenicity studies. Methods: One hundred and eighty SD rats and 240 Wistar rats (4-week old) , half in each sex, were used in this study. The rats were housed routinely under specific pathogen-free environment and euthanized after 104 weeks. Histopathological examination was undertaken for all animals including deaths and scheduled euthanasia. The types and incidences of spontaneous tumors were gathered statistically. Results: Total 411 rats (176 SD rats and 235 Wistar rats) were examined in this study. The total tumor incidence of the 411 rats was 57.7%(237/411). The total tumor incidence in SD rats was 55.7%(98/176), benign tumor incidence was 48.9%(86/176) and malignant tumor incidence was 15.9%(28/176). The total tumor incidence in Wistar rats was 59.1%(139/235), benign tumor incidence was 51.5%(121/235) and malignant tumor incidence was 14.5%(34/235). The main benign tumors were pituitary adenoma (23.3% in SD rats, 12.3% in Wistar rats), breast fibroadenoma (21.3% in SD rats, 12.9% in Wistar rats) and breast adenoma (16.9% in SD rats, 9.5% in Wistar rats) in females; testis Leydig cell tumor (0 in SD rats, 14.3% in Wistar rats) in males. The main malignant tumors were breast carcinoma (10.1% in SD rats, 3.4% in Wistar rats) and uterine leiomyosarcoma (0 in SD rats, 2.6% in Wistar rats) in females; squamous cell carcinoma of skin (2.3% in SD rats, 0.9% in Wistar rats); subcutaneous fibrosarcoma (1.1% in SD rats, 2.1% in Wistar rats); brain malignant glioma (1.1% in SD rats, 1.7% in Wistar rats). Conclusions: In the study, a high incidence of spontaneous tumors is reported in both SD and Wistar rats housed for 2 years. The incidence of benign tumors is higher than that of malignant rumors. The benign tumors mainly are pituitary adenoma, breast fibroadenoma and breast adenoma in females, and testis

  20. Training alters cardiac neuron sizes in Wistar rats

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    RR de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The action of the parasympathetic nerves on the heart is made through a group of neurons located on the surface of the atria. This study evaluated the effect of a chronic training protocol on the number and sizes of the cardiac neurons of Wistar rats. Whole mount preparations of the atria of 12-month old male sedentary and trained rats (40 weeks of running on a treadmill 3 times a week, 16 m/min were assessed for number and size (maximal cellular profile area of the cardiac neurons. The cardiac neurons were ascertained by using the NADH-diaphorase technique that stains the cell bodies of the neurons in dark blue. The number of cardiac neurons in the trained rats (P>0.05 did not change significantly. In the sedentary group there were small, medium sized and large neurons. However there was a notable increase in the percentage of small neurons in the rats submitted to the training compared to the sedentary group (P<0.05. Previous studies have shown that electrophysiologically, the small neurons are more easily excitable than the large neurons. It is possible that the results of the present work reflect an adaptation mechanism of the cardiac neurons presumably with the objective of increasing the excitability of the neurons for the vagal action and resulting facilitation of the sinusal bradycardia observed at rest and in the exercise. We concluded that the training affects significantly the size of the cardiac neurons in Wistar rats.

  1. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  2. DNA damage in Wistar Kyoto rats exercised during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Mikaela da Silva; Gelaleti, Rafael Bottaro; Bento, Giovana Fernanda; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Peraçoli, José Carlos

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate DNA damage levels in pregnant rats undergoing a treadmill exercise program. Wistar Kyoto rats were allocated into two groups (n= 5 animals/group): non-exercise and exercise. The pregnant rats were underwent an exercise protocol on a treadmill throughout pregnancy. Exercise intensity was set at 50% of maximal capacity during maximal exercise testing performed before mating. Body weight, blood pressure and glucose levels, and triglyceride concentration were measured during pregnancy. At day 10 post-natal, the animals were euthanized and maternal blood samples were collected for DNA damage. Blood pressure and glucose levels and biochemical measurements showed no significant differences. Increased DNA damage levels were found in exercise group compared to those of non-exercise group (pprotocol used in the study might have been exhaustive leading to maternal increased DNA damage levels, demonstrating the relevance of an adequate protocol of physical exercise.

  3. Proteomics analysis of cerebral cortex in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng ZHAO; Jingrong WEN; Shu WANG; Xuemin SHI

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the protein expression pattern of the cerebral cortex in Wistar rats using the proteomics approach, proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie brilliant blue and digested with trypsin. Then, we analyzed the peptide section using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and identified the protein by indexing special database (SwissProt) according to the finger printing of the peptide quality. Eighty-four protein spots were identified, includ-ing metabolic enzymes, skeleton proteins, heat shock pro-teins, antioxidant proteins, signaling proteins, proteasome related proteins, neuron and glial specific proteins and serum associated proteins. The result of this study enriches the database of the proteome in the cerebral cortex of rats and lays a foundation for further research of neurological disorders in rat models.

  4. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

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    Rupesh Shirodkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats.

  5. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  6. Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats

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    K.A. Sadariya

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

  7. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  8. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacostas-Quintanilla, Helena; Ortiz-Ortega, Víctor Manuel; López-Rubalcava, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB) and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W) and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT) and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala). Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased anxiety

  9. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  10. Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats

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    De Souza R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

  11. Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats

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    Dirceu Solé

    Full Text Available Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm, during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and sterility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals from the group receiving normal diet, were divided into other 3: the first received severe, the second mild Zn deficient diet and the third normal diet. During the study we observed that animals submitted to a Zn deficient diet (acute or chronic had tendency to lower weight gain, lower weight of the offspring, lower serum levels of Zn in maternal and newborn (pool blood. A significant reduction in the number of alive newborns was observed in the group of animals submitted to severe Zn deficiency. These data reinforces that Zn is a very important trace element overall during pregnancy.

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  13. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

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    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  14. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA somatic mutations in OXYS and Wistar strain rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotskaya, U N; Rogozin, I B; Vasyunina, E A; Kolosova, N G; Malyarchuk, B A; Nevinsky, G A; Sinitsyna, O I

    2009-04-01

    Rats of the OXYS strain are sensitive to oxidative stress and serve as a biological model of premature aging. We have compared spectra of somatic mutations in a control region of mtDNA from the liver of the OXYS rat strain and of Wistar rats as a control. The majority of nucleotide substitutions in the mutation spectra were represented by transitions: 94 and 97% in the OXYS and Wistar rats, respectively. It was shown that 40% of somatic mutations in the control region of mtDNA from Wistar rats were significantly consistent with the model of dislocation mutagenesis. No statistical support for this model was found for mutations in the control region of mtDNA from OXYS rats. The mutation frequency in the ETAS section was higher in the OXYS strain rats than in Wistar rats. These results suggest different mechanisms of mutagenesis in the two rat strains under study.

  15. Evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin-producing rectal cells in Wistar rats receiving the cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Humberto Fenner; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Vieira, Daniella Serafin Couto; Teive, André Muller; Costa, Aline; Onzi, Tiago Rafael; Nau, Angélica Luciana; d'Acampora, Armando José

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the impact of cafeteria diet on ghrelin expression in rectal tissue and identify the morphologic cell type. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups of six animals each: RC1 (rat chow 1) and CAF1 (cafeteria diet 1) for a period of 30 days; RC2 (rat chow 2) and CAF2 (cafeteria diet 2) for a period of 60 days. The animal and rectal weight, the number and the type of immunoreactive ghrelin cells were recorded and compared between the subgroups. The statistical study was established by ANOVA and Student's t test. There was no difference in the total of immunoreactive cells (p=0.685) between the subgroups nor between weight and presence or absence of ghrelin expression (p=0.993). All the immunoreactive cells identified were closed-type. The cafeteria diet did not have influence on the amount of immunoreactive rectal cells of ghrelin and only one type (closed-type) of immunoreactive cells was expressed in the rectum.

  16. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

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    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  17. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  18. [Comparative analysis of imipramine intake reactions in catatonic and wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhina, T A; Palchikova, N A; Igonina, T N; Kuznetsova, N V

    2015-03-01

    Chronic imipramine intake (7.5 mg/kg) leads to the stable decrease of excitable reactions to sound stimulant in Wistar rats and induced phase behavioral response in catatonic GC rats. Increased noradrenaline level in frontal cortex and striatum in Wistar animals was shown, whereas it didn't reveal noradrenaline level differences in any brain structures in GC rats. The higher blood corticosterone concentration was decreased under antidepressant reaction in GC rats. Differences between intact GC animals were found out: reduced triglyceride level, lesser body weight, and greater weight index of adrenals in comparison with Wistar rats. Various mechanisms of imipramine action in two rat strains were shown: influence on adrenergic brain system, taking part in the control of exiting behavior in Wistar rats and reaction in adrenals in GC rats.

  19. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  20. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-28

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  1. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P; Vitzel, K F; Monteiro, I C C R; Lima, T I; Queiroz, A N; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Hirabara, S M; Ceccatto, V M

    2016-10-24

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min) compared to the sedentary group (27th min). Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Splenotoxic effect of radiographic developer effluent on Wistar rats

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    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2016-05-01

    Results: Normal spleen histology was observed in the control group. In contrast, tissue degeneration and necrosis; lymphocytic infiltration as well as reduction of splenic follicles were observed in some of the test groups (IIA, IIB and IIIA. Interestingly, the toxic effects of the developer effluent on group IIIB administered with higher dose for a longer period of 28 days were not as severe as observed in the other test groups. Conclusions: The present study which indicated adverse effects of exposures to sub-lethal doses of developer effluent on Wistar rats' spleen tissues suggests the need for proper management and disposal of radiographic effluents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1625-1631

  4. Atrophic cardiac remodeling induced by taurine deficiency in Wistar rats.

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    Mariele Castilho Pansani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C or taurine-deficient (T (-. Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (- group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart. RESULTS: Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (- rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.

  5. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

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    D.T. Furuya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

  6. Tissue expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter rats showing proteinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Thilo, Florian; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats.......We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats....

  7. Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat

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    Fatemeh Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

  8. Periodontal disease induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Storrer, Carmen Mueller; Aun, Juliana Cleaver; Pustiglioni, Francisco E.; Romito,Giuseppe Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that it is necessary to place ligatures around molars to study periodontal destruction in rats. The present research aims to examine a periodontal disease model in which specific pathogen-free Wistar rats are orally exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum. Periodontitis was induced by specific infection with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. The control animals were not infec...

  9. Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Ankit S.; Raval, Sunant K; Suprita Sinha; Varia, Tapan N.; Mashiyava, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Pancreatic cancer was developed in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of azaserine (cancer inducer) for 21 days at the concentration of 5 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were given to rats of different groups as per protocol. Results: The results data revealed that o...

  10. Maternal and developmental toxicity of ayahuasca in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Moreira, Camila Queiroz; de Sá, Lilian Rose Marques; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant beverage initially used by shamans throughout the Amazon region during traditional religious cult. In recent years, ayahuasca has also been used in ceremonies of a number of modern syncretic religious groups, including pregnant women. However, no documented study has been performed to evaluate the risk of developmental toxicity of ayahuasca. In the present work, maternal and developmental toxicity was evaluated in Wistar rats. Ayahuasca was administered to pregnant rats in three different doses [the equivalent typical dose (TD) administered to humans, five-fold TD and 10-fold TD] during the gestational period (6-20 days). Dams treated with the highest ayahuasca dose showed maternal toxicity with decrease of weight gain and food intake. Visceral fetal findings were observed in all treatment groups. Skeletal findings were observed in the intermediate- and high-dose groups. The fetuses deriving from the highest dose group also presented a decrease in body weight. From these results, it is possible to conclude that there is a risk of maternal and developmental toxicity following ayahuasca exposure and that the level of toxicity appears to be dose-dependent.

  11. Leptin Induces an Inflammatory Phenotype in Lean Wistar Rats

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    Monique Allman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed the hypothesis that leptin promotes leukocyte trafficking into adipose tissue. Accordingly, male Wistar rats were treated with saline or recombinant rat leptin (1 mg/kg via the tail vein. Leukocyte trafficking in mesenteric venules was quantified by intravital microscopy. Treatment with leptin resulted in a 3- and 5-fold increases in rolling and firm adhesion, respectively. Compared to vehicle controls, leptin enhanced mRNA levels of IL-6 (8-fold and MCP-1 (5-fold in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT. Similar increases in these markers were observed in mesenteric venules and in liver. Finally, the direct effect of leptin was assessed in C3A hepatocytes treated with leptin for 24 hours (7.8 ng/mL–125 ng/mL. Consistent with observations in vivo, production of ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6 by hepatocytes was increased significantly. These findings support the hypothesis that leptin directly initiates inflammation in the local environment of mesenteric adipose tissue as well as systemically.

  12. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  13. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  14. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  15. Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de

  16. Strain differences in toxic effects of long-lasting isoflurane anaesthesia between Wistar rats and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller-Matula, J M; Jilma, B

    2008-11-01

    We investigated if long-lasting (5 h) anaesthesia with isoflurane has different pharmacological effects in two different rat strains: Wistar and Sprague Dawley. The mean blood pressure was 34% higher in Sprague Dawley rats as compared to the Wistar rats (p = 0.04). In Wistar rats, the pH value decreased to 7.1, lactate increased by 53%, creatinine increased 2.7-fold, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase increased more than 4-fold and lactate dehydrogenase increased 9-fold (p ketamin/xylazine in the described study design.

  17. Kerusakan Hati Akibat Keracunan Alkohol Berulang pada Tikus Wistar (LIVER DAMAGE DUE TO ALCOHOL INTOXICATION REPEAT IN WISTAR RATS

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    Ni Made Suaniti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to determine the liver damage from alcohol intoxication in Wistar rats.The design used in this study was a randomized true experimental post test only control group design. Thestudy used 15 rats divided into 3 treatment groups each of which consists of 5 rats. The first group wasgiven distill water. The second group was given 5% alcohol, and the third group was given 20% alcohol. Ratswere treated with alcohol daily for six weeks. Biochemical markers were detected the levels of aldehydedehydrogenase (ALDH in serum and histological changes in liver tissue. ALDH is a biochemical markerof a sensitive and specific ethanol after chronic alcohol administration. Blood sample was collected at 6and 24 hours after the last peroral administration of repeated alcohol treatment, and serum levels ofALDH was tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results showed that the levels ofALDH in the blood of alcohol treated Wistar rats significantly higher as compared to those of control rats.ALDH levels increased by 83.11% after administration of 5% alcohol and 112.05% after administration of20% taken after 6 hours of alcohol for 6 weeks. On samples taken after 24 hours, ALDH levels by 95.11%after administration of 5% alcohol and 86.79% after administration of 20% alcohol. Oral treatment with20% alcohol chronically was led to changes in the microscopic structure (necrosis of liver tissue in Wistarrats. Liver tissue damage occured due to repeated use of alcohol is accompanied by increasing serum levelsof ALDH in Wistar rats.

  18. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Tarôco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  20. Subacute toxicopathological studies of methotrexate in Wistar rats

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    N. N. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A toxico-pathological study was undertaken to assess the effects of Methotrexate administration in Wistar rats by performing the hematology, serum biochemical analysis and associated histopathological changes in visceral organs. Materials and Methods: Rats in 4 treatment groups with 6 male and 6 female rats each were administered methotrexate (Group II to IV at the dose rate of 0.062, 0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg body weight respectively and distilled water (Group I as vehicle control for 28 days. Hematological parameters viz., total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, MCV, MCH and MCHC, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count and serum biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin (Calculated were estimated after 28 days. Necropsy examination was performed in all sacrificed animals and gross lesions were recorded. Tissue samples (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, testes and heart were collected in 10% formalin solution for histo-pathological examination. Results: The dose dependent reduction in body weight, feed consumption, RBCs count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin was observed in animals of group II, III and IV along with significant increase in lymphocyte count, AST, ALT, AKP, creatinine and BUN in animals of methotrexate treated group IV followed by group III. No significant change in monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in any treatment groups. All the rats exposed to methotrexate at three different dose levels revealed dose dependent pathological changes characterized by degeneration, necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage and vascular changes. The main target organs affected were liver, kidney, lungs and testes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that sub-acute exposure to methotrexate

  1. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  2. Wound healing activity of Abroma augusta in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanbhag T; Dattachaudhuri A; Shenoy S; Bairy KL

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing profile of alcoholic extract of Abroma au-gusta and its effect on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in Wistar rats.Methods:An alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was prepared.Three models were used -incision,excision and dead space wound models. Four groups of animals were used for each model.They were administered 2% gum acacia (orally),alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta (orally),dexamethasone (intramuscularly)and combination of Abroma augusta (o-rally)with dexamethasone (intramuscularly)respectively.The parameters studied included breaking strength of incision wound,period of epithelization and wound contraction rate in the excision wound,breaking strength,dry weight and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in dead space wound.Results:The breaking strength of incision wound of Abroma augusta treated group was significantly increased (P <0.001) while that of dexamethasone treated animals was significantly decreased (P <0.001)as compared to control. Coadministration of dexamethasone and Abroma augusta significantly reversed the dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in incision wound model (P <0.001).Animals treated with both dexamethasone and Abroma augusta also showed significant (P <0.004)increase in the breaking strength of granulation tissue in the dead space wound and a significant (P <0.011)reduction in the period of epithelization in the excision wound as compared to rats treated with dexamethasone alone.The rate of wound contraction was not significantly altered in any of the groups.Conclusion:The alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta was found to reverse dexametha-sone suppressed wound healing.

  3. Myofibroblasts and colonic anastomosis healing in Wistar rats

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    Vasiliadou Kalliopi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 ± 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 ± 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 ± 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for α-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the α-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day.

  4. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

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    Soghra Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity.

  5. oleifera seed extract on copper sulphate induced injury in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    oleifera seed also known as Moringa seed on copper sulphate induced injury in Wistar rats. ... ministered aqueous extract of Moringa seed (200mg/kg body weight) and copper sulphate ... Human Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,. 2002).

  6. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  7. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  8. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  9. Possible mechanisms of cardiac contractile dysfunction and electrical changes in ammonium chloride induced chronic metabolic acidosis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheen, N N; Mohamed, G F

    2016-12-13

    Metabolic acidosis could occur due to either endogenous acids accumulation or bicarbonate loss from the gastrointestinal tract or commonly from the kidney. This study aimed to investigate the possible underlying mechanism(s) of chronic acidosis-induced cardiac contractile and electrical changes in rats. Twenty four adult Wistar rats, of both sexes, were randomly divided into control group and chronic metabolic acidosis group, which received orally 0.28 M NH(4)Cl in the drinking water for 2 weeks. At the end of experimental period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured. On the day of sacrifice, rats were anesthetized by i.p. pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg b.w.), transthoracic echocardiography and ECG were performed. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta for complete blood count and determination of pH, bicarbonate, chloride, sodium, potassium, troponin I, CK-MB, IL-6, renin and aldosterone levels. Hearts from both groups were studied for cardiac tissue IL-6 and aldosterone in addition to histopathological examination. Compared to control group, chronic metabolic acidosis group showed anemia, significant systolic and diastolic hypotension accompanied by significant reduction of ejection fraction and fraction of shortening, significant bradycardia, prolonged QTc interval and higher widened T wave as well as significantly elevated plasma levels of renin, aldosterone, troponin I, CK-MB and IL-6, and cardiac tissue aldosterone and IL-6. The left ventricular wall of the acidosis group showed degenerated myocytes with fibrosis and apoptosis. Thus, chronic metabolic acidosis induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and cardiomyopathy, possibly by elevated aldosterone and IL-6 levels released from the cardiac tissue.

  10. Absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rat mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt; Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Barna, János; Dobolyi, Árpád

    2017-02-15

    Absence epileptic activity was analyzed during pregnancy, the postpartum period and after weaning to establish alterations of seizures throughout the reproductive cycle. Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats were used in the study as a model of absence epilepsy and because their seizures do not interfere with rearing offspring. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was gradually elevated from the 19th pregnancy day to delivery. Meanwhile, the characteristics of individual SWDs did not change suggesting that SWD generation remained the same. In the postpartum and postweaning periods, the number of SWDs was not increased in the absence of pups. However, returning the pups to mothers resulted in a markedly elevated number of SWDs for 1h. If pups were taken away after 30min, the number of SWDs dropped immediately suggesting that the presence of pups increased the SWD number. The time mothers spent with the litter and in kyphosis suckling posture were in correlation with their SWD number further suggesting the importance of interaction with pups in SWD induction. Suckling elevates prolactin levels but surprisingly, its intracerebroventricular injection markedly reduced SWD number in suckled WAG/Rij mothers suggesting that the SWD-inducing effect of suckling is not mediated by prolactin. Rather, the elevated prolactin level may provide some protection against pro-epileptic effects of suckling. In conclusion, we first identified periods within the reproductive cycle with increased absence epileptic activity, implying that more attention should be devoted to epileptic activity changes in mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The 9LLUC/Wistar rat glioma model is not suitable for immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Yang; Jingxiang Zhao; Guihong Zhou; Yunfang Wang; Lusi Li; Hongfeng Yuan; Xue Nan; Lidong Guan; Xuetao Pei

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a well-characterized animal brain tumor model will play an important role in identifying treatments for human brain tumors. Wistar rats bearing 9L glioma cells can develop solid, well-circumcised tumors, and may be a useful animal model for the evaluation of various therapeutic approaches for gliosarcomas. In this study, the 9L/Wistar rat glioma model was produced by intracerebral implantation of 9LLUC glioma cells syngenic to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Bioluminescence imaging showed that tumors progressively grew from day 7 to day 21 in 9LLUC/F344 rats, and tumor regression was found in some 9LLUC/Wistar rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining verified that intracranial tumors were gliomas. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that no CD4- and CD8-positive cells were found in the syngeneic 9LLUC/F344 model. However, many infiltrating CD4- and CD8-positive cells were observed within the tumors of the 9LLUC/Wistar model. Our data suggests that compared with 9L/F344 rats, 9L glioma Wistar rats may not be suitable for evaluating brain glioma immunotherapies, even though the model induced an immune response and exhibited tumor regression.

  12. Solanum muricatum Aiton Juice as A Hepatoprotective Agent in Wistar Rats Induced With Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Sim Wei Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver participates in various metabolic processes in human body. Exposures to toxins such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 results in hepatocyte destruction and release the cell contents. Enzymes such as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT were used as a parameter to diagnose liver damage. Pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton contains antioxidants that protect liver from hepatoxicity. The aim of this experiment is to determine the effect of pepino in protecting the hepatocyte from hepatotoxic effect of CCl4. Methods: A total of 16 Wistar rats used as the subject were divided into Control and Therapeutic Group. The Control group was induced with CCl4 but was not given pepino juice. Meanwhile, the Therapeutic Group was given pepino juice for 10 days. For induction of hepatotoxicity, CCl4 10% was given at a dosage of 2.0 ml/kg intra-peritoneal. Each Wistar rat in Therapeutic Group was given 1.0 ml of 300 g/ml pepino juice via oral feeding. Spectrophotometer with adjusted wavelength of 340 nm was used to measure SGPT level of the Wistar rats and statistical T-test was used to analyze the data. Results: Wistar rats in Therapeutic group showed a larger decrease (6898.9 IU/L–79.1 IU/L in SGPT level compared to the Control group (6469.8 IU/L–418.5 IU/L. The SGPT level of the Wistar rat in Therapeutic group reached normal baseline (50 IU/L–150 IU/L. The significance of the experiment was supported by the T-test, P-value <0.05 Discussion: Pepino juice had antioxidants that protect the hepatocyte of Wistar rats from free radicals. The synergistic action of antioxidants and hepatocyte regeneration of Wistar rats in Therapeutic group caused a decrease in SGPT level. Therefore, the experiment concluded that pepino juice at the dosage of 300 g/ml has hepatoprotective effect.

  13. Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats

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    Almoeiz Y. Hammad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

  14. Carcinogenicity study of the emulsifier TOSOM and the release agent TOS in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.; KRISTIANSEN, E.; GRY, J.

    1993-01-01

    Groups of 60 Wistar rats of each sex were fed diets containing 3, 6 or 12% of the margarine emulsifier TOSOM (thermally oxidized soybean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids) for 2.5 yr. In addition, three groups of 60 rats of each sex were fed two products of the release agent...

  15. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...

  16. Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar

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    Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a

  17. Assessment of the toxicity of cyclohexanone administered intravenously to Wistar and Gunn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener, Y; Martis, L; Indacochea-Redmond, N

    1982-09-01

    The toxicity of cyclohexanone, used as a solvent cement in polyvinyl chloride medical devices, was assessed in Wistar and Gunn rats. The Gunn rat was used because it has a negligible activity of UDP glucuronosyltransferase toward bilirubin and certain other aglycones. Cyclohexanone was administered iv for 28 consecutive days to Wistar and Gunn rats in two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg), using solutions containing 0.25 and 0.50 g per 100 ml, respectively, at a constant volume of 20 mg/kg. Saline (0.9% NaCl) was used as the control. Daily observations for signs of toxicity showed no adverse effects in Wistar or Gunn rats injected with either dose. Daily weight changes of control and test animals were similar. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed no treatment-related structural lesions. No adverse effects were noted when the data from the hemogram or clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated. Gross pathological and histopathologic assessment showed no alterations due to cyclohexanone treatment. Urinary excretions of total and glucuronide conjugates of cyclohexanol were similar for Wistar and Gunn rats; less than 1% was excreted as free cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. It is concluded that the Gunn rat is capable of forming glucuronides of cyclohexanol and that cyclohexanone at these doses has a negligible toxic potential.

  18. Treadmill running prevents age-related memory deficit and alters neurotrophic factors and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Cláudia; Neves, Juliana Dalibor; Vizuete, Adriana Fernanda; Aristimunha, Dirceu; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva; Wyse, Angela T S; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-09-15

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies indicate that exercise is beneficial to many aspects of brain function especially during aging. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3month-old) and aged (22month-old) male Wistar rats, on: I) cognitive function, as assessed by spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) oxidative stress parameters and the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, NT-3, IGF-1 and VEGF in the hippocampus. Animals of both ages were assigned to sedentary (non-exercised) and exercised (20min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4weeks) groups. Cognition was assessed by a reference memory task run in the Morris water maze; twenty four hours after last session of behavioral testing hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrate that the moderate treadmill running exercise: I) prevented age-related deficits in reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) prevented the age-related increase of reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus; III) caused an increase of BDNF, NT-3 and IGF-1 expression in the hippocampus of aged rats. Taken together, results suggest that both exercise molecular effects, namely the reduction of oxidative stress and the increase of neurotrophic factors expression in the hippocampus, might be related to its positive effect on memory performance in aged rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats

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    Mitchel O. Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Based on these results, the LD50 of the AQ-ME MO leaf extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg in female wistar albino rats. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aqueous-methanol, Wistar rats, OECD 425, Biochemical assays, Liver [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1856-1861

  20. Concentration dependent toxicity of approximately 20 nm anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles--an in vivo study on Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Jyotisree; Rehman, Muneeb U; Ahmad, Farhan J; Samim, M

    2011-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely used nanoparticles. Synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (approximately 20 nm) at a concentration of 42 mg/kg bw induced biochemical perturbations in Wistar rats. TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited hepatic and renal toxicity in Wistar rats.

  1. Effects of propoxur on male fertility in wistar rat exposed neonatally

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    Augustave Kenfack

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propoxur is a carbamate pesticide widely used in crop and foodstuff protection. They are known to cause a wide variety of symptoms in animals. Methods: Twenty four young male rats were exposed to 0.00, 1.73, 2.60 and 5.20 mg/kg body weight through oral intubation for 90 days. Results: The testis weight increased significantly (P 0.05 but the percentage of sperm motility decreased significantly (P 0.05 change was observed between the control and treated males for the litter size, viability rate and sex-ratio. Conclusions: Despite the impairment of seminal epithelia and sperm characteristics, male rats orally exposed to the studied doses of propoxur maintained their fertility at the 90th day of treatment. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 898-902

  2. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  3. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  4. Selenite cataract and its attenuation by vitamin E in wistar rats.

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    Mathew Joe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the role of vitamin E in preventing cataract formation in experimental animals. Methods: An experimental model (selenite cataract was selected for this study. Selenite cataract was produced in rats by subcutaneous administration of sodium selenite. Biochemical and histological changes following induction of selenite cataract in weanling wistar rats were studied vis-à-vis the role of vitamin E in attenuating or preventing cataractogenesis. Results: Vitamin E was capable of preventing selenite cataractogenesis. Selenite cataract did not develop in 91.6% (11 of 12 and 76.7% (8 of 12 vitamin E treated rats, when administered on the 12th and 10th post partum day respectively. Conclusion: The study confirmed that selenite induced cataract in wistar rats is attenuated by vitamin E.

  5. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  6. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  7. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera

    2015-01-01

    potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  8. The Effect of Hypericum Perforarum on Anxiety and Depressant Activity in Wistar Rats Exposed to Phenol

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    M Modhej

    2015-02-01

    Results: The statistic findings indicated that there were no significant differences between behavior tests with respect to the treatments (P> 0.05. Conclusion: The study results proposed that the used levels of Hypericum Perforarum extract did not show any significant effects on reduction of anxious and depressant behaviors in phenol exposed Wistar rats.

  9. The acute effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) on testes of prepubertal Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye;

    2001-01-01

    A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cell...

  10. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der L.T.M.; Kuil, van de T.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Slob, W.; Lilienthal, H.; Litens, S.; Herlin, M.; Hakansson, H.; Canton, R.F.; Berg, M.; Visser, T.J.; Loveren, van H.; Vos, J.G.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/da

  11. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, L.T.; van de Kuil, T.; Leonards, P.E.; Slob, W.; Lilienthal, H.; Litens, S.; Herlin, M.; Hakansson, H.; Canton, R.F.; van den Berg, M.; Visser, T.J.; van Loveren, H.; Vos, J.G.; Piersma, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/da

  12. Histopathology of a spontaneously developing mast cell sarcoma in a Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, A.H.C.; Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Dijk, J.E. van

    1996-01-01

    A case report is given of a very rare spontaneous mast cell tumor in the eyelid of the left eye of a female Wistar rat used in a long-term oral toxicity study. Metastasis of the tumor had occurred in the mandibular lymph nodes and in the liver. Clinically, the animal showed blepharospasm,

  13. Histopathology of a spontaneously developing mast cell sarcoma in a Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baselmans, A.H.C.; Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Dijk, J.E. van

    1996-01-01

    A case report is given of a very rare spontaneous mast cell tumor in the eyelid of the left eye of a female Wistar rat used in a long-term oral toxicity study. Metastasis of the tumor had occurred in the mandibular lymph nodes and in the liver. Clinically, the animal showed blepharospasm, dacryorrho

  14. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhedaide, Adel; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; IBRAHIM, ZEIN SHABAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function...

  15. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

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    O. A Komolafe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

  16. Probiotic Cheese Attenuates Exercise-induced Immune Suppression In Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lollo P.C.B.; Cruz A.G.; Morato P.N.; Moura C.S.; Carvalho-Silva L.B.; Oliveira C.A.F.; Faria J.A.F.; Amaya-Farfan J.

    2012-01-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which ...

  17. Developmental immunotoxicity of Diazepam in prenatally exposed weanling Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Piersma AH; Jong WH de; Waal EJ de; LPI; LEO; LGM

    1999-01-01

    A prenatal developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats receiving the pharmaceutical Diazepam from gestation days 14 to 20. Reports from the literature claim that Diazepam has impaired the immune function in the offspring of rats receiving treatment during the third trimester of gestation. Dia

  18. Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption in Wistar rats from five different suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Sara; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism of action of ethanol and the neurobiological substrates for alcohol use disorders is challenging. In search of this knowledge, it is imperative to use valid animal experimental models. The Wistar rat is one example of a commonly used strain that also exert foundation stock for several rat lines selectively bred for high and low voluntary ethanol intake. Different studies report varying ethanol intake in Wistar rats posing the question of whether this is because of the methodological differences or the rat strain. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats from five different suppliers. Rats from B&K Universal, UK (BK); Charles River, Germany; Harlan Laboratories, IN (Hsd); Harlan Laboratories, The Netherlands (RccHan™); and Taconic, Denmark were exposed to a three-bottle free-choice paradigm with intermittent 24 h access to 5 and 20% ethanol and water three times per week for 6 weeks. A general finding was that the RccHan™ rats differed significantly from the other groups. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ group had the highest median ethanol intake of 3.85 g/kg/24 h, whereas the BK rats had the lowest intake of 1.84 g/kg/24 h. The preference for ethanol was also different throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ rats had the highest preference of approximately 80%, whereas the BK rats had the lowest preference around 25%. During the 6-week drinking period, only the Hsd rats increased their ethanol intake, as evidenced by a significant increase of 5% ethanol intake. Although all rats are of Wistar origin, they display profound differences in voluntary ethanol consumption depending on the supplier. The choice of Wistar can therefore have implications for the outcome and make comparisons between studies difficult. The present findings highlight the supplier as an important parameter to consider when planning and performing preclinical animal studies

  19. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hou-Pan; Li, Xin; Yu, Rong; Zeng, Guang; Yuan, Zhen-Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Hui-Yong; Cai, Xiong

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans.

  20. Produtividade de ratos Wistar em diferentes sistemas de acasalamento Productivity of Wistar rats in different mating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Gomes de Moura Mattaraia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada gaiola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos.The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three

  1. Insulin inhibits glucagon-induced glycogenolysis normally in perivenous hepatocytes of Wistar fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Yoshihiro; Yamatani, Keiichi; Ohnuma, Hiroshi; Daimon, Makoto; Manaka, Hideo; Sasaki, Hideo

    2005-08-01

    Wistar fatty (WF) rats are obese, hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic, and thus a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since we have found that insulin specifically inhibits glucagon-induced glycogenolysis in perivenous hepatocytes (PVH) from normal rats, we examined the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucagon-induced glycogenolysis in PVH of hyperinsulinemic WF rats. Basal glucose release was 64.0+/-4.1 nmol/mgprotein/30 min from PVH of lean littermates (WL rats) and 137.0+/-19.3 nmol/mgprotein/30 min from that of WF rats (pglycogenolysis in PVH similarly between WL and WF rats, to 56.7+/-13.3% and to 46.1+/-7.5%, respectively. Thus, the antagonizing effect of insulin on glucagon-induced increase in glycogenolysis was preserved in PVH of hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic WF rats.

  2. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  3. Imaging of spontaneous ventriculomegaly and vascular malformations in Wistar rats: implications for preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L Christine; Williams, Rashida A; Lescher, Jacob D; Dean, Dana D; Frank, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not used, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70 (43.2%) of 162 Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were used to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesions, and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem microcomputed tomography and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging showed significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurologic disease or injury in Wistar rats.

  4. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

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    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.

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    Amit Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The kinetics of bacillary growth, evaluated by the colony stimulating assay (CFU and the extent of lung pathology in Mtb infected Wistar rats were dependent on the virulence of the strains and the size of the infecting inoculums. Bacillary growth control was associated with induction of T helper type 1 (Th1 activation, the magnitude of which was also Mtb strain and dose dependent. Histopathology analysis of the infected lungs demonstrated the formation of well organized granulomas comprising epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and foamy macrophages surrounded by large numbers of lymphocytes. The late stage subclinical form of disease was reactivated by immunosuppression leading to increased lung CFU. CONCLUSION: The Wistar rat is a valuable model for better understanding host-pathogen interactions that result in control of Mtb infection and potentially establishment of latent TB. These properties together with the ease of manipulation, relatively low cost and well established use of rats in toxicology and pharmacokinetic analyses make the rat a good animal model for TB drug discovery.

  6. Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats

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    Chambô-Filho A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

  7. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors improve prepulse inhibition responses of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issy, A C; Lazzarini, M; Szawka, R E; Carolino, R O G; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Del Bel, E A

    2011-03-01

    Cognitive and attentional deficits in schizophrenia include impairment of the sensorimotor filter as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI). In this way, the study of animals that naturally present low PPI responses could be a useful approach for screening new antipsychotic drugs. Several pieces of evidence suggest that dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) can modulate PPI but their role in those animals is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dopamine and NO in Wistar rats with naturally low PPI response. Male Wistar rats with low PPI responses received an i.p. injection of the antipsychotics haloperidol (0.1, 0.3 or 1mg/kg) or clozapine (0.5, 1.5 or 5mg/kg), the anxiolytic diazepam (1 or 3mg/kg) or the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, N(G)- nitro-l-arginine (l-NOARG; 40mg/kg, acutely or sub-chronically) or 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI; 3, 10 or 30mg/kg). All animals were submitted to the PPI test 1h after injection. Striatal and cortical dopamine, DOPAC, and noradrenaline levels of rats with low PPI responses were compared to rats with normal PPI responses. We found increased levels of catecholamines on the striatum and prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats with low PPI. In these animals, both antipsychotics, typical and atypical, and NOS inhibitors significantly increased PPI. Taken together, our findings suggest that the low PPI phenotype may be driven by an overactive catecholamine system. Additionally, our results corroborate the hypothesis of dopamine and NO interaction on PPI modulation and suggest that Wistar rats with low PPI may represent an interesting non-pharmacological model to evaluate new potential antipsychotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of stress and corticosterone in two post-training periods, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats.

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    Jeimmy Marcela Cerón

    2015-04-01

    final product of HPA axis activity. These hormones act on specialized receptors located within all body cells; upon activation by ligand binding, these receptors interact with specific regions of DNA, thereby regulating gene expression (Tsigos & Chrousos, 2002. The lipidic nature of glucocorticoids allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, which may influence cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of stress (movement restriction or the stress hormone corticosterone (intraperitoneal injection of corticosterone, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats in two different post-training time windows (immediately or 3 hours after training involved in memory consolidation. Rats were trained in a spatial memory task in the Barnes maze and a memory retention test was performed twenty-four hours after training. The results showed that both stress and corticosterone were able to enhance memory consolidation when they were administered immediately after training. However, when the same treatments were administered three hours after training, there was not a significant change in the performance during the test carried out after twenty-four hours. These results suggest, on the one hand, that memory consolidation process can be improved using treatments that modulate cellular gene expression programs, as stress and corticosterone, when they are applied during the first window of memory consolidation. Additionally, although the second period of memory consolidation is also related to a particular gene expression and protein synthesis program, the treatments used in the present study were not able to modulate memory consolidation when administered during this period. As the molecular events involved in the second window of memory consolidation may be different from those involved in the first one, it is possible that the molecular changes generated by stress and corticosterone do not interact with them in a way

  9. ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN AZASERINE INDUCED PANCREATIC CANCER OF WISTAR RATS

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    Ankit Prajapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of pancreas of untreated group of rats showed hyperplasia of pancreatic duct, necrosis, fatty changes, haemorrhages between pancreatic cells. The rats treated with Phyllanthus amarus extracts showed no pathological lesions.

  10. Differences in tubuloglomerular feedback--oscillatory activity between spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1985-01-01

    In 12 to 18-week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats, regular oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure occurred spontaneously. The median frequency was 29.7 mHz (range 20-46.7 mHz). In spontaneously hypertensive rats, spontaneous oscillations also occurred, but these were highly irregular. In both st......, the oscillatory phenomena depend upon tubuloglomerular feedback activity, and that the differences in the oscillatory patterns between the two strain of rats represent a difference in the parameter setting of the tubuloglomerular feedback system....

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on Meloxicam Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaprabhu, R.; Bhandarkar, A. G.; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S. P.; Kurkure, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were divided in six experimental groups each comprising of six rats and numbered from G1 to G6. Meloxicam toxicity was induced by oral feeding of meloxicam at 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg body weight in G2 ...

  12. Pharmacological dose of {alpha}-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Carolina M O; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Matsubara, Luiz S; Correa, Camila R; Pereira, Elenize J; Moreira, Priscila L; Carvalho, Flavio A; Burini, Caio H; Padovani, Carlos R; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Ferreira, Ana Lucia A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of pharmacological dose of α-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (α-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or α-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg α-tocopherol/[kg body wt/day]) (E) by gavage for a 7-week period. Rats underwent echocardiogram and were analyzed for cardiomyocyte histology and cardiac α-tocopherol absorption at the end of the study period. As compared to the C group, α-tocopherol-supplemented group showed significantly (p rats.

  13. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary: This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in

  14. Early maternal deprivation retards neurodevelopment in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, B.A.; Derks, N.M.; Park, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    A single 24 h period of maternal deprivation (MD) in rats has been shown to induce, in adulthood, a number of abnormalities in brain and behaviour that also occur in patients with schizophrenia. However, the short-term behavioural effects of MD have not been studied in detail. Since patients with

  15. Comparative Genome of GK and Wistar Rats Reveals Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Tiancheng Liu

    Full Text Available The Goto-Kakizaki (GK rat, which has been developed by repeated inbreeding of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats, is the most widely studied rat model for Type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, the detailed genetic background of T2D phenotype in GK rats is still largely unknown. We report a survey of T2D susceptible variations based on high-quality whole genome sequencing of GK and Wistar rats, which have generated a list of GK-specific variations (228 structural variations, 2660 CNV amplification and 2834 CNV deletion, 1796 protein affecting SNVs or indels by comparative genome analysis and identified 192 potential T2D-associated genes. The genes with variants are further refined with prior knowledge and public resource including variant polymorphism of rat strains, protein-protein interactions and differential gene expression. Finally we have identified 15 genetic mutant genes which include seven known T2D related genes (Tnfrsf1b, Scg5, Fgb, Sell, Dpp4, Icam1, and Pkd2l1 and eight high-confidence new candidate genes (Ldlr, Ccl2, Erbb3, Akr1b1, Pik3c2a, Cd5, Eef2k, and Cpd. Our result reveals that the T2D phenotype may be caused by the accumulation of multiple variations in GK rat, and that the mutated genes may affect biological functions including adipocytokine signaling, glycerolipid metabolism, PPAR signaling, T cell receptor signaling and insulin signaling pathways. We present the genomic difference between two closely related rat strains (GK and Wistar and narrow down the scope of susceptible loci. It also requires further experimental study to understand and validate the relationship between our candidate variants and T2D phenotype. Our findings highlight the importance of sequenced-based comparative genomics for investigating disease susceptibility loci in inbreeding animal models.

  16. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR Strain.

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    Érica Maria Granjeiro

    Full Text Available We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs. The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy.Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE measurements, and body temperature (Tb measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals.No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05. However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01 and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01. In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals.Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy.

  17. Effects of long-term construction noise on health of adult female Wistar rats.

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    Zymantiene, J; Zelvyte, R; Pampariene, I; Aniuliene, A; Juodziukyniene, N; Kantautaite, J; Oberauskas, V

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long-term building construction noise from refurbishment, which including vibration, on some physiological parameters and histopathological changes of organs of Wistar rats. Twenty 12 month old female rats were divided into two groups: rats group I (n = 10) were exposed to long-term construction noise and rats group II (n = 10) were kept under normal noise level. Study results revealed that long-term construction noise from building refurbishment has an influence on body weight, haematological and some serum biochemical parameters affects caecal microbiota, and causes histopathological changes in the organs of adult female Wistar rats. It was noticed that rats in group I exihibited significantly higher mean values for total protein, albumin and lower values for glucose, AST, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, haematological and caecal microbiota parameters than rats in group II. The most common pathologies were determined in the kidney, liver and lungs. Other observed pathologies were lymphadenopathy, catarrhal inflammation of the intestines, spleen hyperplasia and mammary gland adenofibroma. Single cases were subcutaneous fibroma in the thoracic region, abortus with uterine inflammation and thymus hyperplasia with formation of cysts were found.

  18. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  19. Baroreflex sensitivity differs among same strain Wistar rats from the same laboratory

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    Celso Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies evidenced that a portion of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, however, it was no yet investigated in Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300-400g were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calculated as the derivative of the variation of heart rate in function of the mean arterial pressure variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP tested with a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg and with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8μg/kg in the right femoral venous approach through an inserted cannula. We divided the rats into four groups: i high bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -2 tested with phenylephrine; ii low bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -2 tested with phenylephrine; iii high tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside; and iv low tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside. Approximately 71% of the rats presented a decrease in bradycardic reflex while around half showed an increase in tachycardic reflex. No significant changes in basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, tachycardic and bradycardic peak and heart rate range were observed. There was a significant change in baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory.

  20. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  1. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  2. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenda, María M; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2016-05-20

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm(2) in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management.

  3. The protective role of Gongronema latifolium in acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium (G. latifolium) against acute acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods:Thirty six Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups with 6 rats in each group. Animals in group 1 and 2 were administered with 600 mg/kg b.w. of acetaminophen only and acetaminophen plus 100 mg/kg b.w. of caffeine by oral gavages, respectively. Experimental groups 3 and 4 were treated as in group 1 but in addition received 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w., respectively of the leaf extract of G. latifolium by oral gavages. The experimental groups 5 and 6 were treated as in group 2 and in addition received 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. of leaf extract of G. latifolium, respectively. The treatment lasted for 14 days. Results: The results obtained showed that the serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels had a greater increase in group 2 than in group 1 but dropped marginally in groups 3 and 4. However, in groups 5 and 6, AST, ALT and ALP were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Similarly, serum protein levels were significantly increased in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 when compared with group 1 and 2. Conclusions: It can be concluded that extract of G. latifolium offers protection against acetaminophen and caffeinated acetaminophen toxicity in Wistar rats.

  4. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (Pagainst fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  5. Gastro-protective effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Salawu Oluwakanyinsola; Yahaya, Tijani Adeniyi; Hafsatu, Babayi; Chinwe, Nwaeze Angela; Maryjane, Ezeonu Chidimma; Sunday, Igwe; Adanna, Ndukuba Mary

    2011-01-01

    Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties possibly mediated via Non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase pathways. In the present study, the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga was evaluated against ethanol- and piroxicam-induced ulceration in rats. Histopathological studies of the rat stomach tissues were also carried out in order to determine its safety profile on the gastrointestinal tract (git). The extract (25, 50 and100 mg extract/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) and dose-dependently reduced ulcer index induced by ethanol (24 - 92%) and piroxicam (81.81- 98.60%). Histopathology of the rat stomach tissues from control and extract-treated groups at 25 mg/kg body weight extract showed mild inflammation characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the extract treated groups at 50 and 100mg/kg body weight and 200 mg misoprostol/kg body weight group showed no obvious lesions. These results showed that the extract had no deleterious effects and was cytoprotective on the gastrointestinal tract (git). It can thus be developed as a safe alternative to conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the management of painful inflammatory disorders.

  6. Aerosol Infection Model of Tuberculosis in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshagiri Gaonkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and associated histopathology. Rifampicin (RIF at a dose range of 30 to 270 mg/kg exhibited a sharp dose response while isoniazid (INH at a dose range of 10 to 90 mg/kg and ethambutol (EMB at 100 to 1000 mg/kg showed shallow dose responses. Pyrazinamide (PZA had no dose response between 300 and 1000 mg/kg dose range. In a separate time kill study at fixed drug doses (RIF 90 mg/kg, INH 30 mg/kg, EMB 300 mg/kg, and PZA 300 mg/kg the bactericidal effect of all the four drugs increased with longer duration of treatment from two weeks to four weeks. The observed infection profile and therapeutic outcomes in this rat model suggest that it can be used as an additional, pharmacologically relevant efficacy model to develop novel antitubercular compounds at the interface of discovery and development.

  7. Aerosol infection model of tuberculosis in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Bharath, Sowmya; Kumar, Naveen; Balasubramanian, V; Shandil, Radha K

    2010-01-01

    We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and associated histopathology. Rifampicin (RIF) at a dose range of 30 to 270 mg/kg exhibited a sharp dose response while isoniazid (INH) at a dose range of 10 to 90 mg/kg and ethambutol (EMB) at 100 to 1000 mg/kg showed shallow dose responses. Pyrazinamide (PZA) had no dose response between 300 and 1000 mg/kg dose range. In a separate time kill study at fixed drug doses (RIF 90 mg/kg, INH 30 mg/kg, EMB 300 mg/kg, and PZA 300 mg/kg) the bactericidal effect of all the four drugs increased with longer duration of treatment from two weeks to four weeks. The observed infection profile and therapeutic outcomes in this rat model suggest that it can be used as an additional, pharmacologically relevant efficacy model to develop novel antitubercular compounds at the interface of discovery and development.

  8. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Fazan

    Full Text Available Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR strain.We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats.Basal RR interval (RRi was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188 ± 5 vs 199 ± 6 ms. RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92 ± 3 vs 115 ± 5 mmHg and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 5.6 ± 1 mmHg and volume (137 ± 9 vs 68 ± 9 μL as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266 ± 602 vs 7320 ± 538 mmHg.s-1. Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014 ± 780 vs -7766 ± 998 mmHg.s-1 and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078 ± 0.011 vs 0.036 ± 0.011 mmHg.μL, were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat.The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy.

  9. TGF-mediated oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    A highly sensitive oscillatory tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGF) response has previously been demonstrated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such as oscillating TGF-response could be elicited in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and genetically...... hypertensive rats (SHR) and furthermore if any differences in the TGF-response characteristics between SHR and WKY rats could be detected. The closed loop function of the TGF-system was studied. In 12-18-week-old WKY rats regular oscillations in the intratubular pressure occurred spontaneously. The median...... fluid (ATF). When furosemide was added to the ATF in a concentration of 0.1 mM, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats the oscillatory phenomena depend upon TGF activity. It is suggested that the irregular pattern of the oscillations...

  10. Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  11. Gastroparesis and lipid metabolism-associated dysbiosis in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, J E; Fraser, Karl; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M; Bassett, Shalome A; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-07-01

    Altered gastric accommodation and intestinal morphology suggest impaired gastrointestinal (GI) transit may occur in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, as common in stress-associated functional GI disorders. Because changes in GI transit can alter microbiota composition, we investigated whether these are altered in WKY rats compared with the resilient Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under basal conditions and characterized plasma lipid and metabolite differences. Bead transit was tracked by X-ray imaging to monitor gastric emptying (4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine transit (12 h). Plasma extracts were analyzed by lipid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cecal microbial composition was determined by Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis using the QIIME pipeline. Stomach retention of beads was 77% for WKY compared with 35% for SD rats. GI transit was decreased by 34% (9 h) and 21% (12 h) in WKY compared with SD rats. Excluding stomach retention, transiting beads moved 29% further along the SI over 4-9 h for WKY compared with SD rats. Cecal Ruminococcus, Roseburia, and unclassified Lachnospiraceae genera were less abundant in WKY rats, whereas the minor taxa Dorea, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus were higher. Diglycerides, triglycerides, phosphatidyl-ethanolamines, and phosphatidylserine were lower in WKY rats, whereas cholesterol esters and taurocholic acids were higher. The unexpected WKY rat phenotype of delayed gastric emptying, yet rapid SI transit, was associated with altered lipid and metabolite profiles. The delayed gastric emptying of the WKY phenotype suggests this rat strain may be useful as a model for gastroparesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study reveals that the stress-prone Wistar-Kyoto rat strain has a baseline physiology of gastroparesis and rapid small intestine transit, together with metabolic changes consistent with lipid metabolism

  12. Antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithavathi, Vilapakkam Ranganathan; Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen; Kumar, Ramesh; Selvakumari, Jemmi

    2011-01-10

    The present study aims to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40mg/kg. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant (Pacid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly (Pgallic acid (10 and 20mg/kg) daily for a period of 21days showed significant (Pgallic acid in diabetic rats. In vitro study also revealed the potent antioxidant effect of gallic acid. Thus, the study shows the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effect exerted by 20mg/kg body weight of gallic acid was more effective than 10mg/kg body weight of gallic acid.

  13. Effect of Flunixin on Ovarian Cancer Induced by DMBA in Female Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kayvan Keramati; mehri mehran poor; Abolfazl Babakhani; Gholam Hasan Vaezi; Fahimeh Habibi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Ovary cancer is one of the commonest cancers among the women. With regard to role of cyclooxygnase(COX) enzyme and production of prostaglandin type E2 in causing tumor damages in ovary cancer, application of compounds to inhibit cyclooxygnase can be effective in preventing ovary cancer. Thus, the present study was carried out to evaluate flunixin as nonselective inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase enzymes in developing ovary cancer in female Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental re...

  14. Benign and malignant mammary tumors induced by DMBA in female Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, M.; Cabrita, S; Sousa, E.; França, B; Patrício, J; Oliveira, CF

    1999-01-01

    This study pretends to characterize 7, 12-dimetylbenz[a]anthracene-induced benign and malignant tumors. One hundred and twenty female Wistar rats were randomly allocated to two groups: Control Group and Induction Group; IG animals were given a single dose of DMBA and killed 24 weeks after. Other tumors besides breast tumors were diagnosed, mainly tumors of the salivary glands and ovarian benign epithelial tumors. Incidence of breast disorders was about 60%. Macroscopic mammary tumors varied i...

  15. Ameliorative potential of Psidium guajava in induced arsenic toxicity in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Roy and Sushovan Roy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the effect of Psidium.guajava leaf extract on arsenic induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats. Significant (P<0.05 increased glucose serum urea nitrogen and serum creatinine was observed whereas non significant decrease in total protein, calcium and phosphorus was observed. It is concluded that kidney damage caused by arsenic can be repaired up to some extent by AEPG50. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 82-83

  16. ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN AZASERINE INDUCED PANCREATIC CANCER OF WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit Prajapati; Sunant Raval; TapanVaria

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of ...

  17. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  18. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

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    R. Arunkumar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

  19. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  20. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  1. Nuclear phenotype evaluation in skeletal muscle from Wistar rats exposed to low-level lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. G.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Vicentini, S. C.; Mencalha, A. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy includes devices emitting red and near-infrared radiation with output power below 100 mW. These devices are successfully used for the treatment of injuries and to improve exercise performance based on their biomodulatory effect. Despite the wide use of clinical protocols based on these lasers, the laser-induced effects on DNA are still disputed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. Wistar rats were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers (25, 50, and 100 J cm-2, 100 mW, continuous-wave emission mode) and, after 24h, samples of this tissue were withdrawn for the analysis of chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation by Feulgen reaction detection of micronucleus, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Data obtained show that low-level red and infrared lasers alter geometric and densitometric parameters as well ploidy degree in muscle nuclei from Wistar rats, but do not induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin loss, and apoptosis at fluences taken out from clinical protocols.

  2. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Issy

    Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  3. Antiarthritic activity of a polyherbal formulation against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchi, R. Ramesh; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.; Gopala Krishna, S. V.; Kumar, M. Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including arthritis. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. Arthritis was induced in female Wistar rats using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and the antiarthritic effect of polyherbal formulation was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The radiological examination was carried out before terminating the study. Results: Polyherbal formulation showed significant antiarthritic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of indomethacin. The antiarthritic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and hematological analysis. Conclusion: The polyherbal formulation showed signinicant antiarthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female Wistar rats. PMID:26229343

  4. Acute social defeat does not alter cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding in male Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek K D; Meerlo, Peter; Ettrup, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    of stress on this receptor subtype. In this study, we therefore assessed acute and long-term changes in 5HT2A R binding after social defeat stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to social defeat by placing them in the home cage of an aggressive, dominant Long Evans rat. Acute social defeat...

  5. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  6. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%, and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o. and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg (224.82 ± 7.01 and (912.25 ± 27.22 when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17 and (506.67 ± 21.39. HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes.

  7. Effects of n–3 Supplementation on Plasma and Liver Phospholipid Fatty Acids Profile in Aged Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation in Wistar rats are focused on cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and antioxidant status changes. We determined plasma and liver phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) status and plasma lipid concentrations in aged Wistar rats. Our results showed differences in plasma and liver FAs profiles as well as plasma chlolesterol (CHOL), triglicerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), CHOL/HDL ratio (risk factor for ...

  8. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty aci...... isomers in the inner position and oleic acid in the other positions of the glycerol molecule. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages. From days 8-16 energy, nitrogen (N) and carbon...

  9. Chronic morphine drinking establishes morphine tolerance, but not addiction in Wistar rats*

    OpenAIRE

    Binsack, Ralf; Zheng, Ming-lan; Zhang, Zhan-Sai; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Yong-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Some animal models apply morphine in the drinking water to generate addiction, but related reports are not free of conflicting results. Accordingly, this study aimed to figure out if chronic consumption of morphine in the drinking water can induce morphine addiction in Wistar rats. Methods: For 3 weeks, the animals received a daily morphine dose of 35 mg/kg by offering a calculated volume of sugar water (5% sucrose) with morphine (0.1 mg/ml) to each rat; animals receiving just suga...

  10. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of carbofuran in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Owumi, Solomon E; Akinseye, Victor; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2014-03-01

    Carbofuran based pesticides have gained wide usage in Nigeria recently. Consequently, animals and human populations are exposed to them in the environment. Information on in vivo toxicity of carbofuran in experimental models is scanty. The present study therefore examined the hepatotoxicity and clastogenic effects of carbofuran in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to carbofuran (p.o) at 0-5mg/kg bw for 5weeks. Carbofuran induced significant (prats. It therefore may constitute an environmental health risks in individuals so exposed.

  11. Deltamethrin and Permethrin in the liver and heart of Wistar rats submitted to oral subchronic exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Mônica A. T; Rodrigues,Marili V. N; Áreas, Miguel A; Reyes,Felix G. R.

    2011-01-01

    For 28 days male Wistar rats were submitted to oral exposure with 1/10 of the LD50 value of permethrin (PMT) or deltamethrin (DMT). The aim of this study was to determine the residues of PMT and DMT in the liver and heart of the rats at the end of the exposure period, as well as to evaluate the effect of ingesting pectin and cellulose via the diet. The analytes were extracted with acetonitrile and the extracts were cleaned up by solid phase extraction with florisil before GC-ECD (gas chromato...

  12. 3-Hydroxybutyrate coinfused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, X.; Sanchis, D.; Gómez, G.; Casanovas, J.M.; Artigas Pérez, Francesc; Fernández López, José Antonio; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  13. 3-Hydroxybutyrate co-infused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Xavier; Sanchís, Daniel; Gómez, Gloria; Casanovas, Josep M.; Artigas, Francesc; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  14. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Paul Chidoka Chikezie; Ezeikel Chinemerem Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the functional integrity of renal and hepatic tissues of Wistar rats fed with processed cocoa bean-based beverages and raw cocoa bean products-containing diets by using biochemical and histological methods. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were designated on the basis of experimental diets which were given for 28 days. At the end of the feeding period, blood samples were drawn, and renal and hepatic tissues were excised from the experimental rat groups for functional tests and histological examinations, respectively. Results: Serum alanine aminotransferase activities of the experimental rat groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) and were within a relatively narrow range of (32.17 ± 4.98) IU/L to (41.00 ± 10.85) IU/L, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase activities gave wide variation within the range of (15.67 ± 2.13) IU/L to (34.83 ± 8.31) IU/L with P Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disar-rangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to bio-synthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  15. Coffee and caffeine protect against liver injury induced by thioacetamide in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-11-01

    Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension Resulting from Fructose Enriched Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Julie Dupas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased sugar consumption, especially fructose, is strongly related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate long term effects of fructose supplementation on Wistar rats. Three-week-old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n=14 and fructose fed (FF; n=18, with a fructose enriched drink (20–25% w/v fructose in water for 21 weeks. Systolic blood pressure, fasting glycemia, and bodyweight were regularly measured. Glucose tolerance was evaluated three times using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin levels were measured concomitantly and insulin resistance markers were evaluated (HOMA 2-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia (ISI-gly. Lipids profile was evaluated on plasma. This fructose supplementation resulted in the early induction of hypertension without renal failure (stable theoretical creatinine clearance and in the progressive development of fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (higher HOMA 2-IR, lower ISI-gly without modification of glucose tolerance. FF rats presented dyslipidemia (higher plasma triglycerides and early sign of liver malfunction (higher liver weight. Although abdominal fat weight was increased in FF rats, no significant overweight was found. In Wistar rats, 21 weeks of fructose supplementation induced a metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia but not T2D.

  17. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  18. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases. PMID:27882225

  19. Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

  20. Evaluation of Effect of Nishamalaki on STZ and HFHF Diet Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawane, Jayshree Shriram; Pandit, Vijaya Anil; Bhosale, Madhura Shirish Kumar; Khatavkar, Pallawi Shashank

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common complications affecting 50% of diabetic patients. Neuropathic pain is the most difficult types of pain to treat. There is no specific treatment for neuropathy. Nishamalaki (NA), combination of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis used to treat Diabetes Mellitus (DM). So, efforts were made to test whether NA is useful in prevention of diabetic neuropathy. To evaluate the effect of NA on diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic wistar rats. Group I (Control) vehicle treated consists of 6 rats. Diabetes induced in 36 wistar rats with Streptozotocin (STZ) (35mg/kg) intra-peritoneally followed by High Fat High Fructose diet. After confirmation of development of diabetes; rats divided into six groups (n=6). Group II - VII Diabetic Control, NA low dose, NA High dose, Glibenclamide, Pioglitazone and Epalrestat. Animals received drug treatment for next 12 weeks. Monitoring of Blood Sugar Level (BSL) done every 15 days and lipid profile at the end. Eddy's hot plate and tail immersion test performed to assess thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. Walking function test performed to assess motor function. Diabetic rats exhibited significant (pNishamalaki improved lipid profile. Apart from controlling hyperglycaemia and reducing lipid levels, NA effectively prevented the development of diabetic neuropathy.

  1. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  2. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

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    Gustavo A. Sosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  3. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes-Pereira, A.; Matusin, D.P.; Rosa, P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schanaider, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Escola de Medicina, Departamento de Cirurgia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Escola de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Krüger, M.A. von; Pereira, W.C.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.

  4. Changes in the Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Wistar Rats

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    Karimzadeh L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclooxygenase 2 is a key enzyme which converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase 2 is triggered by inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines. Its expression increases in tumors and Alzheimer's disease and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a heterogeneous disease characterized by pathological angiogenesis and chronic anovulation. In the present study, the probable role of cyclooxygenase 2 in Wistar rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome was investigated.Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats (170-200 gr were equally divided into three groups: 2 mg estradiol valerate was intramuscularly administered to each rat in the experiment group or group 1; the rats in group 2 were regarded as the sham group and received sesame oil injections and group 3 or the control group received no injections. After 60 days of treatment, animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and killed by decapitation. Ovaries were collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. All the experiments were repeated three times.Results: Morphologically, ovaries from the control group exhibited follicles in various stages of development and many fresh corpus luteum. In estradiol valerate group small follicles in early development were observed in addition to follicles showing evidence of atresia and many large cysts with thickened theca cell layer. Corpus luteum was rare or absent in group 2. The immunohistochemical analysis for cyclooxygenase 2 expression showed an increased expression of cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme in group 1.Conclusion: The results suggested the involvement of cyclooxygenase 2 in the progression to polycystic ovarian syndrome in a rat model.

  5. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  6. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  7. Different effects of diazepam in Fischer rats and two stocks of Wistar rats in tests of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, B; Fink, H; Sohr, R; Rex, A

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of animals in tests of anxiety varies between strains, even in identical tests and surroundings. To evaluate the results obtained, a more detailed knowledge of the behaviour of different rat strains is indispensable. Identically raised Fischer 344 rats and two stocks of Wistar rats were examined in two animal tests of anxiety: the X-maze and a modified open-field test following diazepam treatment (0.5-4.0 mg/kg). Harlan-Wistar rats were the least 'anxious' when the behaviour of vehicle treated controls was compared. The largest effect of the anxiolytic diazepam, however, was observed in Harlan-Fischer rats. To determine possible reasons for strain and stock differences, plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites and concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS were measured. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites differed between the strains with the Harlan-Fischer rats showing higher diazepam concentrations. 5-HT levels in discrete brain regions varied with Harlan-Fischer rats having higher 5-HT concentrations. Strain differences influence the anxiety-associated behaviour of untreated animals and the effect of anxiolytics.

  8. A program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on maximal oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Carol Góis; Levada, Adriana Cristina; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; De-Castro, Célia Barbosa; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Moderate physical training is often associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes and the general population. In animals, studies are designed to investigate basic physiology that could be invasive and uncomfortable for humans. The standardization of an exercise training protocol for rats based on maximal consumption of oxygen (VO(2)max) is needed. This study validated a program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max determined once a week. A 10-stage treadmill running test was developed to measure VO(2)max through an indirect, open circuit calorimeter. Thirty male Wistar rats (210-226 g) were randomly assigned to either a nontrained group or a trained group. The animals were evaluated weekly to follow their VO(2)max during 8 weeks of moderate training and to adjust the intensity of the protocol of training. The soleus muscle was removed for determination of citrate synthase activity. Trained animals maintained their values of VO(2)max during a moderate running training and showed a significant less body weight gain. An increase of 42% in citrate synthase activity of the soleus muscle from trained rats was found after the training program. Our study presents a protocol of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max. Peripheral adaptations such as the values of citrate synthase activity also responded to the moderate training program imposed as observed for VO(2)max. Other studies can use our protocol of moderate training to study the physiologic adaptations underlying this specific intensity of training. It will provide support for study with humans.

  9. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  10. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  11. Pyruvate kinase activation and lipoperoxidation after selective hepatic ischemia in Wistar rats Ativação da piruvato quinase e lipoperoxidação após isquemia hepática seletiva em ratos Wistar

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    Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira Boin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion can cause several problems in hepatic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine pyruvate kinase activation and lipid peroxidation after hepatic ischemia. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were submitted to 90 minutes of selective liver ischemia and 15 minutes of reperfusion. Twelve animals were submitted to selective liver ischemia and reperfusion (Group A and the other 12 were submitted to sham operation (Group B. After 15 minutes of reperfusion, the following parameters were measured: mean arterial pressure (MAP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, glycemia (GLY, hepatic glycogen (GH, pyruvate kinase (PK activation, hepatic glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA. Analysis of the results were made by the Student t-test and has been considered significant difference for pOBJETIVO: A isquemia e reperfusão hepática podem causar graves repercussões hepatocelulares em cirurgias hepáticas. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o comportamento da piruvato EM PORTUGUÊS quinase e a lipoperoxidação após isquemia hepática. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos divididos em dois grupos. Doze animais foram submetidos a 90 minutos de isquemia hepática seletiva e reperfusão hepática de por 15 minutos (pressão arterial média (PAM, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, glicemia (GLI, gicogênio hepático (GH, ativação da piruvato quinase (PQ, glutationa hepática (GSH e malondialdeído (MDA. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando o teste t de Student sendo as diferenças consideradas significativas para p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferença significativa entre os grupos em todos os parâmetros analisados. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que os animais do grupo A mostraram síndrome de reperfusão com queda da PAM, ativação do metabolismo da glicose através da via glicolítica e presença de lipoperoxidação quando comparada com o grupo B.

  12. Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

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    Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

  13. Effect of Oyster mushroom in Paracetamol Induced Toxicity of Liver in Wistar albino Rats

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    Afroza Khanam Sumy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Liver is an important metabolic organ. It has wide range of functions including detoxification, storage of glycogen, vitamins A, D and B12, production of several coagulation factors, growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, angiotensinogen, and biochemicals necessary for digestion (bile. Its damage occurs due to its multidimensional functions, various xenobiotics and oxidative stress leading to distortion of all of its functions. Oyster mushroom which is excellently edible and nutritious has got free radical scavenging activity, and so may be considered as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: To observe the hepatoprotective effect of Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida against paracetamol induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka from 1st July 2009 to 30th June 2010. Thirty four Wistar albino rats, aged 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 210 grams were used for the study. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into two groups –– control group (Group A and experimental group (Group B, mushroom-pretreated and paracetamol-treated group. Control group was again subdivided into Group A1 (baseline control group and Group A2 (paracetamol-treated control group. Animals of all groups received basal diet for 30 consecutive days. In addition, Group A1 rats received propylene glycol (2 mL/kg body weight orally only on 30th day, Group A2 rats received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day and Group B rats received mushroom extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 30 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750 mg/kg body weight orally only on 30th day. All the animals were sacrificed on 31st day. Then liver specimens were collected. Histology of liver was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Statistical

  14. Responding by exclusion in Wistar rats in a simultaneous visual discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe de Souza, Matheus; Schmidt, Andréia

    2014-11-01

    Responding by exclusion is to select a correct alternative by rejecting other potential alternatives. Studies describe this ability in some mammals and birds. However, this type of performance has not been reported in rodents. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of responding by exclusion in Wistar rats after a baseline of simple simultaneous visual discrimination. Six male Wistar learned nose-poking tunnels displaying visual stimuli (projected geometric shapes) in an operant chamber. After establishing the simultaneous discrimination baseline, three probe sessions were conducted. In each session, there was a novelty-control probe (a new stimulus was presented together with a stimulus trained as the S(+)) and an exclusion probe (a second new stimulus was presented simultaneously with a stimulus trained as the S(-)). Only one rat responded to the new stimulus in one of the three novelty probe trials. Four rats responded to the three new stimuli and one responded to the new stimulus in two of the three exclusion probes. One subject responded to the S(-) in all the exclusion probes. Five of the six subjects were therefore able to choose the new stimulus, rejecting stimuli trained as the S(-). This is the first experimental evidence for performance by exclusion in rats.

  15. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

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    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. Chronic morphine drinking establishes morphine tolerance, but not addiction in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BINSACK Ralf; ZHENG Ming-lan; ZHANG Zhan-sai; YANG Liu; ZHU Yong-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Some animal models apply morphine in the drinking water to generate addiction, but related reports are not free of conflicting results. Accordingly, this study aimed to figure out if chronic consumption of morphine in the drinking water can induce morphine addiction in Wistar rats. Methods: For 3 weeks, the animals received a daily morphine dose of 35 mg/kg by offering a calculated volume of sugar water (5% sucrose) with morphine (0.1 mg/ml) to each rat; animals receiving just sugar water served as controls. Immediately after the treatment phase, the tail immersion test was used to check for morphine tolerance,and all animals were then kept on tap water for one week (withdrawal phase). Afterwards, all rats were allowed to choose their drinking source by offering two bottles, containing sugar water without and with morphine, simultaneously for two days (preference phase). Results: While the chronic consumption of morphine led to a reduction in body weight and to morphine tolerance,the morphine-treated Wistar rats did not show any preference for the opiate-containing sugar water. Conclusion: Body weight loss and tolerance do not reveal a condition of drug craving, and current animal models should be re-evaluated regarding their potential to establish morphine addicted animals.

  17. Serum pharmacokinetics and coagulation aberration induced by sodium dehydroacetate in male and female Wistar rats

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    Zhang, Yumei; Ying, Donglai; Liu, Hao; Yu, Zengrong; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Xie, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is used as a preservative in food, animal feeds and cosmetics. Severe haemorrhage in organs and prolongation of coagulation factors in Sprague–Dawley rats has been reported upon oral administration of Na-DHA. We investigated alterations in coagulation parameters and serum pharmacokinetics upon Na-DHA administration. Wistar rats were administered Na-DHA (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.). Weight gain, food consumption, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum levels of Vitamin k (Vk)1, and serum levels of Na-DHA were measured, and histopathology undertaken. Significant reductions in body weight, food consumption and serum levels of Vk1, as well as prolonged PT and APTT, were observed. Females were significantly different from males in terms of serum Na-DHA concentration. Congestion in hepatic sinusoids, renal tubules and spleen, as well as haemorrhage in lung alveoli, gastric mucosa, intestinal mucosa and cardiac muscle cells, were observed by histopathological analyses. Correlation of serum Na-DHA via PT and APTT, as well as serum Vk1 via PT and APTT, in females was better than that in males. Female rats are more sensitive than males to Na-DHA. Hence, Na-DHA can induce coagulation aberration in Wistar rats, with higher sensitivity seen in females than males. PMID:28387309

  18. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

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    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  19. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  20. Bisphenol A (BPA Increases Blood Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoproteins in Albino Wistar Rats

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    Oguazu CE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from these products into containerized foods and drinks, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In this present study the possible effect of BPA on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in rats. Female albino Wistar rats were administrated oral doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 and micro;g BPA/kgbw/day once to determine effect of acute exposure and repeatedly for seven days in another set of test animals to determine the effects of sub-chronic exposure. Following the treatment, serum levels of lipid parameters were examined using the Chemwell Chemical Analyser. All data were expressed as means and plusmn; SD. The result of the study revealed that BPA increased blood triglycerides and LDL of exposed rats at both acute and sub-chronic phases.

  1. Platelet-rich plasma in bone repair of irradiated tibiae of Wistar rats

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    Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Abrahao, Marcio; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz, E-mail: gumieiro@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Otorhinolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery; Segretto, Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Oncology; Alves, Maria Tereza de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Patology; Nannmark, Ulf [The Sahlgrenska Academy of Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Clinical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology; Granstroem, Goesta [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Dib, Luciano Lauria [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Dentistry. Dept. of Stomatology

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)

  2. Expression of UCP2 in Wistar rats varies according to age and the severity of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Jacobs, Carvern; Patel, Oelfah; Ghoor, Samira; Muller, Christo; Louw, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Obesity, a complex metabolic disorder, is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) during obesity is an adaptive response to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species. The aims of this study were to compare the expression of UCP2 in diet-induced obese Wistar rats that differed according to age and their severity of obesity, and to compare UCP2 expression in the liver and muscle of these rats. UCP2 messenger RNA and protein expression was increased 4.6-fold (p obese rats. Total protein content was increased (2.3-fold, p obesity and supports the widely held notion that increased UCP2 expression is an adaptive response to increased fatty acid β-oxidation and reactive oxygen species production that occurs during obesity. An understanding of metabolic adaptation is imperative to gain insight into the underlying causes of disease, thus facilitating intervention strategies to combat disease progression.

  3. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

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    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  4. Body and Testicular Weight Changes in Adult Wistar Rats Following Oral Administration of Artesunate

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    al-hassan m. izunya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects on the body and testicular weights of adult wistar rats that recieved an oral administration of normal and double normal doses of artesunate. The rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the control group. Group A rats were given 4mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 2mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next for 4 days. Group B rats were given 8mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 4mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given w ater ad libitum. On day eight of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. The testes w ere carefully dissected out, freed from adherent tissues and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. The results showed no changes in body weight of rats in groups A, B and C. There was also no significant change in testicular weight of rats in group A. However a significant increase in testicular weight was observed in group C. Our results suggest that artesunate at normal and double normal doses, has no effect on body weight of rats but may be toxic to the testes at higher doses. It is uncertain however if these changes are reversible. It is recommended therefore, that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethan, P K M Anu; Prince, P Stanely Mainzen

    2008-01-01

    D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), an active principle of the traditional antidiabetic plant, Bougainvillea spectabilis, is claimed to exert insulin-like effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of D-pinitol on lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Rats were made type II diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of blood glucose and total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in serum, liver, kidney, heart, and brain. The levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol were significantly increased, and the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly decreased in diabetic rats Oral administration of D-pinitol to STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of blood glucose and total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in serum, liver, kidney, heart, and brain. The D-pinitol also lowered significantly (p < 0.05) LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels and increased significantly (p < 0.05) HDL cholesterol levels in the serum of diabetic rats. Thus, the present study clearly showed the antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol in STZ-induced type II diabetic rats.

  6. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

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    Silva Gláucio A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

  7. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  8. Preventive and Protective Effect of Nishamalaki in STZ Induced Diabetic Complications in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawane, Jayshree Shriram; Pandit, Vijaya Anil; Deshpande, Swapnil Suryakant; Mandpe, Amruta Sumedh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease of vital health importance because of the complications associated with it. Clinical trials and animal studies have demonstrated the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of Nishamalaki. Present study was planned to evaluate the protective potential of Nishamalaki on diabetic complication in rats. To study the Nephro-protective effect and to assess the protective potential on retinal changes of Nishamalaki in diabetic wistar rats. Diabetes induced with 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin and 110 mg/kg Nicotinamide IP. Nishamalaki, a combination of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis administered orally with honey. Rats divided into six groups, control and diabetic rats with blood glucose above 250 mg/dl were divided into 5 groups. After 8 weeks test animals were treated with Nishamalaki, Enalapril and control with saline for 30 days. Biochemical parameters measured like Serum BSL, BUN and Creatinine and rats were observed for development of cataract. Rats sacrificed and kidney samples were taken to examine histopathological changes. Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine values were significantly (pNishamalaki group than control group. Nishamalaki showed the protective effect on kidney pathology as seen on histopathology by near normal glomerular and tubular structures. Control group showed shrunken glomerulus and tubular vacuolations. In Nishamalaki group immature sub capsular cataract with mild lenticular opacity were seen compared to the mature cataract with significant lenticular opacity and corneal vascularisation in control group. Nishamalaki showed protective effect on development of Nephrotoxicity and it has also delayed the progression of cataract in rats.

  9. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and normal Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyejin; Kwon, Hye Jin; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic effect of chlorella in 6 week-old type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK, n=30) rats and 6 week-old normal Wistar (n=30) rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups respectively, and were fed three different experimental diets containing 0%, 3% or 5% (w/w) chlorella for 8 weeks. In diabetic GK rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the groups. The concentrations of fasting plasma glucagon and hepatic triglyceride, and the insulin/glucagon ratios of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were significantly lower than those of the GK-control group. The HOMA-index and the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were slightly lower than those of the GK-control group. In normal Wistar rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the normal groups, but that of the Wistar-5% chlorella group was slightly higher than the other groups. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, and the HOMA-index of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were a little higher, and the fasting plasma glucagon concentration and the insulin/glucagon ratio of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were significantly higher than those of the Wistar-control and Wistar-3% chlorella groups. In conclusion, this study shows that the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was not affected by the intake of chlorella, which could be beneficial, however, in improving insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic GK and normal Wistar rats.

  11. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel.

  12. The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat

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    Rachael Ununuma Akpiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty  five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract,  reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera  was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract. 

  13. The protective activity of noscapine on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in male Wistar rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Ali Mard, Seyyed; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nobakht, Malihe; Mahmoudian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Bradykinin is a part of the kinin-kallikrein system which is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury via B1 and B2 receptors. Noscapine is a non-competitive antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Noscapine has been reported to to be able to protect some organs against ischemia-reperfusion injury but its effect on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) in rats is unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of noscapine on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly assigned to four groups; sham, RIR control, pre-and post-treatment with noscapine. To induce RIR injury, 20 days after right nephrectomy, animals underwent a midline laparotomy and the renal artery was clamped for 40 min to induce ischemia, and the clamp was then removed to allow reperfusion for 48 hr. Animals received noscapine or vehicle 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, animals were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Blood samples were collected to assess blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The kidneys were also removed for histopathlogical and western-blot analysis. Results: Noscapine treatment 1 hr before RIR or just prior to reperfusion protects the renal tissue structure as compared with the control. The expression levels of the studied inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MCP-1in pretreated-, and treated-noscapine groups decreased as compared with the control group. The levels of BUN and creatinine in pre-, and post-treated noscapine groups were significantly lower than in control animals. Conclusion: Noscapine protects renal tissue structure and function against RIR through down-regulation of the inflammatory mediators. PMID:24904716

  14. Anticonvulsant effect of argan oil on pilocarpine model induced status epilepticus in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbiti, Youssef; Ammouri, Hammou; Berkiks, Inssaf; El Hessni, Aboubaker; Ouichou, Ali; Nakache, Redouan; Chakit, Miloud; Bikjdaouene, Leila; Mesfioui, Abdelhalem

    2016-09-12

    Argan oil (AO) is rich in oleic and linoleic acids, polyphenols, sterols, and tocopherols. This composition gives it numerous beneficial pharmacological effects such as hypolipemiant, hypotensive, and antiproliferative. Oxidative stress is a mechanism of cell death induced by seizures and status epilepticus (SE). This study aims at investigating AO effects on (i) latency to first seizure, seizure severity, weight loss, mortality rate, (ii) lipid peroxidation level, nitrite level, and catalase activity in the hippocampus after SE induced by pilocarpine (PC). Wistar rats (1-month old) were daily administered by oral gavage with AO (1 ml/100 g/day) or with NaCl 0.9% during 2 months before receiving PC (400 mg/kg). After the PC injection, all groups were observed for 24 h. The catalase activity, the lipid peroxidation, and nitrite concentrations were measured using spectrophotometric methods. AO pretreatment increased the latency to first seizures, decreased the weight loss, and reduced mortality rate after SE. AO pretreatment produces significant decrease of the lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. On the contrary, AO increased the catalase activity in rat hippocampus after seizures. For the first time, our results suggest that AO pretreatment is capable of attenuating seizure severity and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. This indicates that AO may exhibit a neuroprotection against the temporal lobe epilepsy. Further investigations are in progress to confirm this pharmacological property.

  15. Effects of methotrexate on serum testosterone level in sleep deprived male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, O O; Kunle-Alabi, O T; Oghenetega, B O; Adeyemi, D H; Raji, Y

    2015-06-01

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to decrease testosterone levels but the mechanism remains unclear. Studies have shown that sleep deprivation increases interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine and that increased IL-1β levels cause reductions in Leydig cell production of testosterone. This study was therefore designed to determine the effects of methotrexate, an IL-1β blocker on serum testosterone levels in sleep deprived male Wistar rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 5); group I (Control) received the vehicle (1% tween 80 solution); group II (methotrexate) received 0.5 mg/kg body weight methotrexate; group III (SD) was sleep deprived and received the vehicle; group IV (SD+Methotrexate) was sleep deprived and received 0.5 mg/kg body weight methotrexate. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform technique for 14 days. Treatments were administered twice weekly by oral gavage for 14 days. Blood was collected on day 14 and serum was obtained for analyses of testosterone, LH and FSH levels. IL-1β level and histology of the testis were also determined. Data were expressed as Mean ± SEM and analysed using ANOVA. p sleep deprived rats is not dependent on increased level of IL-1β.

  16. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

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    Naofumi Bunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats’ acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning.

  17. Sensitization and cross-sensitization after chronic treatment with methylphenidate in adolescent Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Frey, Benício N; Martins, Márcio R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Schimidtz, Filipe; Inácio, Cecília G; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2007-05-01

    An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent methylphenidate and D-amphetamine challenge in adolescent Wistar rats. Young Wistar rats (P25) were treated with either methylphenidate (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 28 days. After 14 days of washout, animals were challenged with methylphenidate 2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or D-amphetamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (P67). Locomotor behavior was assessed using the open field test. Rats chronically treated with methylphenidate in the adolescent period showed augmented locomotor sensitization to D-amphetamine but not to methylphenidate in the adult phase. These findings suggest that early exposure do methylphenidate might increase the risk for subsequent D-amphetamine abuse. Further studies focusing on the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate are warranted.

  18. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on GH secretion and lipid metabolism in Wistar trained rats

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    E. Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oral Arginine Supplementation (OAS and exercise are able to modify the secretion of the Growth Hormone (GH that stimulates the lipid metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of the OAS, the aerobic exercise and the combination of the OAS with the aerobic exercise on the GH secretion and lipid metabolism in rats. The sample was composted for 40 male wistar rats, divided in four groups: Sedentary control (SC, sedentary arginine (SA, trained control (TC and trained arginine (TA. The AS and AT received the oral supplementation in alternated days and the groups CT and AT realized swimming exercise for 1hour/day with overload equivalent to 5% of body mass five days per week during 4 weeks. The concentrations of GH were significantly difference between the sedentary groups (SC and AS and (TC and AT and the lipid metabolism did not change throughout all groups. In conclusions, aerobic physical training did not modify the lipid metabolism and diminishes the values of GH concentration and the OAS did not modify the concentration of GH in Wistar rats.

  19. PUNARNAVA MANDUR: TOXICITY STUDY OF CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN WISTAR RATS

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    P. S. Jamadagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differential leukocyte Count, Reticulocyte count and Organ weights were recorded and analyzed statistically. At termination, rats were sacrificed, examined for gross pathological changes, organs were collected, weighed and processed for histopathological evaluation. There was no effect on body weights and feed consumption, no abnormal findings in the histopathological evaluation of high dose group animals but there was significant increase in weight of liver in females of high dose group as compared to control. Hence, the dose level 450 mg/kg of Punarnava Mandur was found as NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level. However, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level could not be established. It was suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses so as to establish target organ of toxicity.

  20. Khaya senegalensis inhibits piroxicam mediated gastro-toxicity in wistar rats

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    Fatima Nnawodu Ishaq

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of piroxicam co-administration with ethanolic stem-bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on biomarkers of oxidative stress and gastro-toxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male and female Albino Wistar rats (190-220 g were grouped into six (n = 5 with designated treatments including: Normal saline, piroxicam (20 mg/kg, extract (200 and 400 mg/kg alone and both doses of the extract co-administered with piroxicam. The drugs were administered orally to all the rats for fourteen consecutive days and on the fifteenth day, they were euthanized with chloroform inhalation. Blood samples and the stomachs were isolated for evaluation of the oxidative stress biomarkers and gastro integrity, respectively. Results: The results of the study revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers didn’t differ significantly between the groups receiving the extract alone, the extract in combination or piroxicam alone. Gross and histological observations of the stomach showed gastric mucosal changes and mild atrophic lesions in the piroxicam group only. Conclusion: This study illustrates the interaction of Khaya senegalensis and piroxicam results in the gastro-protective beneficial effects. The extract’s outcome on various prostaglandin levels and synthesis is being considered towards possible elucidation regarding the exact mechanism of cytoprotection.  

  1. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

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    Y. Damodar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics.

  2. Orienterend semi-chronisch onderzoek naar de invloed van gekookte koffie op het cholesterol metabolisme van de Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen GB; Speijers GJA; van Loenen HA; Verschuren WMM; van Soolingen J

    1991-01-01

    The effects of brewed coffee on the cholesterol metabolism of the Wistar rat were investigated. Male rats were housed for 12 weeks in three groups of 8 animals and were giving drinking water or drinking water containing diluted brewed coffee. Dosis brewed coffee were such that the total intake of

  3. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  4. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

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    A Hadinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of ten animals and orally received 10 mg/kg of the extract of nucleus, cutin and fruit of Pistacia khynjuk respectively, every day for two weeks. The control group received only placebo. Immuno-reactivity was induced using BCG vaccine (IP with Freund‘s complete adjuvant (CFA. The titer of IgG and IgM were measured after the treatment using ELISA method. Moreover, the cervical lymph nodes and spleen of animals were excised and the volume and density of the primary and secondary follicle was evaluated by steriology. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS using one-way ANOVA. Results: The differences in the mean level of IgG and IgM between the treated and the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Also, the mean volume of the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of the first three groups in comparison with the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the Pistacia khynjuk did not have any direct effect on the activity of humoral immune system and the increasing of antibody level among Wistar rats.

  5. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyreva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10-12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose-15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats.

  6. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated.

  7. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  8. Uranium deposition in bones of Wistar rats associated with skeleton development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Arruda-Neto, J D T; Pereira, R M R; Kleeb, S R; Geraldo, L P; Primi, M C; Takayama, L; Rodrigues, T E; Cavalcante, G T; Genofre, G C; Semmler, R; Nogueira, G P; Fontes, E M

    2013-12-01

    Sixty female Wistar rats were submitted to a daily intake of ration doped with uranium from weaning to adulthood. Uranium in bone was quantified by the SSNTD (solid state nuclear track detection) technique, and bone mineral density (BMD) analysis performed. Uranium concentration as a function of age exhibited a sharp rise during the first week of the experiment and a drastic drop of 70% in the following weeks. Data interpretation indicates that uranium mimics calcium. Results from BMD suggest that radiation emitted by the incorporated Uranium could induce death of bone cells.

  9. A Multidimensional Magnetic Resonance Histology Atlas of the Wistar Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, G. Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; PAXINOS, GEORGE; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a multidimensional atlas of the adult Wistar rat brain based on magnetic resonance histology (MRH). This MR atlas has been carefully aligned with the widely used Paxinos-Watson atlas based on optical sections to allow comparisons between histochemical and immuno-marker data, and the use of the Paxinos-Watson abbreviation set. Our MR atlas attempts to make a seamless connection with the advantageous features of the Paxinos-Watson atlas, and to extend the utility of the data th...

  10. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Roberto Malfará; Ana Maria de Souza; Regina Helena Costa Queiroz

    2005-01-01

    Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip) to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6). Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL) Group II received 2...

  11. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal extracts in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abba P. Obouayeba; Lydie Boyvin; Gervais M. M'Boh; Sekou Diabat and eacute;; Tanoh H. Kouakou; Allico J. Djaman; Jean D. N'Guessan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant rich in phytochemical compounds, which is the source of its biological properties. This study on the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (AEHS) was conducted to assess its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Methods: It was carried out with 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups. Two groups were treated with a solution of NaCl 0.9%. One group was treated with silymarin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two other groups were ...

  12. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwal, S; Prasad, S; Nair, N; Saini, M R; Bedwal, R S

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H(2) O(2) with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H(2) O(2) produced in two organs whereas significant (Pspermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  13. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehreh Yaghmaei; Kazem Parivar; Fatemeh Jalalvand

    2009-01-01

    Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)that potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)in the serum of female Wistar rats.Mater...

  14. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Bedwal S; Prasad S; Nair N; Saini M; Bedwal R

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 pro...

  15. SPELEOTHERAPY EFFECTS ON WISTAR RATS REFLECTED BY PULMONARY AND DERMAL FIBROBLASTS CULTURES 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Speleotherapy – a special kind of climatotherapy, uses the certain conditions of caves and salt mines to cure several diseases, especially respiratory and skin diseases. Atmospheric dust could cause allergic reactions or asthmatic attacks.The cave air is very low on dust. This fact reduces any kind of irritation. In this way, the symptoms of the diseases are reduced or eliminated completely, while the patient is in the cave. But that does not explain how it should have a longer lasting effect. Curing asthma involves spending 2-3 hours a day underground in subterranean caves or salt mines over a 1-2 month period. An old study describes a speleotherapy course, which was 4 hours a day for 6-8 weeks, with 100 COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and asthma patients and reported improvement that lasted 6 months to 7 years (Skulimowski, 1965. Our objectives were to explore the effects of speleotherapy on cellular morphology and physiology of pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts obtained from tissues of Wistar rats, in normal and Ovalbumin challenged, “asthmatic” conditions. 60 Wistar rats of 75-100 g weight were divided in two lots: control and ovalbumin challenged animals. Ten animals of each lot were send to Cacica, Turda and Dej Salt Mine for 14 days and maintained in the salt mine medium, as in speleotherapy treatment. Pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts cultures were prepared from Wistar rat lung and respectively dermal tissue. Trying to identify the biological mechanisms of speleotherapy, our experimental design was made for cell morphology, physiology and biochemical evaluation of cells in cultures obtained from animals that were treated by speleotherapy. The complex picture of results was analysed and explained through biological mechanisms comparing to the control cell cultures obtained from healthy, untreated Wistar rats. In this article we describe the supposed biological mechanisms that explain the protective effects of

  16. Acute oral toxicity and histopathological study of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Jaya; Mohineesh; Ray, Ruma; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

    2013-01-01

    Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. The present study was carried out to investigate the acute oral toxicity, behavioral and histopathological changes of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin in albino rats. According to Miller and Tainter analysis method, at 48 h, LD50 value of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin (ratio 1:1) in rats was found to be 691.83 mg/kg bw by oral gavage. When combination of both these pesticides was administered orally at concentration of 103.72 mg/kg bw, 172.95 mg/kg bw and 207.50 mg/kg bw, respectively, as a single dose, no significant changes in behavior of rats was observed, neither in dosed nor in control group of rats. Combination of endosulfan- and cypermethrin-treated rats showed mild histopathological changes in liver and kidney in group IV (207.50 mg/kg BW) as compared to the control. However, no significant changes were observed in brain and small intestine at either dose of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin with respect to control. Thus, the present study, first of its kind in India, demonstrated the oral toxicity, behavioral, and histo-architectual alterations after induction of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin at acute doses in Wistar rats.

  17. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...... were formed from 40, 29, 30 and 44 litters, respectively. After weaning, the highest dose (500 mg BHT/kg/day) was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. The numbers of litters of ten or more pups at birth decreased with increasing BHT dose. At weaning, treated F1 rats had lower body weights than...... the controls, the extent of the reduction being dose related; the effect, which persisted throughout the study, was most pronounced in the males. The survival of BHT-treated F1 rats of both sexes was significantly better than that of the controls. No significant changes attributable to BHT treatment were found...

  18. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy.

  19. [The Manifestation of the Anxiety during Fear Conditioning in Wistar Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests.

  20. Proteolytic activity of IgGs from blood serum of wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis

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    Yu. Ya. Kit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the proteolytic activity of IgGs purified from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ERA induced by an injection of bovine collagen of type II. Twenty rats were immunized with a preparation of bovine collagen II (Sigma-Aldrich, USA in the presence of complete Freund’s adjuvant. ERA development was determined by inflammation in limbs of treated animals. IgG preparations were isolated from blood serum of immunized and non-immunized animals by precipitation of antibodies with 33% ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on the Protein G-Sepharose column. Human histone H1, bovine collagen II, calf thymus histones, myelin basic protein (MBP, bovine serum albumin (BSA, and bovine casein were used as substrates of the proteolytic activity of IgGs. It was found that IgG preparations from blood serum of rats with ERA were capable of cleaving histone H1 and MBP, however, they were catalytically inactive towards collagen II, casein, BSA, and core histones. IgGs from blood serum of non-immunized rats were proteolytically inactive towards all used protein substrates. Thus, we demonstrated that immunization of rats with bovine collagen II induced IgG-antibodies possessing the proteolytic activity towards histone H1 and MBP. This activity might be associated with the development of inflammatory processes in the immunized rats.

  1. Two-year carcinogenicity study of acrylamide in Wistar Han rats with in utero exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, R R; Thoolen, R J M M; Hansen, B

    2015-02-01

    Acrylamide is an important chemical with widespread industrial and other uses in addition to generalized population exposure from certain cooked foods. Previous rat studies to assess the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide have been carried out exclusively in the Fischer 344 rat with identification of a number of tumors amongst which mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis is an important tumor endpoint in the classification of acrylamide as a 'probably human carcinogen. In a rat carcinogenicity study to determine the human relevance of mesotheliomas Wistar Han rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0mg acrylamide/kg body weight/day in drinking water starting at gestation day 6. At the end of two years, mammary gland fibroadenomas in females and thyroid follicular cell tumors in both sexes were the only tumors increased in acrylamide treated rats. These tumor endpoints have rat-specific modes of action suggesting less likelihood of human cancer risk than previously estimated. This study demonstrates that tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas are strain specific and not likely of genotoxic origin.

  2. Less of insulin desensitization in sympathetic nerve terminals from wistar rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, T C; Liu, I M; Cheng, J T

    2000-04-12

    In an attempt to determine the effect of hyperinsulinemia on sympathetic function, release of norepinephrine (NE) from isolated aorta by insulin was measured in Wistar rats with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was produced when the hypoglycemic action of glibenclamide at a dose of 10 mg/kg was almost abolished in rats that received daily injections of long-acting insulin for 15 days. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake was markedly reduced in both skeletal muscle strips and white adipocytes obtained from these rats with insulin resistance. However, the stimulatory effects of insulin at concentrations from 5 to 15 U/l on the release of NE from the aortic strip of insulin-resistant rats were not modified in the same manner but only slightly reduced compared with that of normal rats. These results suggest that insulin desensitization was produced later in sympathetic nerve terminals than in other organs in insulin-resistant rats and this may be helpful to explain the sympathetic hyperactivity associated with diabetes in clinics.

  3. Effect of herbal preparation on heavy metal (cadmium) induced antioxidant system in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailiah Roopha, P; Padmalatha, C

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements found to damage antioxidant systems in mammals. To ameliorate cadmium toxicity and to prevent oxidative stress, natural products may be useful. In Indian ethnobotanical practice, a mixture of 17 herbal products is used to fortify the reproductive system of women after parturition and to reverse ovarian oxidative stress. Oral administration of this extract to rats exposed to cadmium was useful in reversing oxidative stress. Two different doses of cadmium (50 ppm and 200 ppm) were given to Wistar rats aged 45 and 65 days. An herbal extract derived from 17 plants was administered orally every day at a dose level of 200 mg/kg of body weight to the rats exposed to cadmium. A battery of enzymes involved in antioxidant activity in the ovary, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were measured in the control, cadmium-exposed rats without treatment and in the cadmium-exposed rats treated with herbal extract. The reduction in SOD, catalase, GPx and GST activity after cadmium exposure improved significantly in the rats treated with the herbal extract (p antioxidant enzymes due to cadmium exposure was reversed significantly with herbal extract administration. The synergistic effect of each bioactive compound in different herbal extracts requires further study.

  4. Disposition and kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A in female Wistar Han rats

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    Gabriel A. Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA is the brominated flame retardant with the largest production volume worldwide. NTP 2-year bioassays found TBBPA dose-dependent increases in uterine tumors in female Wistar Han rats; evidence of reproductive tissues carcinogenicity was equivocal in male rats. To explain this apparent sex-dependence, the disposition and toxicokinetic profile of TBBPA were investigated using female Wistar Han rats, as no data were available for female rats. In these studies, the primary route of elimination following [14C]-TBBPA administration (25, 250 or 1000 mg/kg was in feces; recoveries in 72 h were 95.7 ± 3.5%, 94.3 ± 3.6% and 98.8 ± 2.2%, respectively (urine: 0.2–2%; tissues: <0.1. TBBPA was conjugated to mono-glucuronide and -sulfate metabolites and eliminated in the bile. Plasma toxicokinetic parameters for a 250 mg/kg dose were estimated based on free TBBPA, as determined by UV/radiometric-HPLC analyses. Oral dosing by gavage (250 mg/kg resulted in a rapid absorption of compound into the systemic circulation with an observed Cmax at 1.5 h post-dose followed by a prolonged terminal phase. TBBPA concentrations in plasma decreased rapidly after an IV dose (25 mg/kg followed by a long elimination phase. These results indicate low systemic bioavailability (F < 0.05, similar to previous reports using male rats. Elimination pathways appeared to become saturated leading to delayed excretion after a single oral administration of the highest dose (1000 mg/kg; no such saturation or delay was detected at lower doses. Chronic high exposures to TBBPA may result in competition for metabolism with endogenous substrates in extrahepatic tissues (e.g., SULT1E1 estrogen sulfation resulting in endocrine disruption.

  5. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

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    Hyungwoo eNam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs’ phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs’ behavior to that of Sprague-Dawley (SD, Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST. WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness. WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs’ behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e. neonatal handling that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression.

  6. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  7. Induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in Gunn, heterozygous, and Wistar rat livers by pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT) activity was comprehensively examined in Wistar (JJ), heterozygous (Jj) and Gunn (jj) rats with eleven different acceptors for glucuronic acid. UDP-GT activity after 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and phenobarbital (PB) treatment was studied in additional rats for comparative purposes. Conjugation of group-1 aglycones (1-naphthol and p-nitrophenol) was much lower in Gunn than in Wistar rats. PCN did not alter UDP-GT conjugation of these acceptors. UDP-GT activity toward group-1 aglycones was increased by 3-MC in Wistar and heterozygous rats but was not enhanced in Gunn rats by any inducer. Activity toward group-2 aglycones (morphine, chloramphenicol, valproic acid) was similar in control rats of all genotypes. PCN increased chloramphenicol conjugation, whereas PB enhanced the glucuronidation of all group-2 aglycones in Wistar, heterozygous, and Gunn rats. Conjugation of group-3 acceptors (bilirubin and digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside, DIG) was deficient in Gunn rats and was not inducible. PCN increased glucuronidation of bilirubin and DIG in Wistar and heterozygous rats. The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) in liver was similar in control animals of all genotypes and was increased in rats treated with 3-MC. The other inducers did not affect hepatic UDPGA levels. Thus, 3-MC, PB, and PCN induce UDP-GT activities toward different groups of acceptors of glucuronic acid. The results support the hypothesis that PCN induces a form of UDP-GT that preferentially conjugates the group-3 acceptors, bilirubin and DIG.

  8. α-Mangostin Mediated Pharmacological Modulation of Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism in Diabetes Induced Wistar Rat

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    Vikas Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. (Fruit has been commonly used as folklore drug in the treatment of various types of diseases. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the potential effect of α-mangostin mediated pharmacological modulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in normoglycemic rats. Single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, body weight was used for induction the diabetes in Swiss albino (Wistar strain rats. The rats were divided into different groups. Blood glucose level, body weight, insulin, glycated hemoglobin and hemoglobin levels were recorded at regular intervals. Biochemical parameters, liver enzymes, lipid profile, antioxidant parameters and inflammatory cytokine mediators were also scrutinized. Histopathology study of kidney, pancreas and liver were performed. The result of OGTT study depicted the better utilization of glucose in experimental rats. STZ induced diabetic rats treated with α-mangostin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. and glibenclamide depicted the decline in the level of blood glucose; enhanced body weight and showed the better utilization of glucose by different organs. STZ induced diabetic rats treated with α-mangostin illustrated the increased level of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, HDL, total protein, SOD, CAT, GSH and declined level of glycated hemoglobin, fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, glucose-6-Phosphatase, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, CRE, BUN, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LPO at effective dose dependent manners. Histological study showed the inflamed blood vessels in diabetic kidney, which was less in α-mangostin treated rats; diabetic pancreatic showed the complete damage of β cells, islets, aciini and producing necrosis, but all damage was less obvious in α-mangostin treating group rats; diabetic liver showed the damage of hepatocytes as well as central vein but was less in treated groups. Considering the

  9. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  10. Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar

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    Flamarion dos Santos Batista

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

  11. Haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in wistar rats

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    S. G. Suradkar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in 48 Wistar rats of either sex, divided uniformly into four different groups. The rats of group I received only deionised water as control while, group II, III and IV were given lead acetate @ 1 PPM, 100 PPM and 1000 PPM, in drinking deionised water respectively for 28 days. In group III and IV dose dependant significant (P<0.05 reductions in TEC, Hb, PCV and TLC were observed. No significant change was observed in neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte count in any treatment groups, whereas the lymphocyte count decreased significantly (P<0.05 in group III and IV. A dose dependant significant (P<0.05 increase in AST, ALP, AKP, GGT, BUN and creatinine was experiential while TP and albumin levels were decreased in group III and IV. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 429-431

  12. Chenopodium ambrosioides associated with whole body vibration exercises alters the feed intake in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, André Luiz Bandeira Dionizio; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Almeida, Lívia Pinto; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Dionello, Carla de Fontoura; Morel, Danielle Soares; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-08-31

    The consequences of treatment involving the use of a natural product and whole body vibration (WBV) exercise have been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the joint treatment with an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and WBV on physiological parameters in rats. Wistar rats (n=20) were divided equally into four groups: control group (CG), treated with C. ambrosioides (CHE) group, exposed to 50 Hz of mechanial vibration (VBR), and treated with C. ambrosioides and exposed to 50 Hz of mechanical vibration (VBR + CHE) daily for 6 weeks. The body mass of the animals was determined weekly, the feed intake and the stool consistency were measured daily. One day after the 6 weeks of treatment, samples of blood were collected and used for biochemical analysis. Along 6 weeks, there was an increase (Pambrosioides caused alteration in the enzymatic activity of AST. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Divya Bhargavan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE in Cyclophosphamide (CP induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evaluated. Results: The CP treated rats showed toxicity evidenced by decreased organ and body weight, decreased sperm quality and testosterone level also increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants SOD, GSH indicating oxidative stress. In contrast PGEE co-treatment with CP resulted in significant restoration of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These results indicate that PGEE attenuates CP induced testicular toxicity through its ROS scavenging activity.

  14. GASTROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FRUITS OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. IN PYLORUS-LIGATED WISTAR RAT MODEL

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    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L. (TT; Zygophyllaceae is employed in the folk medicine against sexual impotence, oedemas, abdominal distention and cardiovascular diseases. Gastroprotective (i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory potential of methanolic extract of TT fruits was evaluated in pylorus-ligated rat model of Wistar rat. The methanolic extract of TT was tested orally at the doses of 150, 300 & 600 mg/kg, on gastric ulcerations experimentally induced by pylorus ligation. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanol extract of TT showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and proteins. The methanolic extract at the doses of 300 & 600 mg/kg produced more significant inhibition when gastric ulcerations were induced by pylorus ligation respectively. The methanol extract of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. possess gastroprotective i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory effect.

  15. Experimentally induced intestinal metaplasia in Wistar rats by x-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.

    1978-11-01

    The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation.

  16. Toxicity evaluation of earthworm powder (Eudrillus euginae) in wistar male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaganathan Anitha; Indira A. Jayraaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute toxicity effects of earthworm powder (EWP) obtained from Eudrillus euginae on wistar male rats. Methods: The animals are treated orally with EWP at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg bodyweight daily for 12 days. Results: There was no significant mortality and changes in body weight noticed at all the doses tested. No gross significant changes observed in the hematological indices (HB, RBC and WBC), Hepatic, serum markers (AST, ALT, ALP, and protein) and renal indices (Urea, Uric acid and Creatinine). The EWP did not show any significant effects in the clinical signs, behavioral changes and examined toxicological endpoints in experimental animals. The histopathological studies provide supports to the safety data of above parameter of EWP dosing. Conclusions: Thus, it can be inferred from the present study that EWP (Eudrillus euginae) is devoid of toxic effects in rats and suggested to utilize the EWP as novel medicine.

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

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    Roya Mehdizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffronaqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods:The saffron extract (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day IP or control were administered for 9 days along with ISO (85 mg/kg, SC, at 24 hr interval on 8th and 9th day in rats. Activities of creatine kinase-muscle, brain (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured using standard commercial kits. The level of malondialdehyde in heart tissue was estimated with thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. For histopathological examination, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining was used. Results:ISO administration induced a statistically significant increase          (P

  18. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Patil, R D; Rahman, S; Leishangthem, G D; Kumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals.

  19. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  20. The Effects of a Moderate Exercise Program on Knee Osteoarthritis in Male Wistar Rats

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    Mohammad Fallah Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Osteoarthritis (OA or degenerative joint disease is the commonest form of arthritis and can lead to joint pain, decrease in joint’s range of motion, loss of function, and ultimately disability. Exercise is considered as one of the non-pharmacological treatments of OA. But the effects of exercise on knee joint cartilage remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a four-week moderate treadmill exercise on rats’ knee osteoarthritis.   Materials and Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (173 ± 1 g, 8 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6: Intact control, monosodium iodoacetate (MIA only (OA, and training. The osteoarthritis model was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA. Subjects followed a moderate-intensity exercise program for 28 days. Rats were killed after 28 days and histological assessment was done on their knee joints. One-way ANOVA (P

  1. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J. (St. Radbond Academic Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands); Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  2. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  3. Passive Immunization of Anti bZP3 (Zone Pellucida3 in Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus and Mouse (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pantiwati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the influence of anti bZP3’s passive immunization on anti-anti bZP3’s titer and pregnancy level on Wistar rats and mice. This study employed factorial design experiment with completely randomized design. The first factor was immunogenic type. The treated rats were immunized with 100 L anti bZP3 in 100 L Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA, while the treated mice were injected with 50 L anti bZP3 in 50 L CFA. Control Wistar rats and mice were immunized with CFA and Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA without anti bZP3. The second factor was animal type. The third factor was the length of serum incubation, i.e. 38, 49, 63, 86, 100, and 126 d. Dot blot on the treated Wistar rats and mice showed positive response proven by blue gradation; pre-immune mice as well as control Wistar rats and mice showed negative response proven by white gradation. The highest antibody titer in treated mouse serum was shown in 63 d incubation. The pregnancy on treated mice, control mice and Wistar rat occurred 100% until day 126; while the failure percentage on the treated mice was 4.5%. The pregnancy on treated mice occurred in 86 d incubation (1 rat, 100 d incubation (1 rat, and 126 d incubation (3 rats. Effective passive immunization on similar hospes occurred until day 63; while different hospes was ineffective. Antibodi anti-bZP3 was potential as a contraception through passive immunization on similar hospes.

  4. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R B; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  5. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm.

  6. Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individual effects were compared with vehicle, an artificial mixture of the same eight fatty acids, and a reference anxiolytic drug (diazepam, 2 mg/kg. Myristic acid, the fatty acid mixture, and diazepam increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and reduced the anxiety index compared with vehicle, without altering general locomotor activity. The other fatty acids had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, but oleic acid reduced locomotor activity. Additionally, myristic acid produced anxiolytic-like effects only when the concentration corresponded to the one identified in human amniotic fluid (30 g/mL but did not alter locomotor activity. We conclude that of the eight fatty acids contained in the fatty acid mixture, only myristic acid produces anxiolytic-like effects when administered individually at a similar concentration detected in human amniotic fluid.

  7. The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Hematological Indices in Wistar Rats

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    Abbas Ali Keshtkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the effects of subacute exposure of Peracetic acid on Hematological indices in Wistar rats. In this study 18 male Wistar rats divided to two experimental and one control groups. PAA with 99% purity purchased. Then 0.2 and 2 mL of PAA dissolved in 100 mL drinking water. Animals in Treatment Group 1 and 2 received 0.2% PAA daily for 4 weeks and 2% PAA daily for 4 weeks, respectively. After the animals had been sacrificed hematological parameters examined. Experimental results concerning this study were evaluated using SPSS v.11.5 and expressed as Mean SD p<0.05 was considered significant. Mean SD of WBC of groups 1 (2.45 0.77 and 2 (3.63 0.23 decreased significantly as compared with control group (5.3 0.57. RBC in control and 1, 2 groups were 8.34 0.39, 7.48 0.11 and 7.61 0.46, respectively. Also HCT and PLT decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2 as compared with control group. This study showed that oral consumption of Peracetic acid with concentration 0.2, 2% for 4 weeks can cause decrease hematological parameter in animal model.

  8. Effective analgesic doses of tramadol or tapentadol induce brain, lung and heart toxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana; Barbosa, Joana; Leal, Sandra; Afonso, Luís Pedro; Lobo, João; Moreira, Roxana; Queirós, Odília; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-06-15

    Tramadol and tapentadol are extensively prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Although these drugs are very effective in pain treatment, the number of intoxications and deaths due to both opioids is increasing, and the underlying toxic mechanisms are not fully understood. The present work aimed to study the potential biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by acute effective (analgesic) doses of tramadol and tapentadol, in Wistar rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into different groups: a control, administered with normal saline solution, and tramadol- or tapentadol-treated groups (10, 25 or 50mg/kg - typical effective analgesic dose, intermediate and maximum recommended doses, respectively). 24h after intraperitoneal administration, biochemical and oxidative stress analyses were performed in blood, and specimens from brain, lung and heart were taken for histopathological and oxidative stress studies. Both drugs caused an increase in the AST/ALT ratio, in LDH, CK and CK-MB activities in serum samples, and an increase in lactate levels in serum and brain samples. Oxidative damage, namely protein oxidation, was found in heart and lung tissues. In histological analyses, tramadol and tapentadol were found to cause alterations in cell morphology, inflammatory cell infiltrates and cell death in all tissues under study, although tapentadol caused more damage than tramadol. Our results confirmed the risks of tramadol exposure, and demonstrated the higher risk of tapentadol, especially at high doses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  10. Effect of the fractions of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic wistar rats

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    Yerima Musa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization defines diabetes mellitus as “a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.Objective: The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycaemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.Methodology: A single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg IP and fructose (10% w/v ad libitum for 20 days. LD50 and phytochemical screening were conducted using Lorke’s method 1983 and Trease and Evans 1989 respectively.Results: The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be 3,800 mg/kg. The fractions of the extract lowered the elevated blood glucose significantly with the 1000 mg/kg dose at the 8th, 16th, and 24th hours. The 500 mg/kg dose also lowered the glucose level throughout the study but only significantly at the 1st, 16th, and 24th hours. The ethyl acetate fraction also lowered the elevated blood glucose with all the doses used. The 250 mg/kg dose did not show significant decrease in the blood sugar concentration.Conclusion: The fractions of the stem-bark extract of T. indica L. significantly lowered elevated blood glucose concentration (BGL in alloxan and fructose-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.

  11. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  12. Differential gene expression profile in ischemic myocardium of Wistar rats with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO ChunYu; YIN HuiJun; JIANG YueRong; XUE Mei; SHI DaZhuo

    2008-01-01

    To determine the differential genes in ischemic myocardium of Wistar rats with acute myocardial in-farction (AMI),we constructed two differential gone expression profiles.AMI model was generated by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats.Total RNA was extracted from the normal and the ischemic heart tissues under the ligation point at the 8th day after the operation.Dif-ferential gone expression profiles of the two samples were constructed by using long serial analysis of gone expression (LongSAGE).Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was used to confirm the expression changes of partial target genes.The main results were as follows:a total of 15966 tags were screened from the normal and the ischemic LongSAGE maps,and 9646 tags in the normal tissue and 9563 tags in the ischemic tissue were obtained.Among them,7665 novel tags were identified by NCBI BLAST search.In the ischemic tissue,142 genes significantly changed compared to those in the normal tissue (P<0.05).These differentially expressed genes may play important roles in the pathways of oxidation and phosphoryiation,ATP synthesis and glycolysis and so on.Partial genes identified by the LongSAGE were confirmed by Q-PCR.The results show that AMI causes a series of gone expres-sion changes in the regulation of the pathways related to energy metabolism.

  13. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

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    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  14. Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Rosa Isela; Cueto-Escobedo, Jonathan; Guillen-Ruiz, Gabriel; Bernal-Morales, Blandina

    2014-01-01

    A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids) at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individual effects were compared with vehicle, an artificial mixture of the same eight fatty acids, and a reference anxiolytic drug (diazepam, 2 mg/kg). Myristic acid, the fatty acid mixture, and diazepam increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and reduced the anxiety index compared with vehicle, without altering general locomotor activity. The other fatty acids had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, but oleic acid reduced locomotor activity. Additionally, myristic acid produced anxiolytic-like effects only when the concentration corresponded to the one identified in human amniotic fluid (30 𝜇g/mL) but did not alter locomotor activity. We conclude that of the eight fatty acids contained in the fatty acid mixture, only myristic acid produces anxiolytic-like effects when administered individually at a similar concentration detected in human amniotic fluid. PMID:25328885

  15. Effect of prebiotics of Agave salmiana fed to healthy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Padilla, Iliana; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Alvarez-Fuentes, Gregorio; De la Cruz-Martínez, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, José; Moscosa-Santillán, Mario; González-Chávez, Marco; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtemoc; Prell, Florian; Czermak, Peter; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Inulin and other fructans are synthesized and stored in mezcal agave (Agave salmiana). Fructans provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet. Here, we studied the physiological effects of fructans obtained from A. salmiana when added in the diet of Wistar rats. Results showed favorable changes on Wistar rats when the fructans was added to their diet, including the decrease of the pH in the feces and the increase of the number of lactic acid bacteria (CFU g(-1) ) (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.), even these changes were enhanced with the synbiotic diet (fructans plus B. animalis subsp. lactis). Synbiotic diet, developed changes in the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum, with statistical differences (P < 0.05). Histological analysis of colon sections showed that synbiotic diet promoted colon cells growth suggesting that fructans from A. salmiana confer beneficial health effects through gut microbiota modulation. Our data underline the advantage of targeting the gut microbiota by colonic nutrients like specific structure of fructans from A. salmiana, with their beneficial effects. More studies are necessary to define the role of fructans to develop more solid therapeutic solutions in humans. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  17. Renoprotective effects of moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezejindu D. N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is one of several nutritional supplements giving wide spread popularity in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats. 24 apparently healthy adult wistar rats weighing between190- 230kg were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.3ml of distilled water orally. The experimental groups B, C & D received 0.5ml, 0.6ml &0.7ml of Moringa oleifera extract orally respectively. The administration lasted for twenty one days. The animals were weighed, sacrificed using chloroform vapour. The kidney tissue were removed, weighed and trimmed down for histological studies. Result of this study showed non-distortion of the kidney cells. The findings of this study suggest that chronic Moringa oleifera consumption may not put the kidneys at risk of adverse histopathological conditions.

  18. Effect of COX-2 inhibitor after TNBS-induced colitis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; de Oliveira Costa, Henrique; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Franco, Marcello

    2009-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by alternating periods of remission and active intestinal inflammation. Some studies suggest that antiinflammatory drugs are a promising alternative for treatment of the disease. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of lumiracoxib, a selective-cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Wistar rats (n = 25) were randomized into four groups, as follows: Group (1) Sham group: sham induced-colitis rats; Group (2) TNBS group: nontreated induced-colitis rats; Group (3) Lumiracoxib control group; and Group (4) Lumiracoxib-treated induced-colitis rats. Our results showed that rats from groups 2 and 4 presented similar histopathological damage and macroscopic injury in the distal colon as depicted by significant statistically differences (P TNBS-induced experimental colitis. Thus, the use of COX-2 inhibitors for treating IBD should be considered with caution and warrants further experimental investigation to elucidate their applicability.

  19. Identification of potential antioxidant indices by biogenic gold nanoparticles in hyperglycemic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengani, Manimegalai; V, Devi Rajeswari

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a crucial factor in diabetes, where the abnormal metabolic ambience leads to hyperglycemia resulting in the onset of several vascular complications. Under homeostasis, innate antioxidants efficiently inhibit the oxidative stress, thereby restrain further progression of diabetes. In the present study, a potential antioxidant marker was identified from hepatic tissue of diabetic Wistar rats after oral administration of biogenic gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Diabetic animals treated with GNPs showed increase in insulin level and subsequently reduced the concentration of blood glucose level to normal. Further, GNPs favoured to retain the hepatic enzymatic markers, serum lipid levels and followed by renal biochemical profile in the rats. In addition, GNPs treated rats displayed an elevated level of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymatic activity. Consequently, GNPs treated rats showed diminished level of histological injury in the hepatic, renal, and pancreatic tissues. Taken together, these results suggested that among the several antioxidant enzymes, catalase elucidated the highest area under curve (AUC) with 0.80 accomplished by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Collectively, our findings enlighten that GNPs treated rat able to alleviate the hyperglycemic condition due to the enzymatic activity of catalase.

  20. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuntha G; Prasanna Raju Y; Harini Chowdary V; Vandana KR; Arun Rasheed; Prasad KVSRG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the aphrodisiac potentials of ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana) of Papaveraceae family in sexually sluggish male Wistar rats. Methods:The sexually inactive male rats were divided into two groups of 8 rats each. The test group animals were treated with ethanol extract of A. mexicana (EEAM) at 1 g/kg daily oral dose for 28 days. Other group animals were treated with sildenafil citrate at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation;post ejaculatory pause and frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation were measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Serum testosterone levels were estimated using ELISA. Results: The EEAM was nonlethal even at dose of 4.0 g/kg. The oral dosing of EEAM has significantly enhanced the orientation of males towards female by increase in ano-genital investigatory behavior, frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation (P< 0.01). The latencies of mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The EEAM has produced marked variation in sexual behavior characteristics and was able to elevate the serum testosterone levels (P<0.01) on par to that of sildenafil citrate. Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  1. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Garcia Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades.

  2. Insulin sensitivity and hemodynamic responses to insulin in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pître, M; Nadeau, A; Bachelard, H

    1996-10-01

    The insulin-mediated vasodilator effect has been proposed as an important physiological determinant of insulin action on glucose disposal in normotensive humans. The present study was designed to further examine the acute regional hemodynamic effects of insulin in different vascular beds and to explore the relationships between insulin vascular effects and insulin sensitivity during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps in conscious normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The rats were instrumented with intravascular catheters and pulsed Doppler flow probes to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. In WKY rats, the euglycemic infusion of insulin (4 and 16 mU.kg-1.min-1) causes vasodilations in renal and hindquarter vascular beds but no changes in mean blood pressure, heart rate, or superior mesenteric vascular conductance. In contrast, in SHR, the same doses of insulin produce vasoconstrictions in superior mesenteric and hindquarter vascular beds and, at high doses, increase blood pressure. Moreover, at the lower dose of insulin tested, we found a reduction in the insulin sensitivity index in the SHR compared with the WKY rats. The present findings provide further evidence for an association between insulin sensitivity and insulin-mediated hemodynamic responses.

  3. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  4. Implication of caffeine consumption and recovery on the reproductive functions of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, Shakiru A; Ogunwole, Eunice; Raji, Yinusa

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of caffeine consumption and recovery on reproductive functions and fertility of Wistar rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A (control) received distilled water (vehicle), while groups B, C, and D were treated orally with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW), 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days. Groups E, F, and G were treated orally with 10 mg/kg BW, 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days and then allowed to recover for another 30 days. Caffeine caused a decrease in body weight, while recovery groups showed appreciable increase in body weight during recovery. Relative weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis decreased dose dependently during treatment but increased during recovery. The liver and kidney weight increased during treatment but reduced during recovery. Sperm count was significantly decreased in both treated and recovery groups. Initial decrease in sperm viability and volume was appreciably reversed during recovery period. Serum level of testosterone increased at high doses, while serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed significant decrease. Histological sections of testis in treated groups showed mild congestion of the interstitial blood vessel and subcapsular congestion. However, there was no subcapsular congestion in the recovery groups. All rats in both treated and recovery groups had 100% fertilization success from fertility study. Suggestively, caffeine treatment for 4 weeks could impair body, reproductive organs weight, sperm characteristics, LH/FSH level, and also testicular cyto-architecture. Effects appeared, however, reversible after caffeine withdrawal.

  5. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  6. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction.

  7. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Consuelo Figueroa-García

    Full Text Available It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction.

  8. Uso crônico de decanoato de nandrolona como fator de risco para hipertensão arterial pulmonar em ratos Wistar Chronic use of nandrolone decanoate as risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension in Wistar rats

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    Jones Bernardes Graceli

    2010-02-01

    muscle once a week for 4 weeks. After the treatment, rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (4.0mL/kg-1, ip, and catheterized in the femoral artery. Twenty-four hours later, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart ratio were measured. The heart, kidneys and liver were removed, weighed and the rates of hypertrophy (RH were measured, which were calculated by the ratio of the weight of the organs by the body weight (mg.g-1. RESULTS: DECA treatment increased body weight (338 ± 6g; p <0.01 vs. CONT (315 ± 5g. This treatment had no effect on the MAP (CONT, 110±4mmHg, DECA, 113 ± 4mmHg. However, the bradycardia of animals treated with DECA (321 ± 13bpm, p<0.01 was significantly lower than that of CONT (368 ±11bpm. RH increased (p <0.01 the cardiac ventricles and the kidneys, but not in the liver. The correlation between the RVH and MAP in DECA showed positive and higher Pearson's coefficient (r² = 0.4013 vs CONT (r² = 0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that chronic nandrolone decanoate treatment induced bradycardia and RVH, which suggests increased risk for PAH.

  9. Activation of autophagy improves neuron injury after the restoration of spontaneous circulation from ventricular fibrillation in wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of activation of autophagy on cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR)in Wistar rats.Methods At first 36healthy adult male Wistar rats were induced to suffer ventricular fibrillation(VF)by an external transthoracic alternating electricity current shock for 7 minutes and then received CPR.Before VF(0)and at 1 h,2 h,4 h,8 h and 12 hours after the restoration of spontaneous circulation(ROSC)from VF,cerebral cortex were harvested to

  10. Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract on adult wistar rats in vivo

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an assessment of the dominant lethality of Mikania glomerata in male Wistar rats. Adult male received 1 mL of M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose level of 3.3 g/kg body weight for 52 days and were mated with untreated females for seven weeks (group 1 or one week prior to the beginning of treatment and on the week following the end of treatment (group 2. The parameters analyzed were: number of implanted embryos, resorptions and corpora lutea; mating, gestation, preimplantation loss, implantation and resorption indexes (group 1; number of offspring and weaning animals (group 2. The administration of M. glomerata did not show any impairment of fertility and no significant difference in the parameters analyzed, suggesting an absence of mutagenic effect on Wistar rats.Mikania glomerata é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular, cujas folhas possuem flavonóides e cumarina. Essas substâncias, segundo a literatura, interferem na fertilidade de cães e ratas, respectivamente. O presente trabalho faz um estudo do teste do letal dominante com M. glomerata em ratos Wistar. Animals adultos foram tratados com 1 mL de extrato hidroalcoólico de M. glomerata na dose de 3.3 g/kg de peso corporal durante 52 dias. Os animais foram acasalados com fêmeas não tratadas por sete semanas (grupo 1 ou uma semana antes do início do tratamento e na semana seguinte ao término do mesmo (grupo 2. As variáveis analisadas foram: números de embriões implantados, reabsorções e corpos lúteos, índices de acasalamento, gestação, perda pré-implantação, implantação e reabsorção (grupo 1; número de filhotes nascidos e de animais desmamados (grupo 2. A administração de M. glomerata não interferiu com a fertilidade dos animais e não foram observadas alterações significativas das variáveis analisadas, o que sugere a ausência de efeito mutagênico em ratos Wistar por parte dessa planta.

  11. Chemprevention of Colorecta Cancer Induced By Dimethylhydrazine in Wistar Rats by Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XudongJia; ChiHan

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effects of green tea and tea pigmetns on 1,2-dimthylhydrazine(DMH)-induced rat colorectal carcinogenesis.Methods:A total of 168 male weaned Wistar rats were randomly divided into four goups Rats in the positive group were given s.c.injection of DMH,once a week for ten weeks Rats in tea-treated groups,in addition to the same DMH treatment as in the positive group,received 2% green volume of saline as DMH in the positive group Animals were necropsied at the end of week 16 and week 32 after the first DMH treatemtn.Results:Aberrant crytp foci(ACF) were formed in animals in DMH-treated groups at the end of week 16,Compared to the DMH group,green tea and tea pigments groups had less ACF(P<0.01),At the end of week 32,all rats in DMH group developed intestinal tumors.The average number of intestinal tumors and the mean tumor volume were reduced in tea treated groups(P<0.01).The results also showed that DMH increased labeling index(LI) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) of intestinal mucosa and the expression of ras-p21.However,in the tea treated groups,PCNA-LI and ras-p21 expression were significantly reduced as compared with the positive control group(P<0.01),Futhermore,green tea and tea pigments inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 protein and induced the expression of Bax protien(P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion.Tea Drinking inhibited ACF and intestinal tumors formation in rats,which showed that tea had a significant chemopreventive effects on DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats,Such effects may be due to suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in the intesinal cyrpts.

  12. Decreased reward sensitivity in rats from the Fischer344 strain compared to Wistar rats is paralleled by differences in endocannabinoid signaling.

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    Theresa Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine if differences in the endocannabinoid (ECB system might be linked to strain specific variations in reward-related behavior in Fischer344 (Fischer and Wistar rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two rat strains, the Fischer and the Wistar strain, were tested for different aspects of reward sensitivity for a palatable food reward (sweetened condensed milk, SCM in a limited-access intake test, a progressive ratio (PR schedule and the pleasure-attenuated startle (PAS paradigm. Additionally, basic differences in the ECB system and cannabinoid pharmacology were examined in both rat strains. Fischer rats were found to express lower reward sensitivity towards SCM compared to Wistar rats. These differences were observed for consummatory, motivational and hedonic aspects of the palatable food reward. Western blot analysis for the CB1 receptor and the ECB degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH revealed a lower expression of both proteins in the hippocampus (HPC of Fischer rats compared to the Wistar strain. Furthermore, increased cannabinoid-stimulated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation was detected in Wistar rats compared to the Fischer strain, indicating alterations in ECB signaling. These findings were further supported by the pharmacological results, where Fischer rats were found to be less sensitive towards the effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present findings indicate differences in the expression of the CB1 receptor and FAAH, as well as the activation of ECB signaling pathways between Fischer and Wistar rats. These basic differences in the ECB system might contribute to the pronounced differences observed in reward sensitivity between both rat strains.

  13. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

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    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  14. Mild ingestion of used frying oil damages hepatic and renal cells in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Ojiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control) or used frying oil recovered from Japanese food manufacturing companies (recovered oil) for 12 weeks and subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to recovered oil were observed. There was a tendency toward higher consumption of the diet in the experimental group as compared to the control group. In the serum of the experimental group, no difference was detected in the levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. But many dark-red patches, necrosis, and bleeding were found in the livers of 75% of the experimental rats; these rats had extremely high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Average AST and ALT values of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the controls. The renal cells were also obviously damaged. These results raise the concern that frying oil contained in ready-made foods, snacks, etc., if deteriorated to an extent equal to or greater than that of the recovered oil, may be able to change human serum AST/ALT levels and damage the liver and kidneys.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikander, Mohammad; Malik, Shabnam; Parveen, Kehkashan; Ahmad, Maqsood; Yadav, Deepak; Hafeez, Zubair Bin; Bansal, Manish

    2013-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (OV) leaves extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in normal and hepatotoxic rats. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of OV, rats were divided into six groups: control group, O. vulgare group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and OV at doses of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in serum, lipid peroxide (LPO), GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH in liver tissue were estimated to assess liver function. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to controls. OV administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in dose-dependent manner, maximum activity was found in CCl4 + OV3 (150 mg/kg body weight) groups and changes in the hepatocytes were confirmed through histopathological analysis of liver tissues. It was also associated with significantly lower serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels, higher GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH level in liver tissue. The level of LPO also decreases significantly after the administration of OV leaves extract. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Thus, the study suggests O. vulgare showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and might be beneficial for the liver toxicity.

  16. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  17. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  18. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  19. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats

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    Damiana Diniz Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. Objective: The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group: control group received 0.7 mL of water, kefir group received 0.7 mL/day of kefir, (normodose, and Hkefir group received 3.5 mL/day of kefir (fivefold higher dose. Feeding was carried out by gavage. The animals were housed in individual cages and maintained under standard conditions for 4 weeks. Results: The normodose and high-dose of kefir supplementation did not harm the animals since growth, hematology and blood chemistry in rats, as well as the potential pathogenicity in tissues were within normal limits, demonstrating that consumption of normodose and highdose of kefir are safe. In addition, administration of the normodose of kefir reduced cholesterol levels and improved the intestinal mucosa of the rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned.

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  1. Clastogenic and toxicological assessment of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut bark extracts in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owumi, Solomon E; Fatoki, John O; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to environmental toxicants have been associated with the onset of skin lesions-including cancers. Identification and reduction of exposure to such compounds is an important public health goal. We examined the effect of cashew shell oil (CSO), used in skin tattooing for its potential to induce skin transformation in rats. Corn oil and CSO (25, 50, and 100%) were topically applied to depilated sections of Wistar' rat skin (groups: I-IV) for six weeks. Effect of treatments on serum transaminases activity, histological changes in hepatocytes and induction of micronuclei in the bone marrow were examined. In addition, CSO-induced hepatocyte proliferation was also quantified. All animals survived the course of the study. Reduced percentage change in body weight and physical trauma were observed in CSO-treated rat. The effects were more prominent in Group IV (100% CSO). Relative liver weights and number of hepatocytes (cells/mm(2)) increased significantly in groups II-IV relative to control (p 0.05) affected in treated groups. Hepatic histopathology revealed moderate sinusoidal congestion (group II), in addition to portal congestion in (group III), with mononuclear cellular infiltration (group IV) animals. In addition, CSO induced significant micronuclei formation of polychromatic erythrocyte (mPCEs) in the rat bone marrow (p tattoos in humans should be discouraged and further studies need to be conducted.

  2. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding cyadox in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Fang, Gui-Jie; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Huang, Ling-Li; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity of cyadox, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats (F(0)) were fed with diets containing cyadox (0, 50, 150 and 2500 mg/kg) or olaquindox (150 mg/kg), approximately equivalent to cyadox 5, 15, 250 or olaquindox 15 mg/kg b.w./day across two generations. Half of the pregnant rats (F(0), F(1b)) were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination and the other half produced pups F(1a) and F(2a), respectively. At the 250 mg/kg b.w./day cyadox group, body weights of F(1b) pregnant rats and F(2a) on day 21 after birth decreased; fetal body lengths and tail lengths decreased; the number of fetal resorptions increased significantly; litter weights, number of viable fetuses decreased; number of embryo resorptions increased significantly; number of liveborn F(1a), F(1b) and F(2a) decreased. No macroscopic or microscopic change of any significance was found in the reproductive organs. Significant increases in the incidence of cervical ribs or lumbar ribs in F(2a) pups and significant increases of relative organ weight of testis and epididymis in F(1b) were observed at the 250 mg/kg b.w./day cyadox group. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of cyadox for rats was estimated to be 150 mg/kg diet, which was equivalent to approximately 15 mg/kg b.w./day.

  3. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding quinocetone fed to Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Dai, Meng-Hong; Huang, Ling-Li; Chen, Dong-Mei; Tao, Yan-Fei; Peng, Da-Peng; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of quinocetone, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats were fed different diets containing 0, 50, 300 and 1800 mg/kg quinocetone or 300 mg/kg olaquindox. Groups of 15 males and 30 females (F(0)) were fed through a 10-week prebreed period as well as during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 12 males and 24 females of F(1) generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for F(2) generation. Selected F(1) weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights in F(0) and F(1) rats, fetal body weight on day 21 after birth and number of viable fetuses in F(0) and F(1) generation significantly decreased. In teratogenicity study, groups of 12 males and 24 females were fed with the same diets through a 12-week prebreed period and matting periods. Pregnant rats were subjected to cesarean section on GD 20 for teratogenic examination. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights and feed efficiency, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses significantly decreased. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of quinocetone for rats was estimated to be 300 mg/kg diet.

  4. A multidimensional magnetic resonance histology atlas of the Wistar rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-09-01

    We have produced a multidimensional atlas of the adult Wistar rat brain based on magnetic resonance histology (MRH). This MR atlas has been carefully aligned with the widely used Paxinos-Watson atlas based on optical sections to allow comparisons between histochemical and immuno-marker data, and the use of the Paxinos-Watson abbreviation set. Our MR atlas attempts to make a seamless connection with the advantageous features of the Paxinos-Watson atlas, and to extend the utility of the data through the unique capabilities of MR histology: a) ability to view the brain in the skull with limited distortion from shrinkage or sectioning; b) isotropic spatial resolution, which permits sectioning along any arbitrary axis without loss of detail; c) three-dimensional (3D) images preserving spatial relationships; and d) widely varied contrast dependent on the unique properties of water protons. 3D diffusion tensor images (DTI) at what we believe to be the highest resolution ever attained in the rat provide unique insight into white matter structures and connectivity. The 3D isotropic data allow registration of multiple data sets into a common reference space to provide average atlases not possible with conventional histology. The resulting multidimensional atlas that combines Paxinos-Watson with multidimensional MRH images from multiple specimens provides a new, comprehensive view of the neuroanatomy of the rat and offers a collaborative platform for future rat brain studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  6. Postnatal development and behaviour of Wistar rats after prenatal toluene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, R. [Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Chahoud, I. [Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with different concentrations of toluene by inhalation (300, 600, 1000 and 1200 ppm) from day 9 to day 21 of pregnancy for 6 h a day in a whole-body inhalation chamber (controls inhaled fresh air only). From day 22, rats were kept single-caged and were allowed to deliver. Besides a detailed evaluation of the physical development of the offspring we performed the following tests: forelimb-grasp reflex, righting reflex, cliff-drop aversion reflex, maintainance of balance on a rotating rod, measurement of locomotor activity and learning ability in a discrimination learning test. A toluene exposure of 1200 ppm resulted in a reduced body weight of rat dams and offspring and a higher mortality until weaning. The physical development (incisor eruption, eye opening and vaginal opening) was retarded in this group. There were no clear-cut and concentration-dependent differences in the development of reflexes, rota rod performance and locomotor activity between the offspring of animals exposed to toluene and the controls. Likewise, no effects were found on learning ability in the operant conditioning task. Compared to the controls there were no differences in mating, fertility and pregnancy indexes in the F{sub 1}-generation. The tests performed have provided no evidence that toluene exposures {<=} 1200 ppm induce adverse effects on the behaviour of rat offspring exposed during late embryonic and fetal development. (orig.). With 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Effects of aspartame on the evaluation of electrophysiological responses in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener that is used predominantly in various ‘diet’ and ‘low-calorie’ products, such as beverages, instant breakfasts, desserts, breath mints, sugar-free chewing gum, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals, consumed by millions of people who are attempting weight loss, young adults and diabetic persons. On a weight basis, the metabolism of aspartame generates approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid and 10% methanol. The detailed mechanisms of the effects of aspartame on the electrophysiological response are still unclear; therefore, this study was designed to clarify whether longer-term aspartame consumption has any effect on the electrophysiological response in Wistar albino rats. The oral administration of aspartame in a safe dose of 40 mg/kg bodyweight/day (as recommended by EFSA, 2012 was tested in Wistar albino rats for a longer period (90 days. Electrophysiological responses, including heart rate variability (HRV and electroencephalogram (EEG pattern, were assessed in a folate-deficient animal model along with control animals using BIOPAC and EEG equipment (model RMS EEG–24 brain new-plus: RMS – Recorder and Medicare systems. In this study, the folate-deficient animal model was used to mimic human methanol metabolism in rats. After 90 days of aspartame treatment, a significant alteration was observable in the time domain [Mean RR (ms SDNN (ms RMSSD (ms PNN50 (%] and the frequency domain [LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio] with significantly impaired frequency and amplitude of the fronto-parietal and occipital EEG waves at p ≤ 0.05. The results of this study clearly indicate that the oral consumption of aspartame reduced HRV, with sympathetic dominance and loss of vagal tone, and altered sympathovagal activity along with impairment of learning and memory, showing an additional effect on health within this study duration. The aspartame metabolites methanol and formaldehyde may be the causative factors

  8. Fish oil increases atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis, although decreases serum cholesterol in Wistar rat

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    Minoo M-Shirazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is known that fish oil consumption decreases incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, some studies showed that it increases atherosclerosis as it does not get completely metabolized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fish oil on aortic atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were fed with a fish oil-containing diet or standard diet (containing soy bean oil during pregnancy and lactation and the pups were weaned onto the same diet. Fasting blood samples, hepatic and aortic specimens were taken from pups on day 70 postnatal. Data were analyzed with SPSS software, using t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation coefficient. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Medians for fatty streak in aorta of fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.042. Also, medians for ductular cell hyperplasia of liver in fish oil fed and soy bean oil fed pups were 1.00 and 0.00, respectively, and P value was 0.014. Total cholesterol in pups fed with fish oil was 52.20 mg/dl and in pups fed with soy bean oil was 83.90 mg/dl (p < 0.00 and for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C values were 8.79 mg/dl and 13.16 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.031. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, a diet which provided 15.9% of energy from fish oil as the only source of dietary fat, induced aortic atherosclerosis as well as hepatic steatosis in Wistar rat, although it decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C.

  9. Euterpe edulis effects on cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barrios Freitas, Rodrigo; Melato, Fernanda Araujo; Oliveira, Jerusa Maria de; Bastos, Daniel Silva Sena; Cardoso, Raisa Mirella; Leite, João Paulo Viana; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2017-02-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and toxic effects of E. edulison cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in cardiac muscle and renal tissue of 60 animals, which were randomly assigned for 10 equal groups. Half of the rats were fed with cafeteria diet and the other half with commercial chow, combined or not to E. edulislyophilized extract, E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract or E. edulisoil. Data were evaluated using ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Data showed a significant increase of CAT activity in cardiac tissue of animals from the groups fed with cafeteria diet associated to E. edulis lyophilized extract at 5%, E. edulis lyophilized extract at 10% and E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract at 10%. In addition, the same result was found in animals from the groups fed with commercial chow and commercial chow combined with E. edulislyophilized extract at 10% in comparison to the group fed exclusively with cafeteria diet. GST and SOD enzyme activity showed significant increase in the heart tissue of animals nourished with commercial chow when compared to the groups fed with cafeteria diet. On the other hand, there were no significant differences enzymatic levels in renal tissues. The oil and the extract of E. edulishad an important role promoting an increase of antioxidant enzymes levels in cardiac muscle, which prevent the oxidative damage resulting from the cafeteria diet in Wistar rats. There were no evidenced signs of lipid peroxidation in renal or in cardiac tissue of the animals studied, indicating that the E. edulisuse did not promote any increase in malondialdehyde cytotoxic products formation. This show that both E. edulis oil and extracts evaluated in this study were well tolerated in the studied doses.

  10. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

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    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  11. Safety evaluation studies on Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L. seeds in Wistar rats

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    P K Datta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.  leaves and seeds are used in India as  food supplement and also in traditional medicine. We have assessed the safety of Garden cress (GC seeds by conducting acute and subchronic toxicity studies in adult Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 0.5 –5.0 g/kg body weight of the GC seed powder was administered through diet to rats and obvious symptoms of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 72 h . Acute doses of GC seed powder did not induce any symptoms of toxicity or mortality of  rats. In subchronic toxicity study, 1.0 – 10.0% of the GC powder was administered to rats through diet for 14 weeks. Dietary feeding of GC seed powder did not produce any mortality, no significant changes in food intake, gain in body weight, relative weight of  organs, hematological parameters, macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organs, were observed between  experimental and control groups.  Clinical enzymes viz., LDH, SGPT were within normal levels, however, the serum ALP and SGOT were significantly increased in male rats receiving 5.0 and 10 % of GC seeds. The results showed that acute and subchronic feeding of GC seed for 14 weeks did not produce any toxic effects in male and female rats and thus can be considered non-toxic and safe.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are very popular and extensively used in the developing countries. Garden cress seeds and leaves are used in food preparations.  GC seeds are given to pregnant and lactating women as natural food supplement to increase milk secretion.  GC seeds are used in herbal based medicinal preparations. The data on the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants are essential to assess its safety to humans, particularly for its use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats.

  13. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  14. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemical...... exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer.......Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals......, Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 μg/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre...

  16. Anticancer effects on leiomyosarcoma-bearing Wistar rats after electromagnetic radiation of resonant radiofrequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdikos, Antonios; Karkabounas, Spyridon; Metsios, Apostolos; Kostoula, Olga; Havelas, Konstantinos; Binolis, Jayne; Verginadis, Ioannis; Hatziaivazis, George; Simos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of a resonant low intensity static electromagnetic field (EMF), causing no thermal effects, on Wistar rats have been investigated. Sarcoma cell lines were isolated from leiomyosarcoma tumors induced in Wistar rats by the subcutaneous (s.c) injection of 3,4-benzopyrene. Furthermore, smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated from the aorta of Wistar rats and cultivated. Either leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC) or SMC were used to record a number of characteristic resonant radiofrequencies, in order to determine the specific electromagnetic fingerprint spectrum for each cell line. These spectra were used to compose an appropriate algorithm, which transforms the recorded radiofrequencies to emitted ones. The isolated LSC were cultured and then exposed to a resonant low intensity radiofrequency EMF (RF-EMF), at frequencies between 10 kHz to 120 kHz of the radiowave spectrum. The exposure lasted 45 consecutive minutes daily, for two consecutive days. Three months old female Wistar rats were inoculated with exposed and non-exposed to EMF LSC (4 x 10(6) LCS for animal). Inoculated with non-exposed to EMF cells animals were then randomly separated into three Groups. The first Group was sham exposed to the resonant EMF (control Group-CG), the second Group after the inoculation of LSC and appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to a non-resonant EMF radiation pattern, for 5 h per day till death of all animals (experimental control Group-ECG). The third Group of animals after inoculation of LSC and the appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to the resonant EMF radiation for 5 h per day, for a maximum of 60 days (experimental Group-I, EG-I). A fourth Group of animals was inoculated with LSC exposed to EMF irradiation and were not further exposed to irradiation (experimental Group-II, EG-II). Tumor induction was 100% in all Groups studied and all tumors were histologically identified as leiomyosarcomas. In the case of the EG-I, a

  17. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

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    Bedwal S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 produced in two organs whereas significant (P< 0.01/0.001 increase in catalase activity in 4-weeks experiments indicate for increased oxidative stress due to phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells in testes and damaged spermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  18. Toxicology and immunology of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in Kunming mice and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Xia; Pan, Yaogang; Xu, Nuo; Jia, Le

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the toxicology and immunology of polysaccharides from fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (GPs) were investigated. No abnormal clinical-symptoms or deaths and no significant difference in body weight and food in-taking rate were found in Wistar rats during the 30-day feeding administration. No significant differences were found in each hematology value, clinical chemistry value and organ/body weight ratio, either. It had no mutagenicity due to the negative experimental results of Ames test, micronucleus test of polychromatic erythrocyte, sperm abnormality test, and chromosome aberration test in Kunming mice, respectively. The immune experiments indicated that high-dose GPs had immune effects in increasing the degree of toe swelling and enhancing the primary immune response to SRBC (P<0.01). But no-significant influence of GPs on the phagocytic function of mononuclear macrophages (MΦ) could be obtained.

  19. Indatraline: Synthesis and Effect on the Motor Activity of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. Silva, Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity of Wistar rats. Specific indexes for ambulation, raising and stereotypy were computed one, two and three hours after i.p. drug administration. Indatraline effects on motor activity lasted for at least three hours. On the other hand, no significant differences in motor activity were observed using indanamide. The results suggest that indatraline has a long lasting effect on motor activity and add evidence in favor of the potential use of that compound as a substitute in cocaine addiction.

  20. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Alabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals used for the study were grouped into three: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Results: Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Conclusion: Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  1. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  2. Efficacy of Morus nigra L. on reproduction in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Graziela Tonioni; Santos, Tatianne Rosa; Macedo, Renato; Peters, Vera Maria; Leite, Magda Narciso; de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, Rita; de Oliveira Guerra, Martha

    2012-03-01

    Morus nigra L. is a plant employed as a substitute for the conventional hormonal replacement therapy. This work analyzes the estrogenic effect of M. nigra on the reproductive system and embryonic development of Wistar rats. Female rats were orally treated with M. nigra hydroalcoholic extract (MnHE) at the dose levels of 25, 50, 75, 350 and 700 mg/kg of body weight over 15 days, and continued through mating until the 14th day of gestation. Vaginal smears were performed daily and the body weight of the females was recorded at 5 days intervals. On day 15 of gestation, the females were killed and their kidneys, liver, spleen and ovaries were removed and weighed. The number of implants, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses were evaluated. Histological sections of ovaries, measurement of the height of the uterine epithelium and vaginal smears were performed to assess the estrogenic activity. The results showed that the administration of MnHE did not significantly alter the analyzed variables. Therefore, considering the experimental model used in this study, the data obtained indicate that M. nigra did not exhibit any estrogenic activity nor did exert a toxic effect on the female reproductive system and on the embryonic development of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals.

  4. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  5. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  6. Repeated dose oral toxicity of inorganic mercury in wistar rats: biochemical and morphological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Jegoda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to find out the possible toxic effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 at the histological, biochemical, and haematological levels in the wistar rats for 28 days. Materials and Methods: The biochemical and hematological alteration were estimated in four groups of rat (each group contain ten animals, which were treated with 0 (control, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight of HgCl2 through oral gavage. At the end of study all rats were sacrificed and subjected for histopathology. Result: A significantly (P < 0.05 higher level of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, gamma Glutamyle Transferase, and creatinine were recorded in treatment groups, while the level of alkaline phosphtase (ALP was significantly decreased as compared to the control group. The toxic effect on hematoclogical parameter was characterized by significant decrease in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes count, and total leukocyte count. Gross morphological changes include congestion, severe haemorrhage, necrosis, degenerative changes in kidneys, depletion of lymphocyte in spleen, decrease in concentration of mature spermatocyte, and edema in testis. It was notable that kidney was the most affected organ. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride (HgCl caused dose-dependent toxic effects on blood parameters and kidney. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 563-567

  7. Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Lelkes, P. I.; Hillard, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many humans with IDDM eventually lose the capacity to secrete epinephrine from their adrenal medullae. The mechanism for this pathological change is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality is attributable to neuropathic changes in the greater splanchnic nerves or in the chromaffin cells that they innervate. To study this hypothesis, we isolated rat adrenal glands, perfused them ex vivo, and measured the epinephrine content of the perfusate under various conditions of stimulation. We used transmural electrical stimulation (20-80 V, at 10 Hz) to induce epinephrine secretion indirectly by selectively activating residual splanchnic nerve terminals within the isolated glands. Under these conditions, epinephrine secretion was severely attenuated in glands from female BB-Wistar rats with diabetes of 4 mo duration compared with their age-matched, nondiabetic controls. These perfused diabetic adrenal medullae also demonstrated decreased catecholamine release in response to direct chromaffin cell depolarization with 20 mM K+, evidence that a functional alteration exists within the chromaffin cells themselves. Nonetheless, total catecholamine content of adrenal medullae from these diabetic rats was not significantly different from controls, indicating that the secretory defect was not simply attributable to a difference in the amount of catecholamines stored and available for release. Herein, we also provide histological evidence of degenerative changes within the cholinergic nerve terminals that innervate these glands.

  8. Enhancing effects of mustard oil on preneoplastic hepatic foci development in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Arora, Annu

    2003-02-01

    Dietary habits are known to be the major contributory factor in the development of cancer. Mustard oil, which is extensively used in India and elsewhere as a flying and cooking medium, is reported to induce an inflammatory response. The development of altered hepatic foci is an early carcinogenic change in rat liver in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, the development of preneoplastic lesions was observed following administration of mustard oil (0.5 mL/day for 8 weeks) in DEN-initiated and partially hepatomized Wistar rats. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute liver weight of mustard oil-exposed rats was recorded. The results revealed a significant increase in the number and area of placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST-P) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in mustard oil-administered animals. The GST-P- and GGT-positive foci were more prominent in the animals given boiled (up to 300 degrees C for 3 hours) mustard oil in comparison to the animals given fresh mustard oil. These results indicate the possible tumourigenic risk associated with mustard oil consumption.

  9. Elemental distribution in brain of wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Oliveira, Luis F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Correa Junior, Jose D.; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the changes in the elemental distribution in brain rats, due the knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues have great importance since trace elements are involved in many biological functions of living organisms. For perform this research, Wistar rats with different ages (3, 48 and 72 weeks) were used. The microfluorescence measurements were carried out in a standard geometry of 45 deg/45 deg, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The following elements were studied: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn. Among these elements, Fe and Zn are related with Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, respectively. By the elemental maps, we can observe that the distribution of zinc was more pronounced in the hippocampus area, the distribution of iron was more conspicuous in the cortical region and bellows the thalamus and, moreover potassium and chlorine distributions were more present in the cortical area. Although, the small statistic, we can view that almost all measured elements are present in lower intensity in brains of rats with 3 weeks, and are usually the same for the other ages studied. (author)

  10. Spirulina as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of Wistar rats

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    Lidiane Muniz Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of rats subjected to protein malnutrition. In order to understand such effects, responses of the developing body, serum biochemical profile, and blood count of animals were analyzed. A total of, 23 Wistar Rattus norvegicus were given a proteic diet (AIN-93G adapted in malnutrition phase (phase I for 10 days. After this period, the rats were separated into four groups according to the protein source (recovery phase: Control (C, casein 12%; Spirulina level I (S1, Spirulina 8.8% + casein 5.0%; Spirulina level II (S2, Spirulina 17.6% + casein 0.15%, and Spirulina level III (S3, Spirulina 26.4%. Recovery phase (phase II lasted 30 days. In both the phases, the consumption and body weight of the rats were monitored daily and weekly, respectively. The S1 treatment showed the highest values of Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER and Quotient of Protein Efficiency Ratio (QPE (p<0.05. Significant differences among the treatments were found mainly in the levels of serum lipids, and S2 diet caused an increase in such responses (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that the nutritional recovery of animals was enabled by different concentrations of Spirulina.

  11. [Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: a 52-week dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Inoue, Tohru; Kanno, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A 52-week study of oral-repeated-dose toxicity for the extraction powder of Gymnema sylvestre (GS), Indian-native genus, Metaplexis japonica, was conducted in both genders of Wistar rats. The rats were administered a graded dose of GS at 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00% of basal powder diet, along with a group fed solely with the basal powder diet without GS, for 52 weeks. General conditions were recorded daily. Body weights and food consumptions were recorded weekly up to 12 weeks, and thereafter at longer intervals. At 26 weeks, for an intermediate examination, and 52 weeks, for the final examination, animals were subjected to hematology, serum chemistry, and pathological examination. None of the animals died in the period up to 52 weeks. No exposure-related changes in body-weight, in the food consumption, in the hematological examinations, or in the serum biochemical examinations were recognized. No histopathological alterations were seen. Thus, it was concluded that there was no toxic effect in rats treated with GS at up to 1.00% in the diet for 52 weeks. The no-observable-effect level from this study is 1.00% GS, i.e., 504 mg/kg/day for male and 563 mg/kg/day for female as mean daily intake, for 52 weeks.

  12. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was administered by gavage to groups of 25 male and 25 female young Wistar rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for one generation (F0). The study followed the treated F0 generation through mating, gestation, lactation, and weaning of the F1 generation. F1 animals were mated and followed to gestation day (GD) 15-17 at which time F2 implants were evaluated. There were no indications from the various clinical and gross pathological examinations that the oral administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer to the F0-parental rats produced any signs of general, reproductive, or developmental toxicity in the F0 or F1 animals or F2 implants. Based on the lack of any dose-related or biologically relevant effects on fertility, reproduction, development, and overall health of rats gavaged with PEG-PVA grafted copolymer and their progeny, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar

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    SAGAR DAWADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  14. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

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    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  15. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body.

  16. Effect of zinc supplementation on type 2 diabetes parameters and liver metallothionein expressions in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Li, Hongyan; Fan, Zhe; Liu, Ya

    2012-12-01

    Zinc is a trace metal and acts as an active component of various enzymes. Zinc deficiency has been suggested to be associated with the development of diabetes. The present study investigated the role of zinc supplementation on prevention of diabetic conditions. A double-disease model mimicking hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes was created by applying high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to Wistar rats. We demonstrated that zinc supplementation improved symptoms of diabetes such as polydipsia and increased serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicating that zinc supplementation has a potential beneficial effect on diabetic conditions. The level of maldondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress marker, was reduced in liver by zinc supplementation in high fat-fed rats with or without STZ injection. Meanwhile, we observed an increase in the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in liver of rats treated with zinc. This suggests that the induction of MTs in liver, which has been shown to be important in scavenging free radicals, could be one of the underlying mechanisms of zinc supplementation on reducing MDA levels in liver. Finally, we found that zinc levels in liver were increased while there was no change in serum zinc levels, indicating that local zinc level might be a critical factor for the induction of MTs. Also, the level of MTs could potentially be an index of zinc bioavailability. Taken together, these results suggest that both zinc and MT could play an important role in balancing nutrition and metabolism to prevent diabetic development.

  17. Synergetic effects of oral administration of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea on immune response in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; khayat-Nuri, Hadi; Abadi, Narges; Ghavami, Siavash; Golabi, Mostafa; Shanebandi, Dariush

    2011-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of levamisole and Echinacea purpurea (EP), separately and together on the immune response of the rat as a laboratory model. In this experiment, 40 male Wistar rats were obtained and divided into four groups (n=10). These groups received normal saline (10 mg/kg), EP (500 mg/kg), levamisole (2 mg/kg) and EP (500 mg/kg) with levamisole (2 mg/kg) as oral gavages every day for a period of 4 weeks, respectively. After obtaining blood samples (at the end of each week), haematocrit (HCT), differential and total white blood cell (WBC) counts, phagocyte activity (number), total protein, albumin and globulins levels of samples were obtained. The results of the study showed that the gamma globulin level, WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts and phagocyte activity increased significantly in comparison with normal saline group during the study. According to the results, each of the mentioned agents had a stimulant effect on the immune system separately and together on rats. In the group that received EP and levamisole simultaneously, these effects were synergistically increased. These compounds, by increasing the mentioned factors, will probably affect the immune system. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

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    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  19. Evaluating the Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin against the Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

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    Ramesh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the effect of a dietary flavanoid quercetin on fibrotic lung tissue in rats. Bleomycin was administered by single intratracheal instillation to Wistar rats to induce lung fibrosis. The pathologies associated with this included significantly reduced antioxidant capacity, ultimately leading to protracted inflammation of the lung tissue. The hallmark of this induced fibrosis condition was an excessive collagen deposition in peribronchial and perialveolar regions of the lung. Oral quercetin treatment over a period of twenty days resulted in significant reversal of the pathologies. The antioxidant defense in lung tissue was revived. Moreover, activity of the collagenase MMP-7, which was high in fibrotic tissue, was seen restored after quercetin administration. Trichome staining of lung tissue sections showed high collagen deposition in fibrotic rats, which may be a direct result of increased mobilization of collagen by MMP-7. This was appreciably reduced in quercetin treated animals. These results point towards an important protective role of quercetin against idiopathic lung fibrosis, which remains a widely prevalent yet incurable condition in the present times.

  20. Amelioration of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats by diallylsulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2016-03-01

    Garlic contains diallylsulfide (DAS) and other structurally related compounds that are widely believed to be active agents in preventing cancer. This study shows the effect of DAS (a phenolic antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products) on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 125-150 g were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight, intraperitoneally) after 1 week of treatment with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) DAS in corn oil respectively administered through the gavage. Fe-NTA administration led to 2.5-fold increase in the values of both alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively, and 3.2-fold increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, microsomal lipid peroxidation to approximately 2.0-fold compared to saline-treated control. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2.2-2.5-fold. These changes were reversed significantly (p induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats.

  1. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of hepatotoxicity induced by triptolide in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaying; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Ji, Jinzi; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yun; Tai, Ting; Chen, Mi; Sun, Lixin; Li, Xia; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Triptolide (TP), a major component of TWHF, is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis and leprosy. However, its clinical use is limited by hepatotoxicity. To further elucidate the underlying mechanism of its hepatotoxic effects, hepatic gene expression profiles were analyzed. TP (1000 and 300 μg/kg) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 14 days. Current study indicated that female rats were more sensitive to TP-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 3329 differentially expressed genes in liver of female rats. Analyses of these genes identified over-represented functions associated with insulin signaling pathway, glucose metabolism, cell cycle, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which were consistent with the results of significant increase of Caspase-3 activity and reduction of serum glucose, GSH/GSSG ratio, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities, liver glycogen. In addition, it was observed for the first time that glucocorticoids and IGF1 might get involved in TP-induced hepatotoxicity. These data suggest that TP treatment could alter the hepatic redox status, reduce serum glucose and induce hepatocyte apoptosis, consistent with the differential expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathway, glucose metabolism pathway and cell stress pathway, all of which might contribute to the overall TP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Soghra; Shahi, Mehran; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex. Results: Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ. Conclusion: It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound. PMID:25859305

  3. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100-3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia.

  4. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100–3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia.

  5. SUBCHRONIC MANCOZEB TREATEMENT INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY VIA OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in group treated with 1200 and 800 mg/kg/day. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity underwent a significant (p < 0.05) increase in both groups. The obtained observations clearly reveal hepatotoxic effects of mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms.

  6. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-05-01

    To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. TWENTY ADULT, HEALTHY, FEMALE WISTAR RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  7. Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-04-01

    Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks in age weighing between 120-150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD(50)) and carbofuran (50% LD(50)) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD(50) of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms of serum lipid parameters such as high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Treatment with individual doses of carbofuran (50% LD(50)) and cartap (50 % LD(50)) caused significant alterations in the levels of serum lipid parameters. The pesticides treatment resulted in marked decrease in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein where as that of other lipids got significantly elevated. Further, the rats exhibited relatively higher impact of pesticides when treated with the compounds in combination (25 % LD(50) of each). The results indicated that these compounds when used together may exert enhanced effect on the levels of serum lipids in rat.

  8. Toxicity of Dietary Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed to Wistar Rats

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    Amgad A. H. Al Bahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds after fermentation are commonly known as Furundu with high quality proteins consumed as substitute to meat mainly in the Western part of the country. The raw seed, 10, 15 and 20 % of the standard diet was fed to Wister rats for periods up to 12 weeks. These doses were found to be non-toxic but not lethal to the treated rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed on any of the vital organs, but the main features were depression of growth and diverse pathological changes on the liver, kidneys and intestines which were correlated with highly significant (P<0.001 elevation of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and bilirubin (P<0.01 concentration in addition to a significant decrease (P<0.01 in cholesterol concentration. No change was observed in the total protein, globulin and urea concentrations of the test groups and albumin concentration in Groups 1 and 2 fed on diet containing 10 and 15% H. sabdarrifa seed. These findings were accompanied by leukocytosis and significantly lower red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration. Due to the elevated Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the normal values of the mean corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in all the treatment groups the toxicity of H. Sabdariffa seed to Wistar rats resulted in macrocytic normochromic type of anaemia.

  9. Lack of histological cerebellar changes in Wistar rats given pulegone for 28 days. Comparison of immersion and perfusion tissue fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Lauridsen, Søren Tindgard

    1998-01-01

    Pulegone was given orally by gavage to groups of 28 SPF Wistar rats at dosage levels of 0 or 160 mg/kg body weight per day for 28 days. Clinically treated animals showed slackness, depression, decreased food consumption, and body weight. The loss of body weight was accompanied by a marked decrease...

  10. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

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    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  11. Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar Rats

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    Gotmi Sharwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose and sub-acute (repeated-dose toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight

  12. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

  13. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  14. Achilles tendon of wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Both laser therapy and eccentric exercises are used in tendon injuries. However, the association of these physiotherapeutic modalities is yet little investigated.Objective:To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy associated to eccentric exercise (downhill walking on Achilles tendinopathy of Wistar rats.Method:Eighteen Achilles tendon from 15 adult male Wistar rats were used. Tendons were distributed in six groups (laser, eccentric exercise, laser and eccentric exercise, rest, contralateral tendon, and healthy tendon. Unilateral tendinopathy was surgically induced by transversal compression followed by scarification of tendon fibers. The treatments laser therapy (904 nm, 3J/cm² and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 12 m/min; 50 min/day; 15o inclination treadmill began 24 hours after surgery and remained for 20 days. Clinical and biomechanical analyzes were conducted. Achilles tendon was macroscopically evaluated and the transversal diameter measured. Euthanasia was performed 21 days after lesion induction. Tendons of both limbs were collected and frozen at -20°C until biomechanical analysis, on which the characteristic of maximum load (N, stress at ultimate (MPa and maximum extension (mm were analyzed.Results:Swelling was observed within 72 hours postoperative. No fibrous adhesions were observed nor increase in transversal diameter of tendons. Animals with the exercised tendons, but not treated with laser therapy, presented lower (p=0.0000 locomotor capacity. No difference occurred be-tween groups for the biomechanical characteristics maximum load (p=0.4379, stress at ultimate (p=0.4605 and maximum extension (p=0.3820 evaluated, even considering healthy and contralateral tendons.Conclusion:The concomitant use of low-level laser and the eccentric exercise of downhill walking, starting 24 hours after surgically induced tendinopathy, do not result in a tendon with the same biomechanical resistance or elasticity

  15. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

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    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  16. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

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    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa; Latifat Olubukola Orekoya; Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachtaindica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results: The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  17. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

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    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  18. Pharmacological investigation of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats

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    Hardik Soni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g either sex were used. The selected animals were divided in to four groups where each group consisted of six animals. Experimentally liver damage was produced by intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 v/v (1 mL/kg, once daily, i.p. for 7 days. Test Drug, Polyherbal formulation was administered orally for 7 consecutive days at 3 mL/kg, once daily. On 8th day, Blood samples were collected to evaluate different serum biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Total bilirubin and Total protein. Liver from animals of each group was dissected out for histopathological examination. Statistical analysis: Statistical calculation were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett’s test, with significant level of p<0.05. Results and dDiscussion: Polyherbal formulation showed significant effect on activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin level while comparing test group to disease control group. It also showed significant elevation in decreased level of serum total protein. Pre-treatment of Polyherbal formulation restored the hepatic architecture and protected the liver tissue from fatty degenerative changes by preventing the toxic chemical reaction induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Polyherbal formulation (Vasuliv Syrup has promising hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver damage. It can be employed as safe and effective treatment for hepato-toxicity or liver damage.

  19. Lipidemic effects of common edible oils and risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic Wistar rats.

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    Oladapo, Olulola Olutoyin; Ojora, Kehinde Adeyemi; Quadri, Oluwafemi Majeed; Ajani, Rotimi Sunday

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic state potentiates atherosclerosis and the type of edible oil consumed by the individual may affect this further. This study aimed to determine if the common edible oils in Nigeria have any effects on the lipid profiles and arteries of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of normal control, diabetic control, animals on diet enriched with refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO), animals on diet enriched with soya oil, and animals on diet enriched with olive oil. At the end of 8 weeks, the lipid profiles of the animals were determined before sacrificing them. Their aortas were subsequently harvested for histological examination. The olive oil fed group had the highest level of total cholesterol (TC), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), lowest HDL-C, and highest artherogenic index (AI). Diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had a lower non-HDL-C, higher HDL-C, and lower AI than diabetic animals fed on olive oil or soya oil. However, the diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had the highest triglyceride level. When the aortas were examined histologically, there were no atherosclerotic lesions in all the control and experimental groups except those fed on 10% soya oil enriched diet that had type II atherosclerotic lesions according to American Heart Association (AHA). The result of our study showed that RBD-PO appears to offer a better lipid profile in the diabetic animals compared with olive oil and soya oil. Soya oil appears to cause the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic state.

  20. Mechanisms in the PVN mediating local and central sodium-induced hypertension in Wistar rats.

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    Gabor, Alexander; Leenen, Frans H H

    2009-03-01

    Sympathoexcitatory and hypertensive responses to central infusion of Na(+)-rich artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) are enhanced by aldosterone and mediated by mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and benzamil-blockable Na(+) influx, leading to "ouabain" release and ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor stimulation. The present study evaluated the functional role of these mechanisms in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In conscious Wistar rats, Na(+)-rich aCSF was infused either directly into the PVN or intracerebroventricularly preceded by aldosterone and blockers. Infusion of Na(+)-rich aCSF in the PVN caused gradual increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Aldosterone and a subpressor dose of ouabain in the PVN alone did not affect BP and HR but enhanced responses to Na(+). Eplerenone, benzamil, and "ouabain"-binding Fab fragments only blocked the enhancement by aldosterone, whereas losartan blocked all responses to Na(+)-rich aCSF in the PVN. Increases in BP and HR by intracerebroventricular infusion of Na(+)-rich aCSF were enhanced by aldosterone infused intracerebroventricularly, but not in the PVN. Telmisartan in the PVN again blocked all responses. In contrast, both eplerenone and benzamil in the PVN did not change the pressor responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of aldosterone and Na(+)-rich aCSF. These findings indicate that AT(1) receptors in the PVN mediate the responses to Na(+)-rich aCSF and their enhancement by aldosterone, both locally in the PVN or in the general CSF. MRs, benzamil-blockable Na(+) channels or transporters, and "ouabain" can be functionally active in the PVN, but in Wistar rats appear not to contribute to the pressor responses to short-term increases in CSF [Na(+)].

  1. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi; Omotayo; Tom; Ashafal; Latifat; Olubukola; Orekoya; Musa; Toyin; Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the loxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica(A-indica)at 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats.Methods:Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five(A-F.)of ten animals each.Animals in Group A(control)were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50,100,200 and 300mg/kg body weight.Results:The extract did not significantly(P>0.05)alter the levels of albumin,total protein,red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell,platelets,serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly(P<0.05).In contrast,the final body weights,absolute weights of the liver,kidney,lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios,serum globulins,total and conjugated bilirubin,serum cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly.The spleen-body weight ratio,alkaline phosphatase,alanine and aspartate transaminases,sodium,potassium,calcium,feed and water intake were altered at specific doses.Conclusions:Overall,the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals.Therefore,the ethanolic extract of A.indica stem bark at the doses of 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  2. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

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    Fabrícia Souza Predes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.A bardana (Arctium lappa L é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes receberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST, alanina transaminase (ALT, gamma glutamil transferase (GGT, proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana.

  3. Dysfunction in fatty acid amide hydrolase is associated with depressive-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats.

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    K Yaragudri Vinod

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the etiology of depression is not clearly understood at the present time, this mental disorder is thought be a complex and multifactorial trait with important genetic and environmental contributing factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in depressive behavior was examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat strain, a genetic model of depression. Our findings revealed selective abnormalities in the eCB system in the brains of WKY rats compared to Wistar (WIS rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated significantly higher levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats with no alteration in the level of N-arachidonyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine specific phospholipase-D (NAPE-PLD. Significantly higher levels of CB1 receptor-mediated G-protein coupling and lower levels of anandamide (AEA were found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats. While the levels of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF were significantly lower in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WKY rats compared to WIS rats, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH elevated BDNF levels in WKY rats. Inhibition of FAAH enzyme also significantly increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility in the forced swim test in WKY rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest a critical role for the eCB system and BDNF in the genetic predisposition to depressive-like behavior in WKY rats and point to the potential therapeutic utility of eCB enhancing agents in depressive disorder.

  4. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  5. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

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    Saito Felipe H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67: received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14: received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0, female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction. The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term, the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP Tests (p Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1% and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%, reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93% and reduced degree of development (ossification sites. Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development.

  6. A toxicity study of simultaneous administration of Tamoxifen and Diazepam to female Wistar rats.

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    D'Mello, D; Mehta, D; Pereira, J; Rao, C V

    1999-11-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in the treatment of breast cancer and decreases the incidence of breast cancer when given to healthy women for different therapeutic purposes. This expansion of its use calls for further studies of its own potential side effects and those in combination with other prescription drugs. Diazepam (DP) is one such drug normally administered to patients who are under cancer treatment and those who suffer from insomnia. The present study examines the effect of individual and simultaneous administration of TAM and DP at therapeutic dose level of 0.8 mg/Kg/day of TAM and 0.3 mg/Kg/day of DP to normal female Wistar rats for a period of 12 weeks. The drugs were administered orally by mixing it in pellet made by wheat dough. There was no significant change in the terminal body weight and liver weights of animals. The ovary weights in TAM + DP treated animals were significantly decreased. The serum succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) levels were significantly lower in TAM, DP and TAM + DP treated rats and comparatively were lowest in TAM and TAM + DP treated animal groups. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) levels were significantly higher in the three treated groups, but comparatively lower in TAM + DP treated animals when compared to TAM or DP alone treated rats. There was marked increase in liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the three treated groups but remarkable decrease in liver glycogen. Total serum cholesterol levels were significantly high in DP and TAM + DP treated rats and total serum triglyceride levels were significantly high only in TAM treated rats. As a whole it can be concluded that DP does not enhance TAM toxicity on simultaneous administration, but on its own when administered individually brings about perturbation in lipid storage and metabolism.

  7. Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar

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    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis

  8. Hydroxyapatite combined with hyaluronic acid metronidazole gel increased the quantity of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone wistar rat

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    Ernie Maduratna Setiawatie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone graft material have been used extensively in bone healing and periodontal treatment. Alloplast such as hydroxyapatite are frequently used to repair and reconstruct bone defects. By merely applying hydroxyapatite for the treatment of bone is not fully effective yet to produce new bone regeneration. Locally applied high molecular hyaluronic acid (HA has been shown to stimulate differentiation and migration of mesenchymal cells. Recent studies on regenerative surgical procedures indicate that reduction of bacterial burden at the wound site may improve the clinical outcome of regenerative therapy. Metronidazole has the greatest bacteriostatic effect. A clinical application of HA metronidazole gels during the surgical therapy may reduce the bacterial contamination of surgical wound site. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of combination hydroxyapatite and HA metronidazole gel 1% on osteoblast cell number after wound healing process in the wistar rats incisor tooth extraction socket. Method: Twenty seven wistar rats were divided randomly into 3 groups. The first group consisted of wistar rats given hydroxyapatite were subjected to the mandibular incisor extraction socket. The second group were given hydroxyapatite combined with HA metronidazole gel 1%. The control group were filled with blood. Wistar rats were euthanized on day 14 and then preparation for histological examination was stained using hematoxylin-eosin and then the numbers of the osteoblasts were calculated. Result: The differences in each group were tested by one way Anova test (α=0.05. The numbers of osteoblasts in each group had a significant difference (p<0.05: the highest numbers of osteoblasts were found in the group that was given hydroxyapatite combined with HA metronidazole, followed by the lower numbers of osteoblasts in the hydroxyapa ite group and the lowest numbers of osteoblasts were found in the control group. Conclusion

  9. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

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    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  10. Hepatoprotective, Antihyperlipidemic, and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Diabetic-induced Damage in Male Wistar Rats

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    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I.; Aboua, Yapo G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing daily, and diabetes is presently estimated to affect about 422 million adults worldwide. Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are not without severe side effects, accessibility, and affordability. This study elucidates the potential effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract to manage and treat diabetes induced in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12/group): NC – nondiabetic rats (positive control), MO – nondiabetic-treated rats, DM – diabetic rats (negative control), DM + MO – diabetic-treated rats. Hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters as well as antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed. Levels of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were evaluated. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 42 days showed a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme markers and normalized lipid profile parameters in the serum compared to normal control group. Treatment also increased the level of antioxidant capacity and alleviated inflammatory biomarkers of the liver. Histology sections of the liver tissue showed protective effect of MO in treated rats. Conclusions: MO showed hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects against streptozotocin-induced hepatotoxicity. Histological section demonstrated specific alterations in the liver of the diabetic and nondiabetic male Wistar rats while MO treatment revealed improvement in liver alterations. Abbreviations Used: IL 1: Interleukin 1, IL 6: Interleukin 16, MCP-1: Monocyte chemotactic protein, TNF-α: Tumor Necrotic factor alpha, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MO: Moringa oleifera, STZ: Streptozotocin, SRC: Standard rat chow, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance

  11. [[Technology Surgical Intervention in Ulcerative Colitis Modeling Descending Part of the Colon in Rats Line "Wistar"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A D; Petuhova, S A; Chashkova, Ye Y U; Gol'dberg, O A; Shedoeva, L R

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune inflammatory condition of the colon with an unknown aetiology, leading to disability and reduced quality of life of patients. UC primarily affects young adults. In most cases, inflammatory bowel disease (iBD) debuts at reproductive age. The incidence of UC and severe clinical course has increased overall across the world. The study of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and aetiology of this disease contributes to the development of new effective methods of treatment. The aim of our study was to develop technology of the surgery directed to induction of reversible ischemic damage, the erosive-ulceration of gut mucosae (descending colon) at rats of the WISTAR line. Experimental research was done using male rats (n=40), their age was more than 6 months, weight of body is 280 - 350 grams. The animals were separated into 3 groups: 1 - (n=14) Sholimov's operative method, 2 group (n=16) - model using special technology, 3 group (n=10) - Coopr's H. S. induction ulcerative colitis. Observation was been done during 10 days. We offered special surgical technique: parietal ligation on every vasa recta of colon descendens of rats the length 3 cm along colon, on the apex vesicae and then vasa recta are cut. Then during 7 days 1% solution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSN) was given for experimental animals after postoperative period. By the histolog- ical biopsy of colon mucosa the results were estimated. we have created erosive-ulceration of gut mucosae (descending colon) of rat with productive inflam- mation, vasculitis and plasmatic impregnation of the vessel walls and intimal thickening. Our model of ulcerative colitis can be used for the development and testing of new methods for the study and treatment of this pathology.

  12. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

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    Ito, Yuki, E-mail: yukey@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tomizawa, Motohiro [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, Himiko [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Okamura, Ai [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ohtani, Katsumi [National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kanagawa 214-8585 (Japan); Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kamijima, Michihiro, E-mail: kamijima@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  13. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  14. Phosphide residue exposure as the cause of serum vitamin depletion in female Wistar rats

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    Ayobola Abolape Iyanda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synthetic chemical preservatives have received much negative publicity in recent time, some of which include insect resistance and misapplication of fumigants as well as a myriad of clinical conditions that have been associated with grain consumption. Aluminum phosphide is widely employed for the fumigation of grains meant for both international and local markets. Although its manufacturers have discouraged contamination of grains with spent or unspent phosphide residue, contamination still does occur especially among many illiterate cowpea merchants. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of phosphide residue contaminated cowpea on serum vitamin levels. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental groups with each group consisting of 6 rats. They were fed unfumigated (control, fumigated-contaminated (group 1 and fumigated but uncontaminated (group 2 cowpea. Results: Vitamin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography technique showed significant differences in the levels of niacin, folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamins A, C, D and E; but pantothenic acid and pyridoxine were not significantly different in group 1 rats compared with control. Moreover, compared with control none of the vitamins were significantly different in rats in group 2. Conclusion: Cowpea is a source of many vitamins among the teeming poor in many part of the developing world; therefore there is need to ensure its proper fumigation. The results of this study suggest that although proper phosphide fumigation of cowpea may not alter serum vitamin levels but improper handling of the fumigation process may result in vitamin depletion. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 159-163

  15. Characterization of troponin responses in isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury in the Hanover Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Malcolm; Scudamore, Cheryl; Brady, Sally; Chen, Christabelle; Wilson, Sharon; Curtis, Mark; Evans, Gareth; Griffiths, William; Whayman, Matthew; Williams, Thomas; Turton, John

    2007-06-01

    The investigations aimed to evaluate the usefulness of cardiac troponins as biomarkers of acute myocardial injury in the rat. Serum from female Hanover Wistar rats treated with a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isoproterenol (ISO) was assayed for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (ACS: 180SE, Bayer), cTnI (Immulite 2000, Diagnostic Products Corporation) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) (Elecsys 2010, Roche). In a time-course study (50.0 mg/kg ISO), serum cTnI (ACS:180SE) and cTnT increased above control levels at 1 hour postdosing, peaking at 2 hours (cTnI, 4.30 microg/L; cTnT, 1.79 microg/L), and declined to baseline by 48 hours, with histologic cardiac lesions first seen at 4 hours postdosing. The Immulite 2000 assay gave minimal cTnI signals, indicating poor immunoreactivity towards rat cTnI. In a dose-response study (0.25 to 20.0 mg/kg ISO), there was a trend for increasing cTnI (ACS:180SE) values with increasing ISO dose levels at 2 hours postdosing. By 24 hours, cTnI levels returned to baseline although chronic cardiac myodegeneration was present. We conclude that serum cTnI and cTnT levels are sensitive and specific biomarkers for detecting ISO induced myocardial injury in the rat. Serum troponin values reflect the development of histopathologic lesions; however peak troponin levels precede maximal lesion severity.

  16. Hepatoprotective efficacy of gallic acid during Nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver inflammation in Wistar rats

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    Uzma Latief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid (GA, a popular phenolic acid is found in gallnuts, grapes, pomegranates, tea and oak bark. It possesses anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-depressant, anti-asthmatic and anti-obesity effects. N′-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA is a well-known hepatotoxin, carcinogen and mutagen. In this study, we have examined the hepatoprotective effect of gallic acid against liver inflammation induced by NDEA in Wistar rats. Hepatic damage in the animals was induced by 10 ml kg−1 b.wt of 1% NDEA (i.p. solution in normal saline once in a week. Another group received GA supplement (i.p. in 100 mg kg−1 b.wt wk−1. Animals belonging to control group were administered equal amounts of saline or GA. LPO, SOD and membrane-bound ATPase (Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities were determined in liver homogenate of control and treated rats. Alterations in liver architecture were assessed by H&E and Masson’s trichrome stainings of 5 μm thick liver sections. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to localize the inflammatory marker, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Our results demonstrate a significant increase in malondialdehyde, and decrease in SOD and ATPases (Ca2+/Mg2+ in NDEA-treated rats. Histopathology data showed inflammation, activated HSCs, deposition of collagen, periportal as well as bridging fibrosis in NDEA-treated liver specimens. Immunohistochemistry of NDEA-treated liver sections exhibited COX-2 positive cells. Gallic acid supplement revert the hepatic functioning in rats injured with NDEA probably by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes and attenuating the inflammatory mediators COX-2 through NF-κB inhibition pathway. Therefore, gallic acid supplement may be a useful promising bioagent in combating liver injury.

  17. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

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    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  18. Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

    2014-05-01

    Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250 gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2 cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested.

  19. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, Pradeepkiran Jangampalli; Burra, Siva Prasad; Vataparti, Amardev Rajesh; Matcha, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn) or vitamin E (Vit-E) on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) (n = 6) control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight) alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each) or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight) supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidase (LPx) were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  20. Interleukin-6 modulates colonic transepithelial ion transport in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto rat.

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    Dervla eO'Malley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunological challenge stimulates secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-6, resulting in variety of biological responses. In the gastrointestinal (GI tract, IL-6 modulates the excitability of sub-mucosal neurons and stimulates secretion into the colonic lumen. When considered in the context of the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, where plasma levels of IL-6 are elevated, this may reflect an important molecular mechanism contributing to symptom flares, particularly in the diarrhoea-predominant phenotype. In these studies, colonic ion transport, an indicator of absorption and secretion, was assessed in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat model of IBS. Mucosa-submucosal colonic preparations from WKY and control Sprague Dawley (SD rats were mounted in Ussing chambers and the basal short circuit current (ISC was electrophysiologically recorded and compared between the strains. Exposure to IL-6 (1nM stimulated a secretory current of greater amplitude in WKY as compared to SD samples. Furthermore, the observed IL-6-mediated potentiation of secretory currents evoked by veratridine and capsaicin in SD rats was blunted in WKY rats. Exposure to IL-6 also stimulated an increase in trans-epithelial resistance in both SD and WKY colonic tissue. These studies demonstrate that the neuroexcitatory effects of IL-6 on submucosal plexi have functional consequences with alterations in both colonic secretory activity and permeability. The IL-6-induced increase in colonic secretory activity appears to neurally-mediated. Thus, local increases in IL-6 levels and subsequent activation of enteric neurons may underlie alterations in absorpto-secretory function in the WKY model of IBS.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  2. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  3. Silymarin induces insulin resistance through an increase of phosphatase and tensin homolog in Wistar rats.

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    Kai-Chun Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that regulates crucial cellular functions, including insulin signaling, lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as survival and apoptosis. Silymarin is the active ingredient in milk thistle and exerts numerous effects through the activation of PTEN. However, the effect of silymarin on the development of insulin resistance remains unknown. METHODS: Wistar rats fed fructose-rich chow or normal chow were administered oral silymarin to identify the development of insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamping. Changes in PTEN expression in skeletal muscle and liver were compared using western blotting analysis. Further investigation was performed in L6 cells to check the expression of PTEN and insulin-related signals. PTEN deletion in L6 cells was achieved by small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection. RESULTS: Oral administration of silymarin at a dose of 200 mg/kg once daily induced insulin resistance in normal rats and enhanced insulin resistance in fructose-rich chow-fed rats. An increase of PTEN expression was observed in the skeletal muscle and liver of rats with insulin resistance. A decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt in L6 myotube cells, which was maintained in a high-glucose condition, was also observed. Treatment with silymarin aggravated high-glucose-induced insulin resistance. Deletion of PTEN in L6 cells reversed silymarin-induced impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Silymarin has the ability to disrupt insulin signaling through increased PTEN expression. Therefore, silymarin should be used carefully in type-2 diabetic patients.

  4. Livolin Forte Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury in Wistar Rats

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    Akomolafe Rufus O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kidney, which is an integral part of the drug excretion system, was reported as one of the targets of cadmium toxicity. Early events of cadmium toxicity in the cell include a decrease in cell membrane fluidity, breakdown of its integrity, and impairment of its repair mechanisms. Phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E have a marked fluidizing effect on cellular membranes. We hypothesized that Livolin forte (LIV could attenuate kidney damage induced by cadmium in rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each: group I (control group received 0.3 ml/kg/day of propylene glycol for six weeks; group II was given 5 mg/kg/day of cadmium (Cd i.p for 5 consecutive days; group III rats were treated in a similar way as group II but were allowed a recovery period of 4 weeks; group IV was treated with LIV (5.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 4 weeks after inducing renal injury with Cd similarly to group II; and group V was allowed a recovery period of 2 weeks after a 4-week LIV treatment (5.2 mg/kg/day following Cd administration. A significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS were observed in groups II and III compared to the control rats. Significant reductions in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were also recorded. The urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in groups II and III were significantly lower than the control group. Th is finding was accompanied by a significant decrease in creatinine and urea clearance. Post-treatment with LIV caused significant decreases in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS. Significant increases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity of groups IV and V were observed compared to group II. A significant increase in urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid and significant decreases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were observed in groups IV and V compared to group II. Photomicrographs of the rat kidneys

  5. Transthoracic echocardiography in rats. Evalution of commonly used indices of left ventricular dimensions, contractile performance, and hypertrophy in a genetic model of hypertrophic heart failure (SHHF-Mcc-facp-Rats) in comparison with Wistar rats during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffelmann, Thorsten; Kloner, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    Two-weekly echocardiographic examinations were conducted in nine SHHF-Mc-fa(cp) rats in comparison with eight age-matched Wistar rats. In the SHHF-rats, characterized by progressive LV-dilation and decreasing contractile function between 77-87 weeks of age, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was most sensitively demonstrated by increased LV-mass-index (p rats.

  6. Resveratrol increases antioxidant defenses and decreases proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampal astrocyte cultures from newborn, adult and aged Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaver, Bruna; Souza, Débora Guerini; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2014-06-01

    Astrocytes are responsible for modulating neurotransmitter systems and synaptic information processing, ionic homeostasis, energy metabolism, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, and antioxidant and inflammatory responses. Our group recently published a culture model of cortical astrocytes obtained from adult Wistar rats. In this study, we established an in vitro model for hippocampal astrocyte cultures from adult (90 days old) and aged (180 days old) Wistar rats. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and neuroprotective effects that modulate glial functions. Here, we evaluated the effects of resveratrol on GSH content, GS activity, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in hippocampal astrocytes from newborn, adult and aged Wistar rats. We observed a decrease in antioxidant defenses and an increase in the inflammatory response in hippocampal astrocytes from adult and aged rats compared to classical astrocyte cultures from newborn rats. Resveratrol prevented these effects. These findings reinforce the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol, which are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  8. Applicability of a gene expression based prediction method to SD and Wistar rats: an example of CARCINOscreen®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the development of several gene expression-based prediction methods has been attempted in the fields of toxicology. CARCINOscreen® is a gene expression-based screening method to predict carcinogenicity of chemicals which target the liver with high accuracy. In this study, we investigated the applicability of the gene expression-based screening method to SD and Wistar rats by using CARCINOscreen®, originally developed with F344 rats, with two carcinogens, 2,4-diaminotoluen and thioacetamide, and two non-carcinogens, 2,6-diaminotoluen and sodium benzoate. After the 28-day repeated dose test was conducted with each chemical in SD and Wistar rats, microarray analysis was performed using total RNA extracted from each liver. Obtained gene expression data were applied to CARCINOscreen®. Predictive scores obtained by the CARCINOscreen® for known carcinogens were > 2 in all strains of rats, while non-carcinogens gave prediction scores below 0.5. These results suggested that the gene expression based screening method, CARCINOscreen®, can be applied to SD and Wistar rats, widely used strains in toxicological studies, by setting of an appropriate boundary line of prediction score to classify the chemicals into carcinogens and non-carcinogens.

  9. Mechanisms of relaxation induced by flavonoid ayanin in isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats

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    Rosalía Carrón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the relaxant effect induced by ayanin in aorta rings from Wistar rats linked to nitric oxide/cyclic-GMP pathway.  This flavonoid is the prevalent compound obtained from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae, specie used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of arterial hypertension. Objectives: To identify possible action mechanisms of vascular relaxation induced by ayanin (quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether. Methodology: Isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats obtained at the Animal House of the University of Salamanca were contracted with KCl (80 mM or phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M and exposed to ayanin (10-6-10-4 M.  Then, the effect of ayanin was assessed in deendothelized rings contracted with PE and in intact rings contracted with PE previously incubated with: ODQ (10-6 M, L-NAME (10-4 M, L-NAME plus D- and L-arginine (10-4 M, indomethacin (5x10-6 M, dipyridamole (3x10-7 M, glibenclamide (10-6 M, propranolol (10-6 M, verapamil (10-7 M or atropine (3x10-5 M.  In addition, the relaxant effect of acetylcholine (Ach, 10-8-3x10-4 M, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-9-3x10-5 M was assessed in the presence and absence of ayanin (10-6 M. Results: Ayanin induced a greater concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels contracted with phenylephrine (pEC50: 5.84±0.05, an effect significantly reduced by deendothelization and by both ODQ and L-NAME.  L-arginine was able to reverse the effect of L-NAME.  Indomethacin weakly inhibited ayanin response.  Dipyridamole, glibenclamide, propranolol, verapamil, and atropine did not affect ayanin relaxation.  Ayanin did not have any effect on the relaxation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh, while weakly decreasing the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Conclusion: Ayanin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta mainly related to nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, according to the response observed in the presence of L-NAME, L-arginine and ODQ.

  10. Antioxidant enzymes expression and activity in liver of stressed wistar rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, J.; Nićiforović, A.; Radojčić, M. B.

    2009-09-01

    Altered activities of antioxidant defence system enzymes and the levels of free radicals scavengers have been found to correlate with various physiological or pathological conditions, including stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic 21 day isolation stress on antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) expression and activity in Wistar rat liver tissue. The serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose (GLU) levels were also measured, as one of the most important indicators of stress. Our data revealed that in chronic stress conditions, when both CORT and GLU were low, the AOEs expression was markedly induced. This increase in MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase exhibited similar trend implying efficient detoxification of O_2^{ - .} and H2O2. However, this trend was not followed by the respective enzyme activity. While the total SOD activity was induced by the stress, catalase activity remained unaltered. This discrepancy led us to a conclusion that chronic isolation stress may cause oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in rat liver tissue, favoring H2O2 accumulation.

  11. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

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    Kunz, R.I. [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Coradini, J.G.; Silva, L.I.; Bertolini, G.R.F. [Laboratório do Estudo das Lesões e Recursos Fisioterapêuticos, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Brancalhão, R.M.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.C. [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint.

  12. Effect of dolomite oral exposure in Wistar rats during organogenesis period of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bellma, Addis; Tillán, Juana; Gabilondo, Tatiana; Guerra, Isbel; Ocanto, Zuleira; Couret, Micaela; González, Ricardo

    2008-09-01

    The potential of oral exposure to dolomite, a natural product that contains calcium and magnesium, to initiate teratogenesis was analyzed in Wistar rats. Animals received dolomite oral dosages of 500 and 1500mg/kg during the period of gestation from day 6-15 post conceptionem (p.c.). Maternal, embryo and fetal toxicity were evaluated. Dolomite exposure did not produce maternal toxicity assessed by clinical observations, body weight gain, hematology parameters and relative organs weight. Signs of embryo-fetal toxicity were not observed. Skeletal malformations and visceral variations were similar in control and dolomite-treated groups. On the other hand, slight increase was observed in fetal body weight in the dolomite-treated group. Treatment with dolomite resulted in significantly decreased incidences of unossified xiphisternum, incomplete ossification of xiphisternum and sternebrae. These effects could be caused by a beneficial influence of calcium and magnesium salts present in dolomite on ossification process. In conclusion, in this study we found that the oral exposure to rats of up to 1500mg/kg of dolomite during organogenesis did not induce significant maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity.

  13. Subchronic toxicity (90 days of StemEnhance™ in Wistar rats

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    Levent Dirikolu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Levent Dirikolu1, Thushara Chakkath1, Susan Ball-Kell2, Christy Elamma2, David J Schaeffer11Department of Comparative Biosciences, 2Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USAAbstract: This study evaluated the subchronic toxicity of StemEnhance™, an extract of the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae that is used as a health supplement. Groups of 12 rats of each sex were given either 5% glycerin in water (control or 200 mg/kg of StemEnhance prepared in 5% glycerin in water for 90 days by oral gavage. The administration of StemEnhance had no effect on behavior, food and water intake, growth, or survival. Values at the end of dosing and observation periods did not reveal differences between treated and control groups for hematology and clinical chemistry. There were no significant differences in the gross and histopathology of the reproductive organs in either males or females. Sperm motility parameters were similar for control and treated males. Our results show that StemEnhance at doses ~7 times the maximum label-recommended daily dose did not produce adverse effects in Wistar rats after subchronic treatment.Keywords: algal toxicology, blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

  14. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

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    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  15. Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid on cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignini, F; Nasuti, C; Fedeli, D; Mattioli, L; Cosenza, M; Artico, M; Gabbianelli, R

    2013-01-01

    Cypermethrin (CY), a class II pyrethroid pesticide, is globally used to control insects in the household and in agriculture. Despite beneficial roles, its uncontrolled and repetitive application leads to unintended effects in non-target organisms. In light of the relevant anti-oxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), in the work described herein we tested the effect of a commercially available ALA formulation on cypermethrin CY)-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. The rats were orally administered with 53.14 mg/kg of ALA and 35.71 mg/kg of CY for 60 days. The treatment with CY did not induce changes in either locomotor activities or in body weight. Differences were observed on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation that were re-established by ALA treatment at similar levels of the placebo group. Furthermore, ALA formulation increased glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Because of the widespread use of CY, higher amounts of pesticide residues are present in food, and a diet supplementation with ALA could be an active free radical scavenger protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  16. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Renganathan; Priya, D Kalpana Deepa; Gunassekaran, G R; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the liver in Asian countries. For more than a decade natural dietary agents including fruits, vegetables and spices have drawn a great deal of attention in the prevention of diseases, preferably cancer. Ursolic acid is a natural triterpenoid widely found in food, medicinal herbs, apple peel and other products it has been extensively studied for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Antioxidant status was assessed by alterations in level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Damage to plasma membranes was assessed by levels of membrane and tissue ATPases. Liver tissue was homogenized and utilized for estimation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and glycoproteins. Anticoagulated blood was utilized for erythrocyte membrane isolation. Oral administration of UA 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls at a significance of p< 0.05. Activities of membrane and tissue ATPases returned to normal after UA administration. Levels of glycoproteins were also restored after treatment. Histopathological observations were recorded. The findings from the above study suggest the effectiveness of UA in reducing the oxidative stress mediated changes in liver of rats. Since UA has been found to be a potent antioxidant, it can be suggested as an excellent chemopreventive agent in overcoming diseases like cancer which are mediated by free radicals.

  17. Coconut oil increases HDL-c and decreases triglycerides in wistar rats

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    Lidiani Figueiredo Santana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile in rats, supplemented with coconut oil, are evaluated and compared to other lipid sources. Female Wistar rats received by gavage 1 mL kg-1 of saline, soybean oil, lard or coconut oil during 21 days. At the end of the study period, body composition, food intake, feces, urine, organ weight and serum lipid profile were assessed. No statistical differences between the groups were found in body composition, food intake, fecal and urinary analysis, and organ weight. In the case or plasma lipid concentrations, coconut oil and lard raised total cholesterol levels, without changes in LDL levels. On the other hand there was no change in total cholesterol levels in the soybean oil group. HDL fraction increased in all groups when compared to that in the saline group; this increase was more significant in the coconut oil group. There was significant reduction of serum triglycerides only in the coconut oil group when compared to the saline group. Supplementation with coconut oil did not interfere in weight and body composition of the animals used in current study, but revealed significant effect on the increase of HDL-c levels and decrease of serum triglycerides.

  18. Chemoprevention of hormone-dependent prostate cancer in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, D L; Rao, K V

    1999-01-01

    The high incidence and long latent period of prostate cancer make it an ideal target for chemoprevention. We have evaluated a series of agents for chemopreventive efficacy using a model in which hormone-dependent prostate cancers are induced in the Wistar-Unilever (WU) rat by sequential treatment with antiandrogen (cyproterone acetate), androgen (testosterone propionate), and direct-acting chemical carcinogen (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea), followed by chronic androgen stimulation (testosterone). This regimen reproducibly induces prostate cancers in high incidence, with no gross toxicity and a low incidence of neoplasia in the seminal vesicle and other non-target tissues. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) are the most active agents identified to date. DHEA inhibits prostate cancer induction both when chronic administration is begun prior to carcinogen exposure, and when administration is delayed until preneoplastic prostate lesions are present. 9-cis-RA is the most potent inhibitor of prostate carcinogenesis identified; a study to determine the efficacy of delayed administration of 9-cis-RA is in progress. Liarozole fumarate confers modest protection against prostate carcinogenesis, while N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide), alpha-difluoromethylornithine, oltipraz, DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E), and L-selenomethionine are inactive. Chemoprevention efficacy evaluations in the WU rat will support the identification of agents that merit study for prostate cancer chemoprevention in humans.

  19. Immunological Effect of PM2.5 on Cytokine Production in Female Wistar Rats1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING-HUA HUANG; QIN WANG; DONG-QUN XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunological effect of PM2.5 on cytokine production in female Wistar rats.Methods Female Wistzr rats were given 0.3 mg,0.75 mg,2 mg,5 mg of PM2.5 per 0.5mL saline,respectively.Saline was used as the negative control.TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the branchoalveolar lavage were measured by ELISA,and mRNA expression leveIs in lung tissue were detected bv RT-PCR.Alveolar macrophages were collected for testing phogacytic function. Results Exposure to PM2.5 stimulated TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05),However,no statistically significant difference was found.No time-dependent change in TNF-α and IL-6 production Was found.TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions were induced by PM2.5-exposure.The phagocytic rate(PR)was significantly decreased by PM2.5 treatment.Conclusion PM2.5 exposure increases inflammation response of the lung in a dose-dependent mauuer.Moreover,tissue injury induced by PM2.5 may be related to altered production of cytokines.PM2.5 may impair the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages.

  20. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L. against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

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    Narayanan Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH, and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model.

  1. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

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    Parichehreh Yaghmaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATPthat potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSHin the serum of female Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Two groups of rats (180 ± 15 grams were gavaged with doses of 50and 100 mg/kg body weight imatinib dissolved in distilled water for 14 days. The control groupreceived sterile water. On day 7, after termination of the treatment, blood serum concentrationwas measured with the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Also, sections (5 μm thick of ovariesstained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E were investigated histologically.Results: Progesterone concentration in the experimental groups was increased (p<0.001,estrogen and FSH concentrations were decreased (p<0.01, and the LH concentration decreasedbut was not statistically different in comparison with the control group. The weight of ovaries andnumber of atretic follicles in the experimental groups was increased compared with the controlgroup (p<0.05. The diameter of corpus lutea were increased but the number of corpus luteadecreased in both experimental groups (p<0.01.Conclusion: These findings suggest that administration of imatinib may have profound effects onfemale fertility.

  2. Prenatal effects by exposing to amoxicillin on dental enamel in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottberg, Beatriz; Berné, Jeanily; Quiñónez, Belkis; Solórzano, Eduvigis

    2014-01-01

    Amoxicillin is an antibiotic widely prescribed; its most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. Over the last 10 years studies have been published which suggest that amoxicillin may cause dental alterations similar to dental fluorosis. Never the less, the results are not conclusive, this is why it was planned the need to make controlled studies on test animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect produced by amoxicillin prenatal administration on dental enamel in Wistar rats. 12 pregnant adult rats were used distributed into five different groups: witness control (n=2) didn't get any treatment; negative control (n=2) they were prescribed with saline solution; positive control (n=3) they were prescribed with tetracycline 130 mg/kg, and two groups (n=3 and n=2) treated with amoxicillin doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively. The treatments were daily administered by mouth, from the 6th gestation day to the end of gestation. Twenty five days after they were born, the offspring were sacrificed with a sodium pentobarbital overdose, the mandible was dissected and the first lower molars were gotten. The samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and clinically and histologically observed to determine any enamel disorders. hypomineralization was observed in every single sample of the tetracyclic and amoxicillin treated group 100 mg/kg, meanwhile only 50% from the group administered with 50 mg/kg amoxicillin showed this histological disorder. the side effect caused by amoxicillin on dental enamel was doses dependent.

  3. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  4. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD 50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  5. Carvacrol attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver injury in experimental Wistar rats

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    Balan Rajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol is a main constituent in the essential oils of countless aromatic plants including Origanum Vulgare and Thymus vulgari, which has been assessed for substantial pharmacological properties. In recent years, notable research has been embarked on to establish the biological actions of Carvacrol for its promising use in clinical applications. The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Carvacrol against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced hepatic injury in male Wistar albino rats. DEN is an egregious toxin, present in numerous environmental factors, which enhances chemical driven liver damage by inducing oxidative stress and cellular injury. Administration of DEN (200 mg/kg bodyweight, I.P to rats results in elevated marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue. Carvacrol (15 mg/kg body weight suppressed the elevation of marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue and augmented the antioxidants levels. The hoisted activities of Phase I enzymes and inferior activities of Phase II enzymes were observed in DEN-administered animals, whereas Carvacrol treated animals showed improved near normal activity. Histological observations also support the protective role of Carvacrol against DEN induced liver damage. Final outcome from our findings intimate that Carvacrol might be beneficial in attenuating toxin induced liver damage.

  6. Minyak ikan Lemuru (Sardinella longicep menurunkan apoptosis osteoblas pada tulang alveolaris tikus wistar (Fish oil of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep reduced the osteoblast apoptosis in wistar rat alveolar bone

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    Didin Erma Indahyani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is caused by periodontopatogen bacteria resulting the alveolar bone damage. The decrease of osteoblasts and the increased of osteoclasts can cause bone destruction. The decrease of osteoblasts, due to a disturbance of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Inflammatory mediators are prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6 also tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α stimulates osteoblast apoptosis through gene expression, signaling molecules and receptor-forming osteoblasts. Fish oil of Lemuru, which is widely encountered in Indonesian coast, containing n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs are quite high. Consumption of fish oil shown to reduce the expression of PGE2, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep fish oil on osteoblast apoptosis of rat alveolar bone induced periodontal infection. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats, male, age 5 days, divided into 3 groups: group I rats induced with normal saline, group II rats induced by LPS, and group III rats induced with lemuru fish oil and LPS. Each group was divided into 2 sub-groups that would be sacrified at 13 days and 21 days of age. Fish oil was given at a dose 1ml/300-350 grams. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced with the purpose to cause periodontal infection in the maxillary buccal fold molar region with dose 5μl LPS/PBS 0.03 ml. After decapitation and decalcification, the maxilla was cut in 5μm thickness. Apoptosis was analyzed on DNA and detected by TUNEL reaction (transferase-mediated digoxigenin-deoxy-UTP nick end labeling. Results: The results showed that apoptosis of osteoblast cells was significantly smaller in rats induced by Lemuru fish oil. Conclusion: The study showed that Lemuru fish oil reduced the osteoblast apoptosis of rats alveolar bone induced periodontal infection by LPS.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal akibat bakteri peridontopatogen, menyebabkan

  7. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine......). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides...

  8. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity studies of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres incorporated tetanus toxoid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, R; Giri, D K; Chaudhury, M R

    1996-04-01

    Tetanus Toxoid loaded biodegradable microspheres (MTT) (poly (DL-Lactide-co-Glycolide) were administered intramuscularly to pregnant Wistar rats from Days 6 to 15 of gestation, at 1, 5 and 10-times the human equivalent dose of TT. Developmental defects in relation to soft tissues and skeleton, weight and sex of live pups and early fetal deaths from treated and control rats were analysed. The findings in treatment groups were comparable to those in the controls. These observations show that MTT was safe for pregnant rats and developing pups.

  9. Características ultra-estruturais do nó sinoatrial de rato Wistar Superstructural features of the wistar strain male rats' sinoatrial node (SAN

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    Carlos Alberto Mandarim de Lacerda

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available As características ultra-estruturais do nó sinoatrial (NSA de 5 ratos machos da variedade Wistar, com 3 meses de idade, foram estudadas por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. Fragmento pequeno, contendo a região do NSA e área adjacente do átrio direito do coração, foi retirado e fixado em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processado de acordo com técnica convencional para MET. A morfologia do nó sinoatrial de ratos é semelhante a de outros mamíferos. O NSA é uma estrutura anatômica independente do miocárdio atrial, constituído por células típicas (miócitos nodais, células de transição e, principalmente, células nodais imersos em matriz extracelular, na qual predominam fibras colágenas, fibroblastos e nervosThe superstructural features of five Wistar strain male rats' sinoatrial node (SAN at 3-mo-old were studied through transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Small fragments with the regions containing the SAN were cut off, fixed in glutaraldehyde 2.5% and processed according to the conventional technique for TEM. The morphology of the sinoatrial node of the rats is similar as found in other mammals. The SAN is an independent anatomic structure of the atrial myocardial, constituted of typical cells (nodal myocytes, transition cells and nodal cells principally immersed in the extra cellular matrix where collagen fibers, fibroblasts and nerve predominate

  10. Nephroprotective effects of Colpomenia sinuosa (Derbes & Solier against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney injury in Wistar rats

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    Lekameera Ramarajan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the protective effect of seaweed Colpomenia sinuosa against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction of rat kidney. Methods: Seven to eight weeks old male Wistar rats (150-220g were exposed to CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg injection then treated with seaweed Colpomenia sinuosa (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.3% CMC solution. Blood was collected at the 5th day of experimental period to estimate the Total count (TC, Hemoglobin (HB, Total protein (TP, Glucose, Albumin, Cholesterol, TGL and Urea. Results: The results shows significantly decreased (P<0.01 level of TC, the cholesterol and urea levels shows significantly increased (P<0.05 in CCl4 treated groups when compared to control groups. These levels were found to be normalized by oral feeding of C. sinuosa. Then the rats were sacrificed and kidneys taken for enzyme analyses and histological examination. In the CCl4 treated group significantly increased activities in TBARS, SOD, CAT, GPX, GSH (P<0.05 when compared to control group. These increased activities were found to near normal in the CCl 4 + C. sinuosa treated group and Seaweed C. sinuosa treated alone group did not change any enzyme activity. Exposure to CCl4 resulted hydrobhic changes in epithelium and Hypercellulartity of glomerulus was seen in the CCl 4 + drug treated group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the nephroprotective effect of C. sinuosa can be attributed to its enhancing effects on antioxidant defense system and lead to prevent the damage by exposure of CCl4 toxicity.

  11. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  12. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, F.A. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mattar, R. [1Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Facincani, I. [Departamento de Pediatria e Neonatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramalho, L.N.Z. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Jorgetti, V. [Departamento de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Paula, F.J.A. de [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-14

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility.

  13. Effect of Alstonia Scholaris bark extract on testicular function of Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R·S·Gupta; RakhiSharma

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the antifertility effect of Alstonia scholaris bark extract in male rats.Methods:In male Wistar rats Alstonia scholaris bark extract was given by oral route at a dose of 200mg/day for60days,The fertility and testicular function were assessed by mating tests,sperm motility,sperm concentration,biochemical indices and testicular cell population dynamics.Results:Oral feeding with the extract at a dose of 200mg/day for the period of 60days did not cause body weight loss,while the weights of testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were significantly reduced.The production of step-19 spermatids was reduced by 79.6%in treated rats.The popu-lation of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were decrased by61.9%and60.1%,respectively.Spematogo-nia and Sertoli cell population were also affected.The seminiferous tubule and Leydig cell nuclear area were reduced significantly(P<0.01)when compared to the controls..Reduced sperm count and motility yesulted in a total supprs-sion of fertility.A significant fall in the protein and sialic acid content of the testes,epididymides,seminal vesicle and ventral prostate as well as glycogen content of testes were also noticed.The fructose content in the seminal vesicle was lowered whereas the testicular cholesterol was elevated as compared with the controls.The following com-pounds were obtained from the extract with chromatographic separation over Si-gel column;α-amyrin,β-amyrin,lupiol acetate,venenative,rhazine and yohimbine,Conclusion:At the dose level employed,Alstonia scholaris bark extract has a significant antifertility effect in male rast;the primary site of action may be post meiotic germ cells(Step19spermatids).

  14. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (pbread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (pbread as compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (pbread.

  15. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

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    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  16. Gene expression profiling reveals potential key pathways involved in pyrazinamide-mediated hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Su, Yijing; Chen, Mi; Li, Fu; Liu, Li; Sun, Lixin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important sterilizing prodrug that shortens the duration of tuberculosis therapy. However, hepatotoxicity has been reported during clinical trials investigating PZA. To determine the hepatotoxic effects of PZA in vivo and to further investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, we profiled the gene expression patterns of PZA-treated rat livers by microarray analysis. Wistar rats of both sexes were orally administered PZA at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 28 days. Body weight, absolute and relative liver weight, biochemical analysis, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates and changes in global transcriptomic expression were evaluated to study the hepatotoxic effects of PZA. Our results confirm the dose-dependent and sex-related hepatotoxicity of PZA. Female rats were more sensitive to PZA-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Furthermore, changes in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione and malondialdehyde), indicating the development of oxidative stress, were more significant in the PZA-treated group. PZA-induced gene expression changes were related to pathways involved in drug metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the regulation of selected genes involved in PZA-hepatotoxicity (Ephx1, Cyp2b1, Gstm1, Gstp1, Fabp7, Acaa1, Cpt-1b, Cyp8b1, Hmox1 and Ntrk1). We observed for the first time that these genes have effects on PZA-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, drug metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways may play an important role in PZA hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these findings will be useful for future PZA hepatotoxicity studies.

  17. Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats

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    Candasamy Mayuren

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52.Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at

  18. Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candasamy Mayuren.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52. Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically

  19. Two-generation reproduction and teratology studies of feeding aditoprim in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Tan, Ziqiang; Cheng, Guyue; Awais, Ihsan; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-12-01

    Aditoprim, a new bacteriostatic agent that belongs to diaminopyrimidines, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, good antibacterial activity and excellent pharmacokinetics. To evaluate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of aditoprim, different concentrations of aditoprim were administered to Wistar rats by feeding diets containing 0, 20, 100 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively. Each group consisting of 18 males and 25 females (F0 ) was treated with different concentrations of aditoprim through a 13-week period before mating and during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 20 males and 25 females of the F1 generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for the F2 generation. Selected F1 weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At 1000 mg kg(-1) dose group, body weights in F0 and F1 rats, fetal body weight on day 21 (0, 4 and 21) after birth and number of viable fetuses in the F0 and F1 generation significantly decreased. Teratogenicity study was performed in combination with the F1 generation of a two-generation reproduction study. F1 parents of the reproduction study were mated after weaning of the F2a pups. Pregnant female rats were subjected to cesarean section on gestational day 20 for teratogenic examination. At 1000 mg kg(-1) group, body weights, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses were significantly decreased. No obvious external, skeletal or visceral malformations in fetuses were noted in any groups in the teratogenic test. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for reproduction/development toxicity of aditoprim was 100 mg kg(-1) diet (about 7.89-9.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) ).

  20. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of Ficus religiosa latex on cisplatin induced liver injury in Wistar rats

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    Yogesh C. Yadav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFicus religiosa L., Moraceae, is widely planted in the tropics. The chemical constituents of F. religiosa include tannin, saponin gluanol acetate, β-sitosterol, leucoanthocyanidin, and leucoanthocyanin. These are used for the treatment of pain, inflammation, impotence, menstrual disturbances, and urine related problems, and as uterine tonic. The present study aimed to evaluate hepatoprotective effects of F. religiosa latex on cisplatin induced liver injury in Wistar rats. In experimental protocol contained five groups of rats (n = 6. In which, group I (control was administered acacia (2%, w/v of 5 ml/kg throughout the experiment for 16 days. The group II (cisplatin treated was administered single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg i.p. on 1st day. Group III (extract control was administered 300 mg/kg p.o. of extract for 1stto 10th day. Group IV (Protective was administered extract (300 mg/kg p.o. of F. religiosa latex for 1st to 10th day and administered single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg i.p. on 11th day and group V (Curative received single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg i.p. on day 1st, and administered extract (300 mg/kg p.o. from 7th to 16thdays. On the 6th day in cisplatin treated, 10th day in extract control and 16th day in control, protective and curative, blood withdrawn from retro-orbital sinus of rats for biochemical estimation for serum and dissected out the livers for estimation of antioxidant enzymes and histopathological works. The cisplatin-treated group 2 showed a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and hepatocytes cells degeneration inflammatory infiltrate and necrosis it's were significantly (**p < 0.01 alleviates by protective groups.

  2. Ultrastructure of the myotendinous junction of the medial pterygoid muscle of adult and aged Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; Luques, Isabela Ugo; Dias, Fernando José; Yokomizo de Almeida, Sonia Regina; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2010-12-01

    The myotendon junction (MTJ) is a specialised area into the muscle fibers where the sarcoplasmic membranes connect to the collagen fibers bundles. There are few data about plasticity of the MTJ in aging processes. The aim of this study is to analyse the ultrastructure characteristics of MTJ of medial pterygoid muscle of adult and aged rats. Employing the transmission electron microscopy method, twenty male rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into two groups: A (n=10) with 12 months of age; B (n=10) 24 months of age. The animals were anaesthetised with overdose the urethane (3g/kg, i.p.) and sacrified during the perfusion with modified Karnovsky solution. The specimens were post-fixed in a 1% osmium tetroxide solution, dehydrated in ascending concentration of ethanol and embedded in Spurr resin. The thin sections, of 90 nm thick, were counterstained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solution, and examined in a Jeol 1010 transmission electron microscope. The fine structure of the MTJ of group A revealed the defined interdigitations and disposed in several levels of deep formations containing the collagen fibers. In the group B, such structures did not observed, detecting the projections irregular in shape, and large of extra matrix with in aspect of remodelling. In conclusion it was possible to identify the plasticity of MTJ in the group B which presented several morphological alterations comparing to the adult animals. These data of group B suggested the occurrence of aging processes in the MTJ in rats. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification

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    I. Chahoud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21 and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21, reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  4. Aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract of Anthonotha macrophylla P. Beauv. leaves in female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu; Abdulquadri Funmbi Olutoye

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract ofAnthonotha macrophylaleaves (AEAML) in female Wistar rats. METHODS:Thirty female rats were assigned into fi ve groups of six animals each, such that rats in groups A, B, C, D and E received oraly 1 mL of distiled water only, 5.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Exus Ginseng (a polyherbal formulation), 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML, respectively. After 1 h of treatment, female sexual behaviour parameters were monitored for 30 min. Luteinizing hormone (LH), folicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E) and testosterone were also determined using standard methods. RESULTS:Six secondary metabolites were detected in AEAML with alkaloids (13.00 mg/L) being the highest. AEAML at 25 and 50 mg/kg BW signifi cantly (P0.05). The 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML did not alter (P>0.05) the sexual behaviour parameters, serum FSH, LH and E contents, whereas testosterone content increased signifi cantly. The ovarian histology of the animals treated with Exus Ginseng, AEAML at 25 and 50 mg/kg BW revealed developing and ruptured folicles with numerous corpora lutea in the stroma, whereas the 100 mg/kg BW of AEAML produced fewer folicles and corpora lutea. CONCLUSION:The enhanced proceptive, receptive and orientation components of the female sexual behaviour by the 25 and 50 mg/kg BW of AEAML confers sexual invigorating potential on the plant. This study thus justifi es the folkloric claim of the plant as a female aphrodisiac.

  5. Anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker (Asphodelaceae) stem at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight was investigated for anabolic and androgenic effects in male Wistar rats. Sixty male rats were grouped into four (A-D) consisting of 15 each. Group A (control) was orally treated with 0.5 mL of distilled water for 14 days while groups B, C and D were treated like the control except they received 0.5 mL containing 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. All the doses of the extract increased (P 0.05) with the controls for glycogen and cholesterol. The testicular and serum testosterone concentration were increased except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the tissue and serum hormone did not manifest until after the first and seven daily doses respectively. Testicular acid phosphatase activity, serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone concentrations also increased at all the doses except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the enzyme and the hormone did not manifest until after seven days. The increases were most pronounced in the 50 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The results indicate anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male rat testes with the 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the highest anabolizing and androgenic activities. These activities further support the folkloric use of the plant most especially at 50 mg/kg body weight in the management of male sexual dysfunction in South Africa.

  6. Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l. in male wistar rats

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    Agrawal Shyam S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete

  7. Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats

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    Shyam S Agrawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of

  8. Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

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    Eva Rachmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Kemampuan hati mengatasi stres oksidatif dapat ditingkatkan dengan konsumsi antioksidan eksogen yang berasal dari alam. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mempelajari kemampuan hepatoprotektif dari ekstrak metanol  daun  Fagraea racemosa, dengan menggunakan CCL4 sebagai model sumber radikal bebas. Metode: Tiga kelompok perlakuan tikus Wistar  (enam ekor per  kelompok, masing-masing diberi dosis ekstrak berturut-turut 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bb per oral, sekali perhari selama 30 hari. CCl4 diinjeksikan intraperitoneal kepada ketiga kelompok , dua kali per minggu (1,5 ml/kg bb.  Sebagai pembanding, digunakan dua kelompok kontrol, yaitu kontrol normal dan kontrol CCl4.  Pada hari ke-30, tikus dibunuh dan hati diwarnai dengan hematoksilin-eosin. Perubahan histopatologi ditentukan berdasar derajat steatosis, degenerasi hidropik, dan inflamasi. Data dianalisis dengan Anova dan uji post hoc LSD (p≤0.05 menggunakan SPSS versi 13.0 Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan perbaikan derajat degenerasi hidropik dan inflamasi (p≤0,05 pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan bila dibanding dengan kelompok kontrol CCl4. Tetapi, derajat steatosis meningkat pada kelompok perlakuan dosis  50 dan 100 mg/kg bb, dan kemudian menurun secara bermakna pada perlakuan 200 mg/kg bb. Kesimpulan : Ekstrak methanol daun Fagraea racemosa  mampu melindungi hati dari radikal bebas yang dihasilkan dari CCl4. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa Fagraea racemosa menjanjikan untuk dikembangkan sebagai suplemen antioksidan. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:46-51   Abstract Background: The ability of the liver in dealing with oxidative stress can be enhanced by consumption of exogenous antioxidants derived from nature. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective ability of Fagraea racemosa leaves methanolic extract against CCl4 exposure as a model of free radicals source. Methods: Three different doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw were administered orally to three treatment groups of Wistar rats

  9. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  10. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

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    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm(2)). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS ON GAMMA- IRRADIATED NIGELLA SATIVA EXTRACT INDUCED BLOOD AND IMMUNE CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS

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    Osama Moseilhy Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted to test the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS, 5 mg kg-1 of body weight, or γ-irradiated Nigella Sativa (GRNS on the changes of blood component profiles, liver, kidney functions and immune cytokines secretion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the possible protection by propolis (200 mg kg-1 B. W. on the changes induced by NS and GRNS was examined. Results revealed that both NS and GRNS administration for two weeks induced changes in blood, GPT, GOT and urea levels and co-administration with propolis significantly ameliorated such changes. Also, liver histology showed numerous vacuolar degeneration and fatty changes in γ-irradiated groups which disappeared in presence of propolis. Kidney histology of NS administered rats showed less lymphocytic infiltration, while GRNS groups showed desquamation in the cytoplasm of the renal tubules, hemorrhage in the renal corpuscle and lymphocytic infiltration which disappeared when propolis given together with GRNS. Finally propolis induced protective effect on the changes induced in TNF-α and IL-10 secretion by either NS or GRNS in Wistar rats. In conclusion, the findings of present study clarified the protective effect of propolis on changes induced by γ-irradiated NS on blood, liver, kidney and cytokines changes in Wistar rats.

  12. A novel mutation in the thyroglobulin gene that causes goiter and dwarfism in Wistar Hannover GALAS rats.

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    Sato, Akira; Abe, Kuniya; Yuzuriha, Misako; Fujii, Sakiko; Takahashi, Naofumi; Hojo, Hitoshi; Teramoto, Shoji; Aoyama, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Outbred stocks of rats have been used extensively in biomedical, pharmaceutical and/or toxicological studies as a model of genetically heterogeneous human populations. One of such stocks is the Wistar Hannover GALAS rat. However, the colony of Wistar Hannover GALAS rat has been suspected of keeping a problematic mutation that manifests two distinct spontaneous abnormalities, goiter and dwarfism, which often confuses study results. We have successfully identified the responsible mutation, a guanine to thymine transversion at the acceptor site (3' end) of intron 6 in the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene (Tgc.749-1G>T), that induces a complete missing of exon 7 from the whole Tg transcript by mating experiments and subsequent molecular analyses. The following observations confirmed that Tgc.749-1G>T/Tgc.749-1G>T homozygotes manifested both dwarfism and goiter, while Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes had only a goiter with normal appearance, suggesting that the mutant phenotypes inherit as an autosomal semi-dominant trait. The mutant phenotypes, goiter and dwarfism, mimicked those caused by typical endocrine disrupters attacking the thyroid. Hence a simple and reliable diagnostic methodology has been developed for genomic DNA-based genotyping of animals. The diagnostic methodology reported here would allow users of Wistar Hannover GALAS rats to evaluate their study results precisely by carefully interpreting the data obtained from Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes having externally undetectable thyroidal lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats

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    Mario Del Toro-Equihua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group: the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p < 0.05. Rats that were given diets with 10% and 20% avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively. Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85. Addition of 5–30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5–20% avocado oil.

  14. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats.

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    Matos, Verena Sampaio Barbosa; Gomes, Felipe da Silva; Oliveira, Tarcio Macena; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Ribeiro, Lídia Cristina Villela; Gonzales, Astria Dias Ferrão; Lima, Januário Mourão; Guerreiro, Marcos Lázaro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG) underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1), 7 (EG7), and 21 (EG21). After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p cana-de-açúcar sobre mecanismos inflamatórios em tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar de ratos Wistar após diferentes períodos de exposição. Estudo experimental, randomizado, não cego. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (GC), sob condições padrão de laboratório e os demais expostos à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos: em 1 (GE1), 7 (GE7) e 21 (GE21) dias. Após a eutanásia com 200 mg/kg de ketamina/xilazina, foram coletados fragmentos de traqueia e pulmão e fixadas em formol 10%. Análises histológicas foram realizadas com coloração com H&E e picrosírius. Não houve infiltrado inflamatório nos tecidos no GC. O processo inflamatório na análise histológica de tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar foi significativamente mais intenso no GE7 quando comparado ao GC (p cana-de-açúcar induziu processo inflamatório focal, difuso e agudo em tecidos de traqueia na lâmina própria, sem perda do tecido epitelial ciliado. Houve presença de edemas intersticiais e

  15. Ketoconazole- and fluconazole-induced embryotoxicity and skeletal anomalies in wistar rats: a comparative study

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    Vanessa Cristiane de Santana Amaral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole and fluconazole are two broad-spectrum azole antifungals used for the treatment of superficial and systemic mycoses. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity have been reported in some studies when those drugs are administered at high doses to pregnant rats. The aim of this study was to present a comparative study of embryotoxic effects as well as the skeletal anomalies in fetuses of Wistar rats which received ketoconazole and fluconazole at teratogenic doses on gestational days (GD 6 through 15 (organogenesis period. On gestational day (GD 21, the dams were euthanized and examined for standard parameters of reproductive outcome. Fetuses were stained with alizarin red and the bones of the head, trunk, forelimb and hindlimb were examined for detection of skeletal anomalies. The frequency of skeletal anomalies in the ketoconazole-treated group was significant when compared to the fluconazole and the control group.O cetoconazol e o fluconazol são dois antifúngicos azólicos, de amplo espectro, utilizados no tratamento de micoses superficiais e sistêmicas. Alguns estudos relatam a embriotoxicidade e teratogenicidade induzidas por estes fármacos quando os mesmos são administrados em altas doses a ratas prenhes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar um estudo comparativo dos efeitos embriotóxicos e das anomalias esqueléticas em fetos de ratas Wistar que receberam cetoconazol e fluconazol em doses teratogênicas do 6º ao 15º dia gestacional (GD (período da organogênese. No 21º GD as ratas foram eutanaziadas e examinadas quanto aos parâmetros padrões de performance reprodutiva. Os fetos foram corados com vermelho de alizarina e os ossos da cabeça, do tronco e dos membros anteriores e posteriores foram examinados para a verificação de anomalias esqueléticas. A freqüência de anomalias esqueléticas no grupo tratado com cetoconazol foi significante quando comparada à dos grupos fluconazol e controle.

  16. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

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    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  17. The Effects of Crude Methanol Seed Extract of Brassica juncea on Haematological Parameters in Wistar Rats

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    S.A. Ufelle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea, (B. juncea also known as Indian Oriental or Brown Mustard is widely used as a medicinal crop, oil seed, condiment and vegetable and much hematological effects have not been recorded on B. juncea. Thirty (30 male wistar rats aged 2-3 months, weighing 100-200 g were obtained and housed at the Animal House of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus for this study. The rats were divided into five (5 groups of six (6 rats per group, labeled A to E and were acclimatized for two (2 weeks and were fed with commercially available rat feed. They had access to water and feed ad libitum. Groups A to D were orally administered with graded doses of the crude seed extract (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively daily for 30 days while group E which served as control received no extract. Blood samples (2.0 mL were collected from each rat through the retro orbital plexus of the median canthus into K3- EDTA containers for analysis using standard operative procedures. The results obtained, revealed that the mean Hemoglobin (Hb values of groups C and D (C = 12.6±0.57 and D = 11.1±1.4 g/dL were significantly decreased (p<0.05 when compared with control (E = 14.2±0.74 g/dL. The mean Hematocrit (PCV values of groups C and D (C = 0.38±0.02, and D = 0.34±0.04 L/L were also significantly decreased (p<0.05 compared with control (E = 0.43±0.02 L/L. The mean Total WBC values of all the treated groups were significantly increased (A = 6.45±0.3, B = 6.23±0.83, C = 6.0±0.34, and D = 6.05±0.41 x 109/L when compared with control E = 4.28±0.17×109/L (p<0.05. The mean platelet values were significantly decreased in all the treated groups (A = 30.00±4.1, B = 30.00±5.8, C = 46.25±7.5 and D = 33.75±2.5 x 109/L when compared with control E = 86.25±4.8×109/L. This study revealed that crude methanol seed extract of Brassica juncea affects some hematological parameters when orally administered at different concentrations.

  18. Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

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    Nilson Rodnei Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar.OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord

  19. Preventive effect of phytic acid on lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, E; Rajasekapandiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats subcutaneously injected with ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for two days showed a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats, but the activities of glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were decreased significantly in the lysosomal fraction of the heart. Pretreatment with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 56 d positively altered activities of lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, phytic acid possesses a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  20. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

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    Maria V. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  1. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in finishing cattle housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, D A; Thomason, J D; Reinhardt, C; Bartle, S; Rethorst, D; Loneragan, G H; Thomson, D

    2017-04-01

    Atrial premature complexes have been reported to be the most common arrhythmia in cattle and is suspected to be secondary to systemic disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmia in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence should be defined. The objective of this study was to determine the normal heart rate, rhythm, number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and atrial premature complexes (APCs) in unrestrained Angus steers. Twenty-seven client owned steers with unremarkable physical examinations and serum biochemical analyses were used. Twenty-four hour Holter monitors, attached by a custom-made harness, were retrospectively evaluated. Three lead electrocardiographic registrations of good quality and normal sinus rhythm were obtained from all steers in the study. The mean heart rate was 66.8 bpm ± 16.4 bpm. Ventricular premature complexes were rare (noted in 14.8% of steers), and APCs were common (noted in 85% of the steers). Simple second degree AV block was observed in 18.5% of the steers. In summary, healthy steers have rare single VPCs, although it is possible for an individual animal to have apparent more frequent VPCs. Mean heart rate varies with a diurnal pattern similar to other species. Atrial premature complexes are the most prevalent abnormality observed in feedlot steers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  3. Curcumin alters motor coordination but not total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of adolescent male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P< 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.

  4. Opposite lipemic response of Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice to dietary glucose or fructose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C R; Albuquerque, E M V; Faria, E C; Oliveira, H C F; Castilho, L N

    2007-03-01

    The metabolic effects of carbohydrate supplementation in mice have not been extensively studied. In rats, glucose- and fructose-rich diets induce hypertriacylglycerolemia. In the present study, we compared the metabolic responses to two monosaccharide supplementations in two murine models. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 80) and C57BL/6 mice (N = 60), after 3 weeks on a standardized diet, were submitted to dietary supplementation by gavage with glucose (G) or fructose (F) solutions (500 g/L), 8 g/kg body weight for 21 days. Glycemia was significantly higher in rats after fructose treatment (F: 7.9 vs 9.3 mM) and in mice (G: 6.5 vs 10 and F: 6.6 vs 8.9 mM) after both carbohydrate treatments. Triacylglycerolemia increased significantly 1.5 times in rats after G or F supplementation. Total cholesterol did not change with G treatment in rats, but did decrease after F supplementation (1.5 vs 1.4 mM, P vs 1.4 and F: 1.9 vs 1.4 mM, P vs 2.5 mM, P glucose and fructose supplementation regarding serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, and insulin levels after monosaccharide treatment. Thus, while Wistar rats developed features of plurimetabolic syndrome, C57BL/6 mice presented changes in serum biochemical profile considered to be healthier for the cardiovascular system.

  5. Pharmacological validation of the free-exploratory paradigm in male Wistar rats: A proposed test of trait anxiety.

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    Almeida-Souza, Thiago Henrique; Goes, Tiago Costa; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2015-08-01

    The free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety for both mice and rats. However, its pharmacological validation has only been carried out for the mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to pharmacologically validate FEP for Wistar rats, by testing the effects of clinically established anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, in four different experiments. In all experiments, male Wistar rats were first tested in FEP to be categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low). Then, only medium trait anxiety rats were selected to be tested again in FEP, two weeks later, after being pharmacologically treated, according to each experiment as follows: Experiment I: 0.5mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) or vehicle; Experiment II: 20mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or vehicle; Experiment III: 5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX5) or vehicle: and Experiment IV: 0.5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX0.5) or vehicle. As a group, the results showed that PTZ and FLX5 increased levels of trait anxiety and reduced locomotor activity, whereas DZP and FLX0.5 decreased levels of trait anxiety, without impairing locomotor activity. These results demonstrate that FEP for rats is able to predict clinical anxiolytic and anxiogenic activities of different drugs, including fluoxetine, which is believed to present a dual effect on anxiety. Therefore, this paradigm can be proposed as an effective method for testing potential trait anxiety-reducing drugs, in rats.

  6. In utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine in Wistar rats: pregnancy outcomes and sexual development.

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    Müller, Juliane C; Boareto, Ana C; Lourenço, Emerson L B; Zaia, Renata M; Kienast, Mariana F; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the reproductive effects of fluoxetine exposure in utero and during lactation on pregnancy outcomes and the sexual development of offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated daily with fluoxetine (0.4, 1.7 and 17 mg/kg/day) or distilled water by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to lactation day (LD) 21. A significant reduction in maternal body weight was observed during pregnancy and lactation in dams exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Hormone analysis revealed an increase in progestagen and glucocorticoid metabolites on GD 15 and oestrogen and progestagen metabolites on LD 7 in dams treated with 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Oestrogen metabolites also were increased on LD 7 in dams treated with 0.4 mg/kg fluoxetine. Besides that, an increase in the weight of the adrenal glands and a reduction in uterine weight in dams exposed to highest dose of fluoxetine were observed. Finally, pup birthweight and the viability and weaning indices also were reduced in animals exposed to 17 mg/kg fluoxetine. Overall, maternal hormonal changes were only observed at the highest dose tested, which also induced maternal and foetal toxicity. No significant changes were seen in dams or offspring exposed to therapeutic-like doses.

  7. Chelidonium majus is not hepatotoxic in Wistar rats, in a 4 weeks feeding experiment.

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    Mazzanti, Gabriela; Di Sotto, Antonella; Franchitto, Antonio; Mammola, Caterina Loredana; Mariani, Paola; Mastrangelo, Sabina; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Vitalone, Annabella

    2009-12-10

    Aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae family) are traditionally used in the treatment of gallstones and dyspepsia, however several cases of hepatotoxicity are reported. In this work we evaluated the effects on liver function of a C. majus extract, obtained from the herbal material responsible for one case of hepatotoxicity. Experiments were performed in Wistar rats, after oral administration of doses corresponding to 1.5 and 3g/(kg day) of herbal drug, for 2 or 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected to perform biochemical analysis, whereas liver samples were used for histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination along with the determination of oxidative stress parameters. No significant modification in animal body weight, food consumption, enzyme activities, hepatic histomorphology and MDA formation, at either time or dosage level. Conversely, C. majus induced a slight but significant decrease of GSH levels and SOD activity, especially at the high dose. Our study suggests that C. majus, at doses about 50 and 100 times higher than those generally used in humans, does not alter hepatic function. However, the reduction in GSH levels and SOD activity suggests particular attention in use of C. majus or its preparations in situations (pharmacological treatments, physio-pathological conditions, etc.) that can compromise liver function.

  8. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

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    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  9. Biochemical Effects Of Aluminum On Some Selected Serum Enzymes Of Male Wistar Albino Rats

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    Ogueche

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and humans are exposed to them via water contaminated air food and soil. Aluminum AL belongs to this group of toxic metals. Its neurological effects are well documented but effects on acid and alkaline phosphatases are poorly studied and this the essence of this study. Toxicity of aluminum was investigated based on the elevation of acid and alkali phosphatases in serum of male Wistar albino rats after days 7 and 14 of aluminum 0.38 3.8 and 38mgkg body weight administration respectively. The results showed significant increase p0.05 in serum acid phosphatase in the test animals given 38kgkg after days 14 while serum alkali phosphatase increased significantly p 0.05 in the test animals given 3.8 and 38 mgkg after days 7 and 14 when compared to the control animals. However lower dose 0.38mgkg showed increase in both serum acid and alkali phosphatases respectively but were statistically non-significant p0.05 at 7 and 14 as compared to control animals.

  10. Modulatory Effect of Erythrina vareigata on Experimental Hyperlipidaemia in Male Wistar Rats

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    K Mangathayaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina vareigata is a medium sized quick growing tree found distributed in deciduous forests throughout India. Its leaves are eaten as a pot herb and different parts of the plant have folkloric reputation as an anti inflammatory in India, China and South east Asia. Bark, wood, root and flowers are richly represented by isoflavones, pterocarpans and biphenyls. Current investigations were aimed at evaluating the hypolipidaemic activity of this popular hypolipidaemic siddha drug. Its nutritive value was estimated by standard reported methods. Ethyl acetate extract of the dried leaves were analyzed for total phenol content by Folin Ciocalteau and Titanium tetrachloride method. Its in vitro anti oxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, NO and trichloroacetic acid based reducing power method. Male wistar rats were subjected to high fat diet induced (HFD hyperlipidaemia concurrent with extract administration for 60 days. While normal control group received standard pellet diet, Positive control group was on HFD only. At the end of experimentation, blood was collected for serum estimation of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index. The extract had a high total phenol content, beneficially altered lipid parameters and reduced body weight of experimental animals. The leaves are rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and low in carbohydrate and fat. Anti oxidant activity of the polyphenols present in the extract might be mediating the observed hypoplipidaemia. This study validated the traditional medicine claims of its anti obesity effect as well as folkloric tutelage of consumption of leaves as a green vegetable.

  11. Laser stimulation of the acupoint 'Zusanli' (ST.36) on the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Éric H F F; Santos, Ailton A; Sá-Caputo, Danubia C C; Neves, Rosane F; Guimarães, Carlos A S; Chang, Shyang; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Laser used to stimulate acupoints is called laser acupuncture (LA). It is generally believed that similar clinical responses to manual acupuncture can be achieved. Here we analysed the effects of the laser (904 nm) at the 'Zusanli' acupoint (ST.36) of the stomach meridian on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical Na(99m)TcO4. Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and experimental groups (EG). The EG were exposed daily to the laser (904 nm) at ST.36 with 1 joule/min (40 mW/cm(2)) for 1 min. The animals of the CG were not exposed to laser at all. On the 8th day after LA, the animals were sedated and Na(99m)TcO4 was administered. After 10 min, the animals were all sacrificed and the organs removed. The radioactivity was counted in each organ to calculate the percentage of radioactivity of the injected dose per gram (%ATI/ g). Comparison of the %ATI/g in EG and CG was performed by Mann-Whitney test. The %ATI/g was significantly increased in the thyroid due to the stimulation of the ST.36 by laser. It is possible to conclude that the stimulation of ST.36 does lead to biological phenomena that interfere with the metabolism of the thyroid.

  12. Postnatal growth of the ventral prostate in Wistar rats: a stereological and morphometrical study.

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    Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R; Carvalho, Hernandes F

    2006-08-01

    Morphological and stereological analyses were used to characterize the growth kinetics of the Wistar rat ventral prostate (VP). Volume density and absolute volume of the epithelium, lumen, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and nonmuscular stroma were determined by stereology and paired with plasma testosterone levels and different morphometric measurements. The VP shows an initial growth within the first 3 weeks, a resting phase, and the puberal growth. The puberal growth was coincident with the raise in plasma testosterone. Lumen formation occurred within the 3 postnatal weeks. After an expected increase during puberty, the lumen showed a further increase at the 12th week. The volume density of the nonmuscular stroma and of the SMCs decreased slowly postnatally. Absolute volume of the luminal compartment showed three phases of growth (weeks 1-3, 6-9, and 11-12). On the other hand, the increase in the absolute volume of the epithelium was steady up to the 8th week and then showed a marked increase up the 10th week. The increase in epithelial volume was characterized morphologically by the presence of epithelial infoldings and sprouts. The growth of the epithelium showed a 2-week delay as compared to the lumen and occurred only until the 10th week. The epithelial height was variable but could be related to the synthetic activity of the epithelium. In conclusion, the postnatal growth of the VP results from a combination of epithelial proliferation/differentiation and synthesis/accumulation of the secretory products in the lumen.

  13. Investigations of genotoxic potential of levamisole hydrochloride in bone marrow cells of Wistar rats

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    Kulić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed under in vivo conditions on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats. The following doses of levamisole hydrochloride were tested: a therapeutic dose of 2.2 mg/kg bm, a dose of 4.4 mg/kg bm, LD50 -25% mg/kg bm, and LD50 -75% mg/kg bm. We followed the effect of levamisole hydrochloride on kinetics of the cell cycle and the appearance of structural and numeric changes in chromosomes in bone marrow cells. The therapeutic dose of levamisole of 2.2 mg/kg bm exhibited a capability to increase mitotic activity in the observed cells, thus confirming knowledge of the immunostimulative effect of this dose of the medicine under in vivo conditions. The other tested doses of levamisole in this experiment, observed in comparison with the control group, had an opposite effect, namely, they caused a reduction in the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells. All the examined doses in vivo exhibited the ability to induce numeric (aneuploid and polyploid and structural (lesions, breaks and insertions chromosomal aberrations. It can be concluded on the grounds of these findings that the examined doses have a genotoxic effect.

  14. Expression of thyroglobulin and calcitonin in spontaneous thyroid gland tumors in the Han Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Andrew M; Jones, Stewart A; Endersby-Wood, Helen J; McCormack, Nicola A M; Turton, John A

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous follicular and C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland in the Han Wistar rat were examined using two morphologic procedures. Firstly, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize thyroglobulin (TG) and calcitonin (CT) mRNAs. Secondly, the proteins for these markers were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim was to study the morphology of the tumors and to examine the usefulness of TG and CT markers in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Follicular tumors with cystic, papillary and follicular patterns showed relatively consistent expression of TG mRNA by ISH, thereby confirming the diagnostic value of this technique. However, no staining for TG markers was observed in solid lesions. In general, C-cell tumors comprised well-differentiated cells that continued to express CT mRNA and peptides even after embolic spread and metastasis. Therefore, the performance of either ISH or IHC for CT markers can be used for diagnostic confirmation. Additional features noted in C-cell tumors included the appearance of tumor emboli or metastases in association with small primary lesions (less than 5 average follicular diameters in size) and the presence of eosinophilic (amyloid-like) material showing immunopositivity for CT peptides. Finally, evidence is provided for the sequestration of TG protein by proliferating C-cells.

  15. Absence of histological changes after the administration of a continuous intrathecal clonidine in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-López, Uriah; Aldrete, J Antonio; Covarrubias-Gómez, Alfredo; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio E; López-Muñoz, Francisco J

    2009-01-01

    The administration of epidural and spinal clonidine has demonstrated an antinociceptive effect in animals and humans. For that reason, its spinal administration has been proposed as an adjuvant in chronic pain management. However, there is limited information about its possible neurotoxic effect after its continuous neuraxial administration. Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. Using an osmotic mini-pump a continuous infusion of intrathecal clonidine, (21.4 micrograms/day, Group A) or saline solution (Group B), was administered for 14 consecutive days. For evaluating the neurological damage a neuropathological analysis of the spinal cord was performed by light microscopy. Neurohistopathologic examination of the spinal cord specimens failed to show evidence of neurotoxic damage in either group. These findings showed that continuous intrathecal administration of clonidine did not produce evidence of histological neurotoxicity; therefore it is possible that continuous administration of intrathecal clonidine might be a safe option for treatment of chronic intractable pain; however, further investigations are necessary for evaluating diverse doses and periods of time, and to define its possible behavioral effects.

  16. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  17. EVALUATION OF HYPOCHOLESTERIMIC ACTIVITY OF SPHAG- A POLY HERBAL FORMULATION IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the greatest risk factors contributing to atherosclerosis and occurrence of coronary heart diseases. Hence hypolipidemic drugs are extensively used as prophylactic agents for preventing such atherosclerosis induced disorders. As synthetic drugs have lot of side effects, the focus on herbal drugs is increasing present day. SPHAG is a poly herbal formulation developed by the combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre. The experiment was carried out in Wistar albino rats comprised of five groups such as Healthy Control, Disease Control, Drug Control, SPHAG Low Dose and SPHAG High Dose. The study was conducted for a period of 25 days by daily single dose of test extract through oral administration. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, Biochemical profiles were evaluated. The study demonstrated the Hypolipidemic activity of SPHAG and the efficacy was dose dependent. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols.

  18. Endothelial, renal and hepatic variables in wistar rats treated with Vancomycin

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    FELIPE R. BRUNIERA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin (VCM is indicated in combat against Gram-positive infections, but it is not considered a first-choice drug because of its adverse effects. It is believed that oxidative stress is the primary mechanism of endothelial injury and the consequent VCM toxicity, which varies from phlebitis to nephrotoxicity. Moreover, dose recommendations, dilution, rates and types of infusion are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different VCM dilutions in endothelial, liver and kidney injuries by biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis. Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to femoral vein cannulation for drug administration. Control groups received 0.9 ml of saline and the others received VCM (10mg/Kg/day at dilutions of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/mL for 3 and 7 days. Homocysteine, hs-CRP, AST, ALT, GGT, urea, creatinine, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol were analyzed. Kidney, liver and cannulated femoral vein fragments were collected.This study showed alterations in ALT which featured hepatotoxicity. However, drug dilutions were not able to show changes in other biochemical parameters. In contrast, kidney and endothelium pathological changes were observed. More studies are needed to characterize VCM induced kidney and endothelium toxicity and biochemical markers able to show such morphological modifications.

  19. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

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    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  20. Photodynamic Therapy:A New Approach to Remove Embryos of the Wistar Rat

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    Mohammad Nabiuni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising new cancer treatment strategy whichinactivates tumor cells by simultaneoulsy using light and a photosensitizer. The similarity betweentumors and newly implanted embryos is notable. Extrauterine pregnancy (EUP does not have adefinite treatment and previous therapeutic options (medical and surgical have not been effectiveor suitable. Therefore, PDT is suggested as a possible treatment for EUP.Materials and Methods: The photosensitizer, hematoporphyrin, was injected locally into theplacenta of one selected embryo from a pregnant Wistar rat (E15. Then, a laser beam wasilluminated at the same point and 48 hours later, changes in the embryo and placenta wereinvestigated. Furthermore, the integrity of the uterus was examined by macroscopic evaluationand sonographic images.Results: Sections obtained from treated and control groups demonstrated that the embryo andplacenta were damaged in the PDT group, whereas the control ones were intact. Furthermore,macroscopic observations and sonographic images during the second parturition after treatmentshowed that the uterus was intact and fertility was preserved.Conclusion: Successful ablation of the treated embryo with no clear damage to the uterus atteststo the success of this approach. The successful use of hematoporphyrin, as a first generationphotosensitizer, should be further investigated for its possible clinical applications.

  1. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC. Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae extract in Wistar rats

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    Odilon A. Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo" on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg-1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg-1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  2. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Odilon A; Sanches, Júlio C M; Silva, Icaro E F; Silva, Márcio L A; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Felix, Mireille A P; Santos, Raquel A; Cecchi, Andréa O

    2012-04-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg(-1) dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  3. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  4. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

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    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  5. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L. Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Hemant Kumar Nagar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L. leaves (EECN using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated considered as control, group II (ointment base treated considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP, which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P<0.001, decrease in the period for epithelialization (P<0.01, high skin breaking strength (P<0.001, and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  6. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  7. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Cristina; Gamundí, Antoni; Fiol, Maria A.; Tresguerres, Jesús A. F.; Akaârir, Mourad; Rial, Rubén V.

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties. PMID:28050228

  8. Annona montana fruit and leaves improve the glycemic and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.

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    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Soares de Souza, Maricelma da Silva; dos Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf; Farinazzi-Machado, Flávia Maria Vasques; Araújo, Adriano Cressoni; Meneguim, Carla Omete; Pascoal Silveira, Eliane; de Souza Oliveira, Natalia; da Silva, Beatriz Clivati; Barbosa, Sara da Silva; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; Gonçalves, Priscilla Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Species of the family Annonaceae has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant in tropical regions of South and North America and in Africa. Annona montana is known popularly as false graviola and originates from tropical America and can be cultivated throughout Brazil. There are no studies in the literature that associate A. montana with the metabolic profile of animals. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the consumption of pulp and leaves of this plant on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. The animals, which were treated for 40 days, were divided into two control groups--treated with water via gavage and ad libitum, respectively, and two treated groups--one treated with leaf juice and the other with pulp juice of the fruit. Glycemia, lipids, and body weight were found to decrease and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels to increase in the animals treated with leaf juice. The group treated with pulp juice showed a reduction in lipids and augmented HDL-c. The use of A. montana may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and may thus contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Cafeteria diet intake for fourteen weeks can cause obesity and insulin resistance in Wistar rats

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    Danilo Antônio Corrêa Pinto Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a strong predictor of some kinds of diseases. High intake of high-fat foods contributes significantly to the growth of the obese population globally. The aim of this study was to verify if consumption of a cafeteria diet for fourteen weeks could increase white fat mass, body weight and skeletal muscle mass and promote insulin resistance in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty animals were divided into two groups: control and obese. Both were fed standard chow and water ad libitum. Additionally, a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, bologna sausage, sandwich cookies and soft drink was given to the obese group. RESULTS: The obese group was significantly heavier (p<0.0001 than controls from the second week until the end of the cafeteria-diet intervention. Absolute and relative fat mass, liver weight and Lee Index increased significantly (p<0.05 in the obese group. Furthermore, the obese group had lower (p<0.05 insulin sensitivity than the control group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fourteen weeks of cafeteria diet promoted a progressive increase of fat mass and insulin resistance. Therefore, this is a great and inexpensive diet-induced insulin resistance model.

  10. HISTOMORPHOLOGIC ALTERATIONS OF THE CEREBELLUM OF WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING AMODIAQUINE PLUS ARTESUNATE ADMINISTRATION

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    Mr. M. B. Ekong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Amodiaquine and artesunate are two antimalarial drugs sold in combination as Larimal®. This drug is a very effective artemisinin-base combination. This study was to access the effects of amodiaquine and artesunate combination on the histology of the cerebellum. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-180g were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D of five animals each. Group A served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while group B received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days, group C received 8.75+2.86mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for six days and group D received 17.50+5.71mg/kg of amodiaquine and artesunate combination for three days. Histological sections showed destruction of the Purkinje cortical layers in group B, with increased destructions in groups C and D compared to the control. These results reveal that amodiaquine and artesunate combination causes histological alterations, which were dose and time dependent and these may result in cerebellar dysfunction.

  11. Acetaminophen perturbed redox homeostasis in Wistar rat liver: protective role of aqueous Pterocarpus osun leaf extract.

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    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salau, Amadu K; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro antioxidant potentials and attenuation of acetaminophen-induced redox imbalance by Pterocarpus osun Craib (Fabaceae) leaf in Wistar rat liver. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract (0.2-1.0 mg/mL) was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, superoxide ion, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), and ferric ion. The extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the altered liver and serum enzymes of acetaminophen treated animals. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities as well as vitamins C and E, and glutathione levels were significantly (P<0.05) elevated by the extract. The activities of uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (59%), quinone oxidoreductase (53%), and glutathione S-transferase (73%) significantly increased. The extract of P. osun leaf extract at 1.0mg/mL scavenged the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide ion, and ABTS at 94, 98, 92, and 86%, respectively, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. There was attenuation of malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide. The results indicates that P. osun leaves attenuated acetaminophen-induced redox imbalance, possibly acting as free radical scavenger, inducer of antioxidant and drug-detoxifying enzymes, which prevented/reduced lipid peroxidation.

  12. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Pere; Nicolau, Cristina; Gamundí, Antoni; Fiol, Maria A; Tresguerres, Jesús A F; Akaârir, Mourad; Rial, Rubén V

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.

  13. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats

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    Pere Barceló

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.

  14. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

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    Tripatara Pinpat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK, and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups, ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg, HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg, or HNK (1,590 mg/kg for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial

  15. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats.

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    Andrade, Gláucia Ferreira; de Almeida, Crislaine das Graças; Espeschit, Ana Cristina Rocha; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Ribeiro, Sonia Machado Rocha; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2013-10-11

    Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets.

  16. Effect of Curcumin on Angiogenesis in Aortic Ring Model of the Wistar Rat

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    J Baharara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tumeric is a plant with both food and medical properties by which Curcumin is derived from. It has various pharmacological effects. Angiogenesis, a dynamic process of endothelial cells proliferation in order to develop new blood vessels from the previous ones, affects a wide range of physiological and pathological processes such as tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, anti angiogenic effects of Cucumin were investigated in aortic ring of Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Aortic ring was cut up in to 1 mm pieces and cultured in collagen matrix. After three days, sprouting angiogenesis were observed, and then aortic rings were treated with Curcumin at concentration of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml. Effects of treatment in all cases were photographed and then investigated by invert microscope. Lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Moreover, the study data were analyzed using SPSS in significant level of P0.05.In fact, average length and number of blood vessels in experimental group 1 demonstrated no significant difference compared with control group, though in the experimental group 2 (79.45±3.2mm, (12±1.3 and 3 (38.93±1.1mm, (8±1.1 significant differences were observed (P<0.05(. Conclusion: The results proposed that the Curcumin had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in rat aortic ring Therefore, it can be introduced as an appropriate candidate in order to study angiogenesis and related diseases.

  17. Physical exercise versus fluoxetine: antagonistic effects on cortical spreading depression in Wistar rats.

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    Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Heloísa; Lima Barreto-Silva, Nathália; Elizabete Dos Santos, Gracyelle; de Santana Santos, Amanda; Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Mariana; Amâncio-Dos-Santos, Ângela

    2015-09-05

    The antidepressant fluoxetine and physical exercise exert similar effects on the serotoninergic system by increasing brain serotonin availability, and both show antagonistic action on cortical excitability. Here we provide the first assessment of the interaction of the two together on cortical spreading depression (CSD) in young adult rats. Wistar rats (40-60 days of life) received fluoxetine (10mg/kg/d, orogastrically) or an equivalent volume of water. Half of the animals from each condition were assigned to perform physical exercise in a treadmill, and the other half formed the sedentary (non-treadmill) control groups. Body parameters (Lee index and thoracic and abdominal circumferences) and the velocity of CSD propagation were investigated. Fluoxetine+exercise animals had less weight gain (78.68±3.19g) than either the fluoxetine-only (93.34±4.77g) or exercise-only group (97.04±3.48g), but body parameters did not differ among them. The velocity of CSD propagation was reduced in the fluoxetine-only and exercise-only groups compared to sedentary water controls (3.24±0.39mm/min). For the fluoxetine+exercise group, CSD velocity values were significantly lower (2.92±0.22mm/min) than for fluoxetine only (3.03±0.35mm/min); however, they were similar to values for the exercise-only group (2.96±0.23mm/min). These findings confirm the similar effects of fluoxetine and exercise and suggest a greater effect of physical exercise in reducing brain excitability.

  18. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

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    R.I. Kunz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint.

  19. Longer period of oral administration of aspartame on cytokine response in Wistar albino rats.

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    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Sheela Devi, Rathinasamy

    2015-03-01

    Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener particularly used in 'diet' and 'low calorie' products and also in a variety of foods, drugs and hygiene products. Aspartame is metabolized by gut esterases and peptidases to three common chemicals: the amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, and small amounts of methanol. The aim of the present study was to assess potential changes in molecular mediators of aspartame as a chemical stressor in rats. The effects of long-term administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight/day) were tested in Wistar Albino rats. The treatment effects were assessed in different conditions, including control groups. After 90 days of treatment, circulating concentrations of different parameters were assessed: corticosterone, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and cytokines (interleukin 2, interleukin 4, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ). The results show that there was a significant increase in plasma corticosterone, serum lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide level along with a decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant as well as significant decrease in interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. There was also a significant increase in interleukin 4 irrespective of whether the animals were immunized or not. The findings clearly point out that aspartame acts as a chemical stressor because of increased corticosterone level and increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide level induce generation of free radicals in serum which may be the reason for variation of cytokine level and finally results in alteration of immune function. Aspartame metabolite methanol or formaldehyde may be the causative factors behind the changes observed. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.