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Sample records for twenty-four hours afterward

  1. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and

  2. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  3. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in finishing cattle housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, D A; Thomason, J D; Reinhardt, C; Bartle, S; Rethorst, D; Loneragan, G H; Thomson, D

    2017-04-01

    Atrial premature complexes have been reported to be the most common arrhythmia in cattle and is suspected to be secondary to systemic disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmia in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence should be defined. The objective of this study was to determine the normal heart rate, rhythm, number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and atrial premature complexes (APCs) in unrestrained Angus steers. Twenty-seven client owned steers with unremarkable physical examinations and serum biochemical analyses were used. Twenty-four hour Holter monitors, attached by a custom-made harness, were retrospectively evaluated. Three lead electrocardiographic registrations of good quality and normal sinus rhythm were obtained from all steers in the study. The mean heart rate was 66.8 bpm ± 16.4 bpm. Ventricular premature complexes were rare (noted in 14.8% of steers), and APCs were common (noted in 85% of the steers). Simple second degree AV block was observed in 18.5% of the steers. In summary, healthy steers have rare single VPCs, although it is possible for an individual animal to have apparent more frequent VPCs. Mean heart rate varies with a diurnal pattern similar to other species. Atrial premature complexes are the most prevalent abnormality observed in feedlot steers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Twenty-Four-Hour Mobility During Acute Hospitalization in Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Merete; Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inactivity during hospitalization in older medical patients may lead to functional decline. This study quantified 24-hour mobility, validated the accelerometers used, and assessed the daily level of basic mobility in acutely admitted older medical patients during their hospitalization...

  5. Twenty-four-hour intraocular pressure patterns in a symptomatic patient after ab interno trabeculotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweh Mansouri,1 Felipe A Medeiros,2 Robert N Weinreb2 1Glaucoma Sector, Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: We report the results of repeated ambulatory continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP monitoring with a contact lens sensor (CLS in a glaucoma patient with ocular pain after ab interno trabeculotomy (Trabectome™ surgery. Our findings show that a combined prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment reduced nighttime IOP peaks and relieved the patient’s symptoms. Keywords: 24-hour, Trabectome contact lens sensor, prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment

  6. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelnes, R.

    1986-08-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded that the long-term postreconstructive hyperemia merely is a reflection of the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern.

  7. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raouf S; Carroll, John L; Jeffries, Jenny L; Grone, Charles; Bean, Judy A; Chini, Barbara; Bokulic, Ronald; Daniels, Stephen R

    2004-04-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent elevation of systemic blood pressure (BP) during sleep. To determine whether obstructive apnea in children has a tonic effect on diurnal BP, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained from 60 children with mean age of 10.8 +/- 3.5 years. Thirty-nine children had obstructive apnea and 21 had primary snoring. Children with obstructive apnea had significantly greater mean BP variability during wakefulness and sleep, a higher night-to-day systolic BP, and a smaller nocturnal dipping of mean BP. Variability of mean arterial pressure during wakefulness was predicted by the desaturation, body mass, and arousal indices, whereas variability during sleep was predicted by apnea-hypopnea and body mass indices. Nocturnal BP dipping was predicted by the desaturation index. There were no significant differences in systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial BP during sleep between the groups. Diastolic BP during wakefulness was significantly different between the groups and correlated negatively with apnea-hypopnea index. We conclude that obstructive apnea in children is associated with 24-hour BP dysregulation and that, independent of obesity, the frequency of obstructive apnea, oxygen desaturation, and arousal contributes to abnormal BP control.

  8. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients...... with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery...... are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded...

  9. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.S.G. Monteiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER disorder was studied in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma. Ten children with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis, consecutively attended at the Pediatric Otolaryngology Outpatient Clinic, Federal University of São Paulo, were evaluated. Prolonged esophageal pH monitoring was used to investigate GER disorder. The mean age of the ten patients evaluated (eight males was 7.4 ± 2.4 years. Two patients presented vomiting as a clinical manifestation and one patient presented retrosternal pain with a burning sensation. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring was performed using the Sandhill apparatus. An antimony probe electrode was placed in the lower third of the esophagus, confirmed by fluoroscopy and later by a chest X-ray. The parameters analyzed by esophageal pH monitoring included: total percent time of the presence of acid esophageal pH, i.e., pH below 4 (<4.2%; total number of acid episodes (<50 episodes; number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min (3 or less, and duration of the longest reflux episode (<9.2 min. One patient (1/10, 10% presented a 24-h esophageal pH profile compatible with GER disorder. This data suggest that an association between chronic rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma and GER disorder may exist in children and adolescents, especially in those with compatible GER disorder symptoms. In these cases, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring should be performed before indicating surgery, since the present data suggest that 10% of chronic rhinosinusitis surgeries can be eliminated.

  10. Twenty-Four-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Predicts Inappropriate Left Ventricular Mass Index in Patients with Primary Aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Primary aldosteronism (PA is associated with inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in relation to a given gender and body size. There is no ideal parameter to predict the presence of LVH or inappropriate LVH in patients with PA. We investigate the performance of 24-hour urinary aldosterone level, plasma renin activity and aldosterone-to-renin ratio on this task. Methods. We performed echocardiography in 106 patients with PA and 31 subjects with essential hypertension (EH in a tertiary teaching hospital. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone level were measured. Results. Only 24-hour urinary aldosterone was correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI and excess LVMI among these parameters. The multivariate analysis revealed the urinary aldosterone level as an independent predictor for LVMI and excess LVMI. Analyzing the ability of urinary aldosterone, plasma aldosterone concentration, and plasma aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify the presence of LVH (ROC AUC = 0.701, 0.568, 0.656, resp. and the presence of inappropriate LV mass index (defined as measured LVMI in predicting LVMI ratio >135% (ROC area under curve = 0.61, 0.43, 0.493, resp. revealed the better performance of 24-hour urinary aldosterone. Conclusions. In conclusion, 24-hour urinary aldosterone level performed better to predict the presence of LVH and inappropriate LVMI in patients with PA.

  11. The Twenty-four Hour Workday: Proceedings of a Symposium on Variations in Work-Sleep Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Md. Tray.: 1971, _j 393-395. .ndlauer,P., Carpentier,J., & Cazamian,P. (Eds.). Ergonomie du travail de nuit et des horaires alternants. Education...and between subjects and suggest that Gaillard’s conclusion may not -be true. 743 REM 0) 2 {3 i4 40[ REM E 0L ɘ U 730-Delta Hour !Igure :2. Comuter

  12. Prevalence of type 1 brugada electrocardiographic pattern evaluated by twelve-lead twenty-four-hour holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, Natascia; Giustetto, Carla; Gribaudo, Elena; Richiardi, Elena; Barbonaglia, Lorella; Scrocco, Chiara; Zema, Domenica; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with drug-induced type 1 Brugada electrocardiograms (BrECGs) are considered to have good prognosis. Spontaneous type 1 is, instead, considered a risk factor; however, it is probably underestimated because of the BrECG fluctuations. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a large population of patients with Br, the real prevalence of type 1 BrECG using 12-lead 24-hour Holter monitoring (12L-Holter) and its correlation with the time of the day. We recorded 303 12L-Holter in 251 patients. Seventy-five (30%) patients exhibited spontaneous type 1 BrECG at 12-lead ECG (group 1) and 176 (70%) had only drug-induced type 1 (group 2). Type 1 BrECG was defined as "persistent" (>85% of the recording), "intermittent" (Holter, 57% intermittent type 1%, and 31% never had type 1; in group 2, none had persistent type 1, 20% had intermittent type 1%, and 80% never showed type 1. To evaluate the circadian fluctuations of BrECG, 4 periods in the day were considered. Type 1 BrECG was more frequent between 12-noon and 6 p.m. (52%, p Holter than with conventional follow-up with periodic ECGs and this has important implications in the risk stratification. 12L-Holter recording might avoid 20% of the pharmacological challenges with sodium channel blockers, which are not without risks, and should thus be considered as the first screening test, particularly in children or in presence of borderline diagnostic basal ECG.

  13. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  14. Twenty-four-hour Tl-201 delayed scan underestimates myocardial viability in patients with acute myocardial infarction after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Teruhito; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Takanori; Ikezoe, Junpei [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine; Murase, Kenya; Higashino, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Masao

    2001-04-01

    Myocardial viability in area at risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after reperfusion therapy may be underestimated by the 24-hour images due to reverse redistribution (r-RD). Subjects were 37 AMI patients in whom Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP)/Tl-201 dual-isotope SPECT was positive. The 24-hour delayed scan was performed with only a Tl window. One month later, follow up rest Tl SPECT was performed to evaluate myocardial viability. In early (at PYP/Tl-201 dual-isotope SPECT), 24-hour, and one month follow up Tl studies, Tl uptake in the area of AMI was scored into four grades: 3 as normal to 0 as severely reduced. The scores were evaluated. Among the 37 AMI lesions, there were 16 r-RD, 3 RD, 16 fixed defect (FD) and 2 normal (positive PYP and normal Tl). Mean Tl scores were early; 1.4{+-}1.1, 24-hr; 0.9{+-}0.9 and one month; 1.3{+-}1.1. The 24-hour Tl score was lower than the early and one month Tl scores (p<0.01). Reverse redistribution is frequently observed in an area at risk where PYP SPECT was positive. Nuclear medicine physicians should be aware of the existence of frequent r-RD in Tl scan to avoid the underestimation of myocardial viability in the acute phase after PTCA. (author)

  15. Twenty-Four-Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring to Predict and Assess Impact of Renal Denervation: The DENERHTN Study (Renal Denervation for Hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Philippe; Cremer, Antoine; Pereira, Helena; Bobrie, Guillaume; Chatellier, Gilles; Chamontin, Bernard; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Delsart, Pascal; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap, Caroline; Ferrari, Emile; Girerd, Xavier; Michel Halimi, Jean; Herpin, Daniel; Lantelme, Pierre; Monge, Matthieu; Mounier-Vehier, Claire; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Ormezzano, Olivier; Ribstein, Jean; Rossignol, Patrick; Sapoval, Marc; Vaïsse, Bernard; Zannad, Faiez; Azizi, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The DENERHTN trial (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) confirmed the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy of renal denervation added to a standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment for resistant hypertension at 6 months. We report here the effect of denervation on 24-hour BP and its variability and look for parameters that predicted the BP response. Patients with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to denervation plus stepped-care treatment or treatment alone (control). Average and standard deviation of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP and the smoothness index were calculated on recordings performed at randomization and 6 months. Responders were defined as a 6-month 24-hour systolic BP reduction ≥20 mm Hg. Analyses were performed on the per-protocol population. The significantly greater BP reduction in the denervation group was associated with a higher smoothness index (P=0.02). Variability of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP did not change significantly from baseline to 6 months in both groups. The number of responders was greater in the denervation (20/44, 44.5%) than in the control group (11/53, 20.8%; P=0.01). In the discriminant analysis, baseline average nighttime systolic BP and standard deviation were significant predictors of the systolic BP response in the denervation group only, allowing adequate responder classification of 70% of the patients. Our results show that denervation lowers ambulatory BP homogeneously over 24 hours in patients with resistant hypertension and suggest that nighttime systolic BP and variability are predictors of the BP response to denervation. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01570777. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The acute effects of twenty-four hours of sleep loss on the performance of national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumert, Peter A; Crum, Aaron J; Ernsting, Mark; Volek, Jeff S; Hollander, Daniel B; Haff, Erin E; Haff, G Gregory

    2007-11-01

    Currently, the degree to which sleep loss influences weightlifting performance is unknown. This study compared the effects of 24 hours of sleep loss on weightlifting performance and subjective ratings of psychological states pre-exercise and postexercise in national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters. Nine males performed a maximal weightlifting protocol following 24 hours of sleep loss and a night of normal sleep. The subjects participated in a randomized, counterbalanced design with each sleep condition separated by 7 days. Testosterone and cortisol levels were quantified prior to, immediately after, and 1 hour after the resistance training session. Additionally, profile of mood states and subjective sleepiness were evaluated at the same time points. The resistance training protocol consisted of several sets of snatches, clean and jerks, and front squats. Performance was evaluated as individual exercise volume load, training intensity and overall workout volume load, and training intensity. During each training session the maximum weight lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and front squat were noted. No significant differences were found for any of the performance variables. A significant decrease following the sleep condition was noted for cortisol concentration immediately after and 1 hour postexercise. Vigor, fatigue, confusion, total mood disturbance, and sleepiness were all significantly altered by sleep loss. These data suggest that 24 hours of sleep loss has no adverse effects on weightlifting performance. If an athlete is in an acute period of sleep loss, as noticed by negative mood disturbances, it may be more beneficial to focus on the psychological (motivation) rather than the physiological aspect of the sport.

  17. [Twenty-four hour time and frequency domain variability of systolic blood pressure and heart rate in an experimental model of arterial hypertension plus obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Lazartiques, E; Cabrol, P; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M

    1998-08-01

    Modifications of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) variabilities (V) have been reported in the human syndrome arterial hypertension plus insulin-resistance. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24 h SBPV and HRV in both time and frequency domains during weight increase in dogs fed ad libitum with a high fat diet. Implantable transmitter units for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate were surgically implanted in five beagle male dogs. BP and HR were continuously recorded using telemetric measurements during 24 hours, before and after 6 and 9 weeks of hypercaloric diet in quiet animals submitted to a 12h light-dark cycle. To study nychtemeral cycle of SBP and HR, two periods were chosen: day (from 6.00 h to 19.00 h) and night (from 23.00 h to 6.00 h). Spontaneous baroreflex efficiency was measured using the sequence method. Spectral variability of HR and SBP was analyzed using a fast Fourier transformation on 512 consecutive values and normalized units of low (LF: 50-150 mHz, reflecting sympathetic activity) and high (HF: respiratory rate +/- 50 mHz, reflecting parasympathetic activity) frequency bands were calculated. The energy of total spectrum (from 0.004 to 1 Hz) was also studied. Body weight (12.4 +/- 0.9 vs 14.9 +/- 0.9 kg, p < 0.05). SBP (132 +/- 1 vs 147 +/- 1 mmHg, p < 0.05) significantly increased after 9 weeks of hypercaloric diet. A nycthemeral HR rhythm was present at baseline (day: 79 +/- 1 vs night: 71 +/- 1 bpm) but not after 9 weeks (day: 91 +/- 4 bpm ; night: 86 +/- 2 bpm). Concomitantly, the efficiency of spontaneous baroreflex decreased at 6 weeks (36 +/- 1 vs 42 +/- 2 mmHg/ms, p < 0.05). A significant decrease in HF energy of HRV was found after 6 but not after 9 weeks. LF energy of SBPV was increased at 6 but not at 9 weeks (table). [table: see text] In conclusion, this study shows that an hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet induces transient variations in autonomic nervous system activity which could be the

  18. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

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    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged

  19. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged

  20. Monitorização eletrocardiográfica ambulatorial por 24-horas em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

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    F.L. Yamaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se monitorização eletrocardiográfica ambulatorial por 24 horas (ou monitorização Holter em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática, visando principalmente à detecção de arritmias ventriculares não detectadas pela eletrocardiografia convencional (de repouso. Para tanto, avaliaram-se 40 pacientes com diagnóstico de cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática, por meio de exame físico e mensuração indireta da pressão arterial, além de exames eletrocardiográfico, ecocardiográfico, radiográfico de tórax e da monitorização Holter. Extra-sístoles ventriculares foram detectadas, por monitorização Holter, em 97,5% dos animais e taquicardia ventricular, em 45%. Não houve correlação entre o número de extra-sístoles ventriculares e a fração de encurtamento. Considerando as manifestações clínicas, apenas houve associação entre presença de taquicardia ventricular e histórico de síncopes. Conclui-se que a incidência de arritmias ventriculares em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática é bastante alta, sendo a taquicardia ventricular relativamente freqüente, ocorrendo mais sob a forma não sustentada.This study aimed to characterize 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitoring in dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Physical examination and indirect (Doppler blood pressure measurement, and also electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic exams were performed in 40 dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Ventricular extrasystoles were detected in 97.5% of the animals, and ventricular tachycardia in 45%. No correlation between the number of ventricular extrasystoles and the shortening fraction was observed. Concerning the clinical symptoms, there was only association between the presence of ventricular tachycardia and past report of syncope. It was concluded that the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias is

  1. Twenty four Hours Circadian Cortisol Profile in Shift Work Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kakooei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It is well established that adrenal hormone cortisol has long been used in human psychobiological studies as a biological marker of circadian rhythm, stress, and anxiety. There is little information, however, about the interrelationships of night work, plasma cortisol levels in females’ nurses of the developing countries. The aim of the present study was to compare circadian cortisol profile between two groups of nurses with shift and permanent work in a Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between January 2006 to September 2008. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, we examined the reproducibility of plasma cortisol levels during one month period in 34 shift work nurses and 10 permanent day shift works. We evaluated potential associations between night work and hormone levels, using current and shift work information for the health care shift workers. Results: The results clearly revealed that shift work significantly increased nighttime cortisol levels (34.93 μg/dl during night shift and decreased the peak levels of cortisol in the morning (39.03 μg/dl. During the work shift the plasma cortisol presented a decreased concentration in the morning and increasing levels (44.93 μg/dl by the end of the evening. In contrast , the permanent day work nurses, who had never worked at night shifts, showed a lowest secretion of cortisol during the first half of night time sleep (10.02 μg/dl , and a peak value of the cortisol after awakening at 07:00 h ( 59.75 μg/ml. We also observed a significant association between night work and increased levels of cortisol over the remaining of the day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nurses with night shift work have an abnormal cortisol secretion profile. Shift work nurses on rotating night shifts seem to experience changes in hormones levels that may be associated with increased of circadian disorders risk observed among night – shift workers.

  2. Afterward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Includes a 1991 lecture on the future of rare book libraries and a commentary from 2003. Topics include paper-based collections versus electronic resources; changes in general research libraries; budget shortages; changing priorities; reformatting library materials; and education for rare books and special collections librarians. (LRW)

  3. 24小时食管多通道腔内阻抗联合pH监测技术在早产儿中的应用%Role of the twenty-four-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 李在玲; 葛颖; 王琨; 徐志杰; 夏至伟; 段丽萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of 24-hour esophageal muhichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring technique in preterm infants.Method This study enrolled 28 preterm(male 20,female 8)infants with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) (frequent regurgitations,apnea,or transcutaneous oxygen saturation decreased).They had postmenstrual age from 26 to 32 weeks,median (28.9 ± 1.9) weeks,had birth weight from 850 to 1 700 g,median (1 250.4 ±272.8)g,range 850-1700 g,and were studied at corrected gestational age from 28 to 40 weeks,median (34.5 ± 2.3) weeks.Combined measurement of esophageal pH and impedance was performed.The 24-hour pH-impedance recording was uploaded onto a portable storage card and for computer-assisted manual analysis,using a specialized software program.When values were distributed normally,they were presented as mean and standard deviation,compared using t test.When values were not distributed normally,they were presented as median,minimum and maximum.Median values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test.SPSS 17.0 software was used.Result In 28 preterm infants,71.4% (20/28) had pathological acid refluxes with pH monitor,while 100% with combined measurement of esophageal pH and impedance.Gestational age,birth weight,corrected gestational age had no association with acid GER.Frequent regurgitations,apnea,or transcutaneous oxygen saturation decreased but there was no statistically significant difference between acid GER group and non-acid GER group.Eight cases had no pathological acid refluxes,but showed an increase of weakly acid refluxes than pathological acid refluxes group (P <0.01).The median number of reflux events in 24 hours for 28 cases was 64.5 (0-377),23.4% were acidic,while 76.4% were weakly acidic; 59.1% were liquid bolus refluxes,while 40.9% were mixed bolus refluxes.The positive ratio of symptoms related index and symptoms association probability were significantly

  4. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica T. Perrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  5. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: The PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, M.A. van; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS: We analyzed data of 3997

  6. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in 35 patients with amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, E.; Aghini-Lombardi, F.; Lippi, F.; Baschieri, L.; Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.; Pinchera, A.

    1985-12-01

    Amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis (AAT) occurs in approximately 10% of patients treated with this iodine rich drug in areas of mild iodine deficiency. The thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) is usually undetectable or very low in iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. In the present study, 35 patients with AAT were evaluated. Twelve patients had no thyroid abnormalities by physical exam and all had 24-hr RAIU less than or equal to 4%. In contrast, nine of 11 patients with AAT and diffuse goiters and eight of 12 patients with AAT and nodular goiters had RAIU values greater than 8%. In patients with AAT and goiter it appears possible that the thyroid fails to adapt normally to the excess iodide load, resulting in an inappropriately high RAIU in the presence of excess plasma iodine.

  7. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension : the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women.Methods:We analyzed data of 3997 men

  8. Twenty-four hour urinary urea excretion and 9-year risk of hypertension: the PREVEND study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, van M.A.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Jong, P.E.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: It is not yet clear whether dietary protein could help maintaining a healthy blood pressure (BP). We investigated the association between total protein intake, estimated from 24-h urinary urea excretion, and incident hypertension in Dutch men and women. METHODS:: We analyzed data of 399

  9. PEACE, WAR AND AFTERWARDS 1914 TO 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Jooste

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brian Wade left South Africa in February 1915 to join the British Army so as to serve the Empire during the First World War. After enlisting in King Edward's Horse as a private, he trained at Bishops Stortford and the Curragh in Ireland. He was later commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 7th London Regiment, served mainly in the transport section and saw action in the Somme and Ypres. Due to illness he was medically discharged in February 1918 and returned to South Africa. He subsequently performed colonial service in the former German territory, Tanganyika (present day Tanzania. During his military service and the first seven months he spent in Tanganyika, he kept up a regular correspondence with his mother - he regarded his weekly letter to her "as a sacred duty" - and these letters eventually resulted in Peace, War and Afterwards. As there are only a few personal accounts by South Africans of their experiences as soldiers during the First World War (and even fewer have been published Peace, War and Afterwards is a most welcome publication.

  10. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 h patterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies.

  11. Twenty-four hour predictions of the solar wind speed peaks by the probability distribution function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy-Virat, C. D.; Ridley, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Abrupt transitions from slow to fast solar wind represent a concern for the space weather forecasting community. They may cause geomagnetic storms that can eventually affect systems in orbit and on the ground. Therefore, the probability distribution function (PDF) model was improved to predict enhancements in the solar wind speed. New probability distribution functions allow for the prediction of the peak amplitude and the time to the peak while providing an interval of uncertainty on the prediction. It was found that 60% of the positive predictions were correct, while 91% of the negative predictions were correct, and 20% to 33% of the peaks in the speed were found by the model. This represents a considerable improvement upon the first version of the PDF model. A direct comparison with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model shows that the PDF model is quite similar, except that it leads to fewer false positive predictions and misses fewer events, especially when the peak reaches very high speeds.

  12. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: cardiac, vascular, and respiratory diseases, conditions, and syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    Various medical conditions, disorders, and syndromes exhibit predictable-in-time diurnal and 24 h patterning in the signs, symptoms, and grave nonfatal and fatal events, e.g., respiratory ones of viral and allergic rhinorrhea, reversible (asthma) and non-reversible (bronchitis and emphysema) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, high altitude pulmonary edema, and decompression sickness; cardiac ones of atrial premature beats and tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 3rd degree atrial-ventricular block, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, symptomatic and non-symptomatic angina pectoris, Prinzmetal vasospastic variant angina, acute (non-fatal and fatal) incidents of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac arrest, in-bed sudden death syndrome of type-1 diabetes, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and heart failure; vascular and circulatory system ones of hypertension, acute orthostatic postprandial, micturition, and defecation hypotension/syncope, intermittent claudication, venous insufficiency, standing occupation leg edema, arterial and venous branch occlusion of the eye, menopausal hot flash, sickle cell syndrome, abdominal, aortic, and thoracic dissections, pulmonary thromboembolism, and deep venous thrombosis, and cerebrovascular transient ischemic attack and hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Knowledge of these temporal patterns not only helps guide patient care but research of their underlying endogenous mechanisms, i.e., circadian and others, and external triggers plus informs the development and application of effective chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies.

  13. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%, hyperoxaluria (61.4%, hypocitraturia (57.2%, hyperuricouria (19.7%, hypomagnesuria (59.3% and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%. Hyperoxaluria (61.4% was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  14. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: a study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N S; Sadiq, S M; Kamaliah, M D; Norakmal, A W; Gohar, M N

    2013-05-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD) of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%), hyperoxaluria (61.4%), hypocitraturia (57.2%), hyperuricouria (19.7%), hypomagnesuria (59.3%) and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%). Hyperoxaluria (61.4%) was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.

  15. Twenty-four-hour urine constituents in stone formers: A study from the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    N S Hussein; S M Sadiq; M D Kamaliah; A W NorAkmal; M N Gohar

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospi...

  16. Twenty-four hours or 10 days? A prospective randomised controlled trial in children comparing head bandages following pinnaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S; Narayanan, V; Laing, J H E

    2006-01-01

    The perceived benefits of bandaging for 10 days following pinnaplasty have been questioned by previous studies. The problems arising from these dressings are many [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bartley J. How long should ears be bandaged after otoplasty? J Laryngol Otol 1998;112:531-2. Wong MC, Sylaidis P. Head dressings for pinnaplasty: a tradition not supported by evidence. Br J Plast Surg 2001;54:81-2], including their slippage [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bradbury ET, Hewison J, Timmons MJ. Psychological and social outcome of prominent ear correction in children. Br J Plast Surg 1992;45:97-100. Jeffery SLA. Complications following correction of prominent ears: an audit review of 122 cases. Br J Plast Surg 1999;52:588-90]. Eighty children were recruited into a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the use of a head bandage for only 24 h with a standard practise of a 10-day head bandage. A preoperative measurement of the lateral ear projection (LEP) was made. The outcome measures recorded during the two planned postoperative visits at 10 days (visit 1) and 2 months (visit 2) were: patient satisfaction score, LEP, complications and any unscheduled hospital visits associated with the surgery. There was no significant difference in LEP and patient satisfaction between the two groups at both the scheduled postoperative visits. Differences between the groups in the number of unscheduled visits (p=0.21) did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that it is safe and effective to use head bandage for only 24 h following surgical correction of prominent ears. This study shows no benefit from the application of a formal head bandage for any longer than 1 day.

  17. Twenty-four-hour profiles of metabolic and stress hormones in sheep selected for a calm or nervous temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietema, S E; Blackberry, M A; Maloney, S K; Martin, G B; Hawken, P A R; Blache, D

    2015-10-01

    Even in the absence of stressors, temperament is associated with changes in the concentration of stress-responsive hormones and, possibly because of such changes, temperament can affect metabolism. We tested whether, in sheep bred for temperament for 14 generations, "nervous" females have greater concentrations of stress-responsive hormones in the absence of stressors than "calm" females, and whether these differences are associated with changes in the concentrations of metabolic hormones. In resting "calm" (n = 8) and "nervous" (n = 8) sheep, concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, leptin, and insulin were measured in blood plasma sampled via jugular catheter every 20 min for 24 h. The animals were individually penned, habituated to their housing and human handling over 7 wk, and fed before sampling began. Diurnal variation was evident for all hormones, but a 24-h cortisol pattern was detected in only 7 individuals. There was no effect of temperament on any aspect of concentrations of cortisol or prolactin, but "calm" animals had greater concentrations of insulin in the early afternoon than "nervous" animals (14.5 ± 1.1 vs 10.0 ± 1.6 μU/mL; P = 0.038), and a similar tendency was seen for leptin (P = 0.092). We conclude that selection for temperament affects the concentration of metabolic hormones in the absence of stressors, but this effect is independent of stress-responsive hormones.

  18. Twenty-four hours hypothermia has temporary efficacy in reducing brain infarction and inflammation in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Buga, Ana Maria; Balseanu, Adrian Tudor

    2016-01-01

    inflammation and infarct size. However, after 1 week, the infarct size became even larger than in controls and after 2 weeks there was no beneficial effect on regenerative processes such as neurogenesis. Behaviorally, hypothermia also had a limited beneficial effect. Finally, after hydrogen sulfide...

  19. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E

    2010-01-01

    ,5,12,16]tetraazacyclotricosine-5,13-diium dibromide (UCL 1684; inhibitor of SK3) or 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34; inhibitor of IK1). In LF arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxation was markedly reduced, due to a reduction in the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) response. In HF...

  20. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  1. To Give Good Science: Doing Qualitative Research in the Afterward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lather, Patti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…

  2. Biomimetic Synthesis of Twenty-four Long-chained Diketones as Precursors for Muscone and Further Macrocyclic Ketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yuan; CHEN,Kang-yu; LI,Jian-Li; SHI,Zhen

    2008-01-01

    The one-carbon unit transfer reaction of tetrahydrofolate coenzyme was initiated. Bisbenzimidazolium salts were used as a tetrahydrofolate coenzyme model, and thus the biomimetic synthesis of twenty-four acyclic dike-tones as precursors for macrocyclic ketones was successfully accomplished by using the addition-hydrolysis reac-tion of the bisbenzimidazolium salts with alkyl magnesium halide, wherein six diketones have not been reported in literature. Accordingly, a short route to muscone analogues was provided.

  3. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  4. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    subjects. Blood samples were drawn frequently throughout the 24-h period. An insulin tolerance test was also used to determine whether weight loss altered the ability of insulin to modify plasma concentrations of tryptophan and of the other large neutral amino acids. RESULTS: Plasma tryptophan......BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects were low at all times; these effects persisted after weight reduction. Plasma concentrations of all the large neutral amino acids decreased during insulin infusion in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low 24-h plasma tryptophan ratios in obese and formerly obese...

  5. Twenty-Four-Hour Real-Time Continuous Monitoring of Cerebral Edema in Rabbits Based on a Noninvasive and Noncontact System of Magnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema is a common disease, secondary to craniocerebral injury, and real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral edema is crucial for treating patients after traumatic brain injury. This work established a noninvasive and noncontact system by monitoring the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS which is associated with brain tissue conductivity. Sixteen rabbits (experimental group n = 10, control group, n = 6 were used to perform a 24 h MIPS and intracranial pressure (ICP simultaneously monitored experimental study. For the experimental group, after the establishment of epidural freeze-induced cerebral edema models, the MIPS presented a downward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of −13.1121 ± 2.3953°; the ICP presented an upward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of 12–41 mmHg. The ICP was negatively correlated with the MIPS. In the control group, the MIPS change amplitude was −0.87795 ± 1.5146 without obvious changes; the ICP fluctuated only slightly at the initial value of 12 mmHg. MIPS had a more sensitive performance than ICP in the early stage of cerebral edema. These results showed that this system is basically capable of monitoring gradual increases in the cerebral edema solution volume. To some extent, the MIPS has the potential to reflect the ICP changes.

  6. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Results Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Conclusion Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean adults. Both the acute and chronic effects of exercise were primarily observed at night suggesting an important role of sleep in the regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:24714529

  7. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean adults. Both the acute and chronic effects of exercise were primarily observed at night suggesting an important role of sleep in the regulation of lipid metabolism.

  8. Twenty-four-hour simultaneous subcutaneous basal-bolus administration of insulin and amylin in adolescents with type 1 diabetes decreases postprandial hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of continuous subcutaneous (sc) replacement of amylin and insulin for a 24-h period on glucose homeostasis in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Thirteen adolescents with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy participated in a randomized, controll...

  9. Twenty-four hours, or five days, of continuous sleep deprivation or experimental sleep fragmentation do not alter thirst or motivation for water reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Michael A; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2010-12-25

    Sleep disruption results in an increased demand for energy, which typically causes hyperphagia in an attempt to redress the energy metabolism imbalance. Therefore, experiments combining food reward and sleep disruption may underestimate the effect of sleep disruption due to their contradictory influences on behavior (for example on operant measures of attention). In contrast, water is not a central component of energy metabolism and thus thirst may not be affected by sleep disruption. However, little work has been done examining the effect of sleep disruption on thirst and motivation for water. The effect of total sleep deprivation (SD) and experimental sleep fragmentation (SF) on thirst and motivation for water was assessed. In experiment 1 (using 22 month old male Fisher-Norway rats) the amount of water consumed during a 15 min period immediately following a period of 24h SD or SF (in which water was not available) was measured, and, in a separate session, the amount of water consumed during the 24h of SD or SF was measured. Thereafter, the effect of 5 days SD or SF on motivation for water was assessed with the progressive ratio task (using water reward), which is widely used to assess motivation. Experiment 2 (using 6 month, and 22 month, old male Sprague- Dawley rats) followed an identical design except that the SF condition was dropped (due to a lack of any difference between the SD and SF conditions in experiment 1), and only the 6 month old rats experienced the full 5 day SD condition. Daily measurements of body weight and food consumption were recorded in experiment 2 in order to confirm previously published findings that food consumption goes up and body weight declines in sleep deprived rats. In both experiments the quantity of water rats consumed during a 15 min period immediately following the 24h period of sleep disruption, or consumed during the 24h period of SD or SF, did not change compared to control rats. Furthermore, 5 days of SD or SF had no effect on breakpoint in the progressive ratio task indicating that 5 days of SD or SF did not alter motivation for water reward. As previously reported, food consumption increased and body weight decreased during the 5 days of SD. in experiment 2. The findings indicate that although sleep disruption increases food consumption and decreases body weight, it does not alter thirst or motivation for water reward. Thus, water restriction is well suited for experiments examining the effect of sleep disruption on reward motivated behavioral tests in rats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Twenty-four-hour changes of S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine adenosine and their metabolizing enzymes in rat liver; possible physiological significance in phospholipid methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Sánchez, L; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Suárez, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The metabolic control of adenosine concentration in the rat liver through the 24-hr cycle is related to the activity of adenosine-metabolizing enzymes [5'-nucleotidase (5'N), adenosine deaminase (A.D.), adenosine kinase (A.K.) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAH-H)]. 2. Two peaks of adenosine were observed, one at 12:00 hr caused by high activity of 5'N and SAH-H, and the other at 02:00 hr, caused by a decrease in purine catabolism and purine utilization, low activity of SAH-H and de novo purine formation. 3. The similarity of the adenosine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) profiles through the 24-hr cycle suggests a role of adenosine in transmethylation reactions, because, during the night (02:00 hr), the metabolic conditions favor the formation and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), with consequent inhibition of transmethylation reactions. 4. In the 24-hr variation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the lowest ratio of PC/PE was observed at 24:00-02:00 hr when SAH concentration is high, whereas the highest PC/PE ratio occurs at the same time as one of the SAM/SAH ratio maxima.

  11. Twenty-four-hour central blood pressure is not better associated with hypertensive target organ damage than 24-h peripheral blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Armario, Pedro; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Calero, Francesca; Vázquez, Susana; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Oliveras, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) is increasingly considered as a better estimator of hypertension associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-h central BP, in comparison with 24-h peripheral BP, with the presence of target organ damage (TOD). Cross-sectional study of 208 hypertensive patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 34% women. Office (mean of 4 measurements) and 24-h central and peripheral BP were measured by the oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph device. TOD was assessed at cardiac (left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography), renal (reduction of glomerular filtration rate and/or microalbuminuria), and arterial (increased aortic pulse wave velocity) levels. A total of 107 patients (51.4%) had TOD (77, 35% patients left ventricular hypertrophy; 54, 25.9% renal abnormalities; and 40, 19.2% arterial stiffness). All SBP and pulse BP estimates (office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time) were associated with the presence of TOD, after adjustment for age, sex, and antihypertensive treatment, with higher odds ratios for ambulatory-derived values. Odds ratios for central and peripheral BP were similar for all office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time BP. After simultaneous adjustment, peripheral, but not central, 24-h and night-time SBP and pulse pressures were associated with the presence of TOD. TOD in hypertension is associated with BP elevation, independently of the type of measurement (office or ambulatory, central or peripheral). Central BP, even monitored during 24 h, is not better associated with TOD than peripheral BP. These results do not support a routine measurement of 24-h central BP.

  12. Twenty four hour insulin infusion impairs the ability of plasma from healthy subjects and Type 2 diabetic patients to promote cellular cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Removal of cholesterol from peripheral cells by high density lipoproteins (HDL) is regarded as an important defence mechanism against atherosclerosis development. PLTP is involved in the generation of pre beta -HDL that can act as initial accepters of cellular cholesterol. Exogenous

  13. Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. ...

  14. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  15. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST – Clinicopathological study and treatment outcome of twenty-four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DattaGupta Sidharth

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is biologically an aggressive tumor for which the treatment of choice is the surgery. We reviewed the clinical profile, diagnostic methods, treatment patterns, and outcome of twenty-four MPNST patients in this study. Patients and methods A retrospective analysis of 24 MPNST patients, treated from 1994 to 2002, in the department of Surgical Oncology at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, was done. A combination of gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, and proliferation markers (MIB1 were considered for diagnosis and grade of the MPNST. Survival analysis was done by the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were evaluated with the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by using Cox's proportional hazards model by using SPSS (Version 9, Chicago, Illinois software. Results MPNST constituted 12% of all soft tissue sarcomas, where 21% (5/24 of patients had associated Von Recklinghausen's disease (VRHD. A higher incidence of male preponderance and multifocal MPNST were noted in the present series. At a mean follow-up of 38 months, 13 (54 % patients had relapse of disease and 5-year over all and disease free survival were 58% and 35% respectively. In univariate analysis, sex (p = 0.05, tumor depth (p p p = 0.04, cellular differentiation (p p = 0.05 for overall survival. However, in multivariate analysis, cellular differentiation (p p Conclusion MPNSTs constituted a significant proportion (12% of soft tissue sarcoma in our medical center. Heterogeneous differentiation and multifocality of the tumor were few distinct features of MPNST. Sex and cellular differentiation were noticed as the new adverse prognostic factors and adjuvant radiotherapy has been proved to be a significant treatment tool in the current series.

  16. 'Where of is mad al mankynde' : an edition of and introduction to the twenty-four poems in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Louis Johan Philip

    2009-01-01

    'Where of is Mad al Mankynde' represents a new critical edition of the collection of twenty-four late-medieval anonymous poems contained, among other pieces, in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102. Each poem is introduced with a brief summary and closes with line-for-line explanatory comments. Th

  17. Effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing Combined with psychosomatic relaxation on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingying; Zhou, Yiyi; Lai, Qiujia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing combined with psychosomatic relaxation on depression and anxiety in patients with Type-2 Diabetes. One hundred and twenty (120) patients with Type-2 Diabetes and depressive/anxious symptoms were divided into intervention group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) according to the minimum distribution principle of unbalanced indicators. Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing group used this intervention combined with psychosomatic relaxation. Control group underwent conventional treatment. All the patients in the two groups completed the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after treatment. Among the 52 people included in the statistical analysis, the recovery rate was 13.3%. The differences between depression and anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after treatment were statistically significant (PBoxing and psychosomatic relaxation has a beneficial auxiliary therapeutic effect on depression and anxiety accompanying Type-2 Diabetes.

  18. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  19. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  20. Surgical treatment of cavus foot in Charcot-Marie-tooth disease: a review of twenty-four cases: AAOS exhibit selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldini, Cesare; Traina, Francesco; Nanni, Matteo; Mazzotti, Antonio; Calamelli, Carlotta; Fabbri, Daniele; Pungetti, Camilla; Giannini, Sandro

    2015-03-18

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the single most common diagnosis associated with cavus foot. The imbalance involving intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has been suggested as the main pathogenetic cause of cavus foot in this disease. The goal of surgical treatment is to correct the deformity to obtain a plantigrade foot. In the presence of a flexible deformity and the absence of degenerative arthritis, preserving as much as possible of the overall range of motion of the foot and ankle is advisable. Twenty-four cavus feet in twelve patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease were included in the study. Clinical evaluation was summarized with the Maryland Foot Score. Radiographic evaluation assessed calcaneal pitch, Meary angle, Hibb angle, and absence of degenerative joint changes. Only patients who had a flexible deformity, with varus of the heel reducible in the Coleman-Andreasi test, and did not have degenerative joint arthritis were included in this study. Surgical treatment consisted in plantar fasciotomy, midtarsal osteotomy, extensor hallucis longus tendon transfer to the first metatarsal (Jones procedure), and dorsiflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal. Mean follow-up was six years (range, two to thirteen years). The mean Maryland Foot Score was 72 preoperatively and 86 postoperatively. The postoperative result was rated as excellent in twelve feet (50%), good in ten (42%), and fair in two (8%). Mean calcaneal pitch was 34° preoperatively and 24° at the time of the latest follow-up, the mean Hibb angle was 121° preoperatively and 136° postoperatively, and the mean Meary angle was 25° preoperatively and 2° postoperatively. Plantar fasciotomy, midtarsal osteotomy, the Jones procedure, and dorsiflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal yielded adequate correction of flexible cavus feet in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the absence of fixed hindfoot deformity. The fact that the improvement in the outcome score was only modest may be attributable

  1. On the Idyllic Realm in the Twenty-four Poetic Genres%论«二十四诗品»的休闲境界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏明

    2016-01-01

    «二十四诗品»不仅是司空图论诗歌艺术风格类型的文学理论作品,也是优美的诗歌作品。综观«二十四诗品»,最重要的是通过对纯洁本性的累积、回归、体悟而达到对“真”“中”“虚”的葆有。«二十四诗品»为我们展示了诗意栖居的生活,也体现了古人内外双修,体验式的生活方式,从而能启示活在当下、顺任自然的诗意人生,启示我们思考如何更聪明地休闲,追求与道同体的永恒境界。%The Twenty-four Poetic Genres written by Si kongtu is not only a theoretic book on the po-etic genres,but also a poetic work itself.Overview the whole book,the essence is to maintain the"true""intrinsic"and"virtual"quality through the accumulation,regression and comprehension of pure nature. It revealed the idyllic settings of our ancestors with the poetic life to inspire us to take relaxation naturally and cleverly for the pursuit of eternal realm of life.

  2. The usefulness of twenty-four molecular markers in predicting treatment outcome with combination therapy of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder John C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Papua New Guinea (PNG, combination therapy with amodiaquine (AQ or chloroquine (CQ plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP was introduced as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in 2000. Methods We assessed in vivo treatment failure rates with AQ+SP in two different areas in PNG and twenty-four molecular drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were characterized in pre-treatment samples. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between infecting genotype and treatment response in order to identify useful predictors of treatment failure with AQ+SP. Results In 2004, Day-28 treatment failure rates for AQ+SP were 29% in the Karimui and 19% in the South Wosera area, respectively. The strongest independent predictors for treatment failure with AQ+SP were pfmdr1 N86Y (OR = 7.87, p pfdhps A437G (OR = 3.44, p pfcrt K76T, A220S, N326D, and I356L did not help to increase the predictive value, the most likely reason being that these mutations reached almost fixed levels. Though mutations in SP related markers pfdhfr S108N and C59R were not associated with treatment failure, they increased the predictive value of pfdhps A437G. The difference in treatment failure rate in the two sites was reflected in the corresponding genetic profile of the parasite populations, with significant differences seen in the allele frequencies of mutant pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 Y184F, pfcrt A220S, and pfdhps A437G. Conclusion The study provides evidence for high levels of resistance to the combination regimen of AQ+SP in PNG and indicates which of the many molecular markers analysed are useful for the monitoring of parasite resistance to combinations with AQ+SP.

  3. Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Shimizu, Yoko; Shiina, Takeo; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cellular effects of terahertz (THz) exposure, human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells derived from human eye were exposed to 0.12 THz radiation at 5 mW/cm2 for 24 h, then the genotoxicity, morphological changes, and heat shock protein (Hsp) expression of the cells were examined. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN) frequency of cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, whereas the MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h (positive control) did increase significantly. Similarly, there were no significant morphological changes in cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared to sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, and Hsp expression (Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90α) was also not significantly different between the three treatments. These results indicate that exposure to 0.12 THz radiation using the present conditions appears to have no or very little effect on MN formation, morphological changes, and Hsp expression in cells derived from human eye. PMID:27527204

  4. Twenty Four-Hour Exposure to a 0.12 THz Electromagnetic Field Does Not Affect the Genotoxicity, Morphological Changes, or Expression of Heat Shock Protein in HCE-T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Shimizu, Yoko; Shiina, Takeo; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2016-08-05

    To investigate the cellular effects of terahertz (THz) exposure, human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells derived from human eye were exposed to 0.12 THz radiation at 5 mW/cm² for 24 h, then the genotoxicity, morphological changes, and heat shock protein (Hsp) expression of the cells were examined. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN) frequency of cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, whereas the MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h (positive control) did increase significantly. Similarly, there were no significant morphological changes in cells exposed to 0.12 THz radiation compared to sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, and Hsp expression (Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90α) was also not significantly different between the three treatments. These results indicate that exposure to 0.12 THz radiation using the present conditions appears to have no or very little effect on MN formation, morphological changes, and Hsp expression in cells derived from human eye.

  5. Giorgio Vasari and the Image of the Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahtan, M. W.

    2011-06-01

    Giorgio Vasari created the first allegories of the twenty-four hours in the mid-16th century. This essay explores Vasari's novel images in the context of his visual and literary sources, the rising importance of household timepieces, and the artist's other works and writings. Although a focused study of a single motif within Vasari's oeuvre, it has implications for the broader transformation time perception and its psychological dimensions then taking place in Early Modern Europe.

  6. 论《二十四诗品》虚拟人物背后的“五然”理想人格%"Five Good" ldeal Personalities of the Virtual Characters of "Twenty-four Poems"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛刚

    2014-01-01

    "Taste of poetry reflects taste of life and style shows personality in the opposite way." In this sense, "Twenty-four Poems" do absolutely not mean to teach how to write poems and how to cultivate the couplet but to develop human nature to promote personality. It is the aloof personality, light life consciousness, self perfection and the acceptance of natural realization that are prominently revealed in the twenty-four kinds of mood behind the virtual figures. Those spirits have got considerable inspiration for the modern people in self-cultivation.%“诗品映衬人品,风格返现人格。”从这个意义上来说,《二十四诗品》绝对不是教我们如何作诗,如何对句,而是陶冶人的性情,求得人格上的提升。其实在二十四种意境之中,在虚拟人物背后,突出表现的是超然的人格理想、淡然的生命意识和自我完善、自然实现的精神。这对今人在修身养性方面有着极大的启示作用。

  7. On the Beauty of Twenty-four Poetry Style%美感体验中的三维透视--论《二十四诗品》朦胧美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕甜

    2016-01-01

    A lot of researches have been done about the aesthetics of the Twenty-four Poetry Style for several years. The highly theoretical aesthetic researches which include framing aesthetics, thought aesthetics, ecological esthetics, poetic aesthetics and ideal aesthetics make this book more attractive. But on the other hand, some expansion exists in the aesthetic value of this book because the researchers add their aesthetic theories to the theoretic distillation of the book. In this article, the directly perceived dim beauty and the burden of dim beauty have been analyzed from the experience of the aesthetic perception, which will clearly display the beauty of the Twenty-four Poetry Style.%历年来关于《二十四诗品》的美学研究是层出不穷的,从架构美学到思想美学到生态美学到诗歌美学到理想美学等等,这种高度理论性的美学研究使得整部著作更加具有魅力性。但是这种提炼浓缩后的理论升华在无形中也附加上了论者们的美学理想,使得《二十四诗品》美学价值或多或少地存在着“膨胀”的现象。文章将从美感体验出发,旨在挖掘分析能被直接感知的朦胧美和美的朦胧负担,让《二十四诗品》的美变得更加有迹可循。

  8. Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Suchard, Marc; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2006-10-01

    Ellagitannins (ETs) from pomegranate juice (PJ) are reported to have numerous biological properties, but their absorption and metabolism in humans are poorly understood. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of pomegranate ETs, 18 healthy volunteers were given 180 mL of PJ concentrate, and blood samples were obtained for 6 h afterwards. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were obtained on the day before (-1), the day of (0), and the day after (+1) the study. Ellagic acid (EA) was detected in plasma of all subjects with a maximum concentration of 0.06 +/- 0.01 micromol/L, area under concentration time curve of 0.17 +/- 0.02 (micromol x h) x L(-1), time of maximum concentration of 0.98 +/- 0.06 h, and elimination half-life of 0.71 +/- 0.08 h. EA metabolites, including dimethylellagic acid glucuronide (DMEAG) and hydroxy-6H-benzopyran-6-one derivatives (urolithins), were also detected in plasma and urine in conjugated and free forms. DMEAG was found in the urine obtained from 15 of 18 subjects on d 0, but was not detected on d -1 or +1, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker of intake. Urolithin A-glucuronide was found in urine samples from 11 subjects on d 0 and in the urine from 16 subjects on d +1. Urolithin B-glucuronide was found in the urine of 3 subjects on d 0 and in the urine of 5 subjects on d +1. Urolithins, formed by intestinal bacteria, may contribute to the biological effects of PJ as they may persist in plasma and tissues and account for some of the health benefits noted after chronic PJ consumption. Whether genetic polymorphisms in EA-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., catechol-O-methyl transferase and glucuronosyl transferase) are related to variations in response to PJ remains to be established.

  9. Biotype identification and epidemiological analysis of twenty-four Brucella strains%24株布鲁菌的种型鉴定和流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 屈平华; 吴尚为; 陈经雕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the biotype and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of twentyfour Brurella strains from the primary hospitals in Guangdong Province.Methods The twenty-four Brucella strains,collected from Oct.2009 to Oct.2015,were identified by routine biochemical methods,VITEK 2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer,16S rRNA gene sequencing and biology phenotype based on serological and bacteriophages lysis test.The etiology was analyzed based on clinical data,biotypes of the isolates and other clinical information.Results All of the twenty-four strains were Gram-negative coccobacilli,including two strains of Brucella suis biotype Ⅱ,four strains of Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅰ and eighteen strains of Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅲ.By GN card of VITEK 2 COMPACT automatic microbial identification analyzer,one strain was mistaken as Bordetella bronchiseptica and two strains were mistaken as Ochrobaetrum anthropi.The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed they were high homology to Ochrobactrum intermedium and Ochrobaetrum anthropi,which completely excluded the possibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica.Tbe clinical data showed that all of the twenty-four patients were adults with an average age of 49.0 years old,men and women were twelve people respectively,with no significant gender differences and no occupational exposure,which presenting a wide and diverse range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms,but brucellosis was not aware of by the physician.Conclusion Brucella melitensis biotype Ⅲ is the main pathogen of brucellosis,with the characteristics of sporadic outbreak and occult infection in the primary hospitals in Guangdong Province.%目的 对广东省基层地区24株布鲁菌进行种型鉴定和流行病学分析.方法 对24株来自于2009年10月至2015年10月广东省基层医院血培养阳性的布鲁菌进行传统生化鉴定、VITEK 2仪器鉴定、16S rRNA基因测序、血清学试验和噬菌体试验,比较不

  10. Effect of a 24+ hour fast on breast milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Deena R; Goldstein, Lee; Lahat, Eli; Braunstein, Rony; Stahi, Dvorah; Bar-Haim, Adina; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2009-05-01

    In this preliminary prospective study, breast milk is sampled surrounding 4 religious fast days to determine the effect of a more than 24-hour fast on breast milk composition. The participants are 48 healthy women nursing healthy babies between 1 and 6 months of age. Samples are collected within 2 days before the fast (baseline), immediately after the fast, and 24 hours after fast completion. Samples are tested for sodium, calcium, phosphorus, triglycerides, total protein, and lactose. From baseline to immediately after fast, mean sodium, calcium, and protein levels increase (P = .013, P < .0001, and P < .0001, respectively) and mean phosphorus and lactose levels decrease (P < .0001 and P = .003, respectively). Mean triglycerides are unchanged. Twenty-four hours after fast, parameters are no longer significantly different from baseline except for elevated mean protein levels (P = .022) and lactose that is still reduced (P = .017). A fast of this nature is statistically associated with certain biochemical changes in breast milk.

  11. High-dose statin pretreatment decreases periprocedural myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of twenty-four randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI and major adverse cardiac events (MACE for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-0.49; P<0.00001 and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45-0.83; P = 0.002. The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50-0.95; P = 0.02 and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.65; P = 0.003; and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34-0.79; P = 0.003, but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.10; P = 0.12. Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients

  12. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; Pstatin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for

  13. Team spirit makes the difference : The interactive effects of team work engagement and organizational constraints during a military operation on psychological outcomes afterwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Berg, C. van den; Euwema, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article prospectively explores the effects of collective team work engagement and organizational constraints during military deployment on individual-level psychological outcomes afterwards. Participants were 971 Dutch peacekeepers within 93 teams who were deployed between the end of 2008 and b

  14. Team spirit makes the difference : The interactive effects of team work engagement and organizational constraints during a military operation on psychological outcomes afterwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Berg, C. van den; Euwema, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article prospectively explores the effects of collective team work engagement and organizational constraints during military deployment on individual-level psychological outcomes afterwards. Participants were 971 Dutch peacekeepers within 93 teams who were deployed between the end of 2008 and

  15. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  16. Team spirit makes the difference: the interactive effects of team work engagement and organizational constraints during a military operation on psychological outcomes afterwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boermans, S M; Kamphuis, W; Delahaij, R; van den Berg, C; Euwema, M C

    2014-12-01

    This article prospectively explores the effects of collective team work engagement and organizational constraints during military deployment on individual-level psychological outcomes afterwards. Participants were 971 Dutch peacekeepers within 93 teams who were deployed between the end of 2008 and beginning of 2010, for an average of 4 months, in the International Security Assistance Force. Surveys were administered 2 months into deployment and 6 months afterwards. Multi-level regression analyses demonstrated that team work engagement during deployment moderated the relation between organizational constraints and post-deployment fatigue symptoms. Team members reported less fatigue symptoms after deployment if they were part of highly engaged teams during deployment, particularly when concerns about organizational constraints during deployment were high. In contrast, low team work engagement was related to more fatigue symptoms, particularly when concerns about organizational constraints were high. Contrary to expectations, no effects for team work engagement or organizational constraints were found for post-traumatic growth. The present study highlights that investing in team work engagement is important for those working in highly demanding jobs.

  17. Twenty-Four Tuba Harmonics Using a Single Pipe Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 "YouTube: Tuba Harmonics" (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the…

  18. Twenty-four tuba harmonics using a single pipe length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Tuba Harmonics (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the harmonics, measured with the free software program Audacity, fall excellently on a linear fit using a spreadsheet. The skillful musical production of so many harmonics with a fixed pipe length is an extraordinary illustration of physics.

  19. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  20. Eleventh Hour Security+

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrawsky, Ido

    2009-01-01

    This book will focus on just the essentials needed to pass the Security+ certification exam. It will be filled with critical information in a way that will be easy to remember and use for your quickly approaching exam. It will focus on the main objectives of the exam and include the following pedagogy for ease of use in those final hours. The book will include:. •Exam Objectives – Fast Track Review. •Key words/definitions. •Five Toughest questions and their answers. •Exam Warnings – What to pay attention to

  1. Eleventh Hour Linux+

    CERN Document Server

    Speake, Graham; Happel, Chris; Lillard, Terrence V

    2009-01-01

    The 11th Hour Linux+ Study Guide is keyed to the XK0-003 revision of the CompTIA Linux+exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered with key concepts highlighted. ..: ..; Fast Facts quickly review fundamentals ..; Exam Warnings highlight particularly tough sections of the exam ..; Crunch Time sidebars point out key concepts to remember ..; Did You Know? sidebars cover sometimes forgotten details ..; Top Five Toughest Questions and answers help you to prepare .. The 11th H

  2. Metabolic effects of isoenergetic nutrient exchange over 24 hours in relation to obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E; James, W P

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour whole body indirect calorimetry has been used to study the effects of feeding, during a sedentary test day, isoenergetic diets which varied in fat (3 or 40 per cent of total energy) and carbohydrate (82 or 45 per cent) content. Three groups of women were studied: lean, obese and 'post-obese' after slimming. Energy expenditure was greater in absolute terms in the obese women. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure was lower by only 3-7 per cent when fasting compared to that when fed to achieve energy balance. There were no large differences in energy expenditure between the two diets or between the groups but the thermogenic effect of the high carbohydrate diet was significantly greater than that of the high fat diet (5.8 vs 3.5 per cent of energy expenditure: P less than 0.01). The post-obese tended to have lower energy expenditure per kg FFM than controls when fasting and when high-fat fed, but this pattern was not shown by the obese. Sleeping energy expenditure was particularly low in the post-obese group when high-fat fed. Dirunal variations in RQ appear to show more marked rise in morning RQ from the nocturnal minimum in the obese and post-obese, which might be evidence for an energy-saving mechanism through greater availability of stored dietary carbohydrate.

  3. Review: Birgit Schreiber (2006. Versteckt. Jüdische Kinder im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland und ihr Leben danach [Hidden. Jewish Children in National Socialist Germany and Their Lives Afterwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Griese

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In her empirical study, Hidden. Jewish children in National Socialist Germany and their lives afterwards, Birgit SCHREIBER analyses five autobiographical interviews. She presents different perspectives to the reader: a the contemporary, political dimension of the topic concerning German history and recollection, b the (problematic structures of communication between German Jews and non-Jewish Germans (keywords: "crisis of witnesses", c a narrative prospect and analysis, and d a psychoanalytic access of the life stories of traumatized people. Its special potentials—partly innovation and, at the same time, its soft spots—lie in these "multidimensional prospects" of the study. On the one hand, it seems to be unclear where to put the emphasis; is it an Oral-History study, a structural narration, mainly autobiographical work or psychoanalytically substantiated research? On the other hand, the different perspectives allow a sensitive way of dealing with specific forms of communication and meeting and providing a special, empathetic way of analyzing data. Above all, this "mixture" offers the possibility of a wide discussion of basic topics within qualitative research—especially the relation between science and therapy, ethics in research and the construction of an empirically grounded typology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703166

  4. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  5. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  6. FEWER HOURS MORE ACHIEVEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingQuanxin; QiuLizhong

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study is to improve instructional classes for “Extensive Reading”. We compare two approaches. The traditional method is based on the original procedure; the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the theory of “Tasks of Ascending Difficulty”.This paper provides a comparative evaluation of our experiments on Extensive Reading. Our aim is to resolve the logistical problem of heavy teaching loads and limited class hours, which often prevents English learners from fulfilling their study targets and our intended learning outcomes. In view of the experimental data,we have managed to establish a “feedback” to test the two hypotheses, and demonstrate that the new approach contributes to efficient acquisition of the information in the presented reading materials. Our study concludes with an interpretation of the function and merits of this approach.

  7. Comparisons of Office and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2017-03-01

    To compare office blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring to facilitate the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Children aged 4-16 years with OSA-related symptoms were recruited from a tertiary referral medical center. All children underwent overnight polysomnography, office BP, and 24-hour ABP studies. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to elucidate the association between the apnea-hypopnea index and BP. Correlation and consistency between office BP and 24-hour ABP were measured by Pearson correlation, intraclass correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses. In the 163 children enrolled (mean age, 8.2 ± 3.3 years; 67% male). The prevalence of systolic hypertension at night was significantly higher in children with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with primary snoring (44.9% vs 16.1%, P = .006). Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation analyses revealed associations between office BP and 24-hour BP, and Bland-Altman analysis indicated an agreement between office and 24-hour BP measurements. However, multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that 24-hour BP (nighttime systolic BP and mean arterial pressure), unlike office BP, was independently associated with the apnea-hypopnea index, after adjustment for adiposity variables. Twenty-four-hour ABP is more strongly correlated with OSA in children, compared with office BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  9. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  10. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  11. Ultimate treatment for a patient with severe traumatic brain injury without intake for 192 hours after Wenchuan massive earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jian-wen; ZHOU Hu-tian; YANG Tao; CHENG Jing-min; QU Yan; LI Cui-ying; LI Qing-jie; L(U) Ji-yun; CHENG Shou-long; LIU Jian-jun; KUANG Yong-qin; HUANG Hai-dong; YANG Li-bin; HE Wei-qi; ZHAO Kai; SONG Li-xin; ZHENG Xiao-dong; LIU Shu-xin; SUN Yan; HE Hong-lian; WU Jiang; LIU Xu-sheng; LU Min

    2009-01-01

    @@ At 14:28 (2:28 pm) on May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8 earthquake, which was a rare event, occurred in Sichuan Province of China and led to deaths of thousands of people. In the Longmen Mountain fault zone, which is located 40 miles from the earthquake center at Wenchuan, the Chinese military used a variety of treatment methods to rescue the injured and successfully treated a victim with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who survived without food or water intake for 192 hours. Two hundred and twenty-four hours after the earthquake, the patient underwent craniotomy and removal of an intracerebral hematoma. The injury to the patient was severe and the rescue time was the longest for this earthquake. Detailed information is provided in this report.

  12. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  13. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  14. Air Temperature Variation and Mutation Analysis of the Twenty-Four Solar Terms in Xi'an over 60 Years%近60年西安市24节气气温变化特征及突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈姣姣; 徐虹; 李建科; 王靖; 高红燕; 杨新

    2013-01-01

    Based on daily air temperature from 1951-2010, mean air temperature (MAT) and the beginning-day air temperature (BAT), variation characteristics of the twenty-four solar terms in Xi'an were examined. MAT and BAT of phenological solar terms (Waking of Insects, Pure Brightness, Lesser Fullness of Grain and Grain in Beard) were used. We found that MAT of Lesser Heat and Greater Heat was higher than other solar terms, Lesser Cold was the coldest in all. Ending-day air temperature (EAT) was higher than BAT in each solar term from Greater Cold to Lesser Heat, and was lower than BAT in each solar term from Greater Heat to Lesser Cold. Curve of MAT variation of contiguous solar terms showed a single peak at Pure Brightness which was 3.4℃ higher than the Spring Equinox and single valley at the Beginning of Winter which was 3.9℃ lower than Frost's Descent. Daily MAT of seasonal solar terms varied as follows: spring (+0.190℃/ d) > autumn (-0.180℃/d) > winter (-0.105℃/d) > summer (+0.086℃/d). Daily MAT during the Beginning of Winter(-0.303℃/d), Waking of Insects (+0.233℃/d), Lesser Snow(-0.220℃/d) and Spring Equinox(+0.219℃/d) varied violently. MAT and BAT of most twenty-four solar terms showed a significant rising trend in the 1990s or 2000s, but BAT of autumn and winter solar terms did not change significantly in decadal temperature from 1951 to 2010. In 2000s, MAT of the Beginning of Spring, Greater Heat, the Beginning of Autumn, the End of Heat and the Winter Solstice dropped instead of rise. BAT and MAT of Waking of Insects rose in 1998 and 2008 at the 0.05 significant level, then in 2001 and 2010 at the 0.01 significant level. Pure Brightness and Lesser Fullness of Grain suddenly wanned in the 1990s (1999 and 1993), with 0.05 significant level at the beginning of 2000s (2004 and 2003) and 0.01 significant level in the mid-2000s (2006 and 2006). MAT and BAT of Grain in Beard showed a periodic rising and dropping trend, when it suddenly dropped at the

  15. Effects of Thai Dancing on Median Neurodynamic Response During 4-Hour Computer Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhora, Keerin; Septham, Chatdao; Jalayondeja, Wattana

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of Thai dancing on median neurodynamic response during 4-hour computer use. Twenty-four healthy participants aged 20-30 years performed 5 minutes of Thai dancing including Prom See Na, Yoong Fon Hang, Sod Soy Mala, Lor Keaw and Cha Nee Rai Mai during a 10-minute break of 4-hour computer use. All participants were assessed for nerve tension by elbow range of motion ofupper limb neurodynamic test 1 (ULNT1) and components of quick test. The discomfort was measured by visual analogue discomfort scale (VADS). These measurements were assessed before and after computer work. The statistical analyses employed paired t-test for continuous outcome and Friedman's test. The median nerve tension (indicated by elbow range of motion) was significantly reduced at before and after work, when 5 minutes of Thai dancing was introduced during the break. While components of the quick test emphasized that Thai dance immediately helped reduce the median nerve tension. The VADS in eight body areas increased over the period of 4 hours, but decreased after performing Thai dancing (pdancing helped relieve median nerve tension and body discomfort. It may be recommended as an exercise during break for computer users who continuously work to prevent WMSDs.

  16. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In conclusion, the positive effects of DS on explosive performances seem to persist for 24 hours.

  17. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  18. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  19. Effect of adiabatic inhibitor on afterward-dome insulation ablation in segmented solid rocket motors%分段式固体发动机绝热环对后封头绝热层烧蚀影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建儒; 何国强; 许团委; 李江; 李强

    2013-01-01

    The ablation effect of adiabatic inhibitor on afterward-dome insulation was discussed systematically under combustion chamber operating condition for a typical SSRM(segmented solid rocket motor).Both numerical simulation results and tested data show that the existence of adiabatic inhibitor accelerate the gas flow speed to a certain extent,which result in two phase flow gas concentration and speed enhanced in certain scope of afterward-dome of combustion chamber,and make the ablation quantity of afterward-dome increased significantly.Furthermore,with the numerical analysis of modified SSRM,the result of this investigation is to provide the motor design characteristics and the system engineering approach used to effectively suppress the insulation ablation of afterward-dome for SSRMs.%针对某典型分段式固体发动机燃烧室内部绝热环在发动机工作过程中对后封头绝热层的烧蚀影响进行了系统分析,通过数值模拟和已有试验数据证明,分段式固体发动机工作过程中,分段药柱端面绝热环的存在一定程度上加速了燃烧室内部燃气流动的速度,导致燃烧室后封头一定范围内两相流燃气浓度的增加,从而导致后封头烧蚀量的大幅增加.在此基础上,结合改进型分段式固体发动机的数值分析,提出了分段式固体发动机在有效拟制后封头绝热层烧蚀加剧方面的设计措施和建议.

  20. 24 Hours of Meaty Torture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palesa; Temaswati; Mthethwa

    2011-01-01

    VEGETARIAN for a week! That was the plan.But it’s funny how side effects start kicking in so early when trying to let go of an everyday habit.The first morning of my experiment,I felt like I hadn’t eaten poultry in months(I had devoured a bucket of KFC the night before).Lunch was a disaster.I didn’t know whether to cook or spend an hour searching for a restaurant. That afternoon I received the worst phone call a first-time vegetarian can get:

  1. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Lowery, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive written and interactive instruction for learning HTML5 HTML is the core technology for building websites. Today, with HTML5 opening the Internet to new levels of rich content and dynamic interactivity, developers are looking for information to learn and utilize HTML5. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer provides that information, giving new and aspiring web developers the knowledge they need to achieve early success when building websites. Covers the most basic aspects of a web page, including a brief introduction to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Provides lessons that are backed up by prof

  2. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  3. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  4. Edwin Austin Abbey's The Passage of the Hours: Astronomy as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Passage of the Hours (1909-1911) in the Pennsylvania State Capitol at Harrisburg is one of the most original and least known astronomical ceilings in the United States. Designed by the American artist Edwin Austin Abbey (1852-1911) to complement the Italian Renaissance style architecture of the House of Representatives, the mural combines two classical traditions of representing the night sky: a celestial map with the constellations of the zodiac and the personifications of the Hours. Set in a shallow dome twenty-four feet in diameter, Abbey's constellation figures float in a dazzling firmament where the Milky Way streams between the Sun and the Moon. The artist placed the Horae of Greek mythology around the dome's circumference in the position of the numbers on an astronomical clock. In the tradition of Italian Renaissance architecture, the celestial ceiling in the House of Representatives was part of an iconographic program affirming the cosmological origin of a polity. The astronomical theme relates to Abbey's murals in the House Chamber of the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 from David Rittenhouse's observatory in Philadelphia, which the astronomer constructed to study the transit of Venus in 1769. The artist included a portrait of Rittenhouse holding his telescope among the worthies in the adjacent mural of The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania. Contemporary as well as historical events encouraged Abbey's use of astronomical imagery: the depiction of a comet may record the much-anticipated return of Halley's Comet in 1910.

  5. Short hours, long hours: Hour levels and trends in the retail industry in the United States, Canada, and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Françoise; Tilly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In settings where most workers have full-time schedules, hourly wages are appropriate primary indicators of job quality and worker outcomes. However, in sectors where full-time schedules do not dominate - primarily service-producing activities - total hours matter, in addition to hourly wages, for job quality and worker outcomes. In this paper we employ a sector-focused, comparative framework to further examine hours levels - measured as average weekly hours - and trends in Canada, the United...

  6. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  7. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  8. How Hours of Work Affect Occupational Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, David

    1998-01-01

    In most managerial, management-related, sales, production, and transportation occupations, workers with longer hours earned a high hourly rate. The reverse was true for some jobs, including computer specialists, engineers, schoolteachers, and construction workers. (JOW)

  9. CERN restaurants: opening hours during summer

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In the summer, the three CERN restaurants remain open during their usual hours. On Monday 1st August and Thursday 8 September, the Restaurant 1 will be open from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.   The satellites will be open as follows: Building 6: normal hours Building 13: normal hours Building 30: normal hours Building 40: closing at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 pm Building 54: normal hours in July, closed in August Building 864: normal hours Building 865: normal hours Building 774: normal hours

  10. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  11. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk...... in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  12. Association between symptoms and frequency of arrhythmias on 24-hour Holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Ghazala; Ahmad, Mansoor; Khan, Abdul Rasheed

    2009-11-01

    To determine association between patient's symptoms and incidence of arrhythmia on 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter monitoring. A cross-sectional descriptive study. The Cardiology Department, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Patients above 15 years of age, of either gender, referred for Holter monitoring with symptoms of palpitations, dizziness and syncope were evaluated for arrhythmia. The symptoms were documented by the patients in their symptom diaries (historical logs) during Holter monitoring. Patients who had permanent pacemaker implants were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the frequencies and percentages of different symptoms, different arrhythmias were noted on Holter monitoring and the age of patients was noted. Chi-square test was applied to calculate p-values with significant at value less than 0.05. The mean age of patients was 53.71 +/- 15.52 years. There were 54% females and 46% males. Eighty two percent had documented arrhythmias on their Holter monitoring reports. The complaints for which patients were referred included dizziness in 24%, palpitations in 61% and syncope in 15%. On analysis of the historical logs of patients only 64% had symptoms during Holter monitoring and 23% had concurrence of their symptoms with an arrhythmia. Patients who had sinus exit block (p=0.02) and sinus arrest (p=0.002) had significant association with arrhythmia. Twenty percent patients with dizziness, 50% patients with palpitations and 12% of patients who presented with syncope had documented arrhythmias. Twenty four hour Holter monitoring is an important investigation for evaluation of patients with palpitation, dizziness and syncope. Arrhythmias were detected frequently in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. One must be careful to avoid attributing a symptom to an arrhythmia until a close temporal relationship is demonstrated.

  13. Associations of Ischemic Lesion Volume With Functional Outcome in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 24-Hour Versus 1-Week Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucker, Amber; Boers, Anna M; Bot, Joseph C J; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Yoo, Albert J; van Zwam, Wim H; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; van der Lugt, Aad; Dippel, Diederik W J; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Majoie, Charles B L M; Marquering, Henk A

    2017-05-01

    Ischemic lesion volume (ILV) on noncontrast computed tomography at 1 week can be used as a secondary outcome measure in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-four-hour ILV on noncontrast computed tomography has greater availability and potentially allows earlier estimation of functional outcome. We aimed to assess lesion growth 24 hours after stroke onset and compare the associations of 24-hour and 1-week ILV with functional outcome. We included 228 patients from MR CLEAN trial (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands), who received noncontrast computed tomography at 24-hour and 1-week follow-up on which ILV was measured. Relative and absolute lesion growth was determined. Logistic regression models were constructed either including the 24-hour or including the 1-week ILV. Ordinal and dichotomous (0-2 and 3-6) modified Rankin scale scores were, respectively, used as primary and secondary outcome measures. Median ILV was 42 mL (interquartile range, 21-95 mL) and 64 mL (interquartile range: 30-120 mL) at 24 hours and 1 week, respectively. Relative lesion growth exceeding 30% occurred in 121 patients (53%) and absolute lesion growth exceeding 20 mL occurred in 83 patients (36%). Both the 24-hour and 1-week ILVs were similarly significantly associated with functional outcome (both P<0.001). In the logistic analyses, the areas under the curve of the receiver-operator characteristic curves were similar: 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.91) for including the 24-hour and 1-week ILV, respectively. Growth of ILV is common 24-hour poststroke onset. Nevertheless, the 24-hour ILV proved to be a valuable secondary outcome measure as it is equally strongly associated with functional outcome as the 1-week ILV. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN10888758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  15. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  16. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  17. Cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study how flexibility in workforce capacity can be used to efficiently match capacity and demand. Flexibility in workforce capacity is introduced by the annualized hours regime. Annualized hours allow organizations to measure working time per year, instead of per month or per week. An additional

  18. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on 24-hour blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stefanie Zuern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with arterial hypertension, increased blood pressure (BP variability contributes to end organ damage independently from mean levels of arterial BP. Increased BP variability has been linked to alterations in autonomic function including sympathetic overdrive. We hypothesized that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN confers beneficial effects on BPV. Methods and Results: Eleven consecutive patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension (age 68.9±7.0 years; baseline systolic BP 189±23mmHg despite medication with 5.6±2.1 antihypertensive drugs underwent bilateral RDN. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before RDN and six months thereafter. BPV was primarily assessed by means of standard deviation of 24-hour systolic arterial blood pressures (SDsys. Secondary measures of BPV were maximum systolic blood pressure (MAXsys and maximum difference between two consecutive readings of systolic BP (deltamaxsys over 24 hours. Six months after RDN, SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were significantly reduced from 16.9±4.6mmHg to 13.5±2.5mmHg (p=0.003, from 190±22mmHg to 172±20mmHg (p<0.001 and from 40±15mmHg to 28±7mmHg (p=0.006, respectively, without changes in concomitant antihypertensive therapy. Reductions of SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were observed in 10/11 (90.9%, 11/11 (100% and 9/11 (81.8% patients, respectively. Although we noted a significant reduction of systolic office blood pressure by 30.4±27.7mmHg (p=0.007, there was only a trend in reduction of average systolic BP assessed from ABPM (149±19mmHg to 142±18mmHg; p=0.086.Conclusions: In patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension, RDN leads to significant reductions of BP variability. Effects of RDN on BPV over 24 hours were more pronounced than on average levels of BP.

  19. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  20. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I/D genotype affected metoprolol-induced reduction in 24-hour average heart rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-wei; LIU Hong; CHEN Guo-liang; HUANG Yi-ling; HAN Lu-lu; XU Zhi-min; JIANG Xiong-jing; LI Yi-shi

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors can influence antihypertensive response to metoprolol, and many studies focused on the relationship between the genotype in β1-adrenergic receptor and blood pressure (BP), little was known about the association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype with the therapeutic result of metoprolol. The present study aimed to investigate whether the ACE gene insertion (I) / deletion (D) polymorphism Is related to the response to metoprolol in Chinese Han hypertensive patients.Methods Ninety-six patients with essential hypertension received metoprolol (100 mg once daily) as monotherapy for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and dynamic electrocardiogram were performed before and after treatment. Genotyping analysis was performed using PCR. The association of the ACE gene I/D polymorphism with variations in BP and heart rate (HR) was observed after the 8-week treatment.Results The patients with ACE gene II polymorphism showed greater reduction in 24-hour average HR than those with ID or DD polymorphisms (P=0.045), no effect of this genotype on the reduction in seating HR or in BP was observed. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, BP and HR at baseline, the ACE gene I/D polymorphism was still an independent predictor for variations in 24-hour average HR.Conclusions The II polymorphism in ACE gene could be a candidate predictor for greater reduction in 24-hour average HR in Chinese Han hypertensive patients treated by metoprolol. Greater benefits would be obtained by patients with II polymorphism from the treatment with metoprolol. Larger studies are warranted to validate this finding.

  1. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  2. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  3. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  4. SO2 8 Hour Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide 8 hour...

  5. Recurrence Within 24 Hours of Unprovoked Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and risk factors of acute recurrence of unprovoked seizures within 24 hours of admission to an Emergency Department (ED were analyzed by a retrospective chart review at Schneider Children’s Hospital, New York.

  6. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were.......20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours...

  7. Longer opening hours, alcohol consumption and health

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin Peter; Hollingsworth, Bruce Philip; Navarro Paniagua, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Two related issues in public policy with respect to alcohol are how increased availability influences consumption and what effect excess consumption has on individual health outcomes. This paper examines one particular source of variation in availability, bar opening hours, and how this influences alcohol consumption, physical and mental health. We focus on the extension of opening hours in England and Wales that occurred in 2005. We demonstrate a marked increase in consumption, which appears...

  8. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5...... exercise were statistically significantly associated with remission. CONCLUSION: The use of different definitions of RA remission leads to different results with regard to remission rates, with considerable variation among countries and between sexes. Reported remission rates in clinical trials...

  9. Twenty-four near-instabilities of Caspar-Klug viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, François; Peeters, Kasper; Taormina, Anne

    2008-09-01

    Group theoretical arguments combined with normal mode analysis techniques are applied to a coarse-grained approximation of icosahedral viral capsids which incorporates areas of variable flexibility. This highlights a remarkable structure of the low-frequency spectrum in this approximation, namely, the existence of a plateau of 24 near zero modes with universal group theory content.

  10. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Four "XIONGBI" (CHEST PAIN) SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongying; Guo Ling; Shang Xiukui

    2001-01-01

    @@ "Xiongbi" chest (or precordial) pain with stuffiness, or chest pain syndrome is referred to choking pain in the chest due to stagnation of chest -yang, failure of qi and blood in warming and nourishing the local meridians. It is usually caused by stagnation of dampness and phlegm in the interior, or by insufficiency of qi and blood stasis, leading to impeded flow of qi and blood in the heart vessels. Its pathological characteristics are deficiency (chest-yang) in origin and excess (i. e., qi stagnation) in superficiality. The therapeutic principles are promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, getting rid of blockage and dredging the passages of yang-qi.

  11. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5...

  12. Autistic children grow up: an eight to twenty-four year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, L; Goldberg, B

    1986-08-01

    Eighty questionnaires were sent to parents and/or caregivers of autistic persons diagnosed between 1960-73 at CPRI, a regional assessment and treatment centre. The objective was to determine their present place of residence, functioning ability, language development, program involvement, and seizure activity. The results of this study support evidence that more than 50 percent require long-term institutional care; almost one-third suffer epileptic seizures; there is a persistence of symptoms and difficulty in gaining useful speech; few live independently or are capable of employment.

  13. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  14. Twenty-Four Veterinary Anatomic Fibs, Half-Truths, and Misleading Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael Jay

    1979-01-01

    A number of statements about well-established information in veterinary anatomy are debated and refuted: (1) sesamoid bones change the direction of tendons, (2) tendons are composed of collagenous connective tissue, (3) anal glands are synonymous with anal sacs, (4) reciprocal apparatus is part of stay apparatus, etc. (Author/MLW)

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-four. Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Michigan governing the regulation of public energy facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. 77 FR 47631 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments on Twenty-Four Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...: NSPS for Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities (40 CFR Part 60, Subpart HHH). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR..., 2012. (9) NSPS for Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities (40 CFR Part 60, Subpart HHH); Learia Williams... Part 60, Subpart HHH); Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OECA-2012-0528; EPA ICR Number 1156.12; OMB...

  17. A Twenty-Four-Year-Old Woman with Left Flank Lipoma-Like Hibernoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Shackelford

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of a left flank mass that was painful on palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 10.0 × 6.0 × 2.5 cm mass consistent with lipoma. A fatty lobulated mass was excised and subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical analyses. The specimen consisted of mature univacuolated adipocytic cells, with intermixed multivacuolated eosinophilic granular cells. No atypia or hyperchromasia was identified. Most of the cells were S100 positive and Ki-67 immunonegative. A diagnosis of a lipoma-like hibernoma was rendered. Hibernomas are rare benign lipomatous tumors that show differentiation toward brown fat. The lipoma-like hibernoma subtype is rare and can be misdiagnosed as atypical lipoma or well-differentiated liposarcoma. Here we describe an example of this rare tumor.

  18. Twenty-four years of follow-up for a Hanford plutonium wound case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H; Lynch, Timothy P; Antonio, Cheryl L; Medina-Del Valle, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    A 1985 plutonium puncture wound resulted in the initial deposition of 48 kBq of transuranic alpha activity, primarily 239+240Pu and 241Am, in a worker's right index finger. Surgical excisions in the week following reduced the long-term residual wound activity to 5.4 kBq, and 164 DTPA chelation therapy administrations over 17 mo resulted in urinary excretion of about 7 kBq. The case was published in 1988, but now 24 y of follow-up data are available. Annual bioassays have included in-vivo measurements of 241Am in the wound, skeleton, liver, lung, and axillary lymph nodes, and urinalyses for plutonium and 241Am. These measurements have shown relatively stable levels of 241Am at the wound site, with gradually increasing amounts of 241Am detected in the skeleton. Liver measurements have shown erratic detection of 241Am, and the lung measurements indicate Am but as interference from activity in the axillary lymph nodes and skeleton rather than activity in the lung. Urine excretion of Pu since termination of chelation therapy has typically ranged from 10 to 20 mBq d, with Am excretion about 10% of that for 239+240Pu. Annual routine medical exams have not identified any adverse health effects associated with the intake.

  19. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  20. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  1. Longer Opening Hours for the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The scientific information service. The CERN library is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. So how, you might be wondering, can they improve on that? The answer is in the detail. Although you can already use the library whenever you want, items can only be checked out when the front desk is staffed. A decision taken last week by the Scientific Information Policy Board now means that there will someone at the desk through out CERN's official working hours, with an extra 90 minutes at the end of the day so that people can check out material on their way home. In other words, the library will be open from 8:30 to 19:00, Monday to Friday. The library continues, of course, to be open 24 hours a day, all year round, and services provided via the digital library remain at your disposal day and night: http://library.cern.ch

  2. Constructing gridded hourly temperature data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Air temperature is the main climatological element, with major impact on the earth-atmosphere energy balance. The characteristics of the surface air temperature in locations without meteorological measurements are obtained using spatio-temporal interpolation techniques. Gridded surface meteorological data are essential for evaluating the performance of regional climate models (RCMs), for applying Statistical Downscaling (SD) methods and as input data for hydrological models. In this study we proposed a methodolgy for interpolating hourly surface temperatures. Three gridding methods are compared. A two-step multivariate gridding approach was used. First we interpolated the hourly normal maps, considered as multiannual average (1961-2010), of air temperature for each hour (4 meteorological terms) of a standard year (366 days). In this step, the Residual Kriging method was used with potential predictors derived from DEM and Landcover Corinne. For interpolating the residuals of the regression model we tested 3 gridding methods: Multiquadratic (MQ), Ordinary Kriging (OK) and 3D Kriging (using time as a third dimension). In the second step, we calculated the anomalies of each hour, day, year for the period 1961-2010. The anomalies were interpolated using the same methods applied for gridding regression residuals. The final hourly surface air temperature maps were obtained by summing the maps from first step with the anomlies map. The main data used in this work were the hourly air temperatures of the 4 observation terms (01, 07, 13, 19), measured between 1961-2010 at the weather stations of the Romanian Meteorological Administration. The predictors were derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM and from CORINE Land Cover 2000 product. The gridding was performed in a Romanian National Grid (Stereo 70), at 1 km2 spatial resolution, using R language. The study has been financed by the research project Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in

  3. Automatization of physicians' phone-in hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, J; Loula, P; Soininen, H

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a computer-based system that is designed to reduce the number of patient calls in physicians' phone-in hours. Simultaneously it will offer a parallel alternative channel for the patients to listen to their laboratory results. The system requirements were reliability, security and the low costs. The results showed after a two-month test period that the tailored system proved extremely successful. The average time that the physician saved by using this system was over 4 minutes and doctors can leave the messages to the server also outside the phone-in hours.

  4. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  5. 29 CFR 778.110 - Hourly rate employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... number of hours worked in excess of 40 in the week. Thus a $6 hourly rate will bring, for an employee who....80 for 46 hours (46 hours at $6.20 plus 6 hours at $3.10, or 40 hours at $6.20 plus 6 hours at $9.30). ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  6. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  7. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  8. Why Surface Nanobubbles Live for Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Joost; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the experimentally found but counterintuitive exceptionally long lifetime of surface nanobubbles. We can explain why, under normal experimental conditions, surface nanobubbles are stable for many hours or even up to days rather than the expected microseconds. The

  9. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., training, or pre-shift briefings for special evolutions; and holdovers for interviews needed for event... waivers under which work was performed to evaluate staffing adequacy for all jobs subject to the work hour...; and (4) Record, trend, and correct, under the licensee's corrective action program, any problems...

  10. Electoral (Amendment) (Hours of Polling) Bill 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Doyle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Parliament of Ireland). An Act to set voting hours for Dáil Elections, Dáil Bye-Elections, Presidential Elections, European Parliament Elections, Local Government Elections and Referenda...

  11. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  12. Analysis of The Story of An Hour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉琴

    2014-01-01

    By reading the short story The Story of An Hour written by Kate Chopin, we tried to probe the story better by analyz-ing five characters, plots of the story and rhetorical devices, such as irony and symbolism. With originality and profound mean-ings, the novel about the small theme of family life had a wide variety of social significance.

  13. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  14. Inter- and intraobserver agreement in 24-hour combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH measurement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilic, Denisa; Höfs, Carolin; Weitmann, Sandra; Nöh, Frank; Fröhlich, Thorsten; Skopnik, Heino; Köhler, Henrik; Wenzl, Tobias G; Schmidt-Choudhury, Anjona

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of intra- and interobserver agreement in multiple intraluminal impedance (MII) measurement between investigators from different institutions. Twenty-four 18- to 24-hour MII tracings were randomly chosen from 4 different institutions (6 per center). Software-aided automatic analysis was performed. Each result was validated by 2 independent investigators from the 4 different centers (4 investigator combinations). For intraobserver agreement, 6 measurements were analyzed twice by the same investigator. Agreement between investigators was calculated using the Cohen kappa coefficient. Interobserver agreement: 13 measurements showed a perfect agreement (kappa > 0.8); 9 had a substantial (kappa 0.61-0.8), 1 a moderate (kappa coefficient 0.41 to 0.6), and 1 a fair agreement (kappa coefficient 0.11-0.4). Median kappa value was 0.83. Intraobserver agreement: 5 tracings showed perfect and 1 showed a substantial agreement. The median kappa value was 0.88. Most measurements showed substantial to perfect intra- and interobserver agreement. Still, we found a few outliers presumably caused by poorer signal quality in some tracings rather than being observer dependent. An improvement of analysis results may be achieved by using a standard analysis protocol, a standardized method for judging tracing quality, better training options for method users, and more interaction between investigators from different institutions.

  15. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and O3) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged heat-ambulance calls relationships were non-linear for all groups, with thresholds between 27 °C and 31 °C. The associations appeared immediately, and lasted for about 24 h. There were no significant modification effect by sex and age. The findings suggest that hot hourly temperatures (>27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation of spot urine protein-creatinine ratio with 24-hour urinary protein in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Basanagouda Biradar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the major cause for chronic renal failure (CRF and proteinuria is an independent risk factor for end stage renal disease. Hence, early identification and quantification of proteinuria is of prime importance in the diagnosis and management. Methods: This study was conducted amongst 42 diabetic subjects from HSK hospital, Bagalkot. Twenty four-hour urine protein and random urine protein to creatinine ratio (P:C was determined. Pearson′s correlation, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined using 24-hour urinary protein as a gold standard for spot urine P:C ratio. ROC curve and area under curve was also determined using SPSS (11.5 software. All the results were expressed in mean±SD. Results: Forty two diabetes mellitus patients participated in this study. The average of 24 hour urinary protein was 1.6 ± 1.7 gm/day. The spot urine P:C ratio was 1.27 ± 1.55. There was a positive correlation between 24 hours urinary protein and spot urine P:C ratio (r = 0.925, p < 0.0001. The area under the ROC curve for urine P:C ratio at various cutoff was 0.947 (95% confidence interval: 0.831-0.992, p < 0.0001. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.65% and 100% respectively at P:C ratio cutoff of 0.3. Conclusions: The random urine P:C ratio predicts the amount of 24-hour urinary protein excretion with high accuracy. Hence it can be used as a faster diagnostic substitute for 24-hour urinary protein estimation.

  17. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    , supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333,693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100,602 participants from nine...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  18. Why surface nanobubbles live for hours

    CERN Document Server

    Weijs, Joost H

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the experimentally found but counter-intuitive exceptionally long lifetime of surface nanobubbles. We can explain why, under normal experimental conditions, surface nanobubbles are stable for many hours or even up to days rather than the expected microseconds. The limited gas diffusion through the water in the far field, the cooperative effect of nanobubble clusters, and the pinned contact line of the nanobubbles lead to the slow dissolution rate.

  19. Optimum Arrangement of Taxi Drivers’ Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    TANIZAKI, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; We propose optimum arrangement of taxi drivers’ working hours. In Japan, income of taxi vehicle is decreasing about 11 thousand yen in the past 15 years. Then some taxi companies are investing to gain more customers. But there are many small taxi companies that are difficult to invest with much money. Therefore we have been researching the other method to gain more customers by little investment for small companies. In this pape...

  20. Hourly Spectral Variability of Mrk 421

    CERN Document Server

    Krennrich, F; Boyle, P J; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H

    2003-01-01

    Mrk 421 is the first TeV blazar found to exhibit significant spectral variability during strong flaring activity, showing hardening of the TeV spectrum in high emission states. Mrk 421 is also known to exhibit flux variability on time scales as short as 15 minutes. In this paper we present studies of hourly spectral variability of Mrk 421 in 2001 using data from the Whipple Observatory 10m gamma-ray telescope.

  1. Resolving issues concerning Eskdalemuir geomagnetic hourly values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Macmillan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hourly values of the geomagnetic field from 1911 to 1931 derived from measurements made at Eskdalemuir observatory in the UK, and available online from the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at http://www.wdc.bgs.ac.uk/, have now been corrected. Previously they were 2-point averaged and transformed from the original north, east and vertical down values in the tables in the observatory yearbooks. This paper documents the course of events from discovering the post-processing done to the data to the final resolution of the problem. As it was through the development of a new index, the Inter-Hour Variability index, that this post-processing came to light, we provide a revised series of this index for Eskdalemuir and compare it with that from another European observatory. Conclusions of studies concerning long-term magnetic field variability and inferred solar variability, whilst not necessarily consistent with one another, are not obviously invalidated by the incorrect hourly values from Eskdalemuir. This series of events illustrates the challenges that lie ahead in removing any remaining errors and inconsistencies in the data holdings of different World Data Centres.

  2. CERN takes part in Earth Hour

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    From 8.30 to 9.30 p.m. on Saturday, 26 March 2011, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be plunged into darkness to mark CERN's participation in Earth Hour. A growing number of countries and cities across the planet are involved in this global initiative against climate change, which was launched by the WWF in 2007.   The lights on the Globe were switched off for the 2009 Earth Hour event. Along with individuals, companies and tourist attractions in thousands of towns and cities all over the world participating in the fourth annual Earth Hour event, CERN will turn off the lights of the Globe for 60 minutes at 8.30 p.m. on Saturday 26 March. CERN's participation in the initiative is one of several examples of its commitment to respect the environment and keep its ecological footprint to the minimum. A recent example under the green transport heading was the replacement of part of CERN's petrol vehicle fleet with cars running on natural gas with a view to reducing air pollution. Other examples...

  3. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111... REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each person... shall receive a minimum of 10 hours of rest in any 24-hour period. (b) The hours of rest required under...

  4. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 80 hours of service for his vacation in computation period III (40 hours per week multiplied by 2... would be credited with 80 hours (2 weeks worked multiplied by 40 hours) plus such credit as may be... a payment made or due which is calculated on the basis of units of time, such as hours, days,...

  5. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Snellings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits, were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061 ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698 ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831 ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262 ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884 ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459 ppm for the combined sexes.

  6. New opening hours of the gates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  7. Gate A: changes to opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Due to maintenance work, the opening hours of Gate A (near Reception) will be modified between Monday, 13 and Friday, 17 April 2015.   During this period, the gate will be open to vehicles between 7 a.m. and 9.30 a.m., then between 4.30 p.m. and 7 p.m. It will be completely closed to traffic between 9.30 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. Pedestrians and cyclists may continue to use the gate. We apologise for any inconvenience and thank you for your understanding.

  8. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  9. Electoral (Amendment) (Hours of Polling) Bill 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Doyle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Parliament of Ireland). An Act to set voting hours for Dáil Elections, Dáil Bye-Elections, Presidential Elections, European Parliament Elections, Local Government Elections and Referenda...... as being 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. and for that purpose to amend the Electoral Act 1992, Presidential Elections Act 1993, Referendum Act 1994, European Parliament Elections Act 1997, the Local Government Act 2001 and to provide for related matters....

  10. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  11. Make a movie in 48 hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Brokk Toggerson

    2011-01-01

    This year, the 48-hour film project (48hfp) returns to Geneva after a one-year hiatus. Organized by Neal Hartman and the CERN film-making club, Open Your Eyes Films, the 48hfp challenges teams of film-makers to write, shoot, soundtrack and edit a 4 to 7 minute film in 48 hours from 4 to 6 November.   At the start of the festival, contestants picked their film genre from a hat. The films will be screened on 8 and 9 November, with the awards presentation on the 9th. The winner will receive a trip to the US to compete in the international version of the competition. “There are so many short films being made now," says Hartman, “I think, however, that the 48hfp allows a critical creative mass to form. The result is that these 20 teams make 20 better films than if each participant were making their own." Each team draws a genre from a hat and is given a character, a prop and a line of dialogue that must appear in their film. The genres run the gamut from &am...

  12. PLANNING OF TRAINING AIRCRAFT FLIGHT HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Vojvodić Rosenzweig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the training aircraft causes downtime of operations and thereby reduces the operational availability, which is crucial for flight planning in a training organisation. Manual daily planning within the fleet delivers suboptimal results and often causes discontinued flight of several aircraft that have to be maintained at the same time. Optimal maintenance schedule of training aircraft can be obtained by a sliding scale method. This paper presents a mathematical model of the sliding scale formulated by a mixed integer linear problem. Allocation of flight hours is optimised by using AMPL programming language, assuring that a sufficient number of aircraft are always available for training. The model can be used by a flight dispatch department in a training organisation as a basis for optimised planning and reduction of maintenance downtime.

  13. Sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, natriúria e pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sperb Antonello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo avalia sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, excreção urinária de sódio e pressão arterial (PA em normotensos. A hipótese foi de que limiar de sensibilidade gustativa ao sal (LSGS aumentado se associasse a maior natriúria em 24 horas e níveis aumentados de PA. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 24 voluntários sem diagnóstico de HA. Para avaliar LSGS, usou-se soluções de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em diferentes concentrações. Os voluntários foram submetidos à monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas e coleta de urina de 24 horas para dosagem de sódio (NaU. Para análise, foram agrupados de acordo com o LSGS, aumentado ou normal. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram para idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, variáveis demográficas, uso de álcool, fumo e PA. NaU foi significativamente maior no grupo com LSGS aumentado. Utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com significância determinada pelo teste t, houve correlação de forte intensidade entre médias de PA sistólica e diastólica com IMC, de regular intensidade entre LSGS e NaU, assim como para PA sistólica e NaU. CONCLUSÃO: Natriúria de 24 horas foi maior em indivíduos com LSGS aumentado, sugerindo que esta maior avidez ao sal determine maior ingestão de sódio. Houve forte associação entre PA e IMC. Não foi evidenciada associação entre LSGS e PA, diferente do já documentado em pacientes com PA aumentada. Aumentando-se o número de pessoas, faixa etária e pacientes com níveis pressóricos aumentados, talvez se respondam outras perguntas a respeito da relação entre LSGS, natriúria e PA.OBJECTIVE: The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. METHODS: Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To

  14. CT perfusion imaging and CT subtraction angiography in the diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease within 24 hours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管小亭; 于学英; 刘翔; 龙洁; 戴建平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of the clinical use of CT perfusion imaging (CTPI) and CT subtraction angiography (CTSA) for diagnosing acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease (AICVD). Methods Twenty-four patients with AICVD onset within 24 hours were examined with regular CT, CTPI, and CTSA. Some cases received CTPI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) during follow-up examinations.Results Of the 24 cases, 11 had negative results from regular CT scans 3-6 hours after onset of stroke in 6 cases, 6-12 hours in 3 cases, and 12-24 hours in 2 cases. Ten of these cases were then confirmed by CTPI as having ischemic lesions, 2 with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and 1 case with transient ischemic attack (TIA) with CTPI negative. Of the 24 cases, 13 had positive results from regular CT, 9 were diagnosed with ischemic lesions larger by using CTPI than regular CT, 1 case had MCAO and 1 had internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). There were 4 cases with ischemic lesions observed with regular CT having nearly the same range as that of lacunar infarctions using CTPI. Another 4 cases had more than 2 lesion areas. The peak time (PT), mean transit time (MTT) and relative flow (RF) of 24 cases were markedly different. The sides of ischemic lesions compared to each other and the core of the lesion compared to peripheral zones were also altered significantly (P<0.01).Conclusions Combined CTPI with CTSA can detect acute ischemic lesions at early and hyper-early stages and could distinguish between TIA, lacunar infarction and a larger area of infarction. Using semiquantitative blood perfusion analysis status, CTPI with CTSA could define position, area and range of the ischemic lesion and penumbra. These scans can also analyze the brain blood perfusion status. It is important to early diagnose the occlusion of the entire division of the internal

  15. [Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster. Fifteen years afterwards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Anta, M A; Amor Cabrera, M A; Díaz Mier, F; Cámara Moraño, C

    2002-04-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986 released large quantities of radioactive material causing heavy contamination in widespread areas of the former Soviet Union. Each summer, several hundred children visit Spain from Chernobyl. In this article we describe the accident, the environmental contamination, the mechanisms of radiation injury and the dose-response relationships. We review the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe. We propose guidelines for the medical management and evaluation of children on temporary visits. The health status of adults and especially that of children in Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation has been adversely affected. According to present knowledge, Chernobyl has given rise to a marked increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, psychological consequences and socioeconomic disruption. Many studies report that the incidence of other diseases has increased, but not all health problems seen after the nuclear accident can be attributed to radiation. Given the long latency period for diseases induced by radiation exposure, long-term follow-up of all potentially affected individuals is important. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident the international community is still learning scientific, medical and humanitarian lessons.

  16. Two Hours of Teamwork Training Improves Teamwork in Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrest Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.

  17. CMAQv502 Base AQS Hourly site compare output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly AQS hourly site compare output files for the CMAQv502 Base simulation. Monthly files contain hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. These data were...

  18. Rush Hour Pollution May Be Worse Than Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167478.html Rush Hour Pollution May Be Worse Than Thought Higher measurements seen ... in rush-hour traffic? New research finds air pollution levels in cars are much higher than previously ...

  19. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  20. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Cheryl, Ed.; Wolman, Dianne Miller, Ed.; Johns, Michael M. E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect…

  1. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  2. Hourly Electricity Prices in Day-Ahead Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); C. Huurman; R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the characteristics of hourly electricity prices in day-ahead markets. In these markets, quotes for day-ahead delivery of electricity are submitted simultaneously for all hours in the next day. The same information set is used for quoting all hours of the day. The d

  3. 48 CFR 16.602 - Labor-hour contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 16.602 Labor-hour contracts. Description. A labor-hour contract is a variation of the time-and-materials contract, differing only in that materials are not supplied by the contractor. See 12.207(b),...

  4. [Systematic implementation of transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography and 24-hour Holter ECG for the detection of cardiac sources of embolism in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack. A retrospective study of 220 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinsonneau, U; Leblanc, A; Buchet, J-F; Pangnarind-Heintz, V; Le Gal, G; Rohel, G; Paleiron, N; Piquemal, M; Blanchard, C; Zagnoli, F; Paule, P

    2014-09-01

    Embolism of cardiac origin accounts for around 20% of ischemic strokes. ECG and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are commonly obtained during the evaluation of patient of ischemic stroke but specific indications for the transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography and 24-hour Holter ECG (Holter) remain uncertain. