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  1. Twenty-four hour care for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Rob; Edwards, Thomas Rhys; Chilvers, Rupatharshini; David, Chris; Elliott, Helen J

    2009-04-15

    Despite modern treatment approaches and a focus on community care, there remains a group of people who cannot easily be discharged from psychiatric hospital directly into the community. Twenty-four hour residential rehabilitation (a 'ward-in-a-house') is one model of care that has evolved in association with psychiatric hospital closure programmes. To determine the effects of 24 hour residential rehabilitation compared with standard treatment within a hospital setting. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2002 and February 2004). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared 24 hour residential rehabilitation with standard care for people with severe mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes we calculated the relative risk and its 95% confidence interval. We identified and included one study with 22 participants with important methodological shortcomings and limitations of reporting. The two-year controlled study evaluated "new long stay patients" in a hostel ward in the UK. One outcome 'unable to manage in the placement' provided usable data (n=22, RR 7.0 CI 0.4 to 121.4). The trial reported that hostel ward residents developed superior domestic skills, used more facilities in the community and were more likely to engage in constructive activities than those in hospital - although usable numerical data were not reported. These potential advantages were not purchased at a price. The limited economic data was not good but the cost of providing 24 hour care did not seem clearly different from the standard care provided by the hospital - and it may have been less. From the single, small and ill-reported, included study, the hostel ward type of facility appeared cheaper and positively effective. Currently, the value of this way of supporting people - which could be

  2. Mortality Pattern within Twenty-Four Hours of Emergency Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mortality within the first 24 hours of admission was recorded among patients with malaria (89.0%) followed by protein energy malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Majority of deaths among emergency paediatric admission occur within the first 24 hours of admission and are associated with clinical conditions such as ...

  3. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and

  4. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in very elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelleri, Claudia; Janoschka, Alin; Berli, Reto; Kohler, Sibylle; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger C.; Heuss, Ludwig T.; Wolfrum, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) is frequently diagnosed in very elderly hospitalized patients. Accurate diagnosis of hypertension is challenging in the hospital environment, due to the “white coat effect,” and both overtreatment and undertreatment can adversely affect clinical outcome. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has the potential to avoid the “white coat effect” and accurately guide the management of hypertension. However, effects of the hospital environment on ABPM are unknown in the very elderly. We set out to enroll 45 patients, age ≥70 years, with elevated conventional BP during hospitalization in this observational study. It was prespecified by protocol to assess initially the difference between 24-hour BP during hospital-admission and home follow-up. Subsequent analysis should investigate the change in anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A [HADS-A]) after discharge, the correlation with change in 24-hour BP after discharge, and the prevalence of orthostatic hypertension. Thirty-one patients were included in the final analysis (age 83.5 ± 4.4 years; 71% female). Twenty-four-hour BP decreased significantly after hospital discharge (systolic from 133.5 ± 15.6 to 126.2 ± 14.4 mm Hg [millimeter of mercury], P = .008; diastolic from 71.0 ± 9.0 to 68.3 ± 8.6 mm Hg, P = .046). Anxiety level (HADS-A) decreased significantly after discharge, from 7.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0–13.8) to 5.0 (IQR: 4.0–8.0, P = .012). The change in anxiety was a predictor of change in systolic BP after discharge (F[1,20] = 5.9, P = .025). Sixty-one percent of the patients had significant orthostatic hypotension during hospital stay. In conclusion, 24-hour BP in very elderly patients is lower in the home environment than during hospitalization. This phenomenon seems to be directly linked to a lower anxiety-level at home. Reassessing hypertension at home may decrease the

  5. Role of Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children on Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Scott M.; Begin, Brandy; Salsbery, Kari; McCabe, Lonisa; Potter, Donald; Alexander, Steven R.; Wong, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Pre- or postdialysis BP recordings are imprecise, can be biased, and have poor test–retest reliability in children on dialysis. We aimed to examine the possible differences between pre- and postdialysis BP levels and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in diagnosis of hypertension (HTN). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twenty-four children on dialysis had 24-hour ABPM in the interdialytic period, and values were compared with average pre- and postdialysis systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) recordings that week. Each patient had an echocardiogram to determine presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Results By ABPM, 8% of patients had white coat HTN and 12% had masked HTN. There was no significant difference in diagnosis of systolic HTN based on ABPM daytime SBP mean or load and postdialysis SBP. However, only 15% of patients had diastolic HTN based on postdialysis measures, whereas 46% of patients had significantly elevated daytime DBP loads and 71% had high nighttime DBP loads on ABPM. Forty-eight percent of patients were SBP nondippers. Children with LVH had higher daytime and nighttime SBP loads, significantly higher daytime and nighttime DBP loads, and lesser degree of nocturnal dipping of SBP compared with those who did not. Conclusion ABPM is more informative than pre- and postdialysis BPs and improves the predictability of BP as a risk factor for target organ damage. Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of HTN among pediatric dialysis patients is enhanced with addition of ABPM. PMID:21273374

  6. Isolated total RNA and protein are preserved after thawing for more than twenty-four hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Ramos, Débora Rothstein; Lopes, Karen Lucasechi; de Souza, Regiane Machado; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preservation of biological samples at a low temperature is important for later biochemical and/or histological analyses. However, the molecular viability of thawed samples has not been studied sufficiently in depth. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of intact tissues, tissue homogenates, and isolated total RNA after defrosting for more than twenty-four hours. METHODS: The molecular viability of the thawed samples (n = 82) was assessed using the A260/A280 ratio, the RNA concentration, the RNA integrity, the level of intact mRNA determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the protein level determined by Western blotting, and an examination of the histological structure. RESULTS: The integrity of the total RNA was not preserved in the thawed intact tissue, but the RNA integrity and level of mRNA were perfectly preserved in isolated defrosted samples of total RNA. Additionally, the level of β-actin protein was preserved in both thawed intact tissue and homogenates. CONCLUSION: Isolated total RNA does not undergo degradation due to thawing for at least 24 hours, and it is recommended to isolate the total RNA as soon as possible after tissue collection. Moreover, the protein level is preserved in defrosted tissues. PMID:22473407

  7. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients...... with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery...... during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF...

  8. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelnes, R.

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded that the long-term postreconstructive hyperemia merely is a reflection of the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern

  9. Twenty-four-hour shift work, depressive symptoms, and job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Ueno, Takeji; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2008-05-01

    The influence of a 24-hr shift-work burden on firefighters' mental health has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationships between specific workload items among firefighters engaged in 24-hr shift work and job stress as estimated by the generic job-stress questionnaire on depressive symptoms and job dissatisfaction from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The subjects were 1,301 firefighters. The questionnaire covered age, gender, job type, job class, marital status, smoking and drinking habits, number of attendances, turnout time, extra work hours, average nap-time, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and questions from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire, including those on job satisfaction. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, a model that included all variables except the measures from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire showed that shorter nap-time had significant higher odds ratios (ORs) for depressive symptoms and job dissatisfaction, but the significances disappeared in a fully adjusted model. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, low quantitative workload, low variance in workload, high intra- and intergroup conflict, low social support from a supervisor, high role conflict and ambiguity, and low self-esteem had significant higher ORs for depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction. Amount of workload, variance in workload, intra- and intergroup conflict, social support from a supervisor, role conflict and ambiguity, and self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters. Moreover, inadequate nap-time may affect their mental health. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Assessment of myocardial viability in patients with myocardial infarction using twenty-four hour thallium-201 late redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiangjun; He Yongming; Zhang Bin; Wu Yiwei; Hui Jie; Jiang Tingbo; Song Jianping; Liu Zhihua; Jiang Wenping

    2006-01-01

    Rest thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging has been widely used for evaluation of myocardial ischemia/viability after myocardial infarction, but the ideal timing for imaging after injection to maximally estimate viability is not well established. Thirty-six patients with myocardial infarction underwent the initial, 3 h, and 24 h redistribution imaging after intravenous injection of 148-185 MBq 201 Tl. The initial and 3 h images, the initial and 24 h images, and the 3 and 24 h images were compared double-blinded. Out of the 184 abnormal segments based on the initial imaging, 56 (30%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 3 h imaging while 78 (42%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. The 24 h late imaging detected more viable myocardium than the 3 h imaging did, with a significant difference (χ 2 =5.680, p=0.017). There were 158 abnormal segments on the 3 h imaging, with average 28% (44) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. There were 128 initial abnormal segments with no improvement on the 3 h imaging. Out of these segments, the 24 h late redistribution imaging detected additional redistribution in 26 segments, taking up 20%. Twenty-four hour late 201 Tl imaging will demonstrated additional redistribution in patients who have incompletely reversible defects on early redistribution imaging at 3 h. (author)

  11. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.S.G. Monteiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER disorder was studied in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma. Ten children with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis, consecutively attended at the Pediatric Otolaryngology Outpatient Clinic, Federal University of São Paulo, were evaluated. Prolonged esophageal pH monitoring was used to investigate GER disorder. The mean age of the ten patients evaluated (eight males was 7.4 ± 2.4 years. Two patients presented vomiting as a clinical manifestation and one patient presented retrosternal pain with a burning sensation. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring was performed using the Sandhill apparatus. An antimony probe electrode was placed in the lower third of the esophagus, confirmed by fluoroscopy and later by a chest X-ray. The parameters analyzed by esophageal pH monitoring included: total percent time of the presence of acid esophageal pH, i.e., pH below 4 (<4.2%; total number of acid episodes (<50 episodes; number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min (3 or less, and duration of the longest reflux episode (<9.2 min. One patient (1/10, 10% presented a 24-h esophageal pH profile compatible with GER disorder. This data suggest that an association between chronic rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma and GER disorder may exist in children and adolescents, especially in those with compatible GER disorder symptoms. In these cases, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring should be performed before indicating surgery, since the present data suggest that 10% of chronic rhinosinusitis surgeries can be eliminated.

  12. The Twenty-four Hour Workday: Proceedings of a Symposium on Variations in Work-Sleep Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    represent, to some extent, stereotyped responses; thus we cannot be sure that they correspond to real feelings, even subjective ones. Shiftworkers...hours; - Part-time work; - Overtime and moonlighting . The present paper considers the various effects of the irregular work hours imposed by shift work...in press). Fifty nurses were shown an ’in-service’ training film on the use of Radium therapy at 2030 or at 0400. Their memory for the information

  13. Twenty-four hours hypothermia has temporary efficacy in reducing brain infarction and inflammation in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Buga, Ana Maria; Balseanu, Adrian Tudor

    2016-01-01

    in aged animals. Because the duration of hypothermia in most clinical trials is between 24 and 48 hours, we questioned whether 24 hours exposure to gaseous hypothermia confers the same neuroprotective efficacy as 48 hours exposure. We found that a shorter exposure to hypothermia transiently reduced both...... inflammation and infarct size. However, after 1 week, the infarct size became even larger than in controls and after 2 weeks there was no beneficial effect on regenerative processes such as neurogenesis. Behaviorally, hypothermia also had a limited beneficial effect. Finally, after hydrogen sulfide......-induced hypothermia, the poststroke aged rats experienced a persistent sleep impairment during their active nocturnal period. Our data suggest that cellular events that are delayed by hypothermia in aged rats may, in the long term, rebound, and diminish the beneficial effects....

  14. Twenty-four-hour duration of effect of intranasal corticosteroids for seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms: clinical evidence and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBuske, Lawrence M

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms are often most severe and/or disruptive during overnight and morning hours, resulting in cognitive/performance impairments and reduced quality of life throughout the following day. Surveys of allergy patients and health care practitioners reveal a common perception that intranasal steroids (INSs), many of which are dosed q.d., fail to adequately relieve symptoms for a full 24 hours. This review assessed whether perceptions of the 24-hour duration of action of INSs correspond with duration of action documented in clinical literature. SAR clinical trial literature of the last 5 years was reviewed to identify studies of INSs incorporating morning instantaneous (A.M. NOW) or instantaneous assessments of 24-hour duration of action. In numerous placebo-controlled trials of INSs in patients with SAR, treatment was associated with significantly greater improvements in A.M. NOW symptoms from baseline versus placebo. For congestion, this is noteworthy, because patients often cite this symptom, especially in the morning, as the most bothersome symptom. Comparison of A.M. NOW and daily scores suggests minimal drop in efficacy at 24 hours postdose. In several studies, INS treatment was found superior to intranasal or oral antihistamines in A.M. NOW symptom improvement. Once-daily INSs have potential for effective 24-hour symptom relief; however, there is an apparent disconnect between these findings and patient/physician perceptions. This discrepancy may be explained, in part, by less-than-ideal treatment adherence among "real-world" patients versus subjects treated in clinical trials. Proactive counseling can encourage proper INS use and help maximize treatment benefits.

  15. A Predictive Model to Classify Undifferentiated Fever Cases Based on Twenty-Four-Hour Continuous Tympanic Temperature Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa H. Dakappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of undifferentiated fever is a major challenging task to the physician which often remains undiagnosed and delays the treatment. The aim of the study was to record and analyze a 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature and evaluate its utility in the diagnosis of undifferentiated fevers. This was an observational study conducted in the Kasturba Medical College and Hospitals, Mangaluru, India. A total of ninety-six (n=96 patients were presented with undifferentiated fever. Their tympanic temperature was recorded continuously for 24 hours. Temperature data were preprocessed and various signal characteristic features were extracted and trained in classification machine learning algorithms using MATLAB software. The quadratic support vector machine algorithm yielded an overall accuracy of 71.9% in differentiating the fevers into four major categories, namely, tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases. The area under ROC curve for tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases was found to be 0.961, 0.801, 0.815, and 0.818, respectively. Good agreement was observed [kappa = 0.618 (p<0.001, 95% CI (0.498–0.737] between the actual diagnosis of cases and the quadratic support vector machine learning algorithm. The 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature recording with supervised machine learning algorithm appears to be a promising noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool.

  16. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  17. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for clinical evaluation of hypertensive patients in primary care: which groups would most benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezzana, Guilherme B; Stein, Airton T; Pellanda, Lucia C

    2017-04-01

    Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure (BP) control levels remain largely out of target among primary healthcare (PHC) patients. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may contribute toward the identification of cardiovascular risk groups. To assess concordance between conventional office BP measurements and 24-h ABPM of hypertension control in cardiovascular risk groups of PHC hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study with 569 hypertensive patients was carried out. The evaluation of BP was performed by a PHC doctor, and the 24-h ABPM was performed by a different and blinded provider. The therapeutic targets for BP followed the guidance of The Eighth Joint National Committee, the Brazilian guideline, and the 2013 European Society of Hypertension. Considering the hypertension control therapeutic targets, the guidelines were not similar and were used to evaluate differences in BP value concordances compared with BP standard measurements. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a conventional BP was used in comparison with ABPM in different cardiovascular risk groups of hypertensive patients. According to the ABPM by European Society of Hypertension guideline, the subgroup of inactive patients (P=0.006), with altered glycemia (P=0.015) and over 30 mg/dl albuminuria (P=0.001), presented discordance among methods. When a conventional BP measurement in comparison with the ABPM results according to the Brazilian ABPM guideline was used, the discordance occurred significantly in inactive (P=0.001) and microalbuminuria more than 30 mg/dl (P=0.022) subgroups. However, in this comparison, a concordance between high-density lipoprotein more than 60 mg/dl (P=0.015) and obesity (P=0.035) subgroups occurred. Uncontrolled glucose levels, a sedentary lifestyle, and the presence of microalbuminuria correspond to some cardiovascular risk groups that would particularly benefit from 24-h

  18. Twenty-Four-Hour Central Pulse Pressure for Cardiovascular Events Prediction in a Low-Cardiovascular-Risk Population: Results From the Bordeaux Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Antoine; Boulestreau, Romain; Gaillard, Prune; Lainé, Marion; Papaioannou, Georgios; Gosse, Philippe

    2018-02-23

    Central blood pressure (BP) is a promising marker to identify subjects with higher cardiovascular risk than expected by traditional risk factors. Significant results have been obtained in populations with high cardiovascular risk, but little is known about low-cardiovascular-risk patients, although the differences between central and peripheral BP (amplification) are usually greater in this population. The study aim was to evaluate central BP over 24 hours for cardiovascular event prediction in hypertensive subjects with low cardiovascular risk. Peripheral and central BPs were recorded during clinical visits and over 24 hours in hypertensive patients with low cardiovascular risk (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation ≤5%). Our primary end point is the occurrence of a cardiovascular event during follow-up. To assess the potential interest in central pulse pressure over 24 hours, we performed Cox proportional hazard models analysis and comparison of area under the curves using the contrast test for peripheral and central BP. A cohort of 703 hypertensive subjects from Bordeaux were included. After the first 24 hours of BP measurement, the subjects were then followed up for an average of 112.5±70 months. We recorded 65 cardiovascular events during follow-up. Amplification was found to be significantly associated with cardiovascular events when added to peripheral 24-hour pulse pressure ( P =0.0259). The area under the curve of 24-hour central pulse pressure is significantly more important than area under the curve of office BP ( P =0.0296), and there is a trend of superiority with the area under the curve of peripheral 24-hour pulse pressure. Central pulse pressure over 24 hours improves the prediction of cardiovascular events for hypertensive patients with low cardiovascular risk compared to peripheral pulse pressure. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Short-Term Reproducibility of Twenty-Four-Hour Intraocular Pressure Curves in Untreated Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Xu

    Full Text Available To assess the short-term day-to-day reproducibility of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP curves in various respects in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT patients.47 subjects with POAG and 34 subjects with OHT underwent IOP measurements every 2 hours in both eyes for consecutive 48 hours by a non-contact tonometer (NCT. IOP values at each time point were recorded. Mean IOP, peak IOP, time difference of peak IOP between two days and IOP fluctuation were also calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate reproducibility.ICCs of the entire IOP values for a complete 24-hour curve were 0.577 and 0.561 in POAG and OHT patients, respectively. ICCs of IOP values at different time points ranged from 0.384 (10am to 0.686 (4am in POAG patients and from 0.347 (6am to 0.760 (4am in OHT patients. ICCs of mean IOP, peak IOP and IOP fluctuation were respectively 0.832, 0.704, 0.367 in POAG patients and 0.867, 0.816 0.633 in OHT patients. Only 37.23% and 35.29% of the peak IOP time points appeared within the time difference of 2 hours in POAG and OHT patients, respectively, while 53.19% and 48.53% appeared within 4 hours in POAG and OHT patients, respectively.A 24-hour IOP curve in a single day is not highly reproducible in short-term and has limited use for evaluating individual IOP condition. Mean IOP and peak IOP for a 24-hour IOP curve are useful parameters in clinical follow-up, while IOP value at a certain time point, IOP fluctuation and peak IOP time point should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Trends in C-Reactive Protein Levels Are Associated with Neurological Change Twenty-Four Hours after Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dipender; Sivakumaran, Prasanthi; Wilding, Peter; Love, Madeleine; Veltkamp, Roland; Kar, Arindam

    2016-08-01

    Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with worse outcomes in patients thrombolysed for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To investigate whether changes in CRP levels are associated with neurological change after thrombolysis for AIS. Retrospective analysis of a single-center database of consecutive thrombolysis cases for AIS from October 18, 2011, to June 15, 2015, inclusive. Multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between change in CRP 12-24 hours after thrombolysis and change in NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score 24 hours after thrombolysis. The other potentially confounding predictor variables included in the model were CRP on admission and NIHSS score before thrombolysis. Complete data were available for 108 out of possible 435 eligible patients. Increases in CRP levels 12-24 hours after thrombolysis were negatively associated with reduction in NIHSS score 24 hours after thrombolysis (coefficient .08, 95% confidence interval .031-.129, P = .002). Thus, on average, for every 12.5 mg/L additional increase in CRP 12-24 hours after thrombolysis, NIHSS score at 24 hours improved by 1 point less. While it was previously known that elevated CRP levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients thrombolysed for AIS, the current work demonstrates that changes in CRP levels after thrombolysis also relate to neurological change, and thus may have scope for use as prognostic markers. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Twenty-Four-Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring to Predict and Assess Impact of Renal Denervation: The DENERHTN Study (Renal Denervation for Hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Philippe; Cremer, Antoine; Pereira, Helena; Bobrie, Guillaume; Chatellier, Gilles; Chamontin, Bernard; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Delsart, Pascal; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap, Caroline; Ferrari, Emile; Girerd, Xavier; Michel Halimi, Jean; Herpin, Daniel; Lantelme, Pierre; Monge, Matthieu; Mounier-Vehier, Claire; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Ormezzano, Olivier; Ribstein, Jean; Rossignol, Patrick; Sapoval, Marc; Vaïsse, Bernard; Zannad, Faiez; Azizi, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The DENERHTN trial (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) confirmed the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy of renal denervation added to a standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment for resistant hypertension at 6 months. We report here the effect of denervation on 24-hour BP and its variability and look for parameters that predicted the BP response. Patients with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to denervation plus stepped-care treatment or treatment alone (control). Average and standard deviation of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP and the smoothness index were calculated on recordings performed at randomization and 6 months. Responders were defined as a 6-month 24-hour systolic BP reduction ≥20 mm Hg. Analyses were performed on the per-protocol population. The significantly greater BP reduction in the denervation group was associated with a higher smoothness index ( P =0.02). Variability of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP did not change significantly from baseline to 6 months in both groups. The number of responders was greater in the denervation (20/44, 44.5%) than in the control group (11/53, 20.8%; P =0.01). In the discriminant analysis, baseline average nighttime systolic BP and standard deviation were significant predictors of the systolic BP response in the denervation group only, allowing adequate responder classification of 70% of the patients. Our results show that denervation lowers ambulatory BP homogeneously over 24 hours in patients with resistant hypertension and suggest that nighttime systolic BP and variability are predictors of the BP response to denervation. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01570777. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Twenty-four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor Heart Rate: A Potential Marker for Gestational Hypertension in at-Risk Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Corenthian J.; Dodson, William C.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Repke, John T.; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively correlated the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) to conventional sphygmomanometer blood pressure measurements (CSM) in women at risk for gestational hypertensive disorders (GHTNDs) and identified predictive factors from ABPM for GHTND. We analyzed 73 women with ≥1 risk factor for developing a GHTND. Using both the CSM and ABPM, the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured for 24 hours during three periods (14 to 24 weeks; 24 to 32 weeks; and 33 weeks to delivery). Correlation between the CSM and ABPM lessened as pregnancy progressed. Seventeen (25%) of women developed a GHTND. MAP variability increased in the GHTND group versus those without a GHTND. The odds of developing a GHTND increased 1.5 times for every 1 beat per minute increase in the ABPM 24-hour HR at visit 1 and reversed by visit 3. In women at risk for a GHTND, CSM and ABPM correlate less well as pregnancy advances. HR changes in at-risk women may be a marker for the development of a GHTND and may reflect increased sympathetic activity and/or decreased baroreceptor sensitivity. PMID:22147639

  3. The twenty-four/four hour ratio (T/F ratio) of Tc-99m MDP uptake in patients with bone metastases and degenerative changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, O.; Kleinhaus, U.; Keren, R.; Frankel, A.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Normal and metastatic bone differ in their histological structure. Normal bone is mainly lamellar while metastatic bone formation is made in a large part out of new woven bone. The woven bone has a much larger surface area than the more stable lamellar bone and it is lined with metabolically active osteoblasts. The crystalline structures in the woven bone are smaller and have a larger surface area available for absorption. Uptake of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals continues in new woven bone longer than in the lamellar bone. Bone scintigraphy was performed in 89 patients at four hours and 24 hours using a digital camera. The lesion to non lesion (L/N) ratio was determined using the camera computer. The T/F ratio was calculated: T/F=((L/N)-24)/((L/N)-4). Three groups were investigated. In 15 patients with metastatic bone carcinoma, T/F ratio was 1.46 +- 0.4. In 47 patients with degenerative joint disease the T/F ratio was 1.05 +- 0.06. In 27 patients with treated metastatic bone carcinoma the T/F ratio was 1.12 +- 0.13. The T/F ratio is significantly (p<0.001) different in patients with metastases compared to patients with benign degenerative disease. Chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment cause significant (p<0.001) reduction in the T/F ratio. The T/F ratio may have a potential in differentiating degenerative from neoplastic diseases and in the evaluation of patients with bone metastases undergoing treatment

  4. [Twenty-four hour time and frequency domain variability of systolic blood pressure and heart rate in an experimental model of arterial hypertension plus obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Lazartiques, E; Cabrol, P; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M

    1998-08-01

    Modifications of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) variabilities (V) have been reported in the human syndrome arterial hypertension plus insulin-resistance. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24 h SBPV and HRV in both time and frequency domains during weight increase in dogs fed ad libitum with a high fat diet. Implantable transmitter units for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate were surgically implanted in five beagle male dogs. BP and HR were continuously recorded using telemetric measurements during 24 hours, before and after 6 and 9 weeks of hypercaloric diet in quiet animals submitted to a 12h light-dark cycle. To study nychtemeral cycle of SBP and HR, two periods were chosen: day (from 6.00 h to 19.00 h) and night (from 23.00 h to 6.00 h). Spontaneous baroreflex efficiency was measured using the sequence method. Spectral variability of HR and SBP was analyzed using a fast Fourier transformation on 512 consecutive values and normalized units of low (LF: 50-150 mHz, reflecting sympathetic activity) and high (HF: respiratory rate +/- 50 mHz, reflecting parasympathetic activity) frequency bands were calculated. The energy of total spectrum (from 0.004 to 1 Hz) was also studied. Body weight (12.4 +/- 0.9 vs 14.9 +/- 0.9 kg, p vs 147 +/- 1 mmHg, p vs night: 71 +/- 1 bpm) but not after 9 weeks (day: 91 +/- 4 bpm ; night: 86 +/- 2 bpm). Concomitantly, the efficiency of spontaneous baroreflex decreased at 6 weeks (36 +/- 1 vs 42 +/- 2 mmHg/ms, p energy of HRV was found after 6 but not after 9 weeks. LF energy of SBPV was increased at 6 but not at 9 weeks (table). [table: see text] In conclusion, this study shows that an hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet induces transient variations in autonomic nervous system activity which could be the physiopathological link between obesity, insulin-resistance and arterial hypertension.

  5. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged

  6. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged

  7. Monitorização eletrocardiográfica ambulatorial por 24-horas em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Yamaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se monitorização eletrocardiográfica ambulatorial por 24 horas (ou monitorização Holter em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática, visando principalmente à detecção de arritmias ventriculares não detectadas pela eletrocardiografia convencional (de repouso. Para tanto, avaliaram-se 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática, por meio de exame físico e mensuração indireta da pressão arterial, além de exames eletrocardiográfico, ecocardiográfico, radiográfico de tórax e da monitorização Holter. Extra-sístoles ventriculares foram detectadas, por monitorização Holter, em 97,5% dos animais e taquicardia ventricular, em 45%. Não houve correlação entre o número de extra-sístoles ventriculares e a fração de encurtamento. Considerando as manifestações clínicas, apenas houve associação entre presença de taquicardia ventricular e histórico de síncopes. Conclui-se que a incidência de arritmias ventriculares em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática é bastante alta, sendo a taquicardia ventricular relativamente freqüente, ocorrendo mais sob a forma não sustentada.This study aimed to characterize 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitoring in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Physical examination and indirect (Doppler blood pressure measurement, and also electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic exams were performed in 40 dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Ventricular extrasystoles were detected in 97.5% of the animals, and ventricular tachycardia in 45%. No correlation between the number of ventricular extrasystoles and the shortening fraction was observed. Concerning the clinical symptoms, there was only association between the presence of ventricular tachycardia and past report of syncope. It was concluded that the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias is

  8. Twenty-Four Hour Structure of Vigilance under Prolonged Sleep Deprivation: Relationship with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    MC: i I Ii atar 0V_ l - (1C)dVI IC I-o fla’.iUcr aniid S trog-tq3tZ. dummoi tsi~r acec Lio ie i stenicv Of "forbi ddern zones’’ for 51 ec.,i) inl data...1971, pp. 109-148. ""roughton, R. Fiorhythm.4c variations in consciousress and psychological functions. Canad. Psychol. Rev., 1975, 16%217-239. Campbell

  9. Twenty-four-Hour Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Mehdi-Rajaei, Seyed; Sadjadi, Reza; Selk-Ghaffari, Masoud; Williams, David L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in intact, healthy guinea pigs (15 male, 15 female) every 2 h for a 24-h period. First, IOP was measured by using rebound tonometry (RBT). After a 1-min rest period, 0.5% proparacaine ophthalmic solution, a topical anesthetic, was applied to both eyes; 4 min after anesthetic instillation, IOP was measured by using applanation tonometry (APT). The IOP was lower during the light period (0700 to 1900) than during the dark phase (2000 to 0600). The lowest IOP by both RBT and APT (3.68 and 13.37 mm Hg, respectively) occurred at 0700, whereas maximal IOP occurred at 2300 for RBT (8.12 mm Hg) but at 2100 for APT (20.62 mm Hg). No significant differences in IOP between the left and right eyes or between RBT and APT were noted. In addition, daily variations in the IOP of guinea pigs seem to be independent of sex and body weight. The results of this study may be beneficial in the diagnosis and observation of glaucoma in guinea pigs.

  10. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    Greenlanders have a lower rate of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity than Danes, possibly due to lower blood pressure. However, 24-h blood pressure has never been measured in Greenlanders. The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h blood pressure of Greenlanders and Danes, and to analyse t...

  11. When Twenty-Four Hours Is Not Enough: Time Poverty of Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew S.; Mukhopadhyay, Arun K.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals can be money poor, time poor or both. While income is the most used indicator of poverty, broader indexes including non-monetary aspects of deprivation have been proposed and measured. As one such measure, our study focuses on the element of deprivation arising from the time deficit of many working people. The usual poverty threshold…

  12. Osteochondral lesions in developing rats intoxicated with thallium twenty four hours after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda-Hernández, J; Méndez-Armenta, M; Ríos, C; Galván-Arzate, S

    1992-01-01

    An i.p. injection of a solution of thallium acetate in deionized water at a dose of 32 mg/kg, in 24-h-old rats, produces morphological and biochemical alterations in both cartilaginous and osseous tissues. From the beginning, there are alterations in the cartilaginous cell as well as in chrondrine, osteoblasts, osseous tissue and bone marrow. Rats were sacrificed at 24, 48, and 72 h and also at 7 days. Two animals survived for 50 days. One showed total irreversible alopecia while the other one had partial alopecia with discrete recovery. Both showed a low weight and a size of 8 cm. Microscopically, degenerative changes were produced consisting of alteration and death of many cartilaginous cells, uneven metachromasia and the chondrine and decrease of the growth cartilage, scanty bone trabeculae with few osteoblasts. The bone marrow showed few myeloblasts and megakaryocytes. Progressive cellular damage throughout the 50 days of survival represents a response of the thallium ionic accumulation and recycling in cellular mitochondria of all the body's cells. This appeared in our study as irreversible and progressive osteochondral alterations with atrophy of the skin and its adnexa, hyalinization of elastic and collagenous fibers with intense interstitial edema.

  13. PEACE, WAR AND AFTERWARDS 1914 TO 1919

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World War (and even fewer have been published) Peace, War and Afterwards is a most welcome publication. Through Wade's letters to his mother the reader gets to know him as a young man who initially takes a rather light-hearted view of travelling to England tojoin the British army. His decision to enlist was motivated by ...

  14. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood flow modify the function of endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels [calcium-activated K+ channel (K(Ca)), small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (SK3), and intermediate calcium-activated K+ channel (IK1)] before arterial structural...... remodeling. In rats, mesenteric arteries were exposed to increased [+90%, high flow (HF)] or reduced blood flow [-90%, low flow (LF)] and analyzed 24 h later. There were no detectable changes in arterial structure or in expression level of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, SK3, or IK1. Arterial relaxing...... arteries, the balance between the NO/prostanoid versus EDHF response was unaltered. However, the contribution of IK1 to the EDHF response was enhanced, as indicated by a larger effect of TRAM-34 and a larger residual NS309-induced relaxation in the presence of UCL 1684. Reduction of blood flow selectively...

  15. Phosphorus loss to runoff water twenty-four hours after application of liquid swine manure or fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Hadi

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer or manure application could pose a threat to water quality due to its role in eutrophication of fresh water resources. Incorporating such amendments into the soil is an established best management practice (BMP) for reducing soluble P losses in runoff water, but could also lead to higher erosion. The objective of this study was to test whether incorporation of manure or fertilizer 24 h before an intense rain could also reduce sediment-bound and total phosphorus (TP) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted on field plots (sandy loam with 6-7% slope, little surface residue, recently cultivated) that received two application rates of liquid swine manure or liquid ammonium polyphosphate fertilizer, using either surface-broadcast or incorporated methods of application. Incorporation increased the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in runoff but mass losses were not affected. Incorporation also reduced flow-weighted concentrations and losses of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and TP by as much as 30 to 60% depending on source (fertilizer vs. manure) and application rate. Phosphorus is moved below the mixing zone of interaction on incorporation, and thus the effect of the amount and availability of P in this zone is more important than cultivation on subsequent P losses in runoff. Incorporating manure or fertilizer in areas of intense erosive rain, recent extensive tillage, and with little or no surface residue is therefore a best management practice that should be adhered to in order to minimize contamination of surface water. Results also show comparatively lower P losses from manure than fertilizer.

  16. Twenty-Four Hour Non-Invasive Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Monitoring in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebner, Eva; Vichayanrat, Ekawat; Low, David A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Isenmann, Stefan; Haensch, Carl-Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-Parkinsonian) drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP) readings and related symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension (OH) and supine hypertension. OH is usually diagnosed with a head-up-tilt test (HUT) or an (active) standing test (also known as Schellong test) in the laboratory, but 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a home setting may have several advantages, such as providing an overview of symptoms in daily life alongside pathophysiology as well as assessment of treatment interventions. This, however, is only possible if ABPM is administrated correctly and an autonomic protocol (including a diary) is followed which will be discussed in this review. A 24-h ABPM does not only allow the detection of OH, if it is present, but also the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction during and after various daily stimuli, such as postprandial and alcohol dependent hypotension, as well as exercise and drug induced hypotension. Furthermore, information about the circadian rhythm of BP and heart rate (HR) can be obtained and establish whether or not a patient has a fall of BP at night (i.e., “dipper” vs. non-“dipper”). The information about nocturnal BP may also allow the investigation or detection of disorders such as sleep dysfunction, nocturnal movement disorders, and obstructive sleep apnea, which are common in PD. Additionally, a 24-h ABPM should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of OH therapy. This review will outline the methodology of 24 h ABPM in PD, summarize findings of such studies in PD, and briefly consider common daily stimuli that might affect 24 h ABPM. PMID:23720648

  17. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 h patterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Twenty-four-hour variations in blood glucose level in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients based on continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajime, Maiko; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Otsuka, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mayuko; Miyazaki, Megumi; Kuno, Fumi; Sugai, Kei; Sonoda, Satomi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kurozumi, Akira; Narisawa, Manabu; Torimoto, Keiichi; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-01-01

    High fluctuations in blood glucose are associated with various complications. The correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and fluctuations in blood glucose level has not been studied in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, blood glucose profile stratified by HbA1c level was evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. Our retrospective study included 294 patients with type 2 diabetes who were divided by HbA1c level into five groups (≥6.0 to level and CGM data was analyzed. The primary end-point was the difference in blood glucose fluctuations among the HbA1c groups. The mean blood glucose level increased significantly with increasing HbA1c (P trend  levels of maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, each preprandial blood glucose, each postprandial maximum blood glucose, range of increase in postprandial glucose from pre-meal to after breakfast, the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL and percentage of the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL were higher with higher HbA1c. Mean glucose level and pre-breakfast blood glucose level were significant and independent determinants of HbA1c. In Japanese patients treated for type 2 diabetes, the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions did not correlate with HbA1c, making it difficult to assess blood glucose fluctuations using HbA1c. Parameters other than HbA1c are required to evaluate fluctuations in blood glucose level in patients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  20. [Study on medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-four Histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen

    2012-03-01

    Through the combination of manual retrieval and computerized retrieval, medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-Four Histories were collected. Acupuncture cases from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.) to the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)were retrieved. From the medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in Chinese official history books, it can be found that systematic diseases or emergent and severe diseases were already treated by physicians with the combination of acupuncture and medicine as early as in the Spring and Autumn Period as well as the Warring States Period(475-221 B.C.). CANG Gong, a famous physician of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-A. D. 24), cured diseases by selecting points along the running courses of meridians where the illness inhabited, which indicates that the theory of meridians and collaterals was served as a guide for clinical practice as early as in the Western Han Dynasty. Blood letting therapy, which has surprising effect, was often adopted by physicians of various historical periods to treat diseases. And treatment of diseases with single point was approved to be easy and effective.

  1. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  2. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immediate and Deferred Imitation in Fourteen- and Twenty-Four-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory procedure was developed for assessing imitation in the second year of life. Results demonstrate that 14- and 24-month-olds can imitate a simple action with an unfamiliar object, both immediately and after a 24-hour delay. Implications for research design and theory of infant memory are discussed. (RH)

  4. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  5. To Give Good Science: Doing Qualitative Research in the Afterward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lather, Patti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…

  6. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  7. Twenty-four-hour simultaneous subcutaneous basal-bolus administration of insulin and amylin in adolescents with type 1 diabetes decreases postprandial hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of continuous subcutaneous (sc) replacement of amylin and insulin for a 24-h period on glucose homeostasis in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Thirteen adolescents with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy participated in a randomized, controll...

  8. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  9. Twenty-four-hour central blood pressure is not better associated with hypertensive target organ damage than 24-h peripheral blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Armario, Pedro; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Calero, Francesca; Vázquez, Susana; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Oliveras, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) is increasingly considered as a better estimator of hypertension associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-h central BP, in comparison with 24-h peripheral BP, with the presence of target organ damage (TOD). Cross-sectional study of 208 hypertensive patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 34% women. Office (mean of 4 measurements) and 24-h central and peripheral BP were measured by the oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph device. TOD was assessed at cardiac (left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography), renal (reduction of glomerular filtration rate and/or microalbuminuria), and arterial (increased aortic pulse wave velocity) levels. A total of 107 patients (51.4%) had TOD (77, 35% patients left ventricular hypertrophy; 54, 25.9% renal abnormalities; and 40, 19.2% arterial stiffness). All SBP and pulse BP estimates (office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time) were associated with the presence of TOD, after adjustment for age, sex, and antihypertensive treatment, with higher odds ratios for ambulatory-derived values. Odds ratios for central and peripheral BP were similar for all office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time BP. After simultaneous adjustment, peripheral, but not central, 24-h and night-time SBP and pulse pressures were associated with the presence of TOD. TOD in hypertension is associated with BP elevation, independently of the type of measurement (office or ambulatory, central or peripheral). Central BP, even monitored during 24 h, is not better associated with TOD than peripheral BP. These results do not support a routine measurement of 24-h central BP.

  10. Twenty-Four-Hour Real-Time Continuous Monitoring of Cerebral Edema in Rabbits Based on a Noninvasive and Noncontact System of Magnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema is a common disease, secondary to craniocerebral injury, and real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral edema is crucial for treating patients after traumatic brain injury. This work established a noninvasive and noncontact system by monitoring the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS which is associated with brain tissue conductivity. Sixteen rabbits (experimental group n = 10, control group, n = 6 were used to perform a 24 h MIPS and intracranial pressure (ICP simultaneously monitored experimental study. For the experimental group, after the establishment of epidural freeze-induced cerebral edema models, the MIPS presented a downward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of −13.1121 ± 2.3953°; the ICP presented an upward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of 12–41 mmHg. The ICP was negatively correlated with the MIPS. In the control group, the MIPS change amplitude was −0.87795 ± 1.5146 without obvious changes; the ICP fluctuated only slightly at the initial value of 12 mmHg. MIPS had a more sensitive performance than ICP in the early stage of cerebral edema. These results showed that this system is basically capable of monitoring gradual increases in the cerebral edema solution volume. To some extent, the MIPS has the potential to reflect the ICP changes.

  11. Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bair, Brandi R; Swarbrick, Michael M; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

  12. The period of the day affects the twenty-four hour blood pressure response to an acute combined exercise session in Brazilian jiu jitsu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaello Pinheiro Mazzoccante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a combined exercise session performed at different periods of the day on the 24h blood pressure (BP response. Anaerobic threshold (AT and 12 repetition maximum (12RM tests were evaluated in nine Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (male (22±3.7 y; 176±5.0 cm; 73.4±9.7 kg; 6.8±2.1 % body fat. Four experimental sessions were performed: resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise [Morning (MornS and Afternoon (AfternS] and Control (C [Morning and Afternoon]. The morning sessions were conducted at 09:00 a.m. and the afternoon sessions were conducted at 3:00 p.m. The resistance exercise consisted of three sets at 90% of a 12RM for six resistance exercises. The aerobic exercise consisted of 15min at 90% of the AT. Blood pressure (BP was measured before, during and 1h (Microlife(r BP3A1C after the performance of exercises in laboratory, and then during daily activities for the succeeding 23h by ambulatory BP monitoring (Dyna-MAPA(r. Analysis of the area under the curve (AUC indicated significant reductions in blood pressure parameters at various time points during the 24h monitoring period. For systolic BP (SBP, significantly lower values were shown following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 1756.2±100.8 vs. C: 1818.2±84.3 mmHg*15h; p < .05 and total-24h (MornS: 2695.8±143.3 vs. C: 2784.1±143.2 mmHg*24h; p < .05. The total-24h mean BP (MAP was also significantly lower following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 2015.7±121.2 vs. C: 2087.3±153.8 mmHg*24h; p < .05. There were significant differences in the sleeping AUC of SBP (AfternS: 883.6±27.0 vs. C: 965.2±67.9 mmHg*9h; p< .05, diastolic BP (DBP (AfternS: 481.4±30.9 vs. MornS: 552.9±34.2 and C: 562.1±52.3 mmHg*9h; p < .01 and MBP (AfternS: 651.9±22.4 vs. MornS: 708.7±43.1 and C: 726.9±64.7 mmHg*9h; p < .01. The combined exercise performed at different periods of the day contributed distinctly to the reduction of BP. The morning session was important in reducing SBP and MBP in the total-24h monitoring, while the afternoon session reduced SBP, DBP and MBP during sleeping in jiu-Jitsu athletes.

  13. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean adults. Both the acute and chronic effects of exercise were primarily observed at night suggesting an important role of sleep in the regulation of lipid metabolism.

  14. Comparison of the “Twenty-Four Hour pH Monitoring Test” Results of the Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Reflux Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Vural

    2010-08-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Although only significance detected in the longest reflux time in proximal test results, other proximal test results of the pregnant group were markedly worse also. In the larger study groups this difference can be elucidated more meaningfully.

  15. 'Where of is mad al mankynde' : an edition of and introduction to the twenty-four poems in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Louis Johan Philip

    2009-01-01

    'Where of is Mad al Mankynde' represents a new critical edition of the collection of twenty-four late-medieval anonymous poems contained, among other pieces, in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102. Each poem is introduced with a brief summary and closes with line-for-line explanatory comments.

  16. Effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing Combined with psychosomatic relaxation on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingying; Zhou, Yiyi; Lai, Qiujia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing combined with psychosomatic relaxation on depression and anxiety in patients with Type-2 Diabetes. One hundred and twenty (120) patients with Type-2 Diabetes and depressive/anxious symptoms were divided into intervention group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) according to the minimum distribution principle of unbalanced indicators. Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing group used this intervention combined with psychosomatic relaxation. Control group underwent conventional treatment. All the patients in the two groups completed the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after treatment. Among the 52 people included in the statistical analysis, the recovery rate was 13.3%. The differences between depression and anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after treatment were statistically significant (PBoxing and psychosomatic relaxation has a beneficial auxiliary therapeutic effect on depression and anxiety accompanying Type-2 Diabetes.

  17. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  18. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  19. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  20. The usefulness of twenty-four molecular markers in predicting treatment outcome with combination therapy of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder John C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Papua New Guinea (PNG, combination therapy with amodiaquine (AQ or chloroquine (CQ plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP was introduced as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in 2000. Methods We assessed in vivo treatment failure rates with AQ+SP in two different areas in PNG and twenty-four molecular drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were characterized in pre-treatment samples. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between infecting genotype and treatment response in order to identify useful predictors of treatment failure with AQ+SP. Results In 2004, Day-28 treatment failure rates for AQ+SP were 29% in the Karimui and 19% in the South Wosera area, respectively. The strongest independent predictors for treatment failure with AQ+SP were pfmdr1 N86Y (OR = 7.87, p pfdhps A437G (OR = 3.44, p pfcrt K76T, A220S, N326D, and I356L did not help to increase the predictive value, the most likely reason being that these mutations reached almost fixed levels. Though mutations in SP related markers pfdhfr S108N and C59R were not associated with treatment failure, they increased the predictive value of pfdhps A437G. The difference in treatment failure rate in the two sites was reflected in the corresponding genetic profile of the parasite populations, with significant differences seen in the allele frequencies of mutant pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 Y184F, pfcrt A220S, and pfdhps A437G. Conclusion The study provides evidence for high levels of resistance to the combination regimen of AQ+SP in PNG and indicates which of the many molecular markers analysed are useful for the monitoring of parasite resistance to combinations with AQ+SP.

  1. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  2. Adversity, adoption and afterwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2016-01-01

    Anmeldelsen præsenterer et grundigt og interessant studie vedr. adopterede spædbørn fra Hong Kong og deres oplevelser/situation midt i livet......Anmeldelsen præsenterer et grundigt og interessant studie vedr. adopterede spædbørn fra Hong Kong og deres oplevelser/situation midt i livet...

  3. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; Pstatin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for

  4. Team spirit makes the difference : The interactive effects of team work engagement and organizational constraints during a military operation on psychological outcomes afterwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Berg, C. van den; Euwema, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article prospectively explores the effects of collective team work engagement and organizational constraints during military deployment on individual-level psychological outcomes afterwards. Participants were 971 Dutch peacekeepers within 93 teams who were deployed between the end of 2008 and

  5. Catheter-based renal denervation for resistant hypertension: Twenty-four month results of the EnligHTN I first-in-human study using a multi-electrode ablation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioufis, Costas P; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos S; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Tsiachris, Dimitrios; Worthley, Matthew I; Sinhal, Ajay R; Chew, Derek P; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvi; Thomopoulos, Costas; Kallikazaros, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Worthley, Stephen G

    2015-12-15

    Long term safety and efficacy data of multi-electrode ablation system for renal denervation (RDN) in patients with drug resistant hypertension (dRHT) are limited. We studied 46 patients (age: 60 ± 10 years, 4.7 ± 1.0 antihypertensive drugs) with drug resistant hypertension (dRHT). Reduction in office BP at 24 months from baseline was -29/-13 mmHg, while the reduction in 24-hour ambulatory BP and in home BP at 24 months were -13/-7 mmHg and -11/-6 mmHg respectively (p<0.05 for all). A correlation analysis revealed that baseline office and ambulatory BP were related to the extent of office and ambulatory BP drop. Apart from higher body mass index (33.3 ± 4.7 vs 29.5 ± 6.2 kg/m(2), p<0.05), there were no differences in patients that were RDN responders defined as ≥10 mmHg decrease (74%, n=34) compared to non-responders. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed no prognosticators of RDN response (p=NS for all). At 24 months there were no new serious device or procedure related adverse events. The EnligHTN I study shows that the multi-electrode ablation system provides a safe method of RDN in dRHT accompanied by a clinically relevant and sustained BP reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  7. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  8. Working hours and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to

  9. In-111 platelet scintigraphy for detection of lower-extremity deep venous thrombophlebitis: Are 4-hour delayed images sufficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Coughlan, J.D.; Ahmed, F.; Jensen, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one nonheparinized patients suspected of having lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis underwent 4- and 24-hour In-111-labeled platelet scintigraphy (PS) and lower-extremity contrast venography (CV). Eleven of the 21 patients (52%) had one or more intraluminal filling defects on CV, indicating active thrombophlebitis. In seven of these 11 patients (64%) In-PS was abnormal at 4 hours, and in ten (91%) at 24 hours. All patients with abnormal studies at 4 hours showed greater uptake of more abnormal sites at 24 hours. Of the ten patients with CV-negative studies, two had abnormal bilateral lower pelvis/upper thigh uptake in In-PS at 24 hours. These two In-PS studies were considered to be false positive. Twenty-four-hour In-PS images are necessary if 4-hour images show faint focal uptake of asymmetric blood pool activity, or are normal

  10. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  11. Twenty-Four Tuba Harmonics Using a Single Pipe Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 "YouTube: Tuba Harmonics" (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the…

  12. Team spirit makes the difference: the interactive effects of team work engagement and organizational constraints during a military operation on psychological outcomes afterwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boermans, S M; Kamphuis, W; Delahaij, R; van den Berg, C; Euwema, M C

    2014-12-01

    This article prospectively explores the effects of collective team work engagement and organizational constraints during military deployment on individual-level psychological outcomes afterwards. Participants were 971 Dutch peacekeepers within 93 teams who were deployed between the end of 2008 and beginning of 2010, for an average of 4 months, in the International Security Assistance Force. Surveys were administered 2 months into deployment and 6 months afterwards. Multi-level regression analyses demonstrated that team work engagement during deployment moderated the relation between organizational constraints and post-deployment fatigue symptoms. Team members reported less fatigue symptoms after deployment if they were part of highly engaged teams during deployment, particularly when concerns about organizational constraints during deployment were high. In contrast, low team work engagement was related to more fatigue symptoms, particularly when concerns about organizational constraints were high. Contrary to expectations, no effects for team work engagement or organizational constraints were found for post-traumatic growth. The present study highlights that investing in team work engagement is important for those working in highly demanding jobs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Living hours under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreem......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants...... in industrial cleaning includes a minimum floor of 15 weekly working hours – this is not the case in retail, hotels and restaurants. This creates a loophole in the latter two sectors that can be exploited by employers to gain wage flexibility through part-time work. Originality/value The living wage literature...

  14. Review: Birgit Schreiber (2006. Versteckt. Jüdische Kinder im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland und ihr Leben danach [Hidden. Jewish Children in National Socialist Germany and Their Lives Afterwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Griese

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In her empirical study, Hidden. Jewish children in National Socialist Germany and their lives afterwards, Birgit SCHREIBER analyses five autobiographical interviews. She presents different perspectives to the reader: a the contemporary, political dimension of the topic concerning German history and recollection, b the (problematic structures of communication between German Jews and non-Jewish Germans (keywords: "crisis of witnesses", c a narrative prospect and analysis, and d a psychoanalytic access of the life stories of traumatized people. Its special potentials—partly innovation and, at the same time, its soft spots—lie in these "multidimensional prospects" of the study. On the one hand, it seems to be unclear where to put the emphasis; is it an Oral-History study, a structural narration, mainly autobiographical work or psychoanalytically substantiated research? On the other hand, the different perspectives allow a sensitive way of dealing with specific forms of communication and meeting and providing a special, empathetic way of analyzing data. Above all, this "mixture" offers the possibility of a wide discussion of basic topics within qualitative research—especially the relation between science and therapy, ethics in research and the construction of an empirically grounded typology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703166

  15. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M; Handrakis, John P; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Jensen, A Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n=20; TETRA: C4-C8), high paraplegia (n=10; HP: T2-T5), low paraplegia (n=9; LP: T7-T12), and non-SCI controls (n=10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R-R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pcontrol groups (Pcontrol groups (P<0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P<0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P<0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.

  16. 2011 Hours against hate

    OpenAIRE

    Cátedra Intercultural. UCO

    2011-01-01

    2011 Hours Against Hate is a campaign to stop bigotry and promote respect across lines of culture, religion, tradition, class, and gender. Launched by Special Representative to Muslim Communities Farah Pandith, and Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism Hannah Rosenthal, the State Department is asking young people around the world to pledge their time to stop hate—to do something for someone who doesn’t look like you, pray like you, or live like you. We are asking the next generati...

  17. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  18. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  19. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  20. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  1. The Productivity Of Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    2013-01-01

    Observations on munition workers, most of them women, are organized to examine the relationship between their output and their working hours. The relationship is nonlinear: below an hours threshold, output is proportional to hours; above a threshold, output rises at a decreasing rate as hours increase. Implications of these results for the estimation of labor supply functions are taken up. The findings also link up with current research on the effects of long working hours on accidents and in...

  2. Job search, hours restrictions, and desired hours of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    A structural empirical job search model is presented that incorporates the labor supply decision of individuals. The arrival of a job offer is modeled as a random draw from a wage-hours offer distribution. Subjective information is used on desired working hours to identify optimal hours from offered

  3. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  4. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  5. Comparison of Spot Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio to 24-Hour Proteinuria to Identify Important Change Over Time in Proteinuria in Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Rosas, Jorge; Su, Jiandong; Cook, Richard J; Sabapathy, Arthy; Touma, Zahi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) accurately measures the change in proteinuria compared with 24-hour proteinuria (24H-P). This was a retrospective analysis on patients' paired visits and paired urine samples for PCR and 24H-P. Patients with both abnormal 24H-P (>0.5 g/d) and PCR (>0.05 g/mmol) or both normal 24H-P (≤0.5 g/d) and PCR (≤0.05 g/mmol) at baseline visit were identified.The first follow-up visit with partial recovery (50% decrease in proteinuria) or complete recovery (≤0.5 g/d) was identified for those with abnormal baseline 24H-P, and new proteinuria (>0.5 g/d) was identified for those with normal 24H-P. Twenty-four-hour urine collection and PCR end-point frequencies were compared. Twenty-four-hour urine collection results were converted to 24H-PCR. Twenty-four-hour PCR and PCR were utilized to measure the magnitude of change (by standardized response mean [SRM]) in patients who achieved the end points. Of 230 patients, at baseline, 95 patients had abnormal and 109 had normal 24H-P and PCR. On follow-up, 57 achieved partial recovery, and 53 achieved complete recovery by 24H-P. Standardized response mean was -1.03 and -1.10 for 24H-PCR and PCR, respectively. By PCR, 53 patients had partial recovery, and 27 had complete recovery. Standardized response mean was -1.25 and -0.86 by 24H-PCR and PCR, respectively.For new proteinuria, 28 patients were identified by 24H-P and 21 by PCR. Twenty-four-hour PCR SRM was 0.80, and PCR SRM was 0.68. Protein-to-creatinine ratio does not have sufficient accuracy compared with 24H-P for improvement and worsening to be used in lieu of 24H-P.

  6. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  7. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  8. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  9. New Approach To Hour-By-Hour Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Q. Q.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Fine hourly forecast in single station weather forecast is required in many human production and life application situations. Most previous MOS (Model Output Statistics) which used a linear regression model are hard to solve nonlinear natures of the weather prediction and forecast accuracy has not been sufficient at high temporal resolution. This study is to predict the future meteorological elements including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in a local region over a relatively short period of time at hourly level. By means of hour-to-hour NWP (Numeral Weather Prediction)meteorological field from Forcastio (https://darksky.net/dev/docs/forecast) and real-time instrumental observation including 29 stations in Yunnan and 3 stations in Tianjin of China from June to October 2016, predictions are made of the 24-hour hour-by-hour ahead. This study presents an ensemble approach to combine the information of instrumental observation itself and NWP. Use autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model to predict future values of the observation time series. Put newest NWP products into the equations derived from the multiple linear regression MOS technique. Handle residual series of MOS outputs with autoregressive (AR) model for the linear property presented in time series. Due to the complexity of non-linear property of atmospheric flow, support vector machine (SVM) is also introduced . Therefore basic data quality control and cross validation makes it able to optimize the model function parameters , and do 24 hours ahead residual reduction with AR/SVM model. Results show that AR model technique is better than corresponding multi-variant MOS regression method especially at the early 4 hours when the predictor is temperature. MOS-AR combined model which is comparable to MOS-SVM model outperform than MOS. Both of their root mean square error and correlation coefficients for 2 m temperature are reduced to 1.6 degree Celsius and 0.91 respectively. The

  10. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  11. Flexible forms of working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    66 Abstract - Flexible forms of working hours This diploma thesis deals with the flexible forms of working hours and its goal is to describe this issue in intelligible and comprehensive way. It is being very interesting and current theme which is to a great extent not subject to direct legal regulations and provides its contracting parties with a big amount of freedom of contract. This fact assists in bigger flexibilization of labour market and represents a significant instrument in the fight...

  12. A physically active occupation does not result in compensatory inactivity during out-of-work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigbe, William W; Lean, Michael E J; Granat, Malcolm H

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in non-occupational physical activity behaviour in workers who engage in high and low occupational physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of 112 otherwise comparable volunteers in active (56 walking postal delivery workers) or inactive (56 administrative postal workers) occupations in Glasgow (Scotland) in 2007. Twenty four-hour physical activity (steps and time standing, walking and sedentary) patterns were measured using activPAL™ for seven days. Comparisons were made during 8-hour work-shifts, during non-work hours on work-days and during the 2 non-work days. Age and body mass index of delivery and office staff, respectively, were (means (SD)) 38 (9) years versus 40 (7) years and 26.3 (3) kg m(-2) versus 27.4 (4) kg m(-2). Delivery staff spent substantially longer time than office staff upright (6.0 (1.1) h versus 3.9 (1.5) h) and walking (3.1 (0.7) h versus 1.6 (0.7) h) and amassed more steps (16,035 (4264) versus 6709 (2808)) during 8-hour work-shifts and over 24h on work days. During non-work hours of work-days and during non-work days, there were no significant differences in physical activity between the groups. The results were unchanged when the 15 women were excluded. Having a more active occupation is not associated with more inactivity during non-work hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  14. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  15. Comparison of lipid and calorie loss from donor human milk among 3 methods of simulated gavage feeding: one-hour, 2-hour, and intermittent gravity feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Christine; Vickers, Amy Manning; Aryal, Subhash

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the differences in lipid loss from 24 samples of banked donor human milk (DHM) among 3 feeding methods: DHM given by syringe pump over 1 hour, 2 hours, and by bolus/gravity gavage. Comparative, descriptive. There were no human subjects. Twenty-four samples of 8 oz of DHM were divided into four 60-mL aliquots. Timed feedings were given by Medfusion 2001 syringe pumps with syringes connected to narrow-lumened extension sets designed for enteral feedings and connected to standard silastic enteral feeding tubes. Gravity feedings were given using the identical syringes connected to the same silastic feeding tubes. All aliquots were analyzed with the York Dairy Analyzer. Univariate repeated-measures analyses of variance were used for the omnibus testing for overall differences between the feeding methods. Lipid content expressed as grams per deciliter at the end of each feeding method was compared with the prefed control samples using the Dunnett's test. The Tukey correction was used for other pairwise multiple comparisons. The univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance conducted to test for overall differences between feeding methods showed a significant difference between the methods (F = 58.57, df = 3, 69, P gravity feeding methods (P = .3296). Pairwise comparison using the Tukey correction revealed a significant difference between both gravity and 1-hour feeding methods (P gravity and 2-hour feeding method (P gravity feedings, the timed feedings resulted in a statistically significant loss of fat as compared with their controls. These findings should raise questions about how those infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are routinely gavage fed.

  16. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  17. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  18. Edwin Austin Abbey's The Passage of the Hours: Astronomy as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Passage of the Hours (1909-1911) in the Pennsylvania State Capitol at Harrisburg is one of the most original and least known astronomical ceilings in the United States. Designed by the American artist Edwin Austin Abbey (1852-1911) to complement the Italian Renaissance style architecture of the House of Representatives, the mural combines two classical traditions of representing the night sky: a celestial map with the constellations of the zodiac and the personifications of the Hours. Set in a shallow dome twenty-four feet in diameter, Abbey's constellation figures float in a dazzling firmament where the Milky Way streams between the Sun and the Moon. The artist placed the Horae of Greek mythology around the dome's circumference in the position of the numbers on an astronomical clock. In the tradition of Italian Renaissance architecture, the celestial ceiling in the House of Representatives was part of an iconographic program affirming the cosmological origin of a polity. The astronomical theme relates to Abbey's murals in the House Chamber of the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 from David Rittenhouse's observatory in Philadelphia, which the astronomer constructed to study the transit of Venus in 1769. The artist included a portrait of Rittenhouse holding his telescope among the worthies in the adjacent mural of The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania. Contemporary as well as historical events encouraged Abbey's use of astronomical imagery: the depiction of a comet may record the much-anticipated return of Halley's Comet in 1910.

  19. Suboptimal Vitamin B Intakes of Zambian Preschool Children: Evaluation of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcomb, Tyler J; Schmaelzle, Samantha T; Nuss, Emily T; Gregory, Jesse F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2018-06-01

    Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2 studies that were 2 years apart in the same district of Zambia. Data were retrospectively analyzed for B vitamin intake, that is, biotin, vitamin B 12 , folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, and thiamin. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut point method was used to assess inadequacy prevalence for EARs established by the Institute of Medicine in the United States. For all B vitamins, mean values were below the EARs established for children 4 to 8 years old. Relative to the EAR, children had the highest intakes of vitamin B 6 with inadequacies of 77.9% and 60.1% in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence of inadequate intake was associated with folate, where ≥95% of the children had intakes below the EAR in both studies. All median vitamin B intakes were inadequate among these young children in rural Zambia. Future researchers and policy makers may need to consider B vitamin status in resource-poor areas of the country.

  20. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  1. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  2. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  3. Relationship Between 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Cognitive Function in Community-Living Older Adults: The UCSD Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kyle S; Forbang, Nketi; Beben, Tomasz; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rifkin, Dena E

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) patterns have been associated with diminished cognitive function in hypertensive and very elderly populations. The relationship between ambulatory BP patterns and cognitive function in community-living older adults is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour ambulatory BP, in-clinic BP, and cognitive function measures were obtained from 319 community-living older adults. The mean age was 72 years, 66% were female, and 13% were African-American. We performed linear regression with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as the primary outcome and 24-hour BP patterns as the independent variable, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and comorbidities. Greater nighttime systolic dipping (P = 0.046) and higher 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP; P = 0.015) were both significantly associated with better cognitive function, whereas 24-hour systolic BP (SBP), average real variability, and ambulatory arterial stiffness were not. Higher 24-hour DBP and greater nighttime systolic dipping were significantly associated with improved cognitive function. Future studies should examine whether low 24-hour DBP and lack of nighttime systolic dipping predict future cognitive impairment. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an 8-hour break between successive work periods when a break of less than 10 hours is necessary to...) Individuals who are working 8-hour shift schedules shall have at least 1 day off per week, averaged over the shift cycle; (ii) Individuals who are working 10-hour shift schedules shall have at least 2 days off per...

  5. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  6. Role of redistribution and 24 hour reinjection images to assess myocardial viability in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam; Pai, Moon Sun; Park, Chan H.; Yoon, Myung Ho; Choi, Byung Il

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of redistribution and 24 hour reinjection images in Tl-201 SPECT assessment of myocardial viability after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We performed dipyridamole stress-4 hour redistribution-24 hour reinjection Tl-201 SPECT in 43 patients with recent AMI (4-16 days). The myocardium was divided into 16 segments and perfusion grade was measured visually with 4 point score from 0 to 3 (absent uptake to normal uptake). A perfusion defect with stress score 2 was considered moderate. A defect was considered severe if the stress score was 0 or 1 (absent uptake or severe perfusion decrease). Moderate defect on stress image were considered viable and and segments with severe defect were considered viable if they showed improvement of 1 score or more on redistribution or reinjection images. We compared the results of viability assessment in stress-redistribution and stress-reinjection images. On visual analysis, 344 of 688 segments (50%) had abnormal perfusion. Fify two (15%) had moderate perfusion defects and 292 (85%) had severe perfusion defects on stress image. Of 292 severe stress defects, 53 were irreversible on redistribution and reversible on reinjection images, and 15 were reverseble on redistribution and irreversible on reinjection images. Two hundred twenty four of 292 segments (76.7%) showed concordant results on stress-redistribution and stress- reinjection images. Therefore 24 hour reinjection image changed viability status from necrotic to viable in 53 segments of 292 severe stress defect (18%). However, myocardial viability was underestimated in only 5% (15/292) of severe defects by 24 hour reinjection. The 24 hour reinjection imaging is useful in the assessment of myocardial viability. It is more sensitive than 4 hour redistribution imaging. However, both redistribution and reinjection images are needed since they complement each other

  7. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  8. Variation in incorporation of tritiated amino acids into rhodopsin and opsin during the 12 hour light-dark cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, B.

    1981-01-01

    This is a study of the variation in incorporation of labeled amino acids into opsin and rhodopsin during the 12 hour light-dark cycle. Groups of 12 adult, light-entrained R. pipiens were injected with tritiated amino acids at selected times of the day and night. Twenty four hours later, the frogs were sacrificed and their rhodopsin purified by column chromatography. It was found that the peak incorporation of amino acids into rhodopsin occurred shortly after light onset and declined to lower levels at later hours. Light microscopic autoradiography revealed the presence of radioactive disc membranes in the rod outer segments. However there was no correlation between outer segment grain density and rhodopsin specific activity. Succeeding experiments showed that light onset, rather than the time of day, played an important role in stimulating isotope incorporation. Electro-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a changing specific activity for inner segment opsin during the light-dark cycle. Peak levels of amino acid incorporation occurred shortly after light onset and then declined to lower levels. For all time points, opsin was found to be radioactive, indicating opsin biosynthesis occurred continually throughout the diurnal cycle

  9. screening of twenty-four south african combretum species and six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Clement Adewunmi

    of finely ground plant material and extracting with 10 ml of acetone, hexane, ... chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (5:4:1): [CEF] (intermediate polarity/acidic); benzene/- ... This figure was used as the representative of all Combretum species and ... (bottom) solvent systems and sprayed with 0.2% DPPH in methanol. Yellow ...

  10. Twenty-four year record of Northern Hemisphere snow cover derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.; Brodzik, Mary Jo

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. It is now possible to monitor the global fluctuation of snow cover over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a smiliar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible statellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as on into the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the negative spectral gradient driving the passive microwave algorithm is enhanced. Trends in annual averages are similar, decreasing at rates of approximately 2% per decade. The only region where the passive microwave data consistently indicate snow and the visible data do not is over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain areas. In the effort to determine the accuracy of the microwave algorithm over this region we are acquiring surface snow observations through a collaborative study with CAREERI/Lanzhou. In order to provide an optimal snow cover product in the future, we are developing a procedure that blends snow extent maps derived from MODIS data with snow water equivalent maps derived from both SSM/I and AMSR.

  11. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowskiw, G.

    1992-05-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the airtight drywall approach (ADA). All were newly built and used dry wood for framing members, i.e. with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19%. Building envelope performace was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1013 thermographic images recorded and 167 airtightness tests conducted. Both the energy efficient and conventional building envelope systems performed satisfactory manner although fewer problems were found in the energy efficient houses. Lower mean WMC levels were measured in the walls and attics and fewer WMC excursions above 19% were recorded. The energy efficient houses also displayed fewer thermographic anomalies, particulary those of a severe nature. The energy efficient houses were found to be more airtight. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in the energy efficient houses. Both the polyethylene air barriers and the ADA system demonstrated predominately stable WMC levels, thermographic characteristics and airtightness. The building envelopes constructed using polyethylene barriers generally performed in a superior fashion to those which used ADA, although both systems provided satisfactory performance. WMC levels were slightly lower in the polyethylene houses as were the number of thermographic faults, particularly those of a severe nature. 11 refs., 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted in Winnipeg, Manitoba to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA). All were newly constructed and used dry wood for the framing members with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19 percent. Building envelope performance was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic, and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1,013 thermographic images recorded, and 167 airtightness tests conducted.

  13. 77 FR 47631 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments on Twenty-Four Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... recover mercury, use mercury chlor-alkali cells to produce chlorine gas and alkali metal hydroxide, and...: NESHAP for Metal Furniture Surface Coating (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart RRRR). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number... Metals Foundries (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart ZZZZZZ). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 2332.03, OMB Control...

  14. Conflict and the Common Good. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty-Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert S., Ed.; Willner, Dorothy, Ed.

    The fundamental theme of these papers is what constitutes the common good and the issues and problems related to the understanding of that common good. Several anthropologists and a political scientist explore this theme in various geographic settings and from many theoretical and methodological perspectives. Among the countries and cultures…

  15. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    and lowest remission rates was >/=15% in 10 countries, 5-14% in 7 countries, and definition of remission, male sex, higher education, shorter disease duration, smaller number of comorbidities, and regular......OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5......,848 patients receiving usual care at 67 sites in 24 countries, was used for this study. Patients were clinically assessed by rheumatologists and completed a 4-page self-report questionnaire. The database was analyzed according to the following definitions of remission: American College of Rheumatology (ACR...

  16. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    and lowest remission rates was >/=15% in 10 countries, 5-14% in 7 countries, and generally low remission rates [definition of remission, male sex, higher education, shorter disease duration, smaller number of comorbidities, and regular......OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5......,848 patients receiving usual care at 67 sites in 24 countries, was used for this study. Patients were clinically assessed by rheumatologists and completed a 4-page self-report questionnaire. The database was analyzed according to the following definitions of remission: American College of Rheumatology (ACR...

  17. Number of 24-hour diet recalls needed to estimate energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara C; Pagoto, Sherry L; Hurley, Thomas G; Magner, Robert P; Ockene, Ira S; Schneider, Kristin L; Merriam, Philip A; Hébert, James R

    2009-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour diet recall interviews (24HRs) are used to assess diet and to validate other diet assessment instruments. Therefore it is important to know how many 24HRs are required to describe an individual's intake. Seventy-nine middle-aged white women completed seven 24HRs over a 14-day period, during which energy expenditure (EE) was determined by the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Mean daily intakes were compared to DLW-derived EE using paired t tests. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of call sequence and day of the week on 24HR-derived energy intake while adjusting for education, relative body weight, social desirability, and an interaction between call sequence and social desirability. Mean EE from DLW was 2115 kcal/day. Adjusted 24HR-derived energy intake was lowest at call 1 (1501 kcal/day); significantly higher energy intake was observed at calls 2 and 3 (2246 and 2315 kcal/day, respectively). Energy intake on Friday was significantly lower than on Sunday. Averaging energy intake from the first two calls better approximated true energy expenditure than did the first call, and averaging the first three calls further improved the estimate (p=0.02 for both comparisons). Additional calls did not improve estimation. Energy intake is underreported on the first 24HR. Three 24HRs appear optimal for estimating energy intake.

  18. CERN restaurants: opening hours during summer

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In the summer, the three CERN restaurants remain open during their usual hours. On Monday 1st August and Thursday 8 September, the Restaurant 1 will be open from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.   The satellites will be open as follows: Building 6: normal hours Building 13: normal hours Building 30: normal hours Building 40: closing at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 pm Building 54: normal hours in July, closed in August Building 864: normal hours Building 865: normal hours Building 774: normal hours

  19. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... working hours fall in this category. The agreement of the parties to provide compensation for such hours... regular rate of an employee if the hours are compensated at the same rate as other working hours. The.... Activities of this type include eating meals between working hours. Where it appears from all the pertinent...

  20. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in labour supply preferences on actual working hours. The availability of subjective information on the individual’s preferred working hours gives direct measures on the degree of adjustment of working ho...

  1. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  2. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 15.710 Section 15.710 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U.S.C. 8104 sets limitations on the working hours of credentialed officers and crew members...

  3. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  4. 75 FR 285 - Hours of Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... flexibility would not increase safety risks or adversely impact driver health? 3. How many hours per day and... period long enough to provide restorative sleep regardless of the number of hours worked prior to the... No. FMCSA-2004-19608] RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  5. The Persistence of Long Work Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; David Black; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  6. Comparison of 44-hour and fixed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Hong; Tang, Bing; Sun, Zhiping; Wen, Ping; Wu, Wenhui; Bian, Xueqing; Shen, Xia; Yang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients' blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  8. Long Work Hours: Volunteers and Conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; Mark Wooden; David Black

    2006-01-01

    Panel data from Australia are used to study the prevalence of work hours mismatch among long hours workers and, more importantly, how that mismatch persists and changes over time, and what factors are associated with these changes. Particular attention is paid to the roles played by household debt, ideal worker characteristics and gender. Both static and dynamic multinomial logit models are estimated, with the dependent variable distinguishing long hours workers from other workers, and within...

  9. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John M; Loo, Lawrence K; Giang, Dan W

    2015-09-01

    Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = -0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients.

  10. Working hours: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Working hours across the world are falling, but considerable variation remains. In some countries people work 70% more hours per year, on average, than in other countries. Much of this variation is due to differences in the prevalence of part-time work and patterns of female labor market participation. Looking ahead, the question of how reducing working hours will affect productivity is significant. In addition, how individuals divide up their leisure and work time and what the appropriate wo...

  11. Economic Analysis of Long Working Hours (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OHTAKE Fumio; OKUDAIRA Hiroko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set out the economic grounds for restrictions on long working hours and conduct an empirical analysis using surveys from the perspective of behavioral economics. The results of the analysis indicate that, on a year-on-year basis, if state of health improves, the probability of working more than 60 hours per week increases significantly, but that even when state of health deteriorates there is no decrease in the probability of working long hours. Moreover, among male managemen...

  12. Humanization of medical education: Need of the hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though the importance of psychological factors in maintenance of health, as well as etiology and prognosis of diseases have been recognized in ancient medicine by discerning and thoughtful clinicians in all ages, for the large majority of the practitioners such a perception has not been there. A cross-sectional, organ-based, and symptom-centered clinical approach was largely prevalent in day-to-day medicine. Medical training also followed more or less the same path. The positive psychological and behavioral qualities needed in the physician are left to the individual student to develop on his own during studies or to the physician afterwards. Some do, many do not. The importance of communication, doctor-patient relationship, empathy and psychological sensitivity in the making of a physician started getting identified in advanced medical universities in western countries by the middle of the last century. Since then behavioral science and medical humanities have been incorporated as important modules in the graduate medical training curriculum not only in advanced western medical universities, but also in good universities elsewhere. The situation in India, till now has been quite unsatisfactory. The undergraduate medical students had only 2 weeks of clinical posting and few hours of lectures, allotted for psychiatry: Even these were not actually carried out in many institutions properly. Responding to repeated representations from mental health experts in the country and abroad, medical universities and educationists, the Medical Council of India in 2012 has made 2 weeks of Residential Internship in Psychiatry (CRRI mandatory, and also recommended incorporation of medical humanities in the MBBS curriculum. The paper presents a brief outline of how a Clinical Behavioral Sciences Training Program l incorporating medical humanities can be developed and carried out as a mainstream component for the undergraduate medical training in the country. The

  13. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  14. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  15. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in

  16. MODELS OF HOURLY DRY BULB TEMPERATURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  17. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  18. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  19. Cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study how flexibility in workforce capacity can be used to efficiently match capacity and demand. Flexibility in workforce capacity is introduced by the annualized hours regime. Annualized hours allow organizations to measure working time per year, instead of per month or per week. An additional

  20. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  1. Effectiveness of the Twelve-Hour Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Although labor unions traditionally have fought for shorter working hours, there have been recent reversals in this trend. The Pulp and Paperboard Division of Temple-Eastex Incorporated converted to a 12-hour shift and found that safety improved, productivity increased, and overtime decreased. (JOW)

  2. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  3. "Hour of Code": A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the delivery of the "Hour of Code" tutorials to college students. The college students who participated in this study were surveyed about their opinion of the Hour of Code. First, the students' comments were discussed. Next, a content analysis of the offered tutorials highlights their reliance on visual…

  4. Experience With Flexible Hours of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jo

    1976-01-01

    A summary of an 80-page booklet called Hours of Work When Workers Can Choose is presented. The booklet reports a survey and focuses on the benefits of flexible hours of work. It was published by the Business and Professional Women's Foundation and is available from that organization. (EC)

  5. The Credit Hour and Public Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the ways the credit hour has come to be used by public funding systems in higher education. The literature review shows that the credit hour has become a barrier to innovation and a way to create systemic inequities between institutions or sectors in resource allocation. (SLD)

  6. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on 24-hour blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stefanie Zuern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with arterial hypertension, increased blood pressure (BP variability contributes to end organ damage independently from mean levels of arterial BP. Increased BP variability has been linked to alterations in autonomic function including sympathetic overdrive. We hypothesized that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN confers beneficial effects on BPV. Methods and Results: Eleven consecutive patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension (age 68.9±7.0 years; baseline systolic BP 189±23mmHg despite medication with 5.6±2.1 antihypertensive drugs underwent bilateral RDN. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before RDN and six months thereafter. BPV was primarily assessed by means of standard deviation of 24-hour systolic arterial blood pressures (SDsys. Secondary measures of BPV were maximum systolic blood pressure (MAXsys and maximum difference between two consecutive readings of systolic BP (deltamaxsys over 24 hours. Six months after RDN, SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were significantly reduced from 16.9±4.6mmHg to 13.5±2.5mmHg (p=0.003, from 190±22mmHg to 172±20mmHg (p<0.001 and from 40±15mmHg to 28±7mmHg (p=0.006, respectively, without changes in concomitant antihypertensive therapy. Reductions of SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were observed in 10/11 (90.9%, 11/11 (100% and 9/11 (81.8% patients, respectively. Although we noted a significant reduction of systolic office blood pressure by 30.4±27.7mmHg (p=0.007, there was only a trend in reduction of average systolic BP assessed from ABPM (149±19mmHg to 142±18mmHg; p=0.086.Conclusions: In patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension, RDN leads to significant reductions of BP variability. Effects of RDN on BPV over 24 hours were more pronounced than on average levels of BP.

  7. Lower wages for less hours? A simultaneous wage-hours model for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Elke

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the impact of working hours on the gross hourly wage rate of West German women is analyzed. We use a simultaneous wage-hours model which takes into account the participation decision. First, our estimates show that the hourly wage rate is strongly a¤ected by the working hours. In order to avoid any assumptions about the functional form, we estimate linear spline functions. Second, we detect di¤erent wage-hours profiles for specific groups of individuals. Despite these di¤erences...

  8. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  9. SO2 8 Hour Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide 8 hour...

  10. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  11. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  12. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  13. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  14. Impact of states' nurse work hour regulations on overtime practices and work hours among registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Yoon, Jangho

    2014-10-01

    To examine the degree to which states' work hour regulations for nurses-policies regarding mandatory overtime and consecutive work hours-decrease mandatory overtime practice and hours of work among registered nurses. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of registered nurses from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses for years 2004 and 2008. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the effect of the nurse work hour policies on the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, working more than 40 hours per week, and working more than 60 hours per week for all staff nurses working in hospitals and nursing homes. The mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour regulations were significantly associated with 3.9 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working overtime mandatorily and 11.5 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working more than 40 hours per week, respectively. State mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour policies are effective in reducing nurse work hours. The consecutive work hour policy appears to be a better regulatory tool for reducing long work hours for nurses. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  16. Making residency work hour rules work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In July 2011, the ACGME implemented new rules that limit interns to 16 hours of work in a row, but continue to allow 2nd-year and higher resident physicians to work for up to 28 consecutive hours. Whether the ACGME's 2011 work hour limits went too far or did not go far enough has been hotly debated. In this article, we do not seek to re-open the debate about whether these standards get matters exactly right. Instead, we wish to address the issue of effective enforcement. That is, now that new work hour limits have been established, and given that the ACGME has been unable to enforce work hour limits effectively on its own, what is the best way to make sure the new limits are followed in order to reduce harm to residents, patients, and others due to sleep-deprived residents? We focus on three possible national approaches to the problem, one rooted in funding, one rooted in disclosure, and one rooted in tort law. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published....... In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  18. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  19. Work hours and absenteeism among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 - 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 - 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, > or = 3 consecutive days).

  20. Long working hours and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh

    2018-01-01

    . In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence......Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...

  1. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    .2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  2. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  3. Longer Opening Hours for the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The scientific information service. The CERN library is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. So how, you might be wondering, can they improve on that? The answer is in the detail. Although you can already use the library whenever you want, items can only be checked out when the front desk is staffed. A decision taken last week by the Scientific Information Policy Board now means that there will someone at the desk through out CERN's official working hours, with an extra 90 minutes at the end of the day so that people can check out material on their way home. In other words, the library will be open from 8:30 to 19:00, Monday to Friday. The library continues, of course, to be open 24 hours a day, all year round, and services provided via the digital library remain at your disposal day and night: http://library.cern.ch

  4. Hourly wind speed analysis in Sicily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivona, S.; Leone, C. [Palermo Univ., Dip di Fisica e Technologie Relative, Palermo (Italy); Burlon, R. [Palermo Univ., Dip. di Ingegnaria Nucleare, Palermo (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The hourly average wind speed data recorded by CNMCA (Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica) have been used to study the statistical properties of the wind speed at nine locations on Sicily. By grouping the observations month by month, we show that the hourly average wind speed, with calms omitted, is represented by a Weibull function. The suitability of the distribution is judged by the discrepancies between the observed and calculated values of the monthly average wind speed and of the standard deviation. (Author)

  5. Ethical aspects of limiting residents' work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesing, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The regulation of residents' work hours involves several ethical conflicts which need to be systematically analysed and evaluated. ARGUMENTS AND CONCLUSION: The most important ethical principle when regulating work hours is to avoid the harm resulting from the over-work of physicians and from an excessive division of labour. Additionally, other ethical principles have to be taken into account, in particular the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence for future patients and for physicians. The article presents arguments for balancing the relevant ethical principles and analyses the structural difficulties that occur unavoidably in any regulation of the complex activities of physicians.

  6. Neighborhood walkability, income, and hour-by-hour physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Daniel; Eriksson, Ulf; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate both the mean daily physical activity and the hour-by-hour physical activity patterns across the day using accelerometry and how they are associated with neighborhood walkability and individual income. Moderate physical activity (MPA) was assessed by accelerometry in 2252 adults in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Neighborhood walkability (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) was objectively assessed within 1000m network buffers around the participants' residence and individual income was self-reported. Living in a high walkability neighborhood was associated with more mean daily MPA compared with living in a low walkability neighborhood on weekdays and weekend days. Hour-by-hour analyses showed that this association appeared mainly in the afternoon/early evening during weekdays, whereas it appeared across the middle of the day during weekend days. Individual income was associated with mean daily MPA on weekend days. On weekdays, the hour-by-hour analyses showed that high income was associated with more MPA around noon and in late afternoon/early evening, whereas low income was associated with more MPA at the hours before noon and in the early afternoon. During the weekend, high income was more consistently associated with higher MPA. Hour-by-hour accelerometry physical activity patterns provides a more comprehensive picture of the associations between neighborhood walkability and individual income and physical activity and the variability of these associations across the day.

  7. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  8. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  9. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  10. Variable Work Hours--The MONY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cynthia J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment with variable work hours in one department of a large company was so successful that it has become standard procedure in various corporate areas, both staff and line. The result? Increased production, fewer errors, improved employee morale, and a significant reduction in lateness and absenteeism. (Author)

  11. The 24-hour economy not widespread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some 74% of workers in the Netherlands usually work standard hours, while 15% normally work at weekends, 14% in the evening and 4% at night. Weekend work is frequently carried out by younger people. The sectors most associated with weekend work are: policing, nursing and elder care, hotels and

  12. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  13. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  14. Long working hours and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Working Hours on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Berniell, Maria Ines; Bietenbeck, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Does working time causally affect workers' health? We study this question in the context of a French reform which reduced the standard workweek from 39 to 35 hours, at constant earnings. Our empirical analysis exploits variation in the adoption of this shorter workweek across employers, which is mainly driven by institutional features of the reform and thus exogenous to workers' health. Difference-in-differences and lagged dependent variable regressions reveal a negative effect of working hou...

  17. CERN takes part in Earth Hour

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    From 8.30 to 9.30 p.m. on Saturday, 26 March 2011, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be plunged into darkness to mark CERN's participation in Earth Hour. A growing number of countries and cities across the planet are involved in this global initiative against climate change, which was launched by the WWF in 2007.   The lights on the Globe were switched off for the 2009 Earth Hour event. Along with individuals, companies and tourist attractions in thousands of towns and cities all over the world participating in the fourth annual Earth Hour event, CERN will turn off the lights of the Globe for 60 minutes at 8.30 p.m. on Saturday 26 March. CERN's participation in the initiative is one of several examples of its commitment to respect the environment and keep its ecological footprint to the minimum. A recent example under the green transport heading was the replacement of part of CERN's petrol vehicle fleet with cars running on natural gas with a view to reducing air pollution. Other examples...

  18. Resolving issues concerning Eskdalemuir geomagnetic hourly values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Macmillan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hourly values of the geomagnetic field from 1911 to 1931 derived from measurements made at Eskdalemuir observatory in the UK, and available online from the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at http://www.wdc.bgs.ac.uk/, have now been corrected. Previously they were 2-point averaged and transformed from the original north, east and vertical down values in the tables in the observatory yearbooks. This paper documents the course of events from discovering the post-processing done to the data to the final resolution of the problem. As it was through the development of a new index, the Inter-Hour Variability index, that this post-processing came to light, we provide a revised series of this index for Eskdalemuir and compare it with that from another European observatory. Conclusions of studies concerning long-term magnetic field variability and inferred solar variability, whilst not necessarily consistent with one another, are not obviously invalidated by the incorrect hourly values from Eskdalemuir. This series of events illustrates the challenges that lie ahead in removing any remaining errors and inconsistencies in the data holdings of different World Data Centres.

  19. IEA policies-G8 recommendations and an afterwards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Takao

    2009-01-01

    In response to threats posed to the future supply of energy and to the environment, the G8 leaders, in Gleneagles, UK in 2005, agreed to an initiative called the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA) which addresses climate change, clean energy and sustainable development. In the GPOA, G8 leaders pledged to encourage the development of cleaner, more efficient and lower-emitting vehicles, and to promote their deployment by, among other means, asking the IEA to review existing standards and codes for vehicle efficiency and to identify best practices. In order to properly response to the above-mentioned requests from G8 leaders, the IEA has launched, among other activities, study on policies for 'transforming the way we use energy' focusing on end-use efficiency including the one in transport sector and made a comprehensive response to the GPOA at the 2008 G8 Summit Meeting in Japan with 25 recommendations on energy efficiency. Regarding these recommendations, the G8 leaders have proclaimed, in the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit Leaders Declaration, that they would maximize implementation of the IEA's 25 recommendations. This paper summarizes the IEA activities in transport sector regarding the GPOA and their findings and recommendations.

  20. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal

  1. Operator alertness and performance on 8-hour and 12-hour work shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.; Campbell, S.S.; Dawson, D.; Moore-Ede, M.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the alertness and performance problems of rotational shiftworkers in the nuclear power industry. Growing awareness of higher rates of human errors and accidents on night shifts and reports of operations personnel falling asleep on the job have contributed to the heightened interest in this subject. The industry is now considering the effects of different shift rotation systems, including evaluation of the most recent of industry trends in shift scheduling-schedules that include 12 hour work shifts. Surveys show that within the past 5 years about 20% of commercially operational nuclear power plants have instituted schedules that use only 12 hour shifts, or schedules using a combination of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. Many more plants routinely use 12-hour work shifts during plant outages and refueling operations. In response to this growing trend, the NRC has funded research which is a first attempt to compare alertness, operator performance, and sleep-wake patterns in subjects working simulated 8-hour and 12-hour shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC), located at the Institute of Circadian Physiology in Boston, MA. This paper will describe in greater detail the design of the study, measurement techniques for alertness and sleep, work routine, work task performance measures, and cognitive performance test protocols. It will review the role of circadian factors in human alertness and performance, and discuss previous research findings in this area. It will discuss other variables that are known to influence human alertness in the workplace, such as caffeine, alcohol, and working environment. The physiological basis for shift worker sleep problems will be explained in the context of the ongoing research project at HARC. Finally, the paper presents previous research on shift work and fatigue which may be relevant to a comparison of 8-hour and 12-hour shifts

  2. 75 FR 82170 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... drivers to take breaks when needed and would reduce safety and health risks associated with long hours... long work hours, without significantly compromising their ability to do their jobs and earn a living... between hours 3.5 and 7 of an 11-hour driving period. Working beyond the 7th hour without a break is...

  3. More hours, more jobs? The employment effects of longer working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn Andrews; Hans-Dieter Gerner; Thorsten Schank; Richard Upward

    2015-01-01

    Increases in standard hours of work have been a contentious policy issue in Germany. Whilst this might directly lead to a substitution of workers by hours, there may also be a positive employment effect due to reduced costs. Moreover, the response of firms may differ between firms that offer overtime and those that do not. For a panel of German plants (2001–2006) drawn from the IAB Establishment Panel, we are the first to analyse the effect of increased standard hours on employment. Using dif...

  4. Sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, natriúria e pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sperb Antonello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo avalia sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, excreção urinária de sódio e pressão arterial (PA em normotensos. A hipótese foi de que limiar de sensibilidade gustativa ao sal (LSGS aumentado se associasse a maior natriúria em 24 horas e níveis aumentados de PA. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 24 voluntários sem diagnóstico de HA. Para avaliar LSGS, usou-se soluções de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em diferentes concentrações. Os voluntários foram submetidos à monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas e coleta de urina de 24 horas para dosagem de sódio (NaU. Para análise, foram agrupados de acordo com o LSGS, aumentado ou normal. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram para idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, variáveis demográficas, uso de álcool, fumo e PA. NaU foi significativamente maior no grupo com LSGS aumentado. Utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com significância determinada pelo teste t, houve correlação de forte intensidade entre médias de PA sistólica e diastólica com IMC, de regular intensidade entre LSGS e NaU, assim como para PA sistólica e NaU. CONCLUSÃO: Natriúria de 24 horas foi maior em indivíduos com LSGS aumentado, sugerindo que esta maior avidez ao sal determine maior ingestão de sódio. Houve forte associação entre PA e IMC. Não foi evidenciada associação entre LSGS e PA, diferente do já documentado em pacientes com PA aumentada. Aumentando-se o número de pessoas, faixa etária e pacientes com níveis pressóricos aumentados, talvez se respondam outras perguntas a respeito da relação entre LSGS, natriúria e PA.OBJECTIVE: The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. METHODS: Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To

  5. Six-Hours-Rule - A Dogma for Military Surgery?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerngross, Heinz; Kahle, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Today, the six-hours-rule is a delicate item for military logistics and it is a great challenge for medical services to provide an adequate treatment during the first hours after wounding. DEFINITION: Six-hour-rule...

  6. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit hours...

  7. Three Mile Island - The hour-by-hour account of what really happened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.

    1980-01-01

    An hour-by-hour account is given of the progression of events leading up to and during the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor. The emergency procedures followed, the evacuation of local residents and the decisions taken as the possibility of a meltdown became apparent are recorded in detail together with aspects of the media coverage and the problems of communication. (U.K.)

  8. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  9. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  10. Gate A: changes to opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Due to maintenance work, the opening hours of Gate A (near Reception) will be modified between Monday, 13 and Friday, 17 April 2015.   During this period, the gate will be open to vehicles between 7 a.m. and 9.30 a.m., then between 4.30 p.m. and 7 p.m. It will be completely closed to traffic between 9.30 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. Pedestrians and cyclists may continue to use the gate. We apologise for any inconvenience and thank you for your understanding.

  11. New opening hours of the gates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  12. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  13. Atrial Fibrillation Detection During 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Comparison With 24-Hour Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Destounis, Antonios; Kalogeropoulos, Petros; Kyriakoulis, Konstantinos G; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a novel 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitor (Microlife WatchBP O3 Afib) with implemented algorithm for automated atrial fibrillation (AF) detection during each ABP measurement. One hundred subjects (mean age 70.6±8.2 [SD] years; men 53%; hypertensives 85%; 17 with permanent AF; 4 paroxysmal AF; and 79 non-AF) had simultaneous 24-hour ABP monitoring and 24-hour Holter monitoring. Among a total of 6410 valid ABP readings, 1091 (17%) were taken in ECG AF rhythm. In reading-to-reading ABP analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ABP monitoring in detecting AF were 93%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. In non-AF subjects, 12.8% of the 24-hour ABP readings indicated false-positive AF, of whom 27% were taken during supraventricular premature beats. There was a strong association between the proportion of false-positive AF readings and that of supraventricular premature beats ( r =0.67; P ABP monitoring had 100%/85% sensitivity/specificity (area under the curve 0.91; P ABP monitor with AF detector has high sensitivity and moderate specificity for AF screening during routine ABP monitoring. Thus, in elderly hypertensives, a 24-hour ABP recording with at least 26% of the readings suggesting AF indicates a high probability for AF diagnosis and should be regarded as an indication for performing 24-hour Holter monitoring. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Preferred vs Actual Working Hours in Couple Households

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Ping Tseng; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Working hours in Australia are quite widely distributed around the population mean. That is, there are relatively many people working both relatively short hours and relatively long hours each week. From a welfare perspective, however, it is not the actual number of hours worked that is of importance, but whether the hours being worked are consistent with individual preferences. In this paper the question of how closely hours preferences are being met is examined using data collected in the f...

  15. Make a movie in 48 hours

    CERN Document Server

    Brokk Toggerson

    2011-01-01

    This year, the 48-hour film project (48hfp) returns to Geneva after a one-year hiatus. Organized by Neal Hartman and the CERN film-making club, Open Your Eyes Films, the 48hfp challenges teams of film-makers to write, shoot, soundtrack and edit a 4 to 7 minute film in 48 hours from 4 to 6 November.   At the start of the festival, contestants picked their film genre from a hat. The films will be screened on 8 and 9 November, with the awards presentation on the 9th. The winner will receive a trip to the US to compete in the international version of the competition. “There are so many short films being made now," says Hartman, “I think, however, that the 48hfp allows a critical creative mass to form. The result is that these 20 teams make 20 better films than if each participant were making their own." Each team draws a genre from a hat and is given a character, a prop and a line of dialogue that must appear in their film. The genres run the gamut from &am...

  16. Acid and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux after single anastomosis gastric bypass. An objective assessment using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH metry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulami, Georgia; Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Albanopoulos, Konstantinos; Natoudi, Maria; Zografos, Georgios; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Single anastomosis gastric bypass (SaGB) was introduced in 2001 as an alternative to "loop" gastric bypass. It was considered as a procedure that would eliminate alkaline reflux and associated esophagitis. Existing evidence about the postoperative incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) after SaGB is based on studies using symptom questionnaires. The aim of our study was to evaluate GERD 12 months after SaGB by using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH metry (24-h MIIpH). Surgical department of a university hospital METHODS: Morbidly obese candidates for SaGB underwent 24-hour MIIpH prior and 12 months after their bariatric procedure. There were 11 patients included in this prospective study. Results of 24-hour MIIpH revealed that DeMeester score (40.48 versus 24.16, P = .339) had an increasing trend 12 months after SaGB. Acid reflux episodes decreased, whereas nonacid reflux episodes increased postoperatively, both in proximal and distal esophagus. Total median bolus clearance time and acid clearance time increased. De novo GERD developed in 2 patients (28.6%) and worsening of already existing GERD developed in all patients with preoperative evidence of GERD. The use of symptom questionnaires to assess postoperative GERD after SaGB may not accurately depict the real image. Twenty-four-hour MIIpH in 12 months after SaGB revealed an increase of total number of nonacid reflux episodes and a decrease of total number of acid reflux episodes, with longer duration of each acid reflux episode. Close postoperative follow-up with reflux testing and possibly endoscopy could eliminate the risk of complicated GERD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Official CERN holidays | Restaurant opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note that the CERN Restaurants will have the following opening hours during the upcoming holidays: Restaurant #1 will be open from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. on Wednesday 1 May, Thursday 9 May (Ascension Thursday) and Monday 20 May (Pentecost) - on Friday 10 May the restaurant will be open at the usual times. Restaurant #2 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, but will be open on Friday 10 May at the usual times (brasserie will be closed). Restaurant #3 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, as well as Friday 10 May.

  18. 48 CFR 552.236-74 - Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working Hours. 552.236-74... Hours. As prescribed in 536.570-5, insert the following clause: Working Hours (APR 1984) (a) It is contemplated that all work will be performed during the customary working hours of the trades involved unless...

  19. 12-hour shifts: an ethical dilemma for the nurse executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Susan G

    2008-06-01

    Flexible work hours, including 12-hour shifts, have become a common scheduling option for nurses. The author explores whether 12-hour shifts are an ethical scheduling option for nurses because recent research suggests that 12-hour shifts are a potential hazard to patients. A multistep model for ethical decision making, reflecting the concept of procedural justice, is used to examine this issue.

  20. The relationship of luteinizing hormone secretion to sleep in women during the early follicular phase: effects of sleep reversal and a prolonged three-hour sleep-wake schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapen, S; Boyar, R; Hellman, L; Weitzman, E D

    1976-06-01

    The relationship of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion to sleep in adult women was investigated in two ways: an acute 180 degrees sleep-wake cycle reversal in a group of six women and a schedule in which a young woman engaged in a three hour sleep-wake cycle (two hours awake, one hour allowed for sleep continuously for ten days--the study was carried out on the eighth day). Each subject in the reversal study had a baseline period during which plasma samples were collected every twenty minutes for twenty-four hours and nocturnal sleep was monitored electrophysiologically during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During a succeeding cycle, the study was repeated after sleep-wake reversal. LH secretory patterns were analyzed by comparing the 24-hour mean plasma LH concentration with the hourly averages in percentage terms, using Stage 2 sleep onset as the zero point. LH secretion was depressed to approximately the same degree in both the baseline and reversal studies. The average hourly percentage difference from the 24-hour mean for the four-hour period following sleep onset was -13.4% and -13.1% for the baseline and reversal, respectively. These percentage deviations represented practically the entire negative deviation for the 24-hour period in both studies. The difference between the first four-hour period after sleep onset and the second was significant. The subject on a three-hour cycle had a baseline in which a large decrease in LH secretion occurred after sleep onset (-52.2% during the third hour). Her LH secretory pattern during the three-hour sleep-wake schedule was characterized by a fall during sleep periods, particularly when slow wave sleep (SWS) predominated. However, no correlation was found between specific sleep stages and LH secretion in the six women of the reversal study. These results confirm a relationship of LH secretion to sleep in adult women, one which is different from that described during puberty.

  1. Change from an 8-hour shift to a 12-hour shift, attitudes, sleep, sleepiness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, A; Kecklund, G; Axelsson, J; Akerstedt, T

    1998-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effect of a change from a rotating 3-shift (8-hour) to a 2-shift shift (12 hour) schedule on sleep, sleepiness, performance, perceived health, and well-being. Thirty-two shift workers at a chemical plant (control room operators) responded to a questionnaire a few months before a change was made in their shift schedule and 10 months after the change. Fourteen workers also filled out a diary, carried activity loggers, and carried out reaction-time tests (beginning and end of shift). Fourteen day workers served as a reference group for the questionnaires and 9 were intensively studied during a week with workdays and a free weekend. The questionnaire data showed that the shift change increased satisfaction with workhours, sleep, and time for social activities. Health, perceived accident risk, and reaction-time performance were not negatively affected. Alertness improved and subjective recovery time after night work decreased. The quick changes in the 8-hour schedule greatly increased sleep problems and fatigue. Sleepiness integrated across the entire shift cycle showed that the shift workers were less alert than the day workers, across workdays and days off (although alertness increased with the 12-hour shift). The change from 8-hour to 12-hour shifts was positive in most respects, possibly due to the shorter sequences of the workdays, the longer sequences of consecutive days off, the fewer types of shifts (easier planning), and the elimination of quick changes. The results may differ in groups with a higher work load.

  2. Poorer Health – Shorter Hours? Health and Flexibility of Hours of Work

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Johannes; Myck, Michal

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the role of health in determining the difference between desired and actual hours of work in a sample of German men using the Socio-Economic Panel Data for years 1996-2007. The effects of both self-assessed health and legal disability status are examined. About 60% of employees report working more than they would wish with the mean difference of -3.9 hours/week. We estimate static and dynamic model specifications allowing for auto-regressive nature of the dependent variable and tes...

  3. Capturing Neutrinos from a Star's Final Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    What happens on the last day of a massive stars life? In the hours before the star collapses and explodes as a supernova, the rapid evolution of material in its core creates swarms of neutrinos. Observing these neutrinos may help us understand the final stages of a massive stars life but theyve never been detected.A view of some of the 1,520 phototubes within the MiniBooNE neutrino detector. Observations from this and other detectors are helping to illuminate the nature of the mysterious neutrino. [Fred Ullrich/FNAL]Silent Signposts of Stellar EvolutionThe nuclear fusion that powers stars generates tremendous amounts of energy. Much of this energy is emitted as photons, but a curious and elusive particle the neutrino carries away most of the energy in the late stages of stellar evolution.Stellar neutrinos can be created through two processes: thermal processesand beta processes. Thermal processes e.g.,pair production, in which a particle/antiparticle pair are created depend on the temperature and pressure of the stellar core. Beta processes i.e.,when a proton converts to a neutron, or vice versa are instead linked to the isotopic makeup of the stars core. This means that, if we can observe them, beta-process neutrinos may be able to tell us about the last steps of stellar nucleosynthesis in a dying star.But observing these neutrinos is not so easilydone. Neutrinos arenearly massless, neutral particles that interact only feebly with matter; out of the whopping 1060neutrinos released in a supernova explosion, even the most sensitive detectors only record the passage of just a few. Do we have a chance of detectingthe beta-process neutrinos that are released in the final few hours of a stars life, beforethe collapse?Neutrino luminosities leading up to core collapse. Shortly before collapse, the luminosity of beta-process neutrinos outshines that of any other neutrino flavor or origin. [Adapted from Patton et al. 2017]Modeling Stellar CoresTo answer this question, Kelly

  4. Two Hours of Teamwork Training Improves Teamwork in Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrest Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.

  5. Motivations for Youth Volunteer Participation: Types and Structure--An Analysis of Interviews with Twenty-Four Young Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luping, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who study volunteer activities are attaching ever greater importance to the motivations of volunteers who participate in volunteer activities. However, deficiencies are, on the whole, to be found in the empirical studies by scholars in China on the participating volunteers' motivations. To make up for the deficiencies in the research on…

  6. Acute myocardial infarction as first manifestation of primary anti phospholipid syndrome in a twenty-four years old patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, Carlos E; Cardenas, Juan M; Cabrales, Jaime; Bohorquez, Ricardo; Roa, Nubia I; Beltran, Javier; Urina, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Primary anti phospholipid syndrome is usually manifested with deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis, including cerebrovascular accidents. We report the case of a previously healthy young patient who suffered acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of a primary anti phospholipid syndrome

  7. Twenty-four months of antipsychotic treatment in children and adolescents with first psychotic episode: discontinuation and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Ana; Ballesta, Patricia; Baeza, Immaculada; Arango, Celso; de la Serna, Elena; González-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Carmen; Otero, Soraya; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-08-01

    The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study is a longitudinal study of early-onset first psychotic episodes. This report describes the naturalistic psychopharmacological treatment administered during a 24-month follow-up period, as well as discontinuation rates, reasons for discontinuation, and adverse effects. The sample comprised 110 patients, aged 9 to 17 years, with a first psychotic episode. Pharmacological treatment, changes, reasons for discontinuation, and the UKU (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser) Side Effect Rating Scale were registered at 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up. Second-generation antipsychotics, especially risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine, were the most commonly used. The discontinuation rate was 44.5% at 6 months, 59.1% at 12 months, and 70.9% at 24 months. Discontinuation rates or reasons for discontinuation (adverse reaction, insufficient response, and other) did not differ significantly between antipsychotics. At 6 months, significant differences were found in body mass index increase and body mass index z score increase, which were higher with olanzapine, and in neurological effects, which were higher with risperidone; at 12 and 24 months, these differences were no longer significant. High maintenance rates were found in the clozapine group, although they had higher scores on the autonomic subscale of the UKU. A long follow-up period reveals high discontinuation rates similar to those observed in adults, particularly during the first year. No differences were found between antipsychotics. Differences in adverse effects were found at 6 months but not subsequently after changes in treatment. Clozapine had a high maintenance rate, and its tolerability was comparable to that of other antipsychotics.

  8. Twenty-four-year trends in the incidence of ischemic stroke in Sweden from 1987 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Giang, Kok Wai; Lappas, Georgios; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Björck, Lena

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of stroke in Sweden increased between 1989 and 2000 among people aged ≤65 years, but more recent data on those aged >65 years are lacking. Through the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death registries, we identified all cases of nonfatal and fatal ischemic stroke (IS) among people aged 18 to 84 years during 1987-2010 in Sweden. Of the 391 081 stroke cases identified, 1.6% were 18 to 44 years, 16.7% were 45 to 64 years, and 81.7% were 65 to 84 years. Among people aged 18 to 44 years, there was a continuous increase in the incidence of stroke of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.8%-1.8%) per year for men and 1.6% (1.0%-2.3%) per year for women. Among men and women aged 45 to 64 years, slightly declining rates were observed from the late 1990s, with a mean annual decrease of 0.4% (0.1%-0.7%) among men and 0.6% (0.2%-1.0%) among women. Among men aged 65 to 84 years, a decrease of 3.7% in IS (3.4%-4.0%) per year was observed from the late 1990s. This was more marked in women, where an initial decrease of 2.5% (2.1%-2.9%) per year was followed by an accelerated decrease of 5.1% (4.4%-5.8%) after 2005. Mortality from IS decreased markedly in all age groups. The incidence of IS in elderly people in Sweden is now decreasing, whereas the decline in IS incidence in the middle-aged people is much less steep. The increasing incidence of stroke in the young, particularly if carried forward to an older age, is concerning.

  9. Histologic investigation of root canal-treated teeth with apical periodontitis: a retrospective study from twenty-four patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Siqueira, José F; Bate, Anna L; Pitt Ford, Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    This study intended to examine histologically root canal-treated teeth evincing apical periodontitis lesions and correlate the findings with clinical observations. Specimens were obtained from 24 patients (12 asymptomatic and 12 symptomatic) by extraction or endodontic surgery and consisted of roots or root tips and the associated pathologic lesion. Specimens were processed for histologic analysis, and serial sections were evaluated. Findings were correlated with clinical observations according to the presence or absence of symptoms. The mean period elapsed from treatment to specimen retrieval in the asymptomatic group was 7.5 years, as compared with 2.2 years in the symptomatic group. All specimens exhibited periradicular inflammation. Bacteria were visualized in all cases, except for 1 specimen from the asymptomatic group in which a foreign body reaction to overfilled material was the probable reason for emergent disease in a previously vital case. Irrespective of the presence of symptoms, bacteria were always located within the root canal system, although they were also observed in the periradicular tissues in 1 asymptomatic and 4 symptomatic teeth. In general, intraradicular bacterial colonization was heavier in symptomatic failed teeth. The present findings support the role of intraradicular infections, usually in the form of biofilms, as the primary cause of endodontic treatment failure.

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive non-human primates of twenty-four zoological gardens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhao, Bo; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Wang, Tao; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-01

    Captive primates are susceptible to gastrointestinal (GIT) parasitic infections, which are often zoonotic and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Fecal samples were examined by the means of direct smear, fecal flotation, fecal sedimentation, and fecal cultures. Of 26.51% (317/1196) of the captive primates were diagnosed gastrointestinal parasitic infections. Trichuris spp. were the most predominant in the primates, while Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in Old World monkeys (P primates and the safety of animal keepers and visitors. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Primatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density (structure) over time, but it was landscape variation in functional variables that declined substantially. Stand structure and function have not converged across the burned landscape, but our evidence suggests function will converge sooner than structure.

  12. Analysis of 24-hour versus 48-hour traffic counts for HPMS sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has requested a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to : allow IDOT to implement a 24-hour traffic-count program on the non-state HPMS routes, as opposed to the current Highway : Perf...

  13. Impact of Working Hours on Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Holly; Alwine Mohnen

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of working hours on employees' satisfaction, this article uses a large, representative set of panel data from German households (GSOEP). The results show that high working hours and overtime in general do not lead to decreased satisfaction. Rather, increasing working hours and overtime have positive effects on life and job satisfaction, whereas the desire to reduce working hours has a negative impact on satisfaction. In 2009, nearly 60% of employees wanted to reduce t...

  14. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  15. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section... Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... distinction based on whether the activity is performed by an employee during regular working hours or outside...

  16. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working hours. Insert 552.236-74, Working Hours, in solicitations and contracts if construction, dismantling...

  17. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  18. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., whatever their number, rather than for working 40 hours or some other fixed weekly work period, such a... compensation to the employee at a rate not less than the applicable minimum wage rate for every hour worked in..., in addition to such salary, for all overtime hours worked at a rate not less than one-half his...

  19. Hourly Electricity Prices in Day-Ahead Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); C. Huurman; R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the characteristics of hourly electricity prices in day-ahead markets. In these markets, quotes for day-ahead delivery of electricity are submitted simultaneously for all hours in the next day. The same information set is used for quoting all hours of the day. The

  20. Construction-man hour estimation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This study centers on a statistical analysis of the preliminary construction time, main construction time, and total construction man hours of nuclear power plants. The use of these econometric techniques allows the major man hour driving variables to be identified through multivariate analysis of time-series data on over 80 United States nuclear power plants. The analysis made in this study provides a clearer picture of the dynamic changes that have occurred in the man hours of these plants when compared to engineering estimates of man hours, and produces a tool that can be used to project nuclear power plant man hours

  1. The existence and persistence of long work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Robert William; Black, David; Wooden, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  2. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Termansen; Simon Rask

    2017-01-01

    Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day). This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoki...

  3. Work-hour restrictions as an ethical dilemma for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Robert O; Austin, Mary T; Tarpley, John L; Griffin, Marie R; Lomis, Kimberly D

    2006-04-01

    We propose that the standardized work-hour limitations have created an ethical dilemma for residents. A survey tool was designed to assess factors that influence the number of hours residents work and report. The program directors of pediatrics, internal medicine, and general surgery at our institution supported their residents' participation. A voluntary, anonymous survey of these residents was performed. One hundred seventy of 265 eligible residents were surveyed. Eighty-one percent of residents surveyed responded. Eighty percent of respondents reported exceeding work-hour restrictions at least once within the past 6 months. The factor of greatest influence measured was concern for patient care (80%). Forty-nine percent of respondents admitted underreporting their work hours. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions have created an ethical dilemma for residents. Our data show that a significant number of residents feel compelled to exceed work-hour regulations and report those hours falsely.

  4. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  5. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  6. Interns shall not sleep: the duty hours boomerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On March 10, 2017, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME announced revisions to its common program requirements related to duty hours (1. Effective on July 1, 2017, the most important change will be an increase in the maximum consecutive hours that an intern may work. Interns will now be able to continuously perform patient care work up to a maximum of 24 hours with an additional 4 hours for managing care transitions. This reverses the controversial reduction to 16 hours that occurred in 2011 (2. The regulation of house staff duty hours formally began in the late 1980s. It was precipitated largely because of the publicity resulting from the 1984 death of Libby Zion in a New York teaching hospital that was attributed partly to poor decisions made by fatigued and overworked house staff (3. Consequently, the state of New York in 1989 passed laws restricting the …

  7. Review of 12-hour shifts at nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, A.; Moray, N.P.

    1989-04-01

    This project reviewed the practice of 12-hour shift work schedules at nuclear power plants, and its relationship to safety. The current literature was examined for information on accidents, fatigue and personal preferences. Interviews with operators and maintainers showed that these groups had attitude and preference differences related to both 12 hour shift schedules and overtime work opportunities. Several factors related to 12-hour schedules were identified which could affect safety, but which have not been adequately considered. (24 refs.)

  8. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Less than 24-hour duty. 785.21 Section 785.21 Labor...

  9. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices: Utilizing Hourly Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Raviv, Eran; Bouwman, Kees E.; van Dijk, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Energy Economics' , 2015, 50, 227-239. The daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual hours. This paper demonstrates that the disaggregated hourly prices contain useful predictive information for the daily average ...

  10. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England.\\ud Aims: An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD).\\ud Methods: Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their ...

  11. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  12. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Giorgos; Kalush, Michael; O.'Flynn, Hugh; Rossiter, Jack; Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming ...

  13. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  14. Regulating danger on the highways: hours of service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Daniel; Kryger, Meir

    2015-12-01

    Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers in place in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union are summarized and compared to facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness of such provisions in preventing fatigue and drowsiness among truck drivers. Current hours of service provisions governing commercial truck drivers were derived from governmental sources. The commercial truck driver hours of service provisions in the United States, Canada, and the European Union permit drivers to work 14 hours and those of Australia permit drivers to work 12 hours a day on a regular basis. The regulations do not state what a driver may do with time off. They are consistent with a driver being able to drive after 24 hours without sleep. They do not take into account circadian rhythm by linking driving or rest to time of day. Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers leave gaps--permitting drivers to work long hours on a regular basis, permitting driving after no sleep for 24 hours, and failing to take into account the importance of circadian rhythm, endangering the public safety and the truck drivers themselves. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Termansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day. This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place culture through a semi-experimental study. As the decision to implement smoke free work hours is administrative and/or political, we will not be able to randomize the intervention. Instead, we use one or more Danish municipality who are planning to implement smoke free work hours as an intervention-group and similar municipalities as control group. Data will be collected both through questionnaires about employees smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place community, and through register data about the citizens employed in the municipalities in question. This will primarily be data on socio-economic status and health. In this way we can compare the municipalities implementing smoke free work hours with each other and find similar control municipalities. We hope, that this study can contribute to understanding the specific outcomes of implementing smoke free work hours, focusing both on health outcomes and work place culture.

  16. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Juliana da Costa; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Griep, Rosane Harter

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. This is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279). Men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. Both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  17. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as 60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  18. Evaluation of a twelve-hour/day shift schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8-hour to a 12-hour a day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility

  19. Do economic stresses influence child work hours on family farms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; de Long, Rachel; Burdick, Patrick; Jenkins, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Economic stresses are a frequently cited reason for children doing farm work. To explore the relationship between economic indicators and child agricultural work hours between January 2001 and October 2003. This ecologic study design compares trends in aggregate child work hours with national and regional economic indicators. Child work hours were obtained from quarterly surveillance data from a randomized field trial of agricultural task guidelines for children. 2,360 children living or working on 845 farms in central New York participated in the original study. The relationship between child work hours and three economic indicators: national all farm index (AFI) ratio, national fuel index, and regional milk prices was analyzed using times series plots, correlation, and multiple linear regression. The AFI ratio was positively correlated with child work hours (r = 0.49, p = 0.008) but there was no significant correlation between child work hours and fuel or milk prices. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that the relationship between AFI and child work hours is independent of a seasonal effect. Increased child work hours may be associated with periods of higher farm sector productivity, rather than economic stress per se. Findings are limited by the ecologic study design, use of national economic indicators, and the limited number of cycles of child work hours available for time series analysis. Economic conditions may influence decisions about children's farm work.

  20. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours." excerpt

  1. Binocular Rivalry Measured 2 Hours After Occlusion Therapy Predicts the Recovery Rate of the Amblyopic Eye in Anisometropic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Claudia; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Secci, Jacopo; Caputo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on adults have shown that short-term monocular deprivation boosts the deprived eye signal in binocular rivalry, reflecting homeostatic plasticity. Here we investigate whether homeostatic plasticity is present also during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia. Binocular rivalry and visual acuity (using Snellen charts for children) were measured in 10 children (mean age 6.2 ± 1 years) with moderate anisometropic amblyopia before the beginning of treatment and at four intervals during occlusion therapy (2 hours, 1, 2, and 5 months). Visual stimuli were orthogonal gratings presented dichoptically through ferromagnetic goggles and children reported verbally visual rivalrous perception. Bangerter filters were applied on the spectacle lens over the best eye for occlusion therapy. Two hours of occlusion therapy increased the nonamblyopic eye predominance over the amblyopic eye compared with pretreatment measurements, consistent with the results in adults. The boost of the nonamblyopic eye was still present after 1 month of treatment, steadily decreasing afterward to reach pretreatment levels after 2 months of continuous occlusion. Across subjects, the increase in nonamblyopic eye predominance observed after 2 hours of occlusion correlated (rho = -0.65, P = 0.04) with the visual acuity improvement of the amblyopic eye measured after 2 months of treatment. Homeostatic plasticity operates during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia and the increase in nonamblyopic eye dominance observed at the beginning of treatment correlates with the amblyopic eye recovery rate. These results suggest that binocular rivalry might be used to monitor visual cortical plasticity during occlusion therapy, although further investigations on larger clinical populations are needed to validate the predictive power of the technique.

  2. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  3. Working 40 Hours or Not Working 39: Lessons from the 1981 Mandatory Reduction of Weekly Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Crépon, Bruno; Kramarz, Francis

    1999-01-01

    We use longitudinal individual wage, hours, and employment data to investigate the effect of the 1981 mandatory reduction of weekly working hours in France. A few months after François Mitterrand's election of May 1981, the government, applying its programme decided first to increase the minimum wage by 5% and, second, to reduce weekly working hours - from 40 to 39 - together with mandatory stability of monthly earnings of minimum wage workers and strong recommendation for stability of monthl...

  4. Changing the formula of residents' work hours in internal medicine: moving from "years in training" to "hours in training".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-03-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from "years of residency" to "hours of residency." For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of "multipliers" based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the "final adjusted accredited hours" that count toward graduation. Substituting "years of training" with "hours of training" may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education.

  5. Heart Rate Variability in Obstetricians Working 14-Hour Call Compared to 24-Hour Call in Labour and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robin H; Yoon, Eugene; Murphy, Kellie E; Windrim, Rory; Farrugia, M Michéle

    2017-12-01

    Obstetricians have stressful and demanding jobs that may impact their health. A physiological measurement of cardiac function which varies with stress is heart rate variability (HRV). By measuring the cyclic variations in R-R intervals, or beat-to-beat differences, HRV reflects the continuous interplay of the controlling forces in the autonomic nervous system. Studies have shown HRV to be reduced during periods of work-induced stress, including 24-hour shifts. Our study aimed to determine if there was a correlation between length of shift worked and HRV. We hypothesised that working for a full 24-hour period is more stressful than a shorter, nighttime-only period, and HRV analyses were used to measure this objectively. Obstetricians wore an HRV monitor for 24 hours during both a regular day followed by a 14-hour night shift and a continuous 24-hour shift in labour and delivery. The 24-hour samples were analysed using standard HRV measurements. HRV measurements obtained from each physician were then compared according to shift type, with each physician acting as his or her own comparator. There were no statistically significant differences in the most important measures of HRV between 24-hour periods which included either a 14-hour overnight shift or a continuous 24-hour shift on labour and delivery. We found no significant differences in key HRV measures in obstetricians working 14 hours versus 24 hours in labour and delivery. An anecdotal increase in physician awareness of his/her own health related to working conditions was noted during the study. Future studies should attempt to control for the hours prior to a night shift, assess associated endocrine variations, and focus upon HRV in the post-shift period. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 5324 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... and how frequently the 11th hour is used. It seeks data on how much of the 11th hour is used when a... soliciting information on patterns of work for night drivers: 2a. For drivers who always drive at night, what... Act restrictions which prohibit Agency officials from engaging in policy discussions about open...

  7. How a Reduction of Standard Working Hours Affects Employment Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    On December 1, 1996, a new law was implemented in Portugal to gradually reduce the stan- dard working week from 44 to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory reduction affected employment through job creation and job destruction. We find evidence that the working hours reduction had a positive effect

  8. The future of work hours--the European view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2005-01-01

    In Europe the way work hours are handled varies between different countries. However, there are some issues that dominate the discussion in Europe and seem representative for what is happening. One such is the reduction of working hours--which was attempted in several countries but which now seems to be backfiring--probably related to the competition from countries outside Europe. Another area is compressed work hours--the drive towards maximizing the hours per work day in order to increase the number of days off. The health effects are debated--some find clear positive effects. A third area is company oriented flexible work hours, permitting the employer to make moderate changes in work hours when needed. The health impacts have not been evaluated but the loss of individual influence at work is obvious. In some parts of Europe self-determined work hours have been tried with very positive effects. The EU work hour directive is intended to provide uniformity but permits a counterproductive "opting out", creating problems of imbalance.

  9. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules are...

  10. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these...

  11. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of the...

  12. With long hours of work, might depression then lurk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Marott, Jacob Louis; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship.......The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship....

  13. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777 F... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location and business hours. 905.3 Section 905.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND...

  14. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  15. Resident duty hours in Canada: a survey and national statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Mark F; Shrichand, Pankaj; Maniate, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in general, and residents in particular, are adapting to duty schedules in which they have fewer continuous work hours; however, there are no Canadian guidelines on duty hours restrictions. To better inform resident duty hour policy in Canada, we set out to prepare a set of recommendations that would draw upon evidence reported in the literature and reflect the experiences of resident members of the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). A survey was prepared and distributed electronically to all resident members of CAIR. A total of 1796 eligible residents participated in the survey. Of those who responded, 38% (601) reported that they felt they could safely provide care for up to 16 continuous hours, and 20% (315) said that 12 continuous hours was the maximum period during which they could safely provide care (n=1592). Eighty-two percent (1316) reported their perception that the quality of care they had provided suffered because of the number of consecutive hours worked (n=1598). Only 52% (830) had received training in handover (n=1594); those who had received such training reported that it was commonly provided through informal modelling. On the basis of these data and the existing literature, CAIR recommends that resident duty hours be managed in a way that does not endanger the health of residents or patients; does not impair education; is flexible; and does not violate ethical or legal standards. Further, residents should be formally trained in handover skills and alternative duty hour models.

  16. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours. The... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3..., DC 20581. It is open each day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays, from 8:15 a.m...

  17. Effect of a 12-hour/day shift on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1988-06-01

    The operating crews at the Fast Flux Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to 12- hour/day work schedule. The primary reason for the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. Plant performance and safety were not adversely affected. A statistical analysis of 53 operator-related, off-normal events in 28 months concluded that there was no significant difference in either the number or the severity of off-normal events on the 12-hour shift. A statistical analysis of 200,000 log entries concluded that the error rate in completing logs actually declined by 25 percent on the 12-hour shift. Alertness, which was measured using computerized tests of mathematics and logical reasoning, reach a nadir on the first night shift for the 8- and 12-hour schedules alike, which indicates that the primary cause of fatigue was sleep disruption, not cumulative hours of work. All supervisors and 52 percent of the operators believe their crews work more effectively on the 12-hour shift; only 12 percent of the operators believe that their crews work less effectively. The evaluation indicated that the 12-hour shift scheduled is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility. 2 refs

  18. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Babic, B [Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    1993-07-01

    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  19. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David

    2017-01-01

    long hours (≤55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years...... of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0......Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working...

  20. Factors influencing accruement of contact hours for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsch, Sylvia; Henniges, Amy; Lorenzoni, Nancy; Eckardt, Sally; Oleniczak, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    A decline in attendance at continuing education (CE) in nursing activities was observed in a Midwest state where CE attendance is not required. The purpose of this research study was to identify the effect of attitude, extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement, and deterrents on contact hour accrual. A convenience sample of 282 registered nurses was surveyed using a researcher-constructed instrument determined to be valid and reliable. Registered nurses earning 0 to 15 contact hours annually reported accruing fewer contact hours in 1999 than in an average year. Registered nurses who earned 16 to 45+ contact hours annually reported earning more contact hours in 1999 than in an average year. Intrinsic reinforcement was found to be a significant motivator (r [257] = .242; p Operant Conditioning Theory has use in explaining registered nurse attendance at CE activities. CE planners should consider placing more emphasis on intrinsic rather than extrinsic reinforcement to encourage staff to attend CE activities.

  1. Duty hour reform in a shifting medical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Prasad, Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The circumstances that led to the death of Libby Zion in 1984 prompted national discussions about the impact of resident fatigue on patient outcomes. Nearly 30 years later, national duty hour reforms largely motivated by patient safety concerns have demonstrated a negligible impact of duty hour reductions on patient mortality. We suggest that the lack of an impact of duty hour reforms on patient mortality is due to a different medical landscape today than existed in 1984. Improvements in quality of care made possible by computerized order entry, automated medication checks, inpatient pharmacists, and increased resident supervision have, among other systemic changes, diminished the adverse impact that resident fatigue is able to have on patient outcomes. Given this new medical landscape, advocacy towards current and future duty hour reforms may be best justified by evidence of the impact of duty hour reform on resident wellbeing, education, and burnout.

  2. Working hours and common mental disorders in English police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Randall, R

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on working hours and their psychological correlates in police officers of the federated ranks in England. An exploratory study to establish the extent to which a sample of English police officers worked long hours and the association between long working hours and common mental disorder (CMD). Officers of the federated ranks (constable, sergeant, inspector) from two English county forces completed a questionnaire to report their typical weekly working hours and symptoms of CMD. We also collected socio- and occupational-demographic data. We defined long working hours as ≥49 h in a typical week in accordance with 48-h weekly limit specified in the 1993 European Directive on the Organisation of Working Time. We established associations between long working hours and self-reported CMDs using binary logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounding variables. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 327/1226) of respondents reported long working hours. The ORs for psychological distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.68), emotional exhaustion (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.59), and depersonalization (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.71) were significantly increased for long working hours after adjustment for socio- and occupational-demographic characteristics. More than one quarter of sampled police officers reported working long hours and were significantly more likely to report CMD. National and longitudinal research is required to confirm these findings, which suggest management of working hours may effectively promote psychological well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Long hours in paid and domestic work and subsequent sickness absence: does control over daily working hours matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Mursula, L; Vahtera, J; Kouvonen, A; Väänänen, A; Linna, A; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2006-09-01

    To explore the associations of working hours (paid, domestic, commuting, and total) with sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations vary according to the level of employee control over daily working hours. Prospective cohort study among 25 703 full-time public sector employees in 10 towns in Finland. A survey of working hours and control over working hours was carried out in 2000-01. The survey responses were linked with register data on the number of self-certified (3 days) sickness absences until the end of 2003. Poisson regression analyses with generalised estimating equations were used to take into account the fact that the employees were nested within work units. Adjustments were made for work and family characteristics and health behaviour. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 (SD 8.1) months. Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates of medically certified sickness absences among both genders. In contrast, long paid working hours were associated with lower rates of subsequent self-certified sickness absences. Long commuting hours were related to increased rates of sickness absence of both types. Low control over daily working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men and self-certified absences for the men. In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time job with the demands of domestic work.

  4. [Relationships between walking hours, sleeping hours, meaningfulness of life (ikigai) and mortality in the elderly: prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, N

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine lifestyle factors in the elderly that affected longevity, using a population-based prospective study. The participants were 440 men and 625 women aged 60 to 74 living in a rural Japanese community. The baseline data such as age, sex, present illness, walking hours per day, sleeping hours per day, alcohol consumption, a history of smoking, and "ikigai" (meaningfulness of life) were collected in July 1990. During 90 months of follow-up from July 1990 to December 31 1997, there were 123 deaths. By Cox's multivariate hazard model adjusted age, sex, and medical histories, walking > or = 1 hour/day (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.91) and an "ikigai" (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) lowered the risk for all-cause mortality independently. In regard to hours of sleep, the cumulative survival curve showed that 7 hours/day was the border and sleeping > or = 7 hours/day lowered the risk (HR = 0.49 95% CI 0.33-0.74). Based on the findings in this study, walking > or = 1 hour/day, sleeping > or = 7 hours/day, and "ikigai" are important factors for longevity in the elderly.

  5. Gender-specific dynamics in hours worked : Exploring the potential for increasing hours worked in an ageing society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; van Dijk, Jouke; Karlsson, Charlie; Andersson, Martin; Norman, Therese

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch labour market differs from that of other countries due to a unique combination of high employment rates and a low average number of hours worked. Dutch employment rates are among the highest in the world, at 77 per cent in 2011. At the same time, the average number of hours worked annually

  6. Are long physician working hours harmful to patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Pediatricians of Japanese hospitals including not only residents but also attending physicians work long hours, and 8% work for >79 h per week. Most of them work consecutively for >or=32 h when they are on call. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long work hours on patient safety. The electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE to searched identify the English- and Japanese-language literature for studies on work hours, medical errors, patient safety, and malpractice for years 1966-2005. Studies that analyzed the relationship between physician work hours and outcomes directly related to patient safety were selected. Seven studies met the criteria. Four studies suggest that reduction of work hours has a favorable effect on patient safety indicators. In the other three studies no significant changes of the indicators were observed, but no report found that shorter work hours were harmful to patient safety. Decrease of physician work hours is not harmful but favorable to patient safety.

  7. A new approach for evaluating flexible working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Ole; Janssen, Daniela; Schomann, Carsten; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on flexible working hours show at least some of these working time arrangements seem to be associated with impairing effects of health and well-being. According to available evidence, variability of working hours seems to play an important role. The question, however, is how this variability can be assessed and used to explain or predict impairments. Based on earlier methods used to assess shift-work effects, a time series analysis approach was applied to the matter of flexible working hours. Data on the working hours of 4 week's length of 137 respondents derived from a survey on flexible work hours involving 15 companies of different production and service sectors in Germany were converted to time series and analyzed by spectral analysis. A cluster analysis of the resulting power spectra yielded 5 clusters of flexible work hours. Analyzing these clusters for differences in reported impairments showed that workers who showed suppression of circadian and weekly rhythms experienced severest impairments, especially in circadian controlled functions like sleep and digestion. The results thus indicate that analyzing the periodicity of flexible working hours seems to be a promising approach for predicting impairments which should be investigated further in the future.

  8. Perspectives on the working hours of Australian junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Bonning, Michael; Mitchell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The working hours of junior doctors have been a focus of discussion in Australia since the mid-1990s. Several national organizations, including the Australian Medical Association (AMA), have been prominent in advancing this agenda and have collected data (most of which is self-reported) on the working hours of junior doctors over the last 15 years. Overall, the available data indicate that working hours have fallen in a step-wise fashion, and AMA data suggest that the proportion of doctors at high risk of fatigue may be declining. It is likely that these changes reflect significant growth in the number of medical graduates, more detailed specifications regarding working hours in industrial agreements, and a greater focus on achieving a healthy work-life balance. It is notable that reductions in junior doctors' working hours have occurred despite the absence of a national regulatory framework for working hours. Informed by a growing international literature on working hours and their relation to patient and practitioner safety, accreditation bodies such as the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) and the Australian Medical Council (AMC) are adjusting their standards to encourage improved work and training practices.

  9. [A systematic review of working hours and mental health burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi

    2006-07-01

    There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of

  10. Impact of new duty-hour rules on residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Nelson, Alisa; Van Camp, Joan; Ling, Louis

    2010-11-01

    On the surface, changing the rules related to the number of hours residents work per day and per week sounds like a good idea. Theoretically, residents who work fewer hours would be less tired and provide better patient care. But even small changes in residency training programs have implications for the quality of the educational experience and the cost of training, as well as patient care. This article highlights the challenges that two Minnesota residency programs are facing as they adapt to the new rules around residents' work hours.

  11. 12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication

  12. busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    *Corresponding author tel: + 234 – 803 – 054 – 7650. BUSY HOUR ... demand, radio frequency (RF) optimization teams use the KPIs to ... In practice, the performance can be monitored at ..... [8] I. Kennedy, Lost Call Theory, Lecture Notes,.

  13. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  14. effect of daylight hours on performance of growing grasscutters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    DNA.Many animals use the daily variation in the duration and quantity of melatonin ... such as reproduction, behavior, coat growth and ... behavioral processes in the biological system. The ... spends the daylight hours sleeping or resting. The.

  15. correlation between sunshine hours and climatic parameters at four

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    A multiple regression technique was used to assess the correlation between sunshine hours and maximum and ... solar radiation depends on the model and the climatic parameter used. ..... A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating wind ...

  16. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....... We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. PARTICIPANTS...... find no difference in overall surgical volumes between Danes and US residents during their surgical training. When time in training was accounted for, differences between weekly surgical volumes achieved were minor, indicating a lack of direct correlation between weekly work-hours and operative volumes...

  17. U.S. Hourly Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Hourly Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  18. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Montagna, Catia

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  19. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2010-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  20. Work hours, social value of leisure and globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2012-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker’s marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...... and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature...

  1. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data is digital data set DSI-6421, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI; formerly National Climatic...

  2. Planning Annuaulised hours when spike in demand exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sureshkumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Manpower planning using annualised hours is an effective tool where seasonal demand for staff in industry exists. In annualised hours (AH workers are contracted to work for a certain number of hours per year. The workers are associated with relative efficiency for different types of tasks. This paper proposes a Mixed Integer linear Programming (MILP model to solve an annualised working hours planning problem when spike in demand exists. The holiday weeks for the workers are considered as partially individualised. If a worker has been assigned with more than one type of working week in a week, this will be compensated with one or more holiday week. The performance of the model is demonstrated with an example. It can be seen that this type of modelling helps to meet the spikes in demand with less capacity shortage compared with one working week in a week.

  3. Implementation and Evaluation of Flexible Work Hours; a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The flexible work hours program described is favorably received by both management and nonmanagement employees and positively influences the employees' perceived quality of life without causing a productivity loss. (Author/IRT)

  4. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ahmed, Kazi Ishtiak

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods: The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970......–1971 and 1985–1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970–1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years......). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0...

  5. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  6. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  7. Characteristics and outcomes for women physicians who work reduced hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Gareis, Karen C; Barnett, Rosalind C

    2003-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of women physicians who work reduced hours in dual-earner couples and how such work schedules affect the quality of the marital role, parental role, and job role, as well as indicators of psychological distress, burnout, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Survey of a random sample of female physicians between 25 and 50 years of age, working within 25 miles of Boston, whose names were obtained from the Registry of Board Certification in Medicine in Massachusetts. Interviewers conducted a 60-minute face-to-face close-ended interview after a 20-minute mailed questionnaire had been completed. Fifty-one full-time physicians and 47 reduced-hours physicians completed the study, for a completion rate of 49.5%. There was no difference in age, number of years as a physician, mean household income, number of children, or presence of an infant in the home between reduced-hours and full-time physicians. Reduced-hours physicians, however, were more likely to be in a generalist specialty (40% vs. 12%, p = 0.001) and to spend a greater portion of their time in patient care (64.5% vs. 50.1%, p = 0.003) and less time in research (4.9% vs. 18.0%, p = 0.002) than full-time physicians. In addition, there was no difference between the two groups in the perception of work interfering with family life (1.8 vs. 1.7, p = 0.17; scale 1-7 with 7 high) or family life interfering with work (1.4 vs. 1.5, p = 0.62). Physicians who worked their preferred number of hours (25% of full-time and 57% of reduced-hours physicians), regardless of full-time (self-reported hours 35-90 hours per week) or reduced-hours (20-60 hours per week) status, reported better job role quality (r = 0.35, p = 0.001), schedule fit (r = 0.41, p Women physicians who work their preferred number of hours achieve the best balance of work and family outcomes.

  8. The Good, the Bad, and the 30 Hour Work Week

    OpenAIRE

    Sneberg, Ann Kristin; Andersen, Amalie Elizabeth Thune

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates why it is that an initiative such as 30 hour work weeks has not been morewidely implemented in organisations. The topic of stress and imbalance between work life andpersonal life seems to be growing more and more. Furthermore, the effects of the traditionalbusiness approach are being seen more and more on the environment. Therefore, there wouldappear to be a need for change. Yet, why is it, that when a suggestion such as reducing standardworking weeks to 30 hours, in...

  9. Appropriate working hours for surgical training according to Australasian trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Harper, Simon; Loveday, Benjamin; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The demands of surgical training, learning and service delivery compete with the need to minimize fatigue and maintain an acceptable lifestyle. The optimal balance of working hours is uncertain. This study aimed to define the appropriate hours to meet these requirements according to trainees. All Australian and New Zealand surgical trainees were surveyed. Roster structures, weekly working hours and weekly 'sleep loss hours' (work practices were then correlated with sufficiency of training time, time for study, fatigue and its impacts, and work-life balance preferences. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed. The response rate was 55.3% with responders representative of the total trainee body. Trainees who worked median 60 h/week (interquartile range: 55-65) considered their work hours to be appropriate for 'technical' and 'non-technical' training needs compared with 55 h/week (interquartile range: 50-60) regarded as appropriate for study/research needs. Working ≥65 h/week, or accruing ≥5.5 weekly 'sleep loss hours', was associated with increased fatigue, reduced ability to study, more frequent dozing while driving and impaired concentration at work. Trainees who considered they had an appropriate work-life balance worked median 55 h/week. Approximately, 60 h/week proved an appropriate balance of working hours for surgical training, although study and lifestyle demands are better met at around 55 h/week. Sleep loss is an important determinant of fatigue and its impacts, and work hours should not be considered in isolation. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Working hours and Work-Life Balance Satisfaction in Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Georges; Dominique Méda; Danièle Trancart

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, many studies have highlighted the strategic nature of working hours, the way they are determined, their regularity and their predictability to judge the qualities of a job and how family life and work life are reconciled. Our results confirm those obtained by previous studies and clarify them, while also showing that both the working hours of the persons questioned and those of their spouse constitute a central variable. We will first review the results from the a...

  11. Standard deviation of wind direction as a function of time; three hours to five hundred seventy-six hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culkowski, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The standard deviation of horizontal wind direction sigma/sub theta/ increases with time of averaging up to a maximum value of 104 0 . The average standard deviation of horizontal wind directions averaged over periods of 3, 5, 10, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72, 144, 288, and 576 hours were calculated from wind data obtained from a 100 meter tower in the Oak Ridge area. For periods up to 100 hours, sigma/sub theta/ varies as t/sup .28/; after 100 hours sigma/sub theta/ varies as 6.5 ln t

  12. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Rossiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming the earning capacity of workers. There are reasons to believe that reducing working hours may absorb some unemployment, especially in the short-run, even if less than what is advocated by proponents of the proposal. Further, there may well be strong benefits for the quality of peoples’ lives. Environmental benefits are likely but depend crucially on complementary policies or social conditions that will ensure that the time liberated will not be directed to resource-intensive or environmentally harmful consumption. It is questionable whether reduced working hours are sustainable in the long-term given resource limits and climate change. We conclude that while the results of reducing working hours are uncertain, this may be a risk worth taking, especially as an interim measure that may relieve unemployment while other necessary structural changes are instituted.

  13. ACGME proposes dropping the 16 hour resident shift limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME is proposing that first-year residents would no longer be limited to 16-hour shifts during the 2017-2018 academic year under a controversial proposal released today (1. Instead, individual residency programs could assign first-year trainees to shifts as long as 28 hours, the current limit for all other residents. The 28-hour maximum includes 4 transitional hours that's designed in part to help residents improve continuity of care. The plan to revise training requirements does not change other rules designed to protect all residents from overwork. including the maximum80 hours per week. The ACGME capped the shifts of first-year residents at 16 hours in 2011 as a part of an ongoing effort to make trainee schedules more humane and avoid clinical errors caused by sleep deprivation. ACGME CEO Thomas Nasca, MD, told Medscape Medical News that the problem arises largely from first-year residents not being ...

  14. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Daniela; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2004-12-01

    To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. Two studies -- a company based survey (N=660) and an internet survey (N=528) -- have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil) on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres). The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include -- besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible) working hours -- that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate), even if this variability is self-controlled.

  15. Flexible working hours and well-being in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M

    2001-12-01

    Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.

  16. Long working hours may increase risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Cho, Soo-Hun; Yoo, Min-Sang; Kim, Taeshik; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the association between long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS) in Korean adults. This study evaluated adult participants in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009). After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample size for this study model was 8,350. Subjects were asked about working hours and health status. Participants also completed physical examinations and biochemical measurement necessary for estimation of FRS. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between working hours and 10-year risk for CHD estimated by FRS. Compared to those who work 31-40 hr, significantly higher 10-year risk was estimated among subjects working longer hours. As working hours increased, odds ratio (OR) for upper 10 percent of estimated 10-year risk for CHD was increased up to 1.94. Long working hours are significantly related to risk of coronary heart disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Use and Underlying Reasons for Duty Hour Flexibility in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl Y; Quinn, Christopher M; Dahlke, Allison R; Kelz, Rachel R; Shea, Judy A; Rajaram, Ravi; Love, Remi; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Biester, Thomas; Yang, Anthony D; Hoyt, David B; Lewis, Frank R

    2017-02-01

    The Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial randomly assigned surgical residency programs to either standard duty hour policies or flexible policies that eliminated caps on shift lengths and time off between shifts. Our objectives were to assess adherence to duty hour requirements in the Standard Policy arm and examine how often and why duty hour flexibility was used in the Flexible Policy arm. A total of 3,795 residents in the FIRST trial completed a survey in January 2016 (response rate >95%) that asked how often and why they exceeded current standard duty hour limits in both study arms. Flexible Policy interns worked more than 16 hours continuously at least once in a month more frequently than Standard Policy residents (86% vs 37.8%). Flexible Policy residents worked more than 28 hours once in a month more frequently than Standard Policy residents (PGY1: 64% vs 2.9%; PGY2 to 3: 62.4% vs 41.9%; PGY4 to 5: 52.2% vs 36.6%), but this occurred most frequently only 1 to 2 times per month. Although residents reported working more than 80 hours in a week 3 or more times in the most recent month more frequently under Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy (19.9% vs 16.2%), the difference was driven by interns (30.9% vs 19.6%), and there were no significant differences in exceeding 80 hours among PGY2 to 5 residents. The most common reasons reported for extending duty hours were facilitating care transitions (76.6%), stabilizing critically ill patients (70.7%), performing routine responsibilities (67.9%), and operating on patients known to the trainee (62.0%). There were differences in duty hours worked by residents in the Flexible vs Standard Policy arms of the FIRST trial, but it appeared that residents generally used the flexibility for patient care and educational opportunities selectively. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nursing work hours: individual needs versus working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2011-12-01

    To assess factors associated with professional and total hours of work (work + home) among nursing staff. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 2004 and 2005. A total of 696 workers (nurses, nurse technicians and aids), mostly women (87.8%) working day and/or night shifts, participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collected information on demographic characteristics, and working and life conditions. Translated and adapted into Portuguese versions of the Job Stress Scale, Effort-reward imbalance, Short-Form-Health-related quality of life and the Work Ability Index were also administered. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Sole breadwinner, working night shifts and effort-reward imbalance were the variables associated with both professional (OR = 3.38, OR = 10.43, OR = 2.07, respectively) and total hours of work (OR = 1.57, OR = 3.37, OR = 2.75, respectively). There was no significant association between the variables related to hours of work and low Work Ability Index. Inadequate rest at home was statistically associated with professional (OR = 2.47) and total hours of work (OR = 1.48). Inadequate leisure time was significantly associated with professional hours of work (OR = 1.58) and barely associated with total hours of work (OR = 1.43). The sole breadwinner, working night shifts and effort-reward imbalance are variables that need to be further investigated in studies on work hours among nursing staff. These studies should explore workers' income and the relationship between effort and reward, taking into consideration gender issues.

  19. Modeling Hourly Resident Productivity in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua W; Henning, Daniel J; Strouse, Connie S; Chiu, David T; Nathanson, Larry A; Sanchez, Leon D

    2017-08-01

    Resident productivity, defined as new patients per hour, carries important implications for emergency department operations. In high-volume academic centers, essential staffing decisions can be made on the assumption that residents see patients at a static rate. However, it is unclear whether this model mirrors reality; previous studies have not rigorously examined whether productivity changes over time. We examine residents' productivity across shifts to determine whether it remained consistent. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an urban academic hospital with a 3-year emergency medicine training program in which residents acquire patients ad libitum throughout their shift. Time stamps of all patient encounters were automatically logged. A linear mixed model was constructed to predict productivity per shift hour. A total of 14,364 8- and 9-hour shifts were worked by 75 residents between July 1, 2010, and June 20, 2015. This comprised 6,127 (42.7%) postgraduate year (PGY) 1 shifts, 7,236 (50.4%) PGY-2 shifts, and 998 (6.9%) PGY-3 nonsupervisory shifts (Table 1). Overall, residents treated a mean of 10.1 patients per shift (SD 3.2), with most patients at Emergency Severity Index level 3 or more acute (93.8%). In the initial hour, residents treated a mean of 2.14 patients (SD 1.2), and every subsequent hour was associated with a significant decrease, with the largest in the second, third, and final hours. Emergency medicine resident productivity during a single shift follows a reliable pattern that decreases significantly hourly, a pattern preserved across PGY years and types of shifts. This suggests that resident productivity is a dynamic process, which should be considered in staffing decisions and studied further. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of working hours on sleep and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, P; Fonseca, M; Pires, J F

    2017-07-01

    The number of hours people are required to work has a pervasive influence on both physical and mental health. Excessive working hours can also negatively affect sleep quality. The impact at work of mental health problems can have serious consequences for individuals' as well as for organizations' productivity. To evaluate differences in sleep quality and anxiety and depression symptoms between longer working hours group (LWHG) and regular working hours group (RWHG). To examine factors influencing weekly working hours, sleep quality and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were divided into two groups, RWHG and LWHG, based on working hours, with a cut-off of 48 h per week. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure the quality and patterns of sleep. The response rate was 23%. Among the 429 study participants, those in the LWHG group (n = 256, 53%) had significantly more depressive and anxiety symptoms and worse sleep quality than those in RWHG (n = 223, 47%). Working time was significantly positively correlated with higher corporate position and HADS scores. Moreover, HADS scores were positively correlated with PSQI scores and negatively correlated with age. This study suggests that longer working hours are associated with poorer mental health status and increasing levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and sleep disturbances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Nurses' extended work hours: Patient, nurse and organizational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaviktikul, W; Wichaikhum, O; Nantsupawat, A; Nantsupawat, R; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A; Roongruangsri, S; Nantachaipan, P; Supamanee, T; Chitpakdee, B; Akkadechanunt, T; Sirakamon, S

    2015-09-01

    Nursing shortages have been associated with increased nurse workloads that may result in work errors, thus impacting patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. To examine for the first time in Thailand nurses' extended work hours (working more than 40 h per week) and its relationship to patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. Using multistage sampling, 1524 registered nurses working in 90 hospitals across Thailand completed demographic forms: the Nurses' Extended Work Hours Form; the Patient, Nurse, Organizational Outcomes Form; the Organizational Productivity Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank correlation and logistic regression. The average extended work hour of respondents was 18.82 h per week. About 80% worked two consecutive shifts. The extended work hours had a positive correlation with patient outcomes, such as patient identification errors, pressure ulcers, communication errors and patient complaints and with nurse outcomes of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between extended work hours and job satisfaction as a whole, intent to stay and organizational productivity. Nurses who had extended work hours of >16 h per week were significantly more likely to perceive all four adverse patient outcomes than participants working an extended ≤8 h per week. Patient outcomes were measured by respondents' self-reports. This may not always reflect the real occurrence of adverse events. Associations between extended work hours and outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization were found. The findings demonstrate that working two shifts (16 h) more than the regular work hours lead to negative outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization. Our findings add to increasing international evidence that nurses' poor working conditions result in negative outcomes for professionals, patients and health systems

  2. Duty hours and incidents in flight among commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anna Donnla; Issartel, Johann; Fletcher, Richard; Warrington, Giles

    2016-01-01

    Working long duty hours has often been associated with increased risk of incidents and accidents in transport industries. Despite this, information regarding the intermediate relationship between duty hours and incident risk is limited. This study aimed to test a work hours/incident model to identify the interplay of factors contributing to incidents within the aviation industry. Nine hundred and fifty-four European-registered commercial airline pilots completed a 30-item survey investigating self-report attitudes and experiences of fatigue. Path analysis was used to test the proposed model. The fit indices indicated this to be a good fit model (χ(2) = 11.066, df = 5, p = 0.05; Comparative Fit Index = 0.991; Normed Fit Index = 0.984; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.962; Root Mean Square of Approximation = 0.036). Highly significant relationships were identified between duty hours and sleep disturbance (r = 0.18, p hours through to self-reported incidents in flight was identified. Further investigation employing both objective and subjective measures of sleep and fatigue is needed.

  3. Modeling Aggregate Hourly Energy Consumption in a Regional Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kipping

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sound estimates of future heat and electricity demand with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed for energy system planning, grid design, and evaluating demand-side management options and polices on regional and national levels. In this study, smart meter data on electricity consumption in buildings are combined with cross-sectional building information to model hourly electricity consumption within the household and service sectors on a regional basis in Norway. The same modeling approach is applied to model aggregate hourly district heat consumption in three different consumer groups located in Oslo. A comparison of modeled and metered hourly energy consumption shows that hourly variations and aggregate consumption per county and year are reproduced well by the models. However, for some smaller regions, modeled annual electricity consumption is over- or underestimated by more than 20%. Our results indicate that the presented method is useful for modeling the current and future hourly energy consumption of a regional building stock, but that larger and more detailed training datasets are required to improve the models, and more detailed building stock statistics on regional level are needed to generate useful estimates on aggregate regional energy consumption.

  4. The 24-hour society between myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2001-12-01

    The 24-hour society appears to be an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more "restricting" the human life. But, what kind of 24-hour society do we need? At what costs? Are they acceptable/sustainable? Shift work, night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage, of which shift workers are builders and victims at the same time. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined: not only the link between work place and working hours is broken, but also the value of working time changes according to the different economic/productive/social effects it can make. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of physical health; psychological well-being, family and social life? The research on irregular working hours and health shows us what can be the negative consequences of non-human-centered working times organisations. Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building a more sustainable society, at acceptable costs and with the highest possible benefits.

  5. Epidemiology of hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkoub F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems observed in newborns. Our purpose was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors on jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth.Methods: All newborns observed to have jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth were enrolled prospectively in this study. Laboratory evaluations included blood group typing of mother and newborn, hemoglobin and hematocrit, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity, maternal indirect and neonatal direct Coombs test, and serum total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin. In all cases, gender, birth weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth trauma, cephalhematoma, maternal age, parity, or any siblings with neonatal jaundice were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-, and chi-square tests.Results: Of a total of 2096 newborns delivered in one year, 122 (5.8% developed jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth. Risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, infection, G6PD deficiency, cephalhematoma, asphyxia, and Rh disease. There were no statistically significant relationships between jaundice and maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, neonatal gender or previous siblings with jaundice (p>0.05.Conclusions: Jaundice observed in the initial 24 hours after birth was infrequent, but clinically significant. All newborns should be followed by repeated exams within the first 24 hours after birth and before discharge, especially if the maternal blood group is O.

  6. Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) - Special working hours

    CERN Document Server

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) entitled "Special working hours", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208539.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Special working hours" of January 2013. This document contains modifications to reflect the new career structure and ensuring the provision consistent with practice that compensation or remuneration of special working hours performed remotely is possible only in case of emergency.   This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  7. Working Hours, Promotion and the Gender Gap in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Owan, Hideo; Ogawa, Hiromasa

    thereof. The firm's decision to provide training also depends on its private information about the worker's OJT ability, which affects his/her future productivity if and when the worker gets promoted. Upon completion of training, the firm then promotes the worker. The model illuminates under what......This paper presents a novel model of promotion within the firm which sheds new light on the interplay between working hours and the odds of subsequent promotion. The model's key feature is the coexistence of two different sources of asymmetric information: (i) the worker's cost of long working....../her on the job. Long working hours signal the worker's commitment to the firm, which determines the surplus produced when the worker is promoted. Thus, the firm provides the worker with managerial training only after observing the employee's hours worked, a signal of his/her commitment to the firm or lack...

  8. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...... of households in Denmark. The model considers hourly consumption profiles for different household appliances and their contribution to annual household electricity consumption. When applying the model to an official scenario for annual electricity consumption, assuming non-flexible consumption due...... to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase.Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental...

  9. The eighty-hour workweek: surgical attendings' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Devan; Menon, Rema P; Kotwall, Cyrus A; Clancy, Thomas V; Hope, William W

    2010-01-01

    The year 2008 was a sentinel year in resident education; this was the first graduating general surgery class trained entirely under the 80-hour workweek. The purpose of this study was to evaluate attending surgeon perceptions of surgical resident attitudes and performance before and after duty-hour restrictions. An electronic survey was sent to all surgical teaching institutions in North Carolina. Both surgeon and hospital characteristics were documented. The survey consisted of questions designed to assess residents' attitudes/performance before and after the implementation of the work-hour restriction. In all, 77 surveys were returned (33% response rate). The survey demonstrated that 92% of educators who responded to the survey recognized a difference between the restricted residents (RRs) and the nonrestricted residents (NRRs), and most respondents (67%) attributed this to both the work-hour restrictions and the work ethic of current residents. Most attending surgeons reported no difference between the RRs and the NRRs in most categories; however, they identified a negative change in the areas of work ethic, technical skills development, decision-making/critical-thinking skills, and patient ownership among the RR group. Most surgeons expressed less trust (55%) with patient care and less confidence (68%) in residents' ability to operate independently in the RR group. Eighty-nine percent indicated that additional decreases in work hours would continue to hamper the mission of timely and comprehensive resident education. The perception of surgical educators was that RRs are clearly different from the NRRs and that the primary difference is in work ethic and duty-hour restrictions. Although similar in most attributes, RRs are perceived as having a lower baseline work ethic and a less developed technical skill set, decision-making ability, and sense of patient ownership. Subsequent study is needed to evaluate these concerns. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  10. Restricted working hours in Austrian residency programs : Survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konstantin D; Aman, Martin; Podesser, Bruno K

    2018-04-27

    New regulations for working hours of medical doctors have been implemented in Austria based on the European directive 2003/88/EG, limiting on-duty working hours to 48 h per week. Clinical work is, therefore, substantially reduced compared to previous decades, and little is known on physician and students' opinions on this matter. We illustrate survey results concerning on-job training, its difficulties, and implications for restricted working hours. We conducted an internal survey among M.D. and Ph.D. students and medical staff members at the Medical University of Vienna using the MedCampus system (CAMPUSOnline, Graz, Austria) and SPSS (V.21, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Participants were 36.5% staff members and 63.5% students. Students rated continuous education of physicians high at 9.19 ± 1.76 and staff members at 8.90 ± 2.48 on a 1-10 (1 unimportant, 10 most important) scale. Students rated limited time resources, while staff considered financial resources as the greatest challenge for in-hospital education. Overall, 28.85% thought that restricted working hours can positively influence education, while 19.04% thought the opposite and 52.11% were undecided. Considering the limited available time and financial resources, education of tomorrow's medical doctors remains an important but difficult task. While participants of our survey rated education as very important despite its many challenges, the opinions towards limited working hours were not as clear. Given that over 50% are still undecided whether reduced work hours may also positively influence medical education, it clearly presents an opportunity to include the next generations of physicians in this undertaking.

  11. Out of hours ophthalmic surgery: a UK national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Colmain, U; Wright, M; Bennett, H; MacEwen, C J

    2013-03-01

    There have been significant changes in the management of out of hours services in ophthalmology recently. The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and economic measures have anecdotally reduced the availability of staff and facilities outside normal working hours, and there have been various responses to the provision of emergency surgical care. There are disparate attitudes to the optimum management of the emergency surgical case. We sought to establish a nationwide picture of the management of out of hours surgery. A questionnaire was distributed to every consultant ophthalmologist working in the NHS and registered with the Royal College of Ophthalmologists (n=947). Information was requested regarding departmental and personal policies, local facilities, and personal beliefs regarding emergency surgery. A total of 440 (46.5%) questionnaires were returned from 155 units; 18.7% of the units had no out of hours services or no operating facilities. Sixty-three percent of units reported a local policy regarding a time after which patients should not be taken to theatre. For 57%, this time began between 2100 hours and midnight. The most common reasons for not operating after a certain time were 'belief that delay does not significantly affect the outcome' (41.6%), 'delayed access to theatre due to competition with other surgical specialities' (40%), and 'no specialist ophthalmic-theatre nursing input' (32.7%). We report the first nationwide study on out of hours ophthalmological surgical working practices. This demonstrates variation in work patterns. It is significant to patients and ophthalmologists that there should be units in United Kingdom without full local facilities and staff.

  12. Averaging and sampling for magnetic-observatory hourly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A time and frequency-domain analysis is made of the effects of averaging and sampling methods used for constructing magnetic-observatory hourly data values. Using 1-min data as a proxy for continuous, geomagnetic variation, we construct synthetic hourly values of two standard types: instantaneous "spot" measurements and simple 1-h "boxcar" averages. We compare these average-sample types with others: 2-h average, Gaussian, and "brick-wall" low-frequency-pass. Hourly spot measurements provide a statistically unbiased representation of the amplitude range of geomagnetic-field variation, but as a representation of continuous field variation over time, they are significantly affected by aliasing, especially at high latitudes. The 1-h, 2-h, and Gaussian average-samples are affected by a combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing. Brick-wall values are not affected by either amplitude distortion or aliasing, but constructing them is, in an operational setting, relatively more difficult than it is for other average-sample types. It is noteworthy that 1-h average-samples, the present standard for observatory hourly data, have properties similar to Gaussian average-samples that have been optimized for a minimum residual sum of amplitude distortion and aliasing. For 1-h average-samples from medium and low-latitude observatories, the average of the combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing is less than the 5.0 nT accuracy standard established by Intermagnet for modern 1-min data. For medium and low-latitude observatories, average differences between monthly means constructed from 1-min data and monthly means constructed from any of the hourly average-sample types considered here are less than the 1.0 nT resolution of standard databases. We recommend that observatories and World Data Centers continue the standard practice of reporting simple 1-h-average hourly values.

  13. Working hours in a period of low economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Walterskirchen, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    Collectively agreed reductions of working hours phased out in Europe in the 1990s. During the last two decades, working time became more flexible and heterogeneous. Working hours of full-time employees in the EU hardly changed. The strong increase in part-time work was the outstanding phenomenon. Today, one third of female employees and almost ten percent of male employees work part-time. In a period of slow growth, productivity gains will be squeezed by subdued investment and low capacity ut...

  14. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.

  15. One hour effects of salbutamol and formoterol on blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation in asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Capuchinho-Júnior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, partial oxygen saturation (SpO2 and heart rate (HR disorders for an hour after short and long acting ß2-agonists. Material and methods: Twenty-four severe persistent asthma Pulmonology outpatients at Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle were selected. SBP, DBP, SpO2 and HR values were determined before and after 400 μg of salbutamol and 12 μg of formoterol, on different days, with a minimum interval of 24 hours. Results: All patients showed ventilatory obstruction, as seen by a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio. There was no statistical SBP/DBP/HR difference after bronchodilator agents, but SpO2 increased with salbutamol. Conclusion: A standard dose of salbutamol and formoterol does not cause haemodynamic disorder. Resumo: Objectivo: Analisar os possíveis efeitos do uso de β-2-agonistas, de curta e longa duração, nas pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD, na saturação parcial de oxigénio (SpO2 e na frequência cardíaca (FC, durante o período de uma hora. Material e métodos: Vinte e quatro doentes com asma persistente grave, em tratamento no ambulatório de Pneumologia do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle, foram seleccionados para um ensaio clínico sequencial e cruzado. Os valores da PAS, PAD, SpO2 e FC foram registados antes e após o uso de broncodilatadores, salbutamol 400 μg e formoterol 12 μg, em dias diferentes, com intervalo mínimo de 24 horas. Resultados: Todos os doentes apresentaram distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo, identificado pela redução da relação entre o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEMS e a capacidade vital forçada (CVF. Após o uso de substância broncodilatadora, não houve variação significativa nas PAS e PAD, nem na FC; porém, a SpO2 aumentou com o uso de salbutamol. Conclusão: Não foram observadas

  16. Telework: Timesaving or Timeconsuming? An Investigation into Actual Working Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.T.A.H.; Tijdens, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers' personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  17. Japanese Non Resident Language Refresher Course; 210 Hour Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This military intelligence unit refresher course in Japanese is designed for 210 hours of audiolingual instruction. The materials, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, are intended for students with considerable intensive training in spoken and written Japanese who are preparing for a military language assignment. [Not available in hard…

  18. [Organization of socially acceptable working hours in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, A; Glaser, J

    1994-05-01

    Three dimensions in the structure of the working hour system of nurses, rendering them socially acceptable, are becoming important: duration of the working day, the time of day which is being worked and the distribution of working hours. The latter two are of particular importance because flexible shift is becoming the dominant pattern in nursing. Six indicators are discussed as criteria for social acceptability: security of employment which includes access to the labour-market, level of income, health, opportunity for social relationships, social participation, and autonomy. Responses of 297 nurses in one General Hospital taking part in a study, were analysed to examine empirically the concept of 'socially acceptable structure of the working hours'. Ideal and factual patterns are considered first. Secondly aspects of autonomy are considered and the way this depends on time, thirdly the criteria used to define 'social acceptability' are examined for validity. Results show firstly the cross contrast between the hospital's expectation and the nurses' wishes with regard to working hours. Furthermore, inspite of the demand for flexibility, staff have very little choice and there is little sign of joint decision making. Thirdly results show that health, interpersonal and social aspects are of special importance and that, correspondingly, in the view of nurses, financial and practical problems are of lesser importance in their every day life.

  19. The star-bright hour : [luuletused] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: The star-bright hour ; Not a dream ; The Piper ; Corals in an ancent river. Luuletused pärinevad kogumikust "Tuulelaeval valgusest on aerud = Windship with Oars of Light. (Tallinn : Huma, 2001). Orig.: Tähetund ; Mitte viirastus, meelepett ; Vilepuhuja ; Korallid Emajões

  20. Ocular torsion before and after 1 hour centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess a possible otolith contribution to effects observed following prolonged expo-sure to hyper gravity, we used video-oculography to measure ocular torsion during static and dynamic conditions of lateral body tilt (roll) before and after one hour of centrifugation with a Gx-load of 3G. Static

  1. Why do Pit-Hours outlive the Pit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study why a majority of trades still happen during the pit hours, i.e. when the trading pit is open, even after the pit ceased to be a liquid and informative venue. We investigate the case of 30-year U.S. Treasury futures using a ten-years-long intraday data set

  2. Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the presence of hours constraints on the UK labor market and its effect on older workers labor supply, both at the extensive and the intensive margin. Using panel data for the period 1991-2004, the results from a competing risks model show that over-employed male workers can

  3. The accuracy of after-hour registrar computed tomography (CT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... tomography (CT) reporting in a South African tertiary teaching hospital. Authors: ... The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of after-hour registrar CT reporting, to identify possible factors that may .... The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have ...

  4. 8 Hour Ozone Design Value for 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest daily 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health...

  5. 24-Hour Holter Monitoring at the Lagos State University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, only a minority of such patients have documented and confirmed clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in this study. A subsequent larger prospective study would shed more light on this subject. Key Words: Electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-hour Holter, Heart Rate variability. Paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias.

  6. 76 FR 61098 - Guidance for 1-Hour SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...Notice is hereby given that the EPA has posted its draft non- binding guidance titled, ``Guidance for 1-Hour SO2 NAAQS SIP Submissions'' on its Web site. The EPA invites public comments on this guidance document during the comment period specified below, and plans to issue an updated version of the guidance after reviewing timely submitted comments.

  7. The star-bright hour : [poems] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 231. Sisu: The star-bright hour ; The debt ; Not a dream ; Fog-bound ; Corals in an Ancient river ; Frou-frou 1-3. Orig.: Tähetund ; Vilepuhuja ; Võlg ; "Mitte viirastus, meelepett..." ; Udus ; Korallid Emajões ; Froufrou 1-3

  8. A Dutch Book of Hours from the 15th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.; Hansen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Private books of hours were the European bestseller of the 14th-16th centuries, especially among the aristocracy and urban élite. They typically began with a calendar, which listed saints’ days and other religious holidays, the most important of which were written in red – the so-called “red-lett...

  9. Feasibility of ambulatory, continuous 24-hour finger arterial pressure recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Langewouters, G. J.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Parati, G.; van Goudoever, J.; Wesseling, K. H.; Wieling, W.; Mancia, G.

    1993-01-01

    We tested Portapres, an innovative portable, battery-operated device for the continuous, noninvasive, 24-hour ambulatory measurement of blood pressure in the finger. Portapres is based on Finapres, a stationary device for the measurement of finger arterial pressure. Systems were added to record

  10. estimation of global solar radiation from sunshine hours for warri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the monthly daily sunshine hours using four parameters during a period of eleven years (1997 to 2007) for Warri, Nigeria (Latitude of 5o. 34' 21.0''); the parameters include, Relative Humidity, Maximum and Minimum Temperature, Rainfall and Wind Speed.

  11. Storage beyond Three Hours at Ambient Temperature Alters the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage on stability of human breast milk was investigated in 30 lactating mothers. Samples stored for 3, 6 and 24 hours at ambient temperature of 302K (29°) were analysed for protein, lactose, pH, and microbial content. There were significant (p < 0.01) decreases in protein, lactose and pH upon storage for 6 ...

  12. Transferring PSM craft skills in a 2 hour session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, E.J.A. van; Morill, N.; Shaw, D.; Belton, V.; Harvey, P.; Rouwette, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of those involved in the Problem Structuring Methods (PSM) community have commented on the struggle that novices face in building the craft skills associated with conducting a PSM intervention. As part of this year's Operational Research Society Conference, we have three 2-hour practical

  13. Ampere hour method of sizing a stand alone photovoltaic system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in electrification of remote areas which are not served by the grid electricity supply system. An ampere-hour ... Sizing of the balance-of-system were carefully handled to avoid undersizing or oversizing and subsequent variation in supply reliability.

  14. 75 FR 71545 - Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... National Archives at Philadelphia is located at the Robert N.C. Nix Federal Building, 900 Market St... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Parts 1253, 1254, and 1280 [NARA-10-0004] RIN 3095-AB68 Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation AGENCY: National Archives and Records...

  15. 75 FR 19555 - NARA Facility Locations and Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... at 41 CFR part 101-20. The National Archives at Philadelphia on Market Street (in Philadelphia) and... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Parts 1200, 1253, and 1280 [FDMS Docket NARA-10-0002] RIN 3095-AB66 NARA Facility Locations and Hours AGENCY: National Archives and Records...

  16. Workers on non-standard hours more exposed to risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M. van

    2007-01-01

    The use of working hours outside the standard ‘9 to 5’ working pattern increased between 2000 and 2002 in the Netherlands, but has stabilised since then. About three quarters of Dutch employees at least occasionally work overtime. Shift work, evening or night work, and weekend work are most often

  17. Results of the 1000 Hour Rotary Microfilter Endurance Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.

    2010-01-01

    During operation, a primary concern is lifetime of the mechanical seal. Leakage from main shaft mechanical seal is expected to be first indication of wear on rotary filter but will not be the ultimate failure of the filter. Initial clearance inadequate to support thermal expansion resulted in initial scarring of journal. Tolerances adjusted and no journal issues were found during 1000 hour test. Disassembly and inspection of the rotary joint seals showed no unusual wear. No leakage observed during test. Total operation time over 1500 hours. Test summary successfully demonstrated: (1) Filtration of a 'challenging' SRS simulant up to 15 wt % insoluble solids in a 5.6 M salt simulant; (2) Sludge washing; (3) In-situ acid cleaning with dilute acid; (4) Over 1000 hours of operation on new journal material; and (5) Over 1500 hours of operation on all seals. The filter out lasted: 2 air compressors, 2 power outages (one planned), 2 chillers, 1 fire, 1 electrical breaker and 1 feed pump seal.

  18. Forecasting Day-Ahead Electricity Prices : Utilizing Hourly Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Raviv (Eran); K.E. Bouwman (Kees); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe daily average price of electricity represents the price of electricity to be delivered over the full next day and serves as a key reference price in the electricity market. It is an aggregate that equals the average of hourly prices for delivery during each of the 24 individual

  19. Estimation of global solar radiation from sunshine hours for Warri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the monthly daily sunshine hours using four parameters during a period of eleven years (1997 to 2007) for Warri, Nigeria (Latitude of 5o 34' 21.0''); the parameters include, Relative Humidity, Maximum and Minimum Temperature, Rainfall and Wind Speed.

  20. 77 FR 64093 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... public listening session to solicit information, concepts, ideas, and information on hours-of- service..., the Agency would like to know what factors, issues, and data it should consider as it determines..., please include a self- addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print the acknowledgement page that...

  1. Globalization and working time: working hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges popular wisdom that economic globalization uniformly increases working time in industrialized countries. International investment and trade, they argue, have uneven effects for workplace bargaining over standard hours and over work-time flexibility, such as use of temporary

  2. Hours of work and rest in the rail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Grunstein, R R; Rajaratnam, S M W

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the National Transport Commission is considering four options to form the regulatory framework for rail safety within Australia with respect to fatigue. While the National Transport Commission currently recommends no limitations around hours of work or rest, we provide evidence which suggests regulatory frameworks should incorporate a traditional hours of service regulation over more flexible policies. Our review highlights: Shift durations >12 h are associated with a doubling of risk for accident and injury. Fatigue builds cumulatively with each successive shift where rest in between is inadequate (hours of work and rest, including maximum shift duration and successive number of shifts. Appropriately, validated biomathematical models and technologies may be used as a part of a fatigue management system, to augment the protection afforded by limits on hours of work and rest. A comprehensive sleep disorder screening and management programme should form an essential component of any regulatory framework. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Full-time Workers Want to Work Fewer Hours, Part-time Workers Want to Work Longer Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Since the reunification of Germany, average working times for men and women have followed different trends. There are various reasons for the difference. More and more women are gainfully employed; they engage in part-time and marginal employment, both of which are on the rise. The importance of full-time employment has declined. This accounts for most of the reduction in their average workweek, which decreased by 2.3 hours to 31.9 hours between 1993 and 2007. The full-time employment of men ...

  4. Organizational interventions in response to duty hour reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Madelyn P; Orlando, Elaina; Baker, G Ross

    2014-01-01

    Changes in resident duty hours in Europe and North America have had a major impact on the internal organizational dynamics of health care organizations. This paper examines, and assesses the impact of, organizational interventions that were a direct response to these duty hour reforms. The academic literature was searched through the SCOPUS database using the search terms "resident duty hours" and "European Working Time Directive," together with terms related to organizational factors. The search was limited to English-language literature published between January 2003 and January 2012. Studies were included if they reported an organizational intervention and measured an organizational outcome. Twenty-five articles were included from the United States (n=18), the United Kingdom (n=5), Hong Kong (n=1), and Australia (n=1). They all described single-site projects; the majority used post-intervention surveys (n=15) and audit techniques (n=4). The studies assessed organizational measures, including relationships among staff, work satisfaction, continuity of care, workflow, compliance, workload, and cost. Interventions included using new technologies to improve handovers and communications, changing staff mixes, and introducing new shift structures, all of which had varying effects on the organizational measures listed previously. Little research has assessed the organizational impact of duty hour reforms; however, the literature reviewed demonstrates that many organizations are using new technologies, new personnel, and revised and innovative shift structures to compensate for reduced resident coverage and to decrease the risk of limited continuity of care. Future research in this area should focus on both micro (e.g., use of technology, shift changes, staff mix) and macro (e.g., culture, leadership support) organizational aspects to aid in our understanding of how best to respond to these duty hour reforms.

  5. COMBINED 24-HOURS ESOPHAGEAL PH MONITORING AND MULTICHANNEL INTRALUMINAL IMPEDANCE FOR COMPARISON OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL VERSUS ATYPICAL SYMPTOMS OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Nasri, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    - Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common esophageal disorder in pediatrics. - The aim of this study was to compare reflux parameters of typical and atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease using 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance in pediatric population. - In this prospective study, 43 patients aged less than 18 year with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups based on the main presenting symptoms (typical versus atypical). Twenty four-hour pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance were performed in all the patients for comparing these two group regarding association of symptoms and reflux. Number of refluxes, pH related reflux, total reflux time, reflux more than 5 minutes, longest time of the reflux, lowest pH at reflux, reflux index were recorded and compared. Data comparison was done using SPSS. - The mean age of the patients was 5.7±3.4 years and 65.1% were male. Out of 43 patients 24 cases had typical symptoms and 19 had atypical symptoms. The mean reflux events detected by multichannel intraluminal impedance was more than mean reflux events detected by pH monitoring (308.4±115.8 vs 69.7±66.6) with P value of 0.037, which is statistically significant. The mean symptom index and symptom association probability were 35.01% ± 20.78% and 86.42% ± 25.79%, respectively in multichannel intraluminal impedance versus 12.73% ± 12.48% and 45.16% ± 42.29% in pH monitoring (P value reflux was 46.26±47.16 and 30.9±22.09 for atypical and typical symptoms respectively. The mean symptom index was 18.12% ± 13.101% and 8.30% ± 10.301% in atypical and typical symptoms respectively (P=0.034). Bolus clearance was longer in atypical symptoms compared typical symptoms(Preflux was found in children with atypical symptoms of reflux. Longer duration of bolus clearance was found in group with atypical symptoms of reflux.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of a local and afterwards generalized plutonium contamination; Diagnostic et traitement d'un cas d'intoxication par le plutonium local d'abord et generalise ensuite; Diagnoz i lechenie mestnogo i posledukshego generalizirovannogo porazheniya plutoniem; Diagnostico y tratamiento de una contaminacion local y luego general por plutonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1963-02-15

    During an accident a technician's two hands were contaminated with hexaplutonium-239 nitrate. The contamination on the left hand alone, measured with an X-detector, was close on 60 {mu}c . The contamination was brought down to 15 {mu}c by a first decontamination carried out under a local anaesthetic; several contamination zones were localized by scanning. A surgical operation, done under an Esmach band with X and {alpha}-detectors, reduced the contamination from 15 to 5 {mu}c, the hands' functions being integrally preserved. A new zone of activity was localized by a second scan, and a second operation reduced internal contamination in the hand to 2 {mu}c. It has not been possible to localize this activity but it is kept under regular supervision. Parallel with the surgical decontamination, an internal decontamination with DTPA was undertaken. Blood, urine and faeces were sampled immediately after the accident and their activity was measured. Afterwards, urine samples were taken daily; blood and faecal samples were taken during each period of treatment. All the measurements indicate that DTPA is extremely effective in the case of internal contamination by Pu{sup 239}. It also appears that the percentage of blood plutonium eliminated by the kidney varies with time. The percentage increases, indicating that the plutonium is carried in the blood under different ionic or colloidal forms which are cleared in different degrees by the kidneys. It would accordingly appear that the activity in the urine does not faithfully reflect the internal contamination. (author) [French] Au cours d'un accident, les deux mains d'un technicien ont ete contaminees par du nitrate de plutonium-239 hexavalent. Pour la seule main gauche, la contamination, mesuree avec un detecteur de rayons X, etait voisine de 60 {mu}c. Une premiere decontamination, sous anesthesie locale, a permis de remener la contamination a 15 {mu}c . Grace a un , on a localise plusieurs zones de contamination

  7. A Study of Postmodern Narrative in Michael Cunningham's The Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Abbasi Narinabad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project aims at providing a detailed analysis of the major features of the theory of postmodern narrative and at going through the novel The Hours by the American writer Michael Cunningham concentrating on some postmodern narrative techniques. To do so, the researcher goes through the theories set forth by some postmodern theoreticians like Roland Barthes, Jacque Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard and Julia Kristeva to investigate the postmodern narrative techniques and elements used in the novel. The researcher first examines the theories and then critically applies them on the novel. The article goes through the most eminent elements of postmodern narrative including intertextuality, stream of consciousness style, fragmentation and representation respectively which are delicately utilized in The Hours. The article concludes by recommending a few directions for the further research.

  8. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    the number of participants 7.5 persons higher pr. activity compared to club activities. This implies that clubs during peak hours could include more participants. Another possibility to increase utilization is if the management of sport facilities forced sport clubs and other organisers to adapt...... their activities to a smaller amount of floor space, which would make it possible to have more than one activity on the floor at the same time. Hence, to achieve better utilization during prime time, further analysis and research could focus on how activities in sport halls can be adapted to include more......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...

  9. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-08

    Long duration tests of the Aerzen GM 12.4 roots style blower in a closed loop configuration provides valuable data and lessons learned for long-term operation at the Mo-99 production facility. The blower was operated in a closed loop configuration with the flow conditions anticipated in plant operation with a Mo-100 target inline. The additional thermal energy generated from beam heating of the Mo-100 disks were not included in these tests. Five 1000 hour tests have been completed since the first test was performed in January of 2016. All five 1000 hour tests have proven successful in exposing preventable issues related to oil and helium leaks. All blower tests to this date have resulted in stable blower performance and consistency. A summary of the results for each test, including a review of the first and second tests, are included in this report.

  10. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  11. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents. A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-se...

  12. Student midwives' duty hours: risks, standards, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Rachel; Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Landis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has emerged describing the risks of extended-duty shifts and sleep deprivation. Worldwide, midwifery organizations have not adopted standards for practitioner or student duty shifts. This project reviews the literature related to extended-duty shifts in an effort to develop evidence-based recommendations for student nurse-midwives/student midwives (SNMs/SMs). A comprehensive literature search was conducted through electronic databases, major journals, and reference lists published in English since January 2001. Primary research studies evaluating sleep deprivation and shift duration were included. Studies that did not include the target population (shift workers) and those that formed conclusions related to extended-duty shifts greater than 30 hours were excluded. In addition, an extensive worldwide review of duty-hour recommendations from more than 300 health care organizations was conducted. A total of 40 studies met the inclusion criteria. Extended-duty shifts (those greater than 12 hours) increased the risk for cognitive and physical functional errors, safety concerns, and decreased quality of life from sleep deprivation. Cognitive function errors included attention lapses, visual tracking errors, decreased mentation and immediate recall, and decreased learning capacity. Physical errors included decreased motor skills and slowed reaction times in clinical simulations. These deficits led to an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, needle sticks, and performance equivalent to unsafe blood alcohol concentrations. An overall decrease in quality of life and job satisfaction was linked to extended-duty shifts. Seven organizations for medical residents or advanced practice nurses have developed policy statements on duty shifts, with extended-duty shift limitations between 12 and 24 hours. The risks associated with extended-duty shifts may inhibit the development of SNMs/SMs into competent practitioners and place patients at risk. It

  13. 76 FR 66925 - Guidance for 1-Hour SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...The EPA is announcing an extension of the public comment period for its draft non-binding guidance titled, ``Guidance for 1-Hour SO2 SIP Submissions.'' The draft of the guidance document is currently on the EPA's Web site. The EPA is extending the comment period for an additional 30-day period and invites public comments on this guidance during this period. The EPA plans to issue an updated version of the guidance after reviewing timely submitted comments.

  14. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia; Ulff-Møller Nielsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of ope...

  15. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  16. White-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Sotoyama, Midori

    2017-08-08

    In the present study, two investigations were conducted at a communication center, to examine white-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours. In investigation I, hemodynamic responses were measured on a working day; and in investigation II, cardiovascular responses were verified on both working and non-working days. In investigation I, blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured in 15 workers during working hours (from 9:00 am to 18:00 pm) on one working day. Another 40 workers from the same workplace participated in investigation II, in which blood pressure and heart rate were measured between the time workers arose in the morning until they went to bed on 5 working days and 2 non-working days. The results showed that blood pressure increased and remained at the same level during working hours. The underlying hemodynamics of maintaining blood pressure, however, changed between the morning and the afternoon on working days. Cardiac responses increased in the afternoon, suggesting that cardiac burdens increase in the afternoon on working days. The present study suggested that taking underlying hemodynamic response into consideration is important for managing the work-related cardiovascular burden of white-collar workers.

  17. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiss

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of −13–+21 µg m−3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of −53… + 69 %.

  18. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gyula; Imre, Kornélia; Molnár, Ágnes; Gelencsér, András

    2017-07-01

    Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of -13-+21 µg m-3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of -53… + 69 %.

  19. Forecasting Kp from solar wind data: input parameter study using 3-hour averages and 3-hour range values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus; Matzka, Jürgen; Shprits, Yuri

    2017-11-01

    We have developed neural network models that predict Kp from upstream solar wind data. We study the importance of various input parameters, starting with the magnetic component Bz, particle density n, and velocity V and then adding total field B and the By component. As we also notice a seasonal and UT variation in average Kp we include functions of day-of-year and UT. Finally, as Kp is a global representation of the maximum range of geomagnetic variation over 3-hour UT intervals we conclude that sudden changes in the solar wind can have a big effect on Kp, even though it is a 3-hour value. Therefore, 3-hour solar wind averages will not always appropriately represent the solar wind condition, and we introduce 3-hour maxima and minima values to some degree address this problem. We find that introducing total field B and 3-hour maxima and minima, derived from 1-minute solar wind data, have a great influence on the performance. Due to the low number of samples for high Kp values there can be considerable variation in predicted Kp for different networks with similar validation errors. We address this issue by using an ensemble of networks from which we use the median predicted Kp. The models (ensemble of networks) provide prediction lead times in the range 20-90 min given by the time it takes a solar wind structure to travel from L1 to Earth. Two models are implemented that can be run with real time data: (1) IRF-Kp-2017-h3 uses the 3-hour averages of the solar wind data and (2) IRF-Kp-2017 uses in addition to the averages, also the minima and maxima values. The IRF-Kp-2017 model has RMS error of 0.55 and linear correlation of 0.92 based on an independent test set with final Kp covering 2 years using ACE Level 2 data. The IRF-Kp-2017-h3 model has RMSE = 0.63 and correlation = 0.89. We also explore the errors when tested on another two-year period with real-time ACE data which gives RMSE = 0.59 for IRF-Kp-2017 and RMSE = 0.73 for IRF-Kp-2017-h3. The errors as function

  20. Reoperations within 48 hours following 7942 pediatric neurosurgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anil K; Chu, Jason; Bozeman, Caroline; Sarda, Samir; Sawvel, Michael; Chern, Joshua J

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Various indicators are used to evaluate the quality of care delivered by surgical services, one of which is early reoperation rate. The indications and rate of reoperations within a 48-hour time period have not been previously reported for pediatric neurosurgery. METHODS Between May 1, 2009, and December 30, 2014, 7942 surgeries were performed by the pediatric neurosurgery service in the operating rooms at a single institution. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics associated with each of the operations were prospectively collected. The procedures were grouped into 31 categories based on the nature of the procedure and underlying diseases. Reoperations within 48 hours at the conclusion of the index surgery were reviewed to determine whether the reoperation was planned or unplanned. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze risk factors associated with unplanned reoperations. RESULTS Cerebrospinal fluid shunt-and hydrocephalus-related surgeries accounted for 3245 (40.8%) of the 7942 procedures. Spinal procedures, craniotomy for tumor resections, craniotomy for traumatic injury, and craniofacial reconstructions accounted for an additional 8.7%, 6.8%, 4.5%, and 4.5% of surgical volume. There were 221 reoperations within 48 hours of the index surgery, yielding an overall incidence of 2.78%; 159 of the reoperation were unplanned. Of these 159 unplanned reoperations, 121 followed index operations involving shunt manipulations. Using unplanned reoperations as the dependent variable (n = 159), index operations with a starting time after 3 pm and admission through the emergency department (ED) were associated with a two- to threefold increase in the likelihood of reoperations (after-hour surgery, odds ratio [OR] 2.01 [95% CI 1.43-2.83, p < 0.001]; ED admission, OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.32-2.96, p < 0.05]). CONCLUSIONS Approximately 25% of the reoperations within 48 hours of a pediatric neurosurgical procedure were planned. When

  1. Disaggregation of Rainy Hours: Compared Performance of Various Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haha, M.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    In the urban environment, the response times of catchments are usually short. To de- sign or to diagnose waterworks in that context, it is necessary to describe rainfall events with a good time resolution: a 10mn time step is often necessary. Such in- formation is not always available. Rainfall disaggregation models have thus to be applied to produce from rough rainfall data that short time resolution information. The communication will present the performance obtained with several rainfall dis- aggregation models that allow for the disaggregation of rainy hours into six 10mn rainfall amounts. The ability of the models to reproduce some statistical character- istics of rainfall (mean, variance, overall distribution of 10mn-rainfall amounts; ex- treme values of maximal rainfall amounts over different durations) is evaluated thanks to different graphical and numerical criteria. The performance of simple models pre- sented in some scientific papers or developed in the Hydram laboratory as well as the performance of more sophisticated ones is compared with the performance of the basic constant disaggregation model. The compared models are either deterministic or stochastic; for some of them the disaggregation is based on scaling properties of rainfall. The compared models are in increasing complexity order: constant model, linear model (Ben Haha, 2001), Ormsbee Deterministic model (Ormsbee, 1989), Ar- tificial Neuronal Network based model (Burian et al. 2000), Hydram Stochastic 1 and Hydram Stochastic 2 (Ben Haha, 2001), Multiplicative Cascade based model (Olsson and Berndtsson, 1998), Ormsbee Stochastic model (Ormsbee, 1989). The 625 rainy hours used for that evaluation (with a hourly rainfall amount greater than 5mm) were extracted from the 21 years chronological rainfall series (10mn time step) observed at the Pully meteorological station, Switzerland. The models were also evaluated when applied to different rainfall classes depending on the season first and on the

  2. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2014-01-01

    Understanding medical professionalism and its evaluation is essential to ensuring that physicians graduate with the requisite knowledge and skills in this domain. It is important to consider the context in which behaviours occur, along with tensions between competing values and the individual’s approach to resolving such conflicts. However, too much emphasis on behaviours can be misleading, as they may not reflect underlying attitudes or professionalism in general. The same behaviour can be viewed and evaluated quite differently, depending on the situation. These concepts are explored and illustrated in this paper in the context of duty hour regulations. The regulation of duty hours creates many conflicts that must be resolved, and yet their resolution is often hidden, especially when compliance with or violation of regulations carries significant consequences. This article challenges attending physicians and the medical education community to reflect on what we value in our trainees and the attributions we make regarding their behaviours. To fully support our trainees’ development as professionals, we must create opportunities to teach them the valuable skills they will need to achieve balance in their lives. [P]rofessionalism has no meaningful existence independent of the interactions that give it form and meaning. There is great folly in thinking otherwise. Hafferty and Levinson (2008)[1] Understanding and evaluating professionalism is essential to excellence in medical education and is mandated by organizations that oversee medical training [2]. Historically, attention has been focused largely on the professionalism of individual students or residents, at least for the purposes of evaluation. Yet there is now a growing appreciation that professionalism can be defined, understood, and evaluated from multiple perspectives [3]. Importantly, context has been recognized as critical to shaping trainees’ behaviours, and hence as important to our understanding of

  3. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Janssen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. METHODS: Two studies - a company based survey (N=660 and an internet survey (N=528 - have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres. The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. RESULTS: The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include - besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible working hours - that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate, even if this variability is self-controlled.OBJETIVO: Investigar se ocorre prejuízo à saúde e à vida social com diferentes tipos de horas de trabalho flexíveis e se há relação entre estes efeitos e características específicas das horas de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados dois estudos, uma pesquisa em uma empresa (N=660 e outra pela Internet (N=528. O primeiro estudo consistiu de um questionário (papel e lápis aplicado a funcionários sujeitos a diferentes ajustes "típicos" de horas de

  4. Effects on employees of controlling working hours and working schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, T; Takahashi, M; Togo, F; Liu, X; Shimazu, A; Tanaka, K; Takaya, M

    2013-03-01

    High levels of control over working time and low variability in working hours have been associated with improved health-related outcomes. The potential mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To examine how work-time control and variability of working times are associated with fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance, and 'near misses' at work. Manufacturing sector employees completed a questionnaire that assessed work-time control, work-time variability, fatigue recovery, sleep quality, work-life balance and the frequency of near misses in the past 6 months. Mixed model analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression analysis tested the main effects of work-time control and variability and their interaction, while adjusting for age, sex, work schedules, and overtime work in the past month. Subscales of work-time control were also investigated (control over daily working hours and over days off). One thousand three hundred and seventy-two completed questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 69%. A significantly higher quality of sleep and better work-life balance were found in the 'high control with low variability' reference group than in the other groups. Significantly better recovery of fatigue was also observed in the group having control over days off with low variability. While near misses were more frequent in the group with high control over daily working hours coupled with high variability compared with the reference group this was not significant. High work-time control and low variability were associated with favourable outcomes of health and work-life balance. This combined effect was not observed for the safety outcome addressed here.

  5. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giunta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a period of thirteen months in 2012 and 2013 for six Italian CCGT power plants of 390 MW each (260 MW from the gas turbine and 130 MW from the steam turbine. These CCGT plants are placed in three different Italian climate areas: the Po Valley, the Adriatic coast, and the North Tyrrhenian coast. The meteorological model applied in this study is the eni-Kassandra Meteo Forecast (e‑kmf™, a multi-model approach system to provide probabilistic forecasts with a Kalman filter used to improve accuracy of local temperature predictions. Performance skill scores, computed by the output data of the meteorological model, are compared with local observations, and used to evaluate forecast reliability. In the study, the approach has shown good overall scores encompassing more than 50,000 hourly temperature values. Some differences from one site to another, due to local meteorological phenomena, can affect the short-term forecast performance, with consequent impacts on gas-to-power production and related negative imbalances. For operational application of the methodology in CCGT power plant, the benefits and limits have been successfully identified.

  6. New Zealand optometrists 2006: demographics, working arrangements and hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikson, Lesley G; Chamberlain, Kerry; Sangster, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Optometry is a regulated health profession in NZ, with limited student places. With 650 registered optometrists in 2005, the optometrist to population ratio was 1 : 6,291 with no apparent national shortage. If optometrists registered in NZ do not actually live there, a workforce shortage is possible. This paper presents findings from the New Zealand Association of Optometrists 2006 workforce survey of members, which aimed to profile the NZ optometric workforce and to explore factors relating to workforce capacity, job stress and future planning. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on employment status, hours worked and gender distribution of optometrists in New Zealand. It was circulated to 530 active members of the NZ Association of Optometrists representing 86 per cent of the available optometrists. Direct comparisons with the Australian optometric workforce numbers were also undertaken. Of the 243 respondents, 129 (53 per cent) were male. The median age of all respondents was 39 years (46 for males and 34 for females) and 75 per cent of the respondents were aged younger than 50 years. Fifty per cent had practised 15 years or less. Ten per cent of respondents had 'time-out' during their career and this was significantly more likely for females. Nearly half the respondents were self-employed (46 per cent) and eight per cent worked as locums. Part-time employees were more likely to be female and males were more likely to be in full-time self-employment. Half the group was under 40 (51 per cent), which accounted for 86 per cent of the full-time salaried arrangements. Those aged 30 to 39 included 52 per cent of the total part-time salaried workers. The average working week was 34 hours for women and 39 hours for men; the median was 40 hours for both groups. In the typical working week, 80 per cent of an optometrist's time was spent consulting with patients and five per cent was patient-related paperwork. The distribution of work arrangements was

  7. NASA 50 amp hour nickel cadmium battery waste heat determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for determining the waste heat generated in a 50-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium battery as a function of the discharge rate is described and results are discussed. The technique involved is essentially calibration of the battery as a heat transfer rate calorimeter. The tests are run at three different levels of battery activity, one at 40-watts of waste heat generated, one at 60, and one at 100. Battery inefficiency ranges from 14 to 18 percent at discharge rates of 284 to 588 watts, respectively and top-of-cell temperatures of 20 C.

  8. LinkedIn Marketing An Hour a Day

    CERN Document Server

    von Rosen, Viveka

    2012-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for succeeding on the for ''business'' social media network LinkedIn Marketing: An Hour a Day helps you create, customize, and optimize a presence on LinkedIn, the world's largest social network for professionals. In this detailed, step-by-step book, LinkedIn expert Viveka von Rosen reveals how to use this powerful platform to ensure that you or your company get noticed by the right audience. Discover previously undocumented tips and tricks for community growth and management, including how to best use Groups, events, and other LinkedIn features and applications. Offers a

  9. Rule-of-thumb consumers, productivity and hours

    OpenAIRE

    Furlanetto, Francesco; Seneca, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the transmission mechanism of productivity shocks in a model with rule-of-thumb consumers. In the literature, this financial friction has been studied only with reference to fiscal shocks. We show that the presence of rule-of-thumb consumers is also very helpful in accounting for recent empirical evidence on productivity shocks. Rule-of-thumb agents, together with nominal and real rigidities, play an important role in reproducing the negative response of hours and the d...

  10. Eleventh Hour Network+ Exam N10-004 Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alpern, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    The 11th Hour Network+ Study Guide is keyed to the N10-004 revision of the CompTIA Network+ exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered with key concepts highlighted. ..: ..; Fast Facts quickly review fundamentals ..; Exam Warnings highlight particularly tough sections of the exam ..; Crunch Time sidebars point out key concepts to remember ..; Did You Know? sidebars cover sometimes forgotten details ..; Top Five Toughest Questions and answers help you to prepare ..

  11. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Facio Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia.

  12. Do difficulties in accessing in-hours primary care predict higher use of out-of-hours GP services? Evidence from an English National Patient Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yin; Abel, Gary; Warren, Fiona; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2015-05-01

    It is believed that some patients are more likely to use out-of-hours primary care services because of difficulties in accessing in-hours care, but substantial evidence about any such association is missing. We analysed data from 567,049 respondents to the 2011/2012 English General Practice Patient Survey who reported at least one in-hours primary care consultation in the preceding 6 months. Of those respondents, 7% also reported using out-of-hours primary care. We used logistic regression to explore associations between use of out-of-hours primary care and five measures of in-hours access (ease of getting through on the telephone, ability to see a preferred general practitioner, ability to get an urgent or routine appointment and convenience of opening hours). We illustrated the potential for reduction in use of out-of-hours primary care in a model where access to in-hours care was made optimal. Worse in-hours access was associated with greater use of out-of-hours primary care for each access factor. In multivariable analysis adjusting for access and patient characteristic variables, worse access was independently associated with increased out-of-hours use for all measures except ease of telephone access. Assuming these associations were causal, we estimated that an 11% relative reduction in use of out-of-hours primary care services in England could be achievable if access to in-hours care were optimal. This secondary quantitative analysis provides evidence for an association between difficulty in accessing in-hours care and use of out-of-hours primary care services. The findings can motivate the development of interventions to improve in-hour access. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Relationship Between Long Working Hours and Metabolic Syndrome Among Korean Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Jungok Yu, RN, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and metabolic syndrome. Methods: Data based on the Sixth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014) pertaining to a total of 1,145 paid workers were analyzed. Working hours were divided into three groups (40–51 hours/week, 52–59 hours/week, ≥ 60 hours/week). The relationship between working hours and metabolic syndrome was then analyzed after adjusting for general and occupationa...

  14. Folding Proteins at 500 ns/hour with Work Queue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahid, Badi'; Yu, Li; Rajan, Dinesh; Feng, Haoyun; Darve, Eric; Thain, Douglas; Izaguirre, Jesús A

    2012-10-01

    Molecular modeling is a field that traditionally has large computational costs. Until recently, most simulation techniques relied on long trajectories, which inherently have poor scalability. A new class of methods is proposed that requires only a large number of short calculations, and for which minimal communication between computer nodes is required. We considered one of the more accurate variants called Accelerated Weighted Ensemble Dynamics (AWE) and for which distributed computing can be made efficient. We implemented AWE using the Work Queue framework for task management and applied it to an all atom protein model (Fip35 WW domain). We can run with excellent scalability by simultaneously utilizing heterogeneous resources from multiple computing platforms such as clouds (Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure), dedicated clusters, grids, on multiple architectures (CPU/GPU, 32/64bit), and in a dynamic environment in which processes are regularly added or removed from the pool. This has allowed us to achieve an aggregate sampling rate of over 500 ns/hour. As a comparison, a single process typically achieves 0.1 ns/hour.

  15. Assessing Hourly Precipitation Forecast Skill with the Fractions Skill Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Statistical methods for category (yes/no) forecasts, such as the Threat Score, are typically used in the verification of precipitation forecasts. However, these standard methods are affected by the so-called "double-penalty" problem caused by slight displacements in either space or time with respect to the observations. Spatial techniques have recently been developed to help solve this problem. The fractions skill score (FSS), a neighborhood spatial verification method, directly compares the fractional coverage of events in windows surrounding the observations and forecasts. We applied the FSS to hourly precipitation verification by taking hourly forecast products from the GRAPES (Global/Regional Assimilation Prediction System) regional model and quantitative precipitation estimation products from the National Meteorological Information Center of China during July and August 2016, and investigated the difference between these results and those obtained with the traditional category score. We found that the model spin-up period affected the assessment of stability. Systematic errors had an insignificant role in the fraction Brier score and could be ignored. The dispersion of observations followed a diurnal cycle and the standard deviation of the forecast had a similar pattern to the reference maximum of the fraction Brier score. The coefficient of the forecasts and the observations is similar to the FSS; that is, the FSS may be a useful index that can be used to indicate correlation. Compared with the traditional skill score, the FSS has obvious advantages in distinguishing differences in precipitation time series, especially in the assessment of heavy rainfall.

  16. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojumuddin, Nur Syereena; Yusof, Fadhilah; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972–2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor

  17. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojumuddin, Nur Syereena; Yusof, Fadhilah; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2015-02-01

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972-2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor.

  18. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojumuddin, Nur Syereena; Yusof, Fadhilah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Yusop, Zulkifli [Institute of Environmental and Water Resources Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972–2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor.

  19. First Hours of the GW170817 Kilonova: Why So Blue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Now that the hubbub of GW170817 the first coincident detection of gravitational waves and an electromagnetic signature has died down, scientists are left with the task of taking the spectrum-spanning observations and piecing them together into a coherent picture. Researcher Iair Arcavi examines one particular question: what caused the blue color in the early hours of the neutron-star merger?Observations of the GW170817 kilonova by Hubble over a week-long span. [ESA/Hubble]Early ColorWhen the two neutron stars of GW170817 merged in August of last year, they produced not only gravitational waves, but a host of electromagnetic signatures. Chief among these was a flare of emission thought to be powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements formed in the merger a kilonova.The emission during a kilonova can come from a number of different sources from the heavy-element-rich tidal tails of the disrupting neutron stars, or from fast, light polar jets, or from a wind or a disk outflow and each of these components could reveal different information about the original neutron stars and the merger.Its therefore important that we understand the sources of the emission that we observed in the GW170817 kilonova. In particular, wed like to know where the early blue emission came from that was spotted in the first hours of the kilonova.The combined ultravioletopticalinfrared light curve of the GW170817 kilonova. The rise in the emission occurs on roughly a day-long timescale. [Arcavi 2018]Comparing ModelsTo explore this question, Iair Arcavi (Einstein Fellow at University of California, Santa Barbara and Las Cumbres Observatory) compiled infrared through ultraviolet observations of the GW170817 kilonova from nearly 20 different telescopes. To try to distinguish between possible sources, Arcavi then compared the resulting combined light curves to a variety of models.Arcavi found that the light curves for the GW170817 kilonova indicate an initial 24-hour rise of emission. This

  20. Is there a statistical relationship between economic crises and changes in government health expenditure growth? an analysis of twenty-four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2012-12-01

    To identify whether, by what means, and the extent to which historically, government health care expenditure growth in Europe has changed following economic crises. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Health Data 2011. Cross-country fixed effects multiple regression analysis is used to determine whether statutory health care expenditure growth in the year after economic crises differs from that which would otherwise be predicted by general economic trends. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved is achieved by distinguishing between policy responses which lead to cost-shifting and all others. In the year after an economic downturn, public health care expenditure grows more slowly than would have been expected given the longer term economic climate. Cost-shifting and other policy responses are both associated with these slowdowns. However, while changes in tax-derived expenditure are associated with both cost-shifting and other policy responses following a crisis, changes in expenditure derived from social insurance have been associated only with changes in cost-shifting. Disproportionate cuts to the health sector, as well as reliance on cost-shifting to slow growth in health care expenditure, serve as a warning in terms of potentially negative effects on equity, efficiency, and quality of health services and, potentially, health outcomes following economic crises. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Is There a Statistical Relationship between Economic Crises and Changes in Government Health Expenditure Growth? An Analysis of Twenty-Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify whether, by what means, and the extent to which historically, government health care expenditure growth in Europe has changed following economic crises. Data Sources Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Health Data 2011. Study Design Cross-country fixed effects multiple regression analysis is used to determine whether statutory health care expenditure growth in the year after economic crises differs from that which would otherwise be predicted by general economic trends. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved is achieved by distinguishing between policy responses which lead to cost-shifting and all others. Findings In the year after an economic downturn, public health care expenditure grows more slowly than would have been expected given the longer term economic climate. Cost-shifting and other policy responses are both associated with these slowdowns. However, while changes in tax-derived expenditure are associated with both cost-shifting and other policy responses following a crisis, changes in expenditure derived from social insurance have been associated only with changes in cost-shifting. Conclusions Disproportionate cuts to the health sector, as well as reliance on cost-shifting to slow growth in health care expenditure, serve as a warning in terms of potentially negative effects on equity, efficiency, and quality of health services and, potentially, health outcomes following economic crises. PMID:22670771

  2. Determination of the Chronic Mammalian Toxicological Effects of TNT (twenty-Four Month Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Study of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) in the Fischer 344 Rat). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    and to a lesser extent at 10 mg/kg/day, was Indicated by several observations. Increased liver size was seen at these do-es, with hepatocellular...apparent for females at the 10 and 50 mg/kg/day doses and hypertriglyceridemia for male rats at the 50 mg/kg/day dose level. In addition, females at...at 50 and to a lesser extent at 10 mg/kg/day, was Indicated by several observations. Hepatomegaly was seen at these doses, with hepatocellular 31

  3. Twenty-four-week effects of liraglutide on body composition, adherence to appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondanelli M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mariangela Rondanelli,1 Simone Perna,1 Paolo Astrone,2 Annalisa Grugnetti,2 Sebastiano Bruno Solerte,2 Davide Guido3,4 1Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Section of Human Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Medical and Genomics Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Liraglutide has well-known effects on glucose patterns. However, its several other metabolic properties are still controversial. Given this background, the aims of the present study are to evaluate the effects of 24-week liraglutide treatment on body composition, appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods: A cohort study was carried out on overweight and obese T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c equal to 6% (42 mmol/mol-10% (86 mmol/mol, under a 3-month treatment (at least with maximal dose of metformin as stable regime, by adding liraglutide at doses up to 3 mg/d. Body composition markers were measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was monitored by glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment. Finally, the appetite sensation and plasma lipids were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-eight subjects (male/female: 16/12, mean age: 58.75±9.33 years, body mass index: 34.13±5.46 kg/m2 were evaluated. Accounting for the adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, we noted significant decreases in body mass index (-0.86 kg/m2, P=0.024, fat mass (-2.01 kg, P=0.015, fat mass index (-0.71 kg/m2, P=0.014, android fat (-1.72%, P=0.022, trunk fat (-1.52%, P=0.016, and waist circumference (-6.86 cm, P<0.001 from the baseline values. Haber score was increased by 3.82 units (P=0.009, and the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors was decreased (-0.69 units, P=0.012. The glucose control variables and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio also showed significant decreases from baseline values. Conclusion: The 24-week liraglutide treatment leads to the reduction of fat mass, android fat, trunk fat, and appetite by improving the lipid profile, glucose control, and insulin sensitivity. Keywords: liraglutide, weight loss, body composition, fat mass, type 2 diabetes mellitus, appetite

  4. Treatment and outcomes of an Australian cohort of outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder over twenty-four months: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jayashri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS is a 2-year, prospective, non-interventional, observational study designed to explore the clinical and functional outcomes associated with ‘real-world’ treatment of participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. All participants received treatment as usual. There was no study medication. Methods Participants prescribed either conventional mood stabilizers (CMS; n = 155 alone, or olanzapine with, or without, CMS (olanzapine ± CMS; n = 84 were assessed every 3 months using several measures, including the Young Mania Rating Scale, 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale – Bipolar Version, and the EuroQol Instrument. This paper reports 24-month longitudinal clinical, pharmacological, functional, and socioeconomic data. Results On average, participants were 42 (range 18 to 79 years of age, 58%; were female, and 73%; had a diagnosis of bipolar I. Polypharmacy was the usual approach to pharmacological treatment; participants took a median of 5 different psychotropic medications over the course of the study, and spent a median proportion of time of 100%; of the study on mood stabilizers, 90%; on antipsychotics, 9%; on antidepressants, and 5%; on benzodiazepines/hypnotics. By 24 months, the majority of participants had achieved both symptomatic and syndromal remission of both mania and depression. Symptomatic relapse rates were similar for both the CMS alone (65%; and the olanzapine ± CMS (61%; cohorts. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in this study were receiving complex medication treatments that were often discordant with recommendations made in contemporary major treatment guidelines. The majority of study participants demonstrated some clinical and functional improvements, but not all achieved remission of symptoms or syndrome.

  5. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  6. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  7. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  8. Macro economic profitability of hourly measurements and binary communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Christian; Lund, Arne-Christian

    2005-11-01

    There are several actors that are subject to hourly measurements and dynamic pricing. The effects are registered in several analyses. A typical division would be effects connected to power producers, power deliverers, network companies and end users. In a macro economic analysis the goal would be to identify alterations in total benefits and costs. The transition from studying isolated effects for single actors to a macro economic perspective produces several principal problems. When the analysis is based on the effects for various actors it would be important to identify transitions between various actors that in itself does not contribute to alterations in the macro economic profit. At the same time it will be important that effects to be valued are evaluated in a consistent an consequential way. In this context it may be beneficial to use a model for the actors adaptation to the power market where various effects may be used. This working paper describes utility and cost elements that is a basis for Norwegian and foreign analysis of hourly measurements and dynamic prices. The survey shows that it is a large agreement between different investigations with respect to principle effects to be emphasized. There is however, variation with respect to what effects actually are in operation and quantified. There may also be large deviances in the valuation of various utility and cost components. Some single effects are studied closer. An effort is made to compare certain figures from the literature. However, this comparison has been difficult because it is not always clear what conditions have lead to the figures in use. There are large variations between the various analysis estimates. There may be several reasons. The technical products to be priced may vary. It is also evident that the costs for changing measuring equipment may be dependent of the management strategy. The paper refers to newer theoretical literature about the effects of hourly measurements and dynamic

  9. Hourly variation of elemental components of urban aerosol in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Dobos, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Borbely-Kiss, I.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. With the use of accelerator based PIXE elemental analysis technique and statistical methods, systematic investigation of aerosol samples have been performed in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for 20 years determining the elemental composition, size distribution, seasonal and long term time variation, sources and lung deposition probabilities of atmospheric aerosol characteristic to the east-Hungary region. In continuation of this research we observed the short-term time variation of the elemental components in spring and in autumn 2007, at the end and the beginning of the heating season. We studied the changes in the elemental concentrations, their periodicity, correlation with other elements and meteorological parameters. The sampling was done with a PIXE International streaker sampler, which enables a time-discrete record of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) size fractions. Sampling campaigns were carried out in the garden of the Atomki on 10-16 April and 10-19 October. Elemental concentration data (Z > 12) with 2h time resolution were determined on the two size fractions. Statistical evaluation and source determination were carried out with the positive mass factorization method developed for aerosol source characterization by US EPA. Six sources of the urban aerosols were identified: 2 types of soil - loess and sand - biomass burning, sulfate originating form long range transport processes, an unknown source enriched with chlorine and heavy metals originating form traffic. The hourly contribution of some sources for the week 12-19 October is presented on figure 1. In the time trend of soil and heavy metals a periodicity can be observed: the peaks in the morning and in the evening of working days fall together with traffic rush hours. Peaks of biomass burning appear during nights and mornings indicating its origin of domestic heating. Several emission episodes were also detected. Such

  10. [Long working hours and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Horie, Seichi; Tsutsui, Takao; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Yayoi; Nagano, Chikage; Takahashi, Ken

    2005-12-01

    Three years have passed since the countermeasures against the adverse health effects of overwork started in Japan, and fruitful outcomes have been expected. In the current study, a systematic review of articles was performed regarding the association of long working hours (LWH) with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to obtain recent evidence of their association. An electronic database search was conducted using PubMed among English-written original articles published until December, 2004. A total of twelve articles were found conforming to the study's inclusion criteria, but evidence supporting the association of LWH and CVD was not detected. However, some distinctive studies related to the prevention of CVD were found relating to the concept of sensitive psychosocial factors such as vital exhaustion, and to the statistical modeling of occupational factors and biological indicators with the interaction term of psychosocial factors. Further studies will be needed to clarify the association of LWH and CVD.

  11. Fair Is Fair: Just Visiting Hours and Reducing Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Giora; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2017-12-01

    Although family is an essential unit of every society, many intensive care units continue to impose limitations on families' access to their loved ones. Unlimited family presence is backed both by data and the guidelines of multiple professional societies. We propose that the obligation to protect the integrity and needs of our patients and families extends past our immediate relationship to them at the bedside, and is also a societal imperative. In a society rife with implicit bias, restrictions on family visitation risk selective enforcement of these rules, and further propagate social injustice. Restrictions on family presence, including rigid hours, reflect an arbitrary vision based on increasingly obsolete socioeconomic realities. The time is now to open our intensive care units both on behalf of our patients and families, and for the betterment of our society as a whole.

  12. Stochastic generation of hourly wind speed time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshad, A.; Wan Mohd Ali Wan Hussin; Bawadi, M.A.; Mohd Sanusi, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study hourly wind speed data of Kuala Terengganu in Peninsular Malaysia are simulated by using transition matrix approach of Markovian process. The wind speed time series is divided into various states based on certain criteria. The next wind speed states are selected based on the previous states. The cumulative probability transition matrix has been formed in which each row ends with 1. Using the uniform random numbers between 0 and 1, a series of future states is generated. These states have been converted to the corresponding wind speed values using another uniform random number generator. The accuracy of the model has been determined by comparing the statistical characteristics such as average, standard deviation, root mean square error, probability density function and autocorrelation function of the generated data to those of the original data. The generated wind speed time series data is capable to preserve the wind speed characteristics of the observed data

  13. The hour equivalent solar pick, definition and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Martínez, Maykop; Morales Rodríguez; Clemente; Castro Ingeniero, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy takes advantage of the light energy of the sun to produce electricity through semiconductor plates that are altered by solar radiation, these systems are called Photovoltaic Solar Panels (PSP). In order to calculate the energy absorbed by these PSPs, it is necessary to use technical terms that are a little difficult to interpret, for those less experienced in the subject, above all because of the ambiguity, the level of abstraction required in their understanding and the variety of ways of expressing very similar ideas without offering a clear and unique definition. The main term to which this article is dedicated is the Hour Solar Pick (HSP), which in the experiences of the authors has generated strong discussions about its interpretation. In order to arrive at the desired term, it is necessary to start with others, so the aim is to propose a definition and physical and mathematical interpretation to clarify the meaning of this term. (author)

  14. World: 2508 nuclear tera-watts hour in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the nuclear power plants have produced 2508 tera-watts hour, that is to say 16% of the normal electricity production or 35% of the European electric production. At the end of 1999, 443 reactors were in operation, 53 were in building and 13 put in an order in the world. 5 reactors have been coupled to the network in South Korea, in France, in India, in Slovakia and 2 have been definitively stopped (Kazakhstan and Sweden). 1999 has seen the beginning of construction for 8 reactors (China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan). The nuclear power has covered 40 % of needs for 8 countries: France (75%), Lithuania (73%) Belgium (58%), Sweden (46%), Slovakia (45%), Ukraine (43.5%), South Korea ( 43%), Bulgaria ( 41.5%). 18 countries have used nuclear energy to cover at least 25% of their needs. (N.C.)

  15. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete

    2016-01-01

    of prescriptions per 100 contacts. RESULTS: Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications...... for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3......) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important. General practitioners (GPs) are responsible for more than 80% of all drug prescriptions in Denmark. Of all contacts 24.0% involved medication prescriptions...

  16. Hours per Patient Day: Not the Problem, Nor the Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    Hours per patient day (HPPD) is a metric that is easy to use in determining budgeted FTE and in comparing staffing across organizations. There are many considerations in determining the appropriate HPPD. The combination of automated patient acuity, staffing, and human resource systems provide a wealth of information for determining the budgeted HPPD and in making defensible requests for adjustments in HPPD. No matter how much data we have about staffing levels, nurse education and skill levels, the environment of care, or patient acuity, the real key is determining the outcomes we need to compare staffing against. We must quantify the savings associated with positive outcomes and get this information in the hands of the public so they can make informed decisions.

  17. Long working hours and overweight and obesity in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Mi; Lee, Bo-Eun; Park, Hye-Sook; Kim, Young-Ju; Suh, Young-Ju; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Shin, Ji-Young; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a link between gender and the various risk factors associated with obesity. We examined obesity risk factors in working adults to identify the effects of differences in body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) between women and men. A total of 1,120 adults agreed to participate in the study. Data from 711 participants, including 411 women and 300 men, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of risk factors on obesity and being overweight. In addition, the least-squares (LS) means of both BMI and PBF were estimated by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in a generalized linear model. Increases in BMI and PBF were significantly related to an age > 50 years and long working hours in women after compensating for confounding factors. Using the PBF criterion, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight or obese in women > 50 years of age who worked for > 9 h a day was 3.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-11.00). For BMI, women who were > 50 years of age and worked for > 9 h a day were 3.82 times (95% CI, 1.31-11.14) more likely to be overweight or obese than those who were worked for working adults was associated with > 50 years of age and long working hours in women. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implications for the prevention and management of excess weight and obesity.

  18. 29 CFR 778.318 - Productive and nonproductive hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Special Problems Effect of Failure to Count Or Pay for Certain Working Hours § 778.318 Productive and... Act; such nonproductive working hours must be counted and paid for. (b) Compensation payable for... which such nonproductive hours are properly counted as working time but no special hourly rate is...

  19. Credit Hours with No Set Time: A Study of Credit Policies in Asynchronous Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuhn, Frederick Carl

    2014-01-01

    U.S. public university system policies were examined to learn how credit hours were determined for asynchronous online education. Findings indicated that (a) credit hour meaning and use are not consistent, (b) primary responsibility for credit hour decisions was at the local level, and (c) no policies exist to guide credit hour application for…

  20. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  1. Colleges Are Slashing Adjuncts' Hours to Skirt New Rules on Health-Insurance Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Sydni

    2013-01-01

    Allison G. Armentrout, an adjunct instructor at Stark State College, does not get paid by the hour. She earns $4,600 to teach two English composition courses. But now she carefully tracks how many hours she works on an electronic time sheet. During a recent week, she spent three hours preparing for her lectures, close to six hours in the…

  2. Long Working Hours and Emotional Well-Being in Korean Manufacturing Industry Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ki; Kang, Dong-Mug; Yun, Myeong-Ja; Park, Shin-Goo; Song, Jae-Seok; Lee, Sang-Gil

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Korea is well known for its long work hours amongst employees. Because workers of the manufacturing industry are constantly exposed to extended work hours, this study was based on how long work hours affect their emotional well-being. Methods The analysis was done using the secondary Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). Long work hours were defined to be more than 48 hours, and they were subcategorized into units of 52 hours and 60 hours. Based on the WHO (five) well-being index...

  3. Working Long Hours and Early Career Outcomes in the High-End Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Gicheva

    2013-01-01

    This study establishes empirically a positive but nonlinear relationship between weekly hours and hourly wage growth. For workers who put in over 47 hours per week, 5 extra hours are associated with a 1% increase in annual wage growth. This correlation is not present when hours are lower. The relationship is especially strong for young professionals. Data on promotions provide evidence in support of a job-ladder model that combines higher skill sensitivity of output in higher-level jobs with ...

  4. A Study on Watt-hour Meter Data Acquisition Method Based on RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering that traditional watt-hour meter data acquisition was subjected to the influence of distance and occlusion, a watt-hour meter data acquisition method based on RFID technology was proposed in this paper. In detail, RFID electronic tag was embedded in the watt-hour meter to identify the meter and record electric energy information, which made RFID based wireless data acquisition for watt-hour meter come true. Eventually, overall lifecycle management of watt-hour meter is realized.

  5. Typology of after-hours care instructions for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordman, Risa; Bovett, Monica; Drummond, Neil; Crighton, Eric J.; Wheler, David; Moineddin, Rahim; White, David

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a typology of after-hours care (AHC) instructions and to examine physician and practice characteristics associated with each type of instruction. DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. Physicians’ offices were called during evenings and weekends to listen to their messages regarding AHC. All messages were categorized. Thematic analysis of a subset of messages was conducted to develop a typology of AHC instructions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between physician and practice characteristics and the instructions left for patients. SETTING Family practices in the greater Toronto area. PARTICIPANTS Stratified random sample of family physicians providing office-based primary care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Form of response (eg, answering machine), content of message, and physician and practice characteristics. RESULTS Of 514 after-hours messages from family physicians’ offices, 421 were obtained from answering machines, 58 were obtained from answering services, 23 had no answer, 2 gave pager numbers, and 10 had other responses. Message content ranged from no AHC instructions to detailed advice; 54% of messages provided a single instruction, and the rest provided a combination of instructions. Content analysis identified 815 discrete instructions or types of response that were classified into 7 categories: 302 instructed patients to go to an emergency department; 122 provided direct contact with a physician; 115 told patients to go to a clinic; 94 left no directions; 76 suggested calling a housecall service; 45 suggested calling Telehealth; and 61 suggested other things. About 22% of messages only advised attending an emergency department, and 18% gave no advice at all. Physicians who were female, had Canadian certification in family medicine, held hospital privileges, or had attended a Canadian medical school were more likely to be directly available to their patients. CONCLUSION Important issues identified

  6. A Global Stem Cell Niche – Need of the Hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Global Stem Cell Niche – Need of the Hour The time, this issue is online, most of us would be aware of the world’s first induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell based clinical trial for age-related macular degeneration which is underway in Japan. The first patient in the trial has been transplanted with the cell sheets of retinal pigment epithelium derived from the patient's own iPS cells in September 2014 [1] and is under follow-up. As we are overwhelmed with this scientific feat, an analysis of the trends of stem cell based clinical trials globally [2] makes us realize that there is a wide variation in the clinical trials between the nations, with differences being observed in diseases that are given priority, cell sources that are being chosen, principles of ethics, regulatory frameworks etc,. A realization dawns that the scientific communities in each group or country have their own niche of cell based research leading to the above mentioned variations. While in Japan, a hi-tech iPS trial has started, Mazini et al from Morocco, describe the hurdles in creating a public cord blood bank in their country with a background of the regulatory guidelines existing there while Lee et al's work from the United States of America (USA focuses on microencapsulation of adipose derived stem cells. While each of the above subject are equally important, a global consortium is the need of the hour, where interactions among all the stake holders of cell based therapies can be established for enabling exchange of information, technology, solutions and products, thereby avoiding repetition of the same work, while gaining the insight of different viewpoints into solving an issue which could be of significance either to a local community or the entire global society. References: Reardon S, Cyranoski D. Japan stem-cell trial stirs envy. Nature. 2014 ;513(7518:287-8. Li MD, Atkins H, Bubela T. The global landscape of stem cell clinical trials. Regen Med. 2014;9(1:27-39.

  7. Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Granger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field study of open water evaporation carried out on three small lakes in Western and Northern Canada. In this case small lakes are defined as those for which the temperature above the water surface is governed by the upwind land surface conditions; that is, a continuous boundary layer exists over the lake, and large-scale atmospheric effects such as entrainment do not come into play. Lake evaporation was measured directly using eddy covariance equipment; profiles of wind speed, air temperature and humidity were also obtained over the water surfaces. Observations were made as well over the upwind land surface.

    The major factors controlling open water evaporation were examined. The study showed that for time periods shorter than daily, the open water evaporation bears no relationship to the net radiation; the wind speed is the most significant factor governing the evaporation rates, followed by the land-water temperature contrast and the land-water vapour pressure contrast. The effect of the stability on the wind field was demonstrated; relationships were developed relating the land-water wind speed contrast to the land-water temperature contrast. The open water period can be separated into two distinct evaporative regimes: the warming period in the Spring, when the land is warmer than the water, the turbulent fluxes over water are suppressed; and the cooling period, when the water is warmer than the land, the turbulent fluxes over water are enhanced.

    Relationships were developed between the hourly rates of lake evaporation and the following significant variables and parameters (wind speed, land-lake temperature and humidity contrasts, and the downwind distance from shore. The result is a relatively simple versatile model for estimating the hourly lake evaporation rates. The model was tested using two independent data sets. Results show that the modelled evaporation follows the observed values

  8. Association between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in Hong Kong Chinese: the 'better health for better Hong Kong' health promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G T C; Chan, J C N; Chan, A W Y; Wong, P T S; Hui, S S C; Tong, S D Y; Ng, S-M; Chow, F; Chan, C L W

    2007-02-01

    To study the inter-relationships between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in subjects from a working population. A cross-sectional observation study under the 'Better Health for Better Hong Kong' Campaign, which is a territory-wide health awareness and promotion program. 4793 subjects (2353 (49.1%) men and 2440 (50.9%) women). Their mean age (+/-s.d.) was 42.4+/-8.9 years (range 17-83 years, median 43.0 years). Subjects were randomly selected using computer-generated codes in accordance to the distribution of occupational groups in Hong Kong. The mean daily sleeping time was 7.06+/-1.03 h (women vs men: 7.14+/-1.08 h vs 6.98+/-0.96 h, Pworking hours reaching significance in the whole group as well as among male subjects. Those with short sleeping hour (6 h or less) and long working hours (>9 h) had the highest BMI and waist in both men and women. Based on multiple regression analysis with age, smoking, alcohol drinking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean daily sleeping hours and working hours as independent variables, BMI was independently associated with age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women, whereas waist was associated with age, smoking and blood pressure. In men, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours were independently associated with BMI, whereas waist was independently associated with age, smoking, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours in men. Obesity is associated with reduced sleeping hours and long working hours in men among Hong Kong Chinese working population. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implication on prevention and management of obesity.

  9. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  10. Perceived impact of the 80-hour workweek: five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozois, Eric J; Holubar, Stefan D; Tsikitis, Vassiliki L; Malireddy, Kishore; Cima, Robert R; Farley, David R; Larson, David W

    2009-09-01

    We aimed to assess perceptions of the effects of the 80-hour workweek (80hWW) restriction on patient care, education, and resident quality of life. In April 2007, attending surgeons and residents in nine surgical specialties at our institution were surveyed. Respondents were categorized into three groups: (1) attending surgeons; (2) residents beginning their training before the 80hWW implementation (ResBefore); and (3) residents beginning training after the 80hWW implementation (ResAfter). Differences between groups were assessed with univariate analysis. The overall response rate was 57%. A minority in all three groups ( or =84%) agreed that midlevel providers were now critical to successfully deliver health care (P = 0.40). Fewer attending surgeons (21%) and ResBefore (29%) perceived improvements in education compared with ResAfter (68%; P work-life balance for residents (attending surgeons [85%], ResBefore [71%], and ResAfter [92%]; P = 0.008), but 76% of attending surgeons reported decreased job satisfaction. We showed a discrepancy between perceptions of attending surgeons and residents regarding the effect of the 80hWW on patient care and surgical education. Quality of life was improved for residents but not for attending surgeons. The impact of the 80hWW on patient care and surgical education needs to be quantified.

  11. Communication between residents and attending doctors on call after hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselsky Persky, Michal A; Yinnon, Amos M; Freier-Dror, Yossi; Henshke-Bar-Meir, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    Off-hours medical care in hospitals is provided by residents, while attendings on call are available for assistance. This study evaluated the gap between residents' expectations and professional guidelines' requirements of attendings on call and what actually occurs during night shifts, while comparing surgical and medical specialties. Two questionnaires based on professional guidelines were filled by residents. The first queried about residents' expectations of attendings on call, and the second asked about communication with the attendings during actual night shifts. While 91 (100%) of residents expected the attending on call to be available by phone during the shift, only 44 (48%) expected the attending to initiate contact, and only 17 (19%) expected the attending to visit the ward or emergency department (ED) without being requested to do so. In 127 shifts (84%), some form of communication occurred. Residents called their attendings during 105 shifts (70%). However, attendings initiated contact with residents at the beginning or during the shift in only 67 (44%) and 62 (41%) shifts, respectively, and initiated a visit to the ward/ED during the shift in only 41 cases (27%). Surgical attendings initiated contact in these three ways significantly more frequently than medical attendings [21 (28%) versus 46 (61%), 20 (26%) versus 42 (56%) and 4 (5%) versus 37 (50%), respectively; P communication during night shifts between residents and attendings occurs in most shifts, attendings initiate far less contact with residents than is required by the guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  13. Glucose turnover in 48-hour-fasted running rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonne, B.; Mikines, K.J.; Galbo, H.

    1987-01-01

    In fed rats, hyperglycemia develops during exercise. This contrasts with the view based on studies of fasted human and dog that euglycemia is maintained in exercise and glucose production (R/sub a/) controlled by feedback mechanisms. Forty-eight-hour-fasted rats (F) were compared to fed rats (C) and overnight food-restricted (FR) rats. [3- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]glucose were infused and blood and tissue sampled. During running (21 m/min, 0% grade) R/sub a/ increased most in C and least in F and only in F did R/sub a/ not significantly exceed glucose disappearance. Plasma glucose increased more in C (3.3 mmol/1) than in FR (1.6 mmol/l) and only modestly (0.6 mmol/l) and transiently in F. Resting liver glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and similar in FR and F. Resting muscle glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and lowest in F. During running, lactate production and gluconeogenesis were higher in FR than in F. At least in rats, responses of production and plasma concentration of glucose to exercise depend on size of liver and muscle glycogen stores; glucose production matches increase in clearance better in fasted than in fed states. Probably glucose production is stimulated by feedforward mechanisms and feedback mechanisms are added if plasma glucose decreases

  14. Irregular working hours and fatigue of cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Carvalhais, José; Teles, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    Beyond workload and specific environmental factors, flight attendants can be exposed to irregular working hours, conflicting with their circadian rhythms and having a negative impact in sleep, fatigue, health, social and family life, and performance which is critical to both safety and security in flight operations. This study focuses on the irregular schedules of cabin crew as a trigger of fatigue symptoms in a wet lease Portuguese airline. The aim was to analyze: what are the requirements of the cabin crew work; whether the schedules being observed and effective resting timeouts are triggering factors of fatigue; and the existence of fatigue symptoms in the cabin crew. A questionnaire has been adapted and applied to a sample of 73 cabin crew-members (representing 61.9% of the population), 39 females and 34 males, with an average age of 27.68 ± 4.27 years. Our data indicate the presence of fatigue and corresponding health symptoms among the airline cabin crew, despite of the sample favorable characteristics. Senior workers and women are more affected. Countermeasures are required. Recommendations can be made regarding the fatigue risk management, including work organization, education and awareness training programmes and specific countermeasures.

  15. Improving health, safety, and profits in extended hours operations (shiftwork).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Alex; Aguirre, Acacia

    2005-01-01

    Circadian Technologies, Inc. (CIRCADIAN) is an international consulting firm that for over 20 yr has helped employees better cope with shiftwork, while ensuring their employers reduce costs and maximize profits. This paper describes two of the methods employed to reduce accidents, absenteeism, and turnover, while improving morale and productivity in extended hour operations (shiftwork). Shiftworkers rarely receive on-the-job training to help them cope better with the rigors of working nights, evenings, and early mornings. A pre- and post-training study by CIRCADIAN demonstrated improvements in health and fatigue indices, and an increase in daytime sleep length. Companies who provide shiftwork lifestyle training also have lower rates of absenteeism and turnover compared to companies that do not provide training. The second intervention described in this paper is a novel method of shift scheduling. There are thousands of potential schedules, so how does a company choose the best schedule for their facility? The answer lies in allowing employees to be involved in the process of selection. This results in a workforce that experiences less fatigue, turnover and absenteeism, and higher morale.

  16. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc and cognitive test battery (CTB performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature. Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance.

  17. Full reconstruction of a 14-qubit state within four hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Zhibo; Zhong, Han-Sen; Tian, Ye; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Dong, Daoyi; Wang, Yuanlong; Qi, Bo; Li, Li; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Full quantum state tomography (FQST) plays a unique role in the estimation of the state of a quantum system without a priori knowledge or assumptions. Unfortunately, since FQST requires informationally (over)complete measurements, both the number of measurement bases and the computational complexity of data processing suffer an exponential growth with the size of the quantum system. A 14-qubit entangled state has already been experimentally prepared in an ion trap, and the data processing capability for FQST of a 14-qubit state seems to be far away from practical applications. In this paper, the computational capability of FQST is pushed forward to reconstruct a 14-qubit state with a run time of only 3.35 hours using the linear regression estimation (LRE) algorithm, even when informationally overcomplete Pauli measurements are employed. The computational complexity of the LRE algorithm is first reduced from ∼10 19 to ∼10 15 for a 14-qubit state, by dropping all the zero elements, and its computational efficiency is further sped up by fully exploiting the parallelism of the LRE algorithm with parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) programming. Our result demonstrates the effectiveness of using parallel computation to speed up the postprocessing for FQST, and can play an important role in quantum information technologies with large quantum systems. (paper)

  18. Hourly indoor radon measurements in a research house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, Lucia; Begnini, Stefania

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports and discusses the behaviour of radon concentration with time in an uninhabited dwelling. The relationship between variations in radon concentrations and indoor-outdoor temperatures and wind intensity has also been discussed. Radon concentration was measured hourly in a house located at a height of 800 m in the Lombard Prealps, at the top of the Valassina valley. The wind velocity and indoor-outdoor temperatures were measured by means of a meteorological station located on the terrace of the house. The data were analysed using the LBL model for indoor-outdoor air exchange and the models for the indoor accumulation of radon due to exhalation from building materials and pressure-driven infiltrations located underground. The role of wind and indoor-outdoor temperatures were analysed. The agreement of measurements with modelling clearly demonstrates the importance of the different sources of indoor radon. As the investigation was conducted in an uninhabited house, the measurements were not affected by the behaviour of people, e.g. opening and closing of windows. Measurements of the outdoor atmospheric concentrations of (222)Rn provide an index of the atmospheric stability, the formation of thermal inversions and convective turbulence.

  19. Hourly indoor radon measurements in a research house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, L.; Begnini, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports and discusses the behaviour of radon concentration with time in an uninhabited dwelling. The relationship between variations in radon concentrations and indoor-outdoor temperatures and wind intensity has also been discussed. Radon concentration was measured hourly in a house located at a height of 800 m in the Lombard Pre-alps, at the top of the Valassina valley. The wind velocity and indoor-outdoor temperatures were measured by means of a meteorological station located on the terrace of the house. The data were analysed using the LBL model for indoor-outdoor air exchange and the models for the indoor accumulation of radon due to exhalation from building materials and pressure-driven infiltrations located underground. The role of wind and indoor-outdoor temperatures were analysed. The agreement of measurements with modelling clearly demonstrates the importance of the different sources of indoor radon. As the investigation was conducted in an uninhabited house, the measurements were not affected by the behaviour of people, e.g. opening and closing of windows. Measurements of the outdoor atmospheric concentrations of 222 Rn provide an index of the atmospheric stability, the formation of thermal inversions and convective turbulence. (authors)

  20. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to Big Data analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  1. [Causes of 72-hour return visits to hospital emergency departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Puente, Alberto; Del Río-Mata, José; Arjona-Huertas, José Luis; Mora-Ordóñez, Begoña; Nieto-de Haro, Lourdes; Lara-Blanquer, Antonio; Martínez-Reina, Alfonso; Martínez Del Campo, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The return-visit rate has been suggested as a measure of emergency department quality of care. We aimed to identify the reasons for emergency revisits and the percentage of returns related to problems with quality of care in the previous visit. Cross-sectional observational study of clinical records for a random sample of unscheduled returns within 72 hours of discharge from the emergency departments of 3 hospitals attending a population of nearly 3 million in the Spanish province of Malaga. The records were reviewed by 2 data collectors, who assigned a reason for revisits according to a standardized classification. A sample of 1075 emergency revisits were reviewed; 895 met the inclusion criteria. The most common reasons for revisits were the persistence or progression of disease (48.8%), an unrelated new problem (9.3%), and referral from a hospital that did not have the required specialized service (8.6%). Reasons attributable to the patient accounted for 14.5% of the revisits; 15.2% were attributable to health care staff errors, 9.2% to system organization, and 61.1% to the disease process. Most emergency department revisits are related to the progression of the disease that led to the first visit. Only a small percentage can be linked to diagnostic or treatment errors in the previous visit.

  2. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hourly Wind Speed Interval Prediction in Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, M.; Ouarda, T.

    2013-12-01

    context, probabilistic forecasts might be more relevant than point forecasts for the planner to build scenarios In this paper, we are interested in estimating predictive intervals of the hourly wind speed measures in few cities in United Arab emirates (UAE). More precisely, given a wind speed time series, our target is to forecast the wind speed at any specific hour during the day and provide in addition an interval with the coverage probability 0flexible because it does not need a specification of the model to work with (such as normal distribution or a linear relation). Here, we use a covariable that is correlated to the wind speed. In practice, many possible choices of the covariate are available. In fact, in addition to its historical data, the wind speed is highly correlated to temperature, humidity and wind direction. In this paper a comparison, in terms of Mean Absolute Prediction Errors and Interquartile Range, between those choices will be provided to show which covariates are more suitable to forecast wind speed.

  4. Improving Weekend Out Of hours Surgical Handover (WOOSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Melissa; Tappenden, Janine; Peter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An effective surgical handover is imperative to optimise patient care and safety, whilst ensuring progression of clinical management and the delivery of an efficient service. The introduction of full-shift working, as a response to progressive implementation of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD), has placed the spotlight on patient and doctor safety. Effective handover between shifts is vital to protect patient safety and assist doctors with clinical governance. The weekend is a critical point where the transfer of patient care to the ongoing weekend team is efficient, thorough and informative, as this is a point in the patient journey where the patient is the most vulnerable. The weekend team is often not responsible for the management of the patient throughout the week and poor or incomplete information can have disastrous consequences on patient safety. (1,2,3) There is a general consensus and anecdotal evidence that this process is variable, occasionally unsafe or of poor quality, and can be improved. (4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11) However, no standardised format is deemed optimal or available. The aim therefore, was to design and implement a weekend handover proforma, in order to deliver a more efficient and safer system for patient care over the weekend without increasing junior doctor workload. The Weekend Out Of Hours Surgical Handover (WOOSH) form was designed following consultation with medical, nursing and allied health professionals. All staff were instructed how to complete the form, with pre- and post-intervention questionnaires undertaken. The results of the study enforce and advocate the permanent practice of the WOOSH form with 93.33% endorsing the permanent introduction of the form and 100% finding the form useful.

  5. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  6. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies greatly. In only half of the cases a reference period is taken into account and in half the reasons for working more/less in the survey w...

  7. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies largely. In only half of the cases a reference period is taken into account and in half the reasons for working more/less in the survey week than...

  8. Improved Hourly and Sub-Hourly Gauge Data for Assessing Precipitation Extremes in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrimore, J. H.; Wuertz, D.; Palecki, M. A.; Kim, D.; Stevens, S. E.; Leeper, R.; Korzeniewski, B.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) Fischer-Porter (F&P) weighing bucket precipitation gauge network consists of approximately 2000 stations that comprise a subset of the NWS Cooperative Observers Program network. This network has operated since the mid-20th century, providing one of the longest records of hourly and 15-minute precipitation observations in the U.S. The lengthy record of this dataset combined with its relatively high spatial density, provides an important source of data for many hydrological applications including understanding trends and variability in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. In recent years NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information initiated an upgrade of its end-to-end processing and quality control system for these data. This involved a change from a largely manual review and edit process to a fully automated system that removes the subjectivity that was previously a necessary part of dataset quality control and processing. An overview of improvements to this dataset is provided along with the results of an analysis of observed variability and trends in U.S. precipitation extremes since the mid-20th century. Multi-decadal trends in many parts of the nation are consistent with model projections of an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation in a warming world.

  9. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  11. The Skeleton Is a Storehouse of Mineral That Is Plundered During Lactation and (Fully?) Replenished Afterwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2017-04-01

    During lactation, mammals resorb mineral from the maternal skeleton to provide calcium to milk. Rodents lose 25% to 35% of skeletal ash weight, ash calcium content, and bone mineral content as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and have compromised material properties of bone as assessed by crushing vertebrae and 3-point bend tests of femora or tibias. The strength, stiffness, and toughness of vertebrae, femora, and tibias are reduced by as much as 60%. The effects of lactation are not uniform throughout the skeleton, but instead resorption is much more marked in the trabecular-rich spine than in the appendicular skeleton or whole body. Women who breastfeed exclusively lose an average of 210 mg calcium in milk each day, whereas nursing of twins or triplets can double and triple the output of calcium. Clinical data are also consistent with skeletal calcium being released during lactation to provide much of the calcium needed for milk production. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), as assessed by DXA, declines by a mean of 5% to 10% among numerous studies during 3 to 6 months of exclusive lactation, whereas largely cortical sites (hip, forearm, whole body) show half that loss or no significant changes. Micro-CT of rodents and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) imaging of women confirm that lactation causes microarchitectural deterioration of bone. These skeletal losses occur through two pathways: upregulated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteocytic osteolysis, in which osteocytes remove mineral from their lacunae and pericanalicular spaces. After weaning, the skeleton is fully restored to its prior mineral content and strength in both animal models and humans, despite persistent microarchitectural changes observed in high-resolution imaging. Osteoblasts upregulate to lay down new osteoid, while osteocytes remineralize their surroundings. The factors that stimulate this post-weaning skeletal recovery remain unclear. In most studies, a history of lactation does not increase the risk, but may protect against, low BMD and fragility fractures. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Rural Hospital Mergers and Acquisitions: Which Hospitals Are Being Acquired and How Are They Performing Afterward?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Marissa J; Reiter, Kristin L; Boortz-Marx, Jonathan; Pink, George

    2015-01-01

    The number of stand-alone rural hospitals has been shrinking as larger health systems target these hospitals for mergers and acquisitions (M and As). However, little research has focused specifically on rural hospital M and A transactions. Using data from Irving Levin Associates' Healthcare M and A Report and Medicare Cost Reports from 2005 to 2012, we examined two research questions: (1) What were the characteristics of rural hospitals that merged or were acquired, and (2) were there changes in rural hospital financial performance, staffing, or services after an M and A transaction? We used logistic regression to identify factors predictive of merger, and we used multiple regression to examine various hospital measures after an M or A. Study results showed that hospitals with weaker financial performance but lower staffing levels and staffing costs were more likely to merge or be acquired. Statistically weak evidence suggested that operating margins declined after the merger; stronger evidence suggested reductions in salary expense. There was no statistically significant evidence of changes to the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) employees, the service lines that were included in the study, capital expenditures, or the amount of debt financing among the hospitals that merged or were acquired. M and A may not result in a rapid influx of capital, a relief of debt burden, or an improvement in bottom-line profitability. However, M and A may be a viable option for maintaining the hospital and the access to care it provides.

  13. How frequently do allegations of scientific misconduct occur in ecology and evolution, and what happens afterwards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2013-03-01

    Scientific misconduct obstructs the advance of knowledge in science. Its impact in some disciplines is still poorly known, as is the frequency in which it is detected. Here, I examine how frequently editors of ecology and evolution journals detect scientist misconduct. On average, editors managed 0.114 allegations of misconduct per year. Editors considered 6 of 14 allegations (42.9%) to be true, but only in 2 cases were the authors declared guilty, the remaining being dropped for lack of proof. The annual rate of allegations that were probably warranted was 0.053, although the rate of demonstrated misconduct was 0.018, while the rate of false or erroneous allegations was 0.024. Considering that several cases of misconduct are probably not reported, these findings suggest that editors detect less than one-third of all fraudulent papers.

  14. Educating Women Students in the Academy to Confront Gender Discrimination and Contribute to Equity Afterward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen

    2010-01-01

    We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…

  15. Effect of 680 rad whole-body irradiation of a human fetus, 27 years afterwards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinger, W.; Granninger, W.

    1982-01-01

    In 1953 a 38-year-old pregnant woman was given radiation treatment with Ra-226 due to a vaginal carcinoma. The radiation field was reproduced by means of a computer program. It was proved that the fetus was exposed to radiation doses of 50-2000 rad. Despite this high dose no abnormalities were found during clinical examination of the now 27-year-old man who has already fathered a healthy son. (orig.) [de

  16. Changing the Formula of Residents' Work Hours in Internal Medicine: Moving From “Years in Training” to “Hours in Training”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-01-01

    Background In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Proposal An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from “years of residency” to “hours of residency.” For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of “multipliers” based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the “final adjusted accredited hours” that count toward graduation. Anticipated Benefits Substituting “years of training” with “hours of training” may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education. PMID:22379516

  17. STRESSORS IN NURSING WITH DOUBLE OR MORE WORKING HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinir Bezerra de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: investigar os principais agentes estressores nos trabalhadores de enfermagem com dupla ou mais jornada de trabalho; verificar os principais sinais e sintomas indicadores de estresse. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa. Desenvolvido em um hospital público da região metropolitana de Fortaleza-CE. A amostra constitui-se de 30 profissionais, sendo 46,7% auxiliares de enfermagem, 33,3% enfermeiros e 20% técnicos. A coleta ocorreu de novembro a dezembro de 2008, por meio de questionário semi-estruturado. Resultados: 93,3% dos profissionais são do sexo feminino na faixa etária de 31-40 anos. O estudo revelou vários fatores levando ao estresse, com destaque para insatisfação salarial (83%, falta de lazer (73% e sobrecarga de trabalho (60%, potencialmente prejudiciais à qualidade da assistência. Conclusão: percebeu-se a escassez de tempo que os trabalhadores de enfermagem dedicam ao descanso, ao lazer, ao convívio em família e à sua qualificação profissional. Descritores: Saúde mental, Estresse Ocupacional, Enfermagem, Ambiente de trabalho.   Abstract Objective: To investigate the main stressors in nursing workers double or more working hours, check the main signs and symptoms indicative of stress. Methods: A descriptive study with quantitative approach. It was developed in a public hospital in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza. The sample consisted of 30 professionals, and 46.7% nursing auxiliaries, 33.3% nurses and 20% technical. The data was collected during November-December 2008, through semi-structured questionnaire. Results: 93.3% of professionals are women aged 31-40 years. The study revealed several factors leading to stress, especially wage dissatisfaction (83%, lack of leisure (73% and workload (60%, potentially damaging the quality of care. Conclusion: it was perceived scarcity of time that the nursing staff dedicated to rest, leisure, living with the family and their professional

  18. Stochastic modeling of hourly rainfall times series in Campania (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, M.; Greco, R.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of flowslides and floods in small catchments is uneasy to predict, since it is affected by a number of variables, such as mechanical and hydraulic soil properties, slope morphology, vegetation coverage, rainfall spatial and temporal variability. Consequently, landslide risk assessment procedures and early warning systems still rely on simple empirical models based on correlation between recorded rainfall data and observed landslides and/or river discharges. Effectiveness of such systems could be improved by reliable quantitative rainfall prediction, which can allow gaining larger lead-times. Analysis of on-site recorded rainfall height time series represents the most effective approach for a reliable prediction of local temporal evolution of rainfall. Hydrological time series analysis is a widely studied field in hydrology, often carried out by means of autoregressive models, such as AR, ARMA, ARX, ARMAX (e.g. Salas [1992]). Such models gave the best results when applied to the analysis of autocorrelated hydrological time series, like river flow or level time series. Conversely, they are not able to model the behaviour of intermittent time series, like point rainfall height series usually are, especially when recorded with short sampling time intervals. More useful for this issue are the so-called DRIP (Disaggregated Rectangular Intensity Pulse) and NSRP (Neymann-Scott Rectangular Pulse) model [Heneker et al., 2001; Cowpertwait et al., 2002], usually adopted to generate synthetic point rainfall series. In this paper, the DRIP model approach is adopted, in which the sequence of rain storms and dry intervals constituting the structure of rainfall time series is modeled as an alternating renewal process. Final aim of the study is to provide a useful tool to implement an early warning system for hydrogeological risk management. Model calibration has been carried out with hourly rainfall hieght data provided by the rain gauges of Campania Region civil

  19. Forecasting of Hourly Photovoltaic Energy in Canarian Electrical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, D.; Castaño, C.; Nebot, R.; Piernavieja, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    2010-09-01

    The Canarian Archipelago face similar problems as most insular region lacking of endogenous conventional energy resources and not connected to continental electrical grids. A consequence of the "insular fact" is the existence of isolated electrical systems that are very difficult to interconnect due to the considerable sea depths between the islands. Currently, the Canary Islands have six isolated electrical systems, only one utility generating most of the electricity (burning fuel), a recently arrived TSO (REE) and still a low implementation of Renewable Energy Resources (RES). The low level of RES deployment is a consequence of two main facts: the weakness of the stand-alone grids (from 12 MW in El Hierro up to only 1 GW in Gran Canaria) and the lack of space to install RES systems (more than 50% of the land protected due to environmental reasons). To increase the penetration of renewable energy generation, like solar or wind energy, is necessary to develop tools to manage them. The penetration of non manageable sources into weak grids like the Canarian ones causes a big problem to the grid operator. There are currently 104 MW of PV connected to the islands grids (Dec. 2009) and additional 150 MW under licensing. This power presents a serious challenge for the operation and stability of the electrical system. ITC, together with the local TSO (Red Eléctrica de España, REE) started in 2008 and R&D project to develop a PV energy prediction tool for the six Canarian Insular electrical systems. The objective is to supply reliable information for hourly forecast of the generation dispatch programme and to predict daily solar radiation patterns, in order to help program spinning reserves. ITC has approached the task of weather forecasting using different numerical model (MM5 and WRF) in combination with MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) images. From the online data recorded at several monitored PV plants and meteorological stations, PV nominal power and energy produced

  20. CMAQv5.1 with new dust AQS Hourly site compare files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQv5.1 with a new dust module AQS Hourly sitex files containing hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. This dataset is associated with the following...

  1. Periodic self-rostering in shift work: correspondence between objective work hours, work hour preferences (personal fit), and work schedule satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingre, M.; Äkerstedt, T.; Ekstedt, M.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study was to investigate relative personal fit as the association between rated needs and preferences for work hours, on the one hand, and actual work hours, on the other hand, in three groups (hospital, call-center, and police) working with periodic

  2. Measuring excessive hours of work, low hourly pay, and informal employment through a labour force survey a pilot survey in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Using 2004 data of the Philippines' labour force survey, evaluates the hours of work at all jobs, hourly pay among time-rated wage and salary workers, informal employment etc., with the aim to quantify a decent-work situation (i.e. acceptable productive employment, social protection, social dialogue, and rights at work).

  3. Validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. Methods: The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in th...

  4. Job mobility and hours of work: the effect of Dutch legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Fouarge, D.; Baaijens, F P.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the existence of hours constraints on the labour market: not all employees’ preferences with respect to the length of the working week seem to be fulfilled, and changes in the number of working hours often coincide with job mobility. In this paper, we test whether or not a recently introduced Dutch legislation providing employees with the right to adjust working hours within their job has reduced the correlation between changes in working hours and job mobilit...

  5. 77 FR 12407 - Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as Amended; Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... 10 hours or 48 or 72 hours after working 6 or 7 days), and is released from that call prior to the... Transportation (Secretary), has long administered statutory hours of service requirements for the three groups of..., in the next 24 hours, and must get 10 hours off either after working that 12 hours or at the end of...

  6. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee is required to be on duty for 24 hours or more, the employer and the employee may agree to exclude... from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the employee... of sleeping time and lunch periods constitute hours worked. (Armour v. Wantock, 323 U.S. 126 (1944...

  7. 29 CFR 778.315 - Payment for all hours worked in overtime workweek is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems Effect of Failure to Count Or Pay for Certain Working Hours § 778... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment for all hours worked in overtime workweek is required. 778.315 Section 778.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  8. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  9. Time for Children, One's Spouse and Oneself among Parents Who Work Nonstandard Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.; Raley, Sara B.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys, this article examines nonstandard work hours and their relationship to parents' family, leisure and personal care time--informing the discussion of the costs and benefits of working nonstandard hours. The results suggest that parents who work nonstandard evening hours spend less time in…

  10. 47 CFR 80.705 - Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.705 Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations. Each Alaska-public fixed station whose hours of service are not... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed...

  11. Sleep, 24-hour activity rhythms, and brain structure : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Zuurbier (Lisette)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis, Chapter 2 focuses on sleep, 24-hour activity rhythms and health. Chapter 2.1 describes the influence of demographics, lifestyle and sleep on 24-hour activity rhythms. In Chapter 2.2 sleep and 24-hour activity rhythms are used to predict mortality. This chapter is

  12. 30 CFR 48.25 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction. (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 24...: Provided, That no less than 8 hours of training shall in all cases be given to new miners before they are... instruction; hours of instruction. 48.25 Section 48.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  13. 29 CFR 778.319 - Paying for but not counting hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... working time under the Act, coupled with a provision that these hours will not be counted as working time... more hours have been worked, the employee must be paid overtime compensation at not less than one and... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Paying for but not counting hours worked. 778.319 Section...

  14. Relationship Between Long Working Hours and Metabolic Syndrome Among Korean Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jungok

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and metabolic syndrome. Data based on the Sixth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014) pertaining to a total of 1,145 paid workers were analyzed. Working hours were divided into three groups (40-51 hours/week, 52-59 hours/week, ≥ 60 hours/week). The relationship between working hours and metabolic syndrome was then analyzed after adjusting for general and occupational characteristics, using a multiple logistic regression model. Working 40-51 hours per week was associated with the lowest metabolic syndrome among female workers (11.2%), whereas it was associated with the highest metabolic syndrome among male workers (28.0%). After adjusting for general and occupational characteristics, female workers working≥60 hours per week showed odds ratios of 2.21 [95% confidence interval (1.07, 4.57)], compared to those who worked 40-51 hours per week. However, no clear association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome was found among male workers. The results suggest that working long hours, especially≥60 hours per week, is related to metabolic syndrome among female Korean workers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S.T.; Madsen, I.E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J.E.; Fransson, E.; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Jöckel, K.H.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lunau, T.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J.H.; Pentti, J.; Shipley, M.J.; Steptoe, A.; Suominen, S.B.; Theorell, T.; Vahtera, J.; Westerholm, P.J.M.; Westerlund, H.; Dragano, N.; Rugulies, R.; Kawachi, I.; Batty, G.D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Virtanen, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk

  16. 5 CFR 531.607 - Computing hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly locality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing hourly, daily, weekly, and... Computing hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly locality rates. (a) Apply the following methods to convert an... firefighter whose pay is computed under 5 U.S.C. 5545b, a firefighter hourly locality rate is computed using a...

  17. Long working hours and emotional well-being in korean manufacturing industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ki; Kang, Dong-Mug; Yun, Myeong-Ja; Park, Shin-Goo; Song, Jae-Seok; Lee, Sang-Gil

    2013-12-05

    Korea is well known for its long work hours amongst employees. Because workers of the manufacturing industry are constantly exposed to extended work hours, this study was based on how long work hours affect their emotional well-being. The analysis was done using the secondary Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). Long work hours were defined to be more than 48 hours, and they were subcategorized into units of 52 hours and 60 hours. Based on the WHO (five) well-being index, emotional state was subdivided into three groups - reference group, low-mood group, and possible depression group- where 28 points and 50 points were division points, and two groups were compared at a time. Association between long work hours and emotional state was analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Working for extended working hours in the manufacturing industry showed a statistically significant increase (t test p work-related characteristics were fixed as controlled variables, as work hours increased the odds ratio of the possible depression group increased compared to the reference group, and especially the odds ratio was 2.73 times increased for work hours between 48-52 and 4.09 times increased for 60 hours or more and both were statistically significant. In comparing the low-mood group and possible depression group, as work hours increased the odds ratio increased to 1.73, 2.39, and 4.16 times, and all work hours from working 48-52 hours, 53-60 hours, and 60 hours or more were statistically significant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis also showed that among the reference group and possible group, the possible depression group was statistically significant as odds ratio increased to 2.94 times in working 53-60 hours, and 4.35 times in 60 hours or more. Long work hours have an adverse effect on emotional well-being. A more diversified research towards variables that affect long work hours and emotional well-being and how they interact with each

  18. Hourly awakening vs continuous contact lens sensor measurements of 24-hour intraocular pressure: effect on sleep macrostructure and intraocular pressure rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mottet, Benjamin; Hubanova, Ralitsa; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Chiquet, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    All studies of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythm conducted to date have used repeated IOP measurements requiring nocturnal awakenings, potentially disturbing sleep macrostructure. To evaluate the effects on sleep architecture and IOP rhythm of hourly awakening vs a contact lens sensor (CLS) to continuously monitor IOP without awakening. Cross-sectional study at a referral center of chronobiology among 12 young healthy volunteers, with a mean (SD) age of 22.3 (2.3) years. Volunteers underwent two 24-hour IOP measurement sessions during a 2-month period. The eye order and session order were randomized. During one session, the IOP of the first eye was continuously monitored using a CLS, and the IOP of the fellow eye was measured hourly using a portable noncontact tonometer (session with nocturnal hourly awakening). During the other session, the IOP of the first eye was continuously monitored using a CLS, and the IOP of the fellow eye was not measured (session without nocturnal awakening). Overnight polysomnography was performed during the 2 sessions. A nonlinear least squares, dual-harmonic regression analysis was used to model the 24-hour IOP rhythm from the CLS data. Comparisons of acrophase, bathyphase, amplitude, and the midline estimating statistic of rhythm were used to evaluate the effect of hourly awakening on IOP rhythm. To evaluate the effects of hourly awakening on sleep architecture, comparisons of sleep structure were used, including total sleep period, rapid eye movement, wake after sleep onset, absolute and relative total sleep time, and non-rapid eye movement sleep (N1, N2, and N3). A 24-hour IOP rhythm was found in all individuals for the sessions with and without awakening (P  .30). Hourly awakening during noncontact tonometer IOP measurements did not seem to alter the mean variables of the 24-hour IOP pattern evaluated using CLS, including signal, maximum signal, minimum signal, acrophase, and bathyphase (P > .15). The 24-hour IOP

  19. Maximum Hours Legislation and Female Employment in the 1920s: A Reasse ssment

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Goldin

    1986-01-01

    The causes and consequences of state maximum hours laws for female workers, passed from the mid-1800s to the 1920s, are explored and are found to differ from a recent reinterpretation. Although maximum hours legislation reduced scheduled hours in 1920, the impact was minimal and it operated equally for men. Legislation affecting only women was symptomatic of a general desire by labor for lower hours, and these lower hours were achieved in the tight, and otherwise special, World War I labor ma...

  20. Social Norms on Working Hours, Work-Life Balance, and Fertility Choice

    OpenAIRE

    大洞, 公平; 田畑, 顕

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the role played by the social norms of working hours in a household labor- leisure and fertility decision model. We suppose that social norms enforce workers not to deviate from the ideal level of working hours, which depends on past and current observations of working hours in workplaces. We show that the social norms lead to multiple equilibria: one with long working hours and a low fertility rate and another with short working hours and a high fertility rate. Our results...

  1. Two- and 4-hour bright-light exposures differentially effect sleepiness and performance the subsequent night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessing, V C; Anch, A M; Muehlbach, M J; Schweitzer, P K; Walsh, J K

    1994-03-01

    The effect of two durations of bright light upon sleepiness and performance during typical night shift hours was assessed. Thirty normal, healthy young adults participated in a 2-night protocol. On the 1st night subjects were exposed to bright or dim light beginning at 2400 hours, under one of the following three conditions: bright light for 4 hours, dim light for 2 hours followed by bright light for 2 hours or dim light for 4 hours. Following light exposure, subjects remained awake until 0800 hours in a dimly lit room and slept in the laboratory between 0800 and 1600 hours, during which time sleep was estimated with actigraphy. Throughout the 2nd night, the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), simulated assembly line task (SALT) performance, and subjective sleepiness were recorded. The single, 4-hour exposure to bright light was found to significantly increase MSLT scores and improve SALT performance during the early morning hours on the night following bright-light exposure. No significant effects were noted with a 2-hour exposure. The most likely explanation for these findings is a phase delay in the circadian rhythm of sleepiness-alertness.

  2. Surgeon distress as calibrated by hours worked and nights on call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Charles M; Shanafelt, Tait D; Dyrbye, Lotte; Sloan, Jeffrey A; Russell, Thomas R; Bechamps, Gerald J; Freischlag, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    The relationships of working hours and nights on call per week with various parameters of distress among practicing surgeons have not been previously examined in detail. More than 7,900 members of the American College of Surgeons responded to an anonymous, cross-sectional survey. The survey included self-assessment of their practice setting, a validated depression screening tool, and standardized assessments of burnout and quality of life. There was a clear gradient between hours and burnout, with the prevalence of burnout ranging from 30% for surgeons working hours/week, 44% for 60 to 80 hours/week, and 50% for those working >80 hours/week (p hours and nights on call (both p worked >80 hours/week reported a higher rate of medical errors compared with those who worked hours/week (10.7% versus 6.9%; p work and home conflicts were higher among surgeons who worked longer hours or had ≥2 nights on call. A significantly higher proportion of surgeons who worked >80 hours/week or had >2 nights on call/week would not become a surgeon again (p hours worked and nights on call per week appear to have a substantial impact on surgeons, both professionally and personally. These factors are strongly related to burnout, depression, career satisfaction, and work and home conflicts. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comparison of 4- and 24-Hour Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Proteinuria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Amirabi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and it is vital to diagnosis the condition as early as possible. Proteinuria is an important symptom of preeclampsia, and repeated urine analysis to screen for the condition is part of the standard antenatal care. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine total protein values to examine whether the 4-hour urine samples could be used for the diagnosis of proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 110 pregnant (after gestational week 20 of pregnancy patients who were hypertensive (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and had proteinuria as defined by positive urinary protein of at least 1+ in dipstick. Patients' urine samples were collected over 24 hours; the first 4 hours were collected separately from the next 20-hours. Patients, who did not collect the 24-hour urine, were excluded from the study. One hundred patients met the criteria, and were included in the study. The urine volume, total protein and creatinine levels of 4- and 24-hours samples were measured. The correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour samples was examined using Pearson correlation test. Results: Of the 100 patients, 42 had no proteinuria, 44 had mild proteinuria, and 14 had severe proteinuria. The urine protein values of 4-hour samples correlated with those of the 24-hours samples for patients with mild and severe forms of the disease (P<0.001, r=0.86. Conclusion: This study showed there was a correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour urine proteins. The finding indicates that a random 4-hour sample might be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria

  4. Long working hours and pregnancy complications: women physicians survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masumi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ishiguro, Aya; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-07-23

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of occupational risk factors on health outcomes among physicians. However, few studies have investigated the effects on pregnancy outcomes among physicians. In this study, we examined the association between working hours during pregnancy and pregnancy complications among physicians. A cross-sectional study was based on a survey conducted in 2009-2011 of 1,684 alumnae (mean age, 44 ± 8 years) who had graduated from 13 private medical schools in Japan. Data on threatened abortion (TA), preterm birth (PTB), and the number of working hours during the first trimester of pregnancy were obtained via retrospective assessments. Of the 939 physicians with a first pregnancy, 15% experienced TA and 12% experienced PTB. Women who experienced TA (mean weekly working hours: 62 h vs. 50 h, P working hours during the first trimester than did those without pregnancy complications. Compared with women who worked 40 hours or less per week, women who worked 71 hours or more per week had a three-fold higher risk of experiencing TA (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-6.0) even after adjusting for medical specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The risk of experiencing PTB was 2.5 times higher (95% CI:1.2-5.2) in women who worked 51-70 hours and 4.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.9-9.2) in women who worked 71 hours or more even after adjusting for specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The trend in the P statistic reflecting the effect of the quartile of hours worked per week (40 hours, 41-50 hours, 51-70 hours, ≥ 71 hours) on TA or PTB was 0.0001 in the multivariate logistic regression models. These results suggest that working long hours during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with TA and PTB.

  5. Working hours and cardiovascular disease in Korean workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Inchul; Rhie, Jeongbae; Kim, Inah; Ryu, Innshil; Jung, Pil Kyun; Park, Yoo Seok; Lim, Yong-Su; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Shin-Goo; Im, Hyoung-June; Lee, Mi-Young; Won, Jong-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Long working hours can negatively impact a worker's health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between working hours and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and compare the degree of risk based on CVD subtypes in Korean workers. This study was a case-control study of the patients registered in the Occupational Cardiovascular Diseases Surveillance 2010. The cases included 348 patients diagnosed with a CVD (123 cerebral infarction, 69 intracerebral hemorrhage, 57 subarachnoid hemorrhage, 99 acute myocardial infarction). Controls were 769 participants with no history of CVDs matched for gender, age, type of occupation, and region. Participants' working hours in the previous week and the average working hours over the past three months were assessed to examine short-term and long-term effects. After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for CVDs in the short-term were 2.66 (95% Confidence interval (CI) :1.78-3.99) for working ≤40 hours, 1.85 (95% CI: 1.22-2.81) for working 50.1-60 hours and 4.23 (95% CI: 2.81-6.39) for working >60 hours compared with the 40.1-50-hour working group. The ORs in the long-term were 2.90 (95% CI: 1.86-4.52) for working ≤40 hours, 1.73 (95% CI: 1.03-2.90) for working 48.1-52 hours and 3.46 (95% CI: 2.38-5.03) for working >52 hours compared with the 40.1-48-hour working group. Long working hours are related to an increased risk of CVDs, and the degree of risk differs based on CVD subtype. Short working hours are also related to an increased risk for CVDs. More prospective studies targeting specific disease risks are required.

  6. When more is less: An examination of the relationship between hours in telework and role overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda; Halinski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of telework arrangements assert that those who telework have more control over their work and family domains than their counterparts who are not permitted to work from home. Using Karasek's theory we hypothesized that the relationship between demands (hours in work per week; hours in childcare per week) and strain (work role overload; family role overload) would be moderated by the number of hours the employee spent per week teleworking (control). To determine how the number of telework hours relates to work role overload and family role overload, we follow the test for moderation and mediation using hierarchical multiple regression analysis as outlined by Frazier et al. [50] We used survey data collected from 1,806 male and female professional employees who spent at least one hour per week working from home during regular hours (i.e. teleworking). As hypothesized, the number of hours in telework per week negatively moderated the relation between work demands (total hours in paid employment per week) and work strain (work role overload). Contrary to our hypothesis, the number of hours in telework per week only partially mediated the relation between family demands (hours a week in childcare) and family role overload (strain). The findings from this study support the idea that the control offered by telework is domain specific (helps employees meet demands at work but not at home).

  7. Long working hours and health status among employees in Europe: between-country differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Basart, Helena; Borrell, Carme

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to (i) identify family responsibilities associated with moderately long working hours (41-60 hours a week); (ii) examine the relationship between moderately long working hours and three health outcomes; and (iii) analyze whether patterns differ by welfare state regimes. The sample was composed of all employees aged 16-64 years working 30-60 hours a week interviewed in the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey (9288 men and 6295 women). We fitted multiple logistic regression models separated by sex and welfare state regime typologies. Married males were more likely to work long hours in countries with male breadwinner models whereas family responsibilities were related to long working hours among both sexes in countries with dual breadwinner models. The association between long working hours and health was (i) stronger among men in countries with male breadwinner models, primarily in Anglo-Saxon countries [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) associated with working 51-60 hours of 6.43, 6.04 and 9.60 for work-related poor health status, stress and psychological distress, respectively); (ii) similar among both sexes in Nordic countries; and (iii) stronger among women in Eastern European countries. In the European Union of 25 members (EU-25), working moderately long hours is associated with poor health outcomes with different patterns depending on welfare state regimes. The findings from this study suggest that the family responsibilities and breadwinner models can help explain the relationship between long working hours and health status.

  8. Are Canadian general surgery residents ready for the 80-hour work week? A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Monisha; Hanna, Wael C; Jamal, Mohammed H; Nguyen, Lily H P; Fraser, Shannon A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Canadian general surgery residents' perceptions regarding potential implementation of work-hour restrictions. An ethics review board-approved, Web-based survey was submitted to all Canadian general surgery residency programs between April and July 2009. Questions evaluated the perceived effects of an 80-hour work week on length of training, operative exposure, learning and lifestyle. We used the Fisher exact test to compare senior and junior residents' responses. Of 360 residents, 158 responded (70 seniors and 88 juniors). Among them, 79% reported working 75-100 hours per week. About 74% of seniors believed that limiting their work hours would decrease their operative exposure; 43% of juniors agreed (p seniors and juniors thought limiting their work hours would improve their lifestyle (86% v. 96%, p = 0.12). Overall, 60% of residents did not believe limiting work hours would extend the length of their training. Regarding 24-hour call, 60% of juniors thought it was hazardous to their health; 30% of seniors agreed (p = 0.001). Both senior and junior residents thought abolishing 24-hour call would decrease their operative exposure (84% v. 70%, p = 0.21). Overall, 31% of residents supported abolishing 24-hour call. About 47% of residents (41% seniors, 51%juniors, p = 0.26) agreed with the adoption of the 80-hour work week. There is a training-level based dichotomy of opinion among general surgery residents in Canada regarding the perceived effects of work hour restrictions. Both groups have voted against abolishing 24-hour call, and neither group strongly supports the implementation of the 80-hour work week.

  9. Psychological contracts: a new strategy for retaining reduced-hour physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Jennifer K

    2010-01-01

    As a retention strategy, healthcare organizations offer reduced-hour schedules to physicians seeking better work-family balance. However, this quantitative study of 94 full-time and reduced-hour female physicians in the Boston area found that working fewer hours helps physicians achieve better balance but does not improve their burnout or career satisfaction, or impact their intention to quit or leave the field of medicine. Instead, the findings demonstrate that psychological contract fulfillment, which reflects the subjective nature of the employment relationship, is more important than work hours, an objective job condition, in predicting intention to quit and these other outcomes. A fine-grained analysis is initiated uncovering the multidimensionality of the psychological contract construct. To integrate successful reduced-hour arrangements for physicians, medical managers are directed to the importance of understanding the composition of reduced-hour physicians' psychological contracts, specifically, their need to do challenging work, receive high levels of supervisor support, and promotion opportunities.

  10. Hour of Code”: Can It Change Students’ Attitudes toward Programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Wimmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students’ attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two universities was selected to participate. Participants completed an Hour of Code tutorial as part of an undergraduate course. An electronic questionnaire was implemented in a pre-survey and post-survey format to gauge the change in student attitudes toward programming and their programming ability. The findings indicated the positive impact of the Hour of Code tutorial on students’ attitude toward programming. However, the students’ programming skills did not significantly change. The authors suggest that a deeper alignment of marketing, teaching, and content would help sustain the type of initiative exemplified by the Hour of Code.

  11. 29 CFR 778.202 - Premium pay for hours in excess of a daily or weekly standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... normal or regular working hours. Similarly, where the employee's normal or regular daily or weekly working hours are greater or less than 8 hours and 40 hours respectively and his contract provides for the... excess of his normal or regular daily working hours), his employer may exclude the premium portion of the...

  12. Effect of travoprost on 24-hour intraocular pressure in normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Nomura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuya Nomura1, Shunsuke Nakakura2, Mitsuyasu Moriwaki1, Yasuhiro Takahashi1, Kunihiko Shiraki11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Gose Hospital, JapanPurpose: The effect of travoprost 0.004% on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP was examined in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG.Subjects and methods: This study included 17 patients with newly diagnosed unilateral NTG. IOP was measured at three-hour intervals over 24 hours by Goldman applanation tonometer in patients taking topical travoprost 0.004% and was compared retrospectively with 24-hour IOP data in untreated eyes.Results: IOP values were significantly reduced at individual time points after treatment (P < 0.01. Mean 24-hour IOP, maximum 24-hour IOP, minimum 24-hour IOP, and 24-hour IOP fluctuations at baseline (mean ± SD were 12.9 ± 2.2 mmHg, 15.4 ± 2.7 mmHg, 10.5 ± 2.2 mmHg, and 4.9 ± 1.2 mmHg, respectively, and were significantly reduced to 10.3 ± 2.0 mmHg, 12.4 ± 2.5 mmHg, 8.5 ± 1.9 mmHg (all P < 0.001, and 3.9 ± 1.5 mmHg (P < 0.05, respectively, after treatment. The rate of IOP reduction greater than 20% was 58.8% (10 eyes for maximum 24-hour IOP and 53.0% (nine eyes for mean 24-hour IOP.Conclusion: Travoprost reduced IOP throughout the 24-hour study period, with over half of the eyes examined showing IOP reduction exceeding 20%.Keywords: 24-hour intraocular pressure, fluctuation, normal tension glaucoma, travoprost, Travatan Z

  13. Working hours and roster structures of surgical trainees in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Loveday, Benjamin; Harper, Simon; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew

    2010-12-01

    The working hours of surgical trainees are a subject of international debate. Excessive working hours are fatiguing, and compromise performance, learning and work-life balance. However, reducing hours can impact on continuity of care, training experience and service provision. This study defines the current working hours of Australasian trainees, to inform the working hours debate in our regions. An online survey was conducted of all current Australasian trainees. Questions determined hours spent at work (AW) and off-site on-call (OC) per week, and roster structures were evaluated by training year, specialty and location. The response rate was 55.3%. Trainees averaged 61.4 ± 11.7 h/week AW, with 5% working ≥80 h. OC shifts were worked by 73.5%, for an average of 27.8 ± 14.3 h/week. Trainees of all levels worked similar hours (P= 0.10); however, neurosurgical trainees worked longer hours than most other specialties (P hours (P= 0.01) and rural rotations more OC (P Long days (>12 h) were worked by 86%; median frequency 1:4.4 days; median duration 15 h. OC shifts of 24-h duration were worked by 75%; median frequency 1:4.2 days; median sleep: 5-7 h/shift; median uninterrupted sleep: 3-5 h/shift. This study has quantified the working hours and roster structures of Australasian surgical trainees. By international standards, Australasian trainee working hours are around average. However, some rosters demand long hours and/or induce chronic sleep loss, placing some trainees at risk of fatigue. Ongoing efforts are needed to promote safe rostering practices. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Working Hours and Satisfaction: A comparative analysis of Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ASANO Hirokatsu; KENJOH Eiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between working hours and working-hour satisfaction and that between working hours and life satisfaction for white-collar permanent employees in Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany. We use data obtained from the International Survey on Work-Life Balance , which was conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) and the Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office (ESRI) in Japan. The survey shows that Japan has the highe...

  15. The relationship between long working hours and depression among first-year residents in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Ryoko; Seo, Emiko; Maeno, Takami; Ito, Makoto; Sanuki, Masaru; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Background:In Japan, some residents develop mental health problems. In previous studies, it was reported thatlong working hours might be a cause of stress reaction such as depression. There were some reports thatcompared residents with 80 or more working hours with those with less than 80 working hours. However, manyresidents are practically detained for extra-long time, designated as 100 h or more per week, for medical practice,training, self-study, etc. There have been few reports on extra-...

  16. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the over...

  17. Extreme working hours in Western Europe and North America: A new aspect of polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends and root causes of extreme working hours in sixteen Western European countries, Canada, and the United States between 1970 and 2010. Earlier literature has revealed increasing trends in extreme working hours in the United States and recognized the negative repercussions of this new aspect of labor market polarization. As European average working hours have declined over the past decades, scholars have turned little attention to the analysis of extreme working ho...

  18. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI, food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  19. Deregulation of shopping hours: The impact on independent retailers and chain stores

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies shopping hour decisions by retail chains and independent competitors. We use a Salop-type model where retailers compete in prices and shopping hours. Our results depend significantly on efficiency differences between retail chain and independent retailer. If the efficiency difference is small, the independent retailer may choose longer shopping hours than the retail chain and may gain from deregulation at the expense of the retail chain. The opposite result emerges when the...

  20. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, Kamisha H; French, Simone A; Harnack, Lisa J; Toomey, Traci L; Hannan, Peter J; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-12-20

    Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI), food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  1. Living hours under pressure:flexibility loopholes in the Danish IR-model

    OpenAIRE

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreement-based regulation of working time and wages. Theoretically, this analysis is inspired by the concept of living hours, which addresses the interaction between working hours and living wages, but adds...

  2. Long work hours and the wellbeing of fathers and their families

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Weston; Matthew Gray; Lixia Qu; David Stanton

    2004-01-01

    The average hours worked by full-time employees in Australia have increased since the late 1970s. This, combined with increases in female labour force participation, has led to concerns about the impact of long work hours on family life. This paper explores the relationship between fathers' work hours, their own wellbeing and that of their families using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The analysis is restricted to full-time employed fathers with a par...

  3. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho; Han, Boyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. Methods: In the p...

  4. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working

  5. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P marathon race times. In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance.

  6. A case study of cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Erwin W; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M; Berden, Hubert J J M

    2015-09-01

    We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able to address various business questions regarding tactical workforce planning problems, e.g., with regard to annualized hours, subcontracting, and vacation planning. In a case study for a Dutch hospital two of these business questions are addressed, and we demonstrate that applying annualized hours potentially saves up to 5.2% in personnel wages annually.

  7. Working long hours: less productive but less costly? Firm-level evidence from Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    DELMEZ, Françoise; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    From the point of view of a profit-maximizing firm, the optimal number of working hours depends not only on the marginal productivity of hours but also on the marginal labour cost. This paper develops and assesses empirically a simple model of firms' decision making where productivity varies with hours and where the firm faces labour costs per worker that are invariant to the number of hours worked: i.e. quasi-fixed labour costs. Using Belgian firm-level data on production, labour costs, work...

  8. Council tax valuation bands and contacts with a GP out-of-hours service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Norman; Taylor, Gordon; Gwynne, Mark; Peart, Carole

    2006-04-01

    UK GPs are no longer responsible for the organisation of out-of-hours care for their patients, but resources remains capitation-based. This cross-sectional study tests whether council tax valuation bands can predict the demand for such services. All out-of-hours contacts made by patients in North Wiltshire over 4 months were classified by council tax band; frequencies compared with official population statistics. Council tax band predicts out-of-hours GP workload irrespective of age and sex: the more modest the home, the higher the GP contact rate. It may prove more difficult to sustain out-of-hours services in deprived parts of the UK.

  9. Deregulating Overtime Hours Restrictions on Women and its Effects on Female Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Kodama, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the effect of deregulating overtime hours restrictions on women by using the 1985 Amendments to the Labour Standards Act (LSA) in Japan as a natural experiment. The original LSA of 1947 prohibited women from working overtime exceeding two hours a day; six hours...... a week; and 150 hours a year. The 1985 Amendments exempted a variety of occupations and industries from such an overtime restriction on women. Applying a difference-in-difference model to census data, we find causal evidence pointing to the positive effect of this particular piece of labour market...

  10. The association between long working hours and health: a systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between long working hours and health. By focusing on differences in the definition of long working hours and the influence of shift work, we attempt to explain why the results of these studies remain inconclusive. We defined long working hours as working time greater than around 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day. Since previous studies have indicated that shift work is detrimental to health, we minimized the influence of shift work in the studies. We also placed importance on the existence of reference groups since this made the results clearer. Based on these points, we analyzed previous studies to clarify the epidemiological evidence regarding the association between long working hours and health. We established inclusion criteria and carried out a systematic search for articles published in the Medline and PsycINFO databases between 1995-2012. We identified a total of 17 articles and 19 studies (12 prospective cohort and 7 cross-sectional studies). The outcomes were all-cause mortality, circulatory disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, depressive state, anxiety, other psychological disorders, sleep condition, cognitive function, and health-related behavior. Long working hours had significant adverse effects on most health outcomes. We concluded that working long hours is associated with depressive state, anxiety, sleep condition, and coronary heart disease. However, further studies that appropriately deal with the definition of long working hours and shift work are needed.

  11. The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Taek; Lee, Goeun; Kwon, Jongho; Park, Jung-Woo; Choi, Hyunrim; Lim, Sinye

    2014-01-20

    This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working hours and various health effects in Korean

  12. Special Problems in Securing a Reduction in Working Hours: The Case of Security Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lundall

    2002-01-01

    The paper considers the complex process of introducing a regime of shorter working hours in the private security sector in South Africa. While the process of reducing the working hours of security workers in 1999 was bold, there is potential for real gains and losses to be derived from the process and this depends on the system and levels of compensation that are negotiated for the period of transition to the new schedules in working hours. A reduction in normal working hours can affect the s...

  13. When policy meets physiology: the challenge of reducing resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Landrigan, Christopher P; Barger, Laura K; Czeisler, Charles A

    2006-08-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding optimal work hours for physicians and surgeons in training. In a series of studies, we assessed the effect of extended work hours on resident sleep and health as well as patient safety. In a validated nationwide survey, we found that residents who had worked 24 hours or longer were 2.3 times more likely to have a motor vehicle crash following that shift than when they worked hours, and that the monthly risk of a crash increased by 16.2% after each extended duration shift. We also found in a randomized trial that interns working a traditional on-call schedule slept 5.8 hours less per week, had twice as many attentional failures on duty overnight, and made 36% more serious medical errors and nearly six times more serious diagnostic errors than when working on a schedule that limited continuous duty to 16 hours. While numerous opinions have been published opposing reductions in extended work hours due to concerns regarding continuity of patient care, reduced educational opportunities, and traditionally-defined professionalism, there are remarkably few objective data in support of continuing to schedule medical trainees to work shifts > 24 hours. An evidence-based approach is needed to minimize the well-documented risk that current work hour practices confer on resident health and patient safety while optimizing education and continuity of care.

  14. Validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-07-22

    Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in the second survey and the working hours recorded by the company was calculated for the following four time frames: daily working hours, monthly overtime working hours in the last month, average overtime working hours in the last 3 months, and the frequency of long working months (≥45 h/month) within the last 12 months. For reproducibility, the intraclass correlation between the first (September 2013) and second surveys (December 2013) was calculated for each of the four time frames. The Spearman correlations between self-reported working hours and those based on company records were 0.74, 0.81, 0.85, and 0.89 for daily, monthly, 3-monthly, and yearly time periods, respectively. The intraclass correlations for self-reported working hours between the two questionnaire surveys were 0.63, 0.66, 0.73, and 0.87 for the respective time frames. The results of the present study among Japanese male employees suggest that the validity of self-reported working hours is high for all four time frames, whereas the reproducibility is moderate to high.

  15. The desire and capability of Australian general practitioners to change their working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Richard; Hall, Jane P

    2014-04-21

    To explore factors associated with general practitioners' desire to work less and their success in making that change. Waves 3 and 4 (conducted in 2010 and 2011) of a national longitudinal survey of Australian doctors in clinical practice (Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life). Of the broader group of medical practitioners in the survey, there were 3664 and 3436 GP completers in Waves 3 and 4, respectively. The association between the desire to reduce hours and doctor, job and geographic characteristics; the association between predictors of the capability to reduce hours and these same doctor, job and geographic characteristics. Over 40% of GPs stated a preference to reduce their working hours. Characteristics that predicted this preference were being middle-aged, being female, working ≥ 40 hours per week (all P working hours were being in excellent health, being satisfied or very satisfied with work (both P working hours, 26.8% successfully managed to do so in the subsequent year (where reduction was defined as reducing hours by at least 5 per week). Predictors of successfully reducing hours were being younger, female and working ≥ 40 hours per week (all P hours and their subsequent success in doing so. Declining working hours have contributed to the perceived shortage in GPs. Therefore, designing policies that address not just the absolute number of medical graduates but also their subsequent level of work may alleviate some of the pressures on the Australian primary health care system.

  16. Long working hours and sickness absence-a fixed effects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff

    2018-05-02

    While long working hours seem to lead to impaired health, several studies have also shown that long working hours are related to lower levels of sickness absence. Previous studies on the relationship between long working hours and sickness absence have compared those who work long hours to those who do not, looking only at between-individual correlations. Those results might therefore reflect relatively stable differences between employees who typically work long hours and employees who typically do not. The aim of the present study is to examine within-individual correlations between long working hours and sickness absence. Records from the Human Resources department in a large Norwegian hospital from 2012 to 2015 provided objective data on both working hours and sickness absence. Two analyses were performed: a prospective cohort analysis to replicate the results from previous between-individual analyses and a second analysis of within-individual correlations using a fixed effect design. In line with existing research, both between-individual and within-individual analyses showed a negative relationship between long working hours (> 48 h/week) and short-term sickness absence (1-8 days) and no significant difference in incidence of long-term sickness absence (> 8 days). The results indicate that the negative relationship between long working hours and sickness absence is not due only to relatively stable individual differences between those who typically work long hours and those who do not. The results from both analyses therefore still contrast with previous research showing a negative relationship between long working hours and other health indicators.

  17. Managing out of hours clinical photography at the University Hospitals Bristol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Simon; Kenny, Alice; Knights, Christina

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, Medical Illustration at University Hospitals Bristol (UHBristol) NHS Foundation Trust has seen a steady increase in photography requests, including the need for out of hours photography provision. This paper details how Medical Illustration at UHBristol decided to manage an out of hours clinical photography service.

  18. Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, S; Tokura, H

    1997-11-01

    The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28 degrees C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

  19. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This section provides for the annual hunting of sandhill cranes in designated portions of the 48 contiguous...

  20. 29 CFR 778.325 - Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. 778.325... COMPENSATION Special Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.325 Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. The same reasoning applies to salary covering straight time pay for a...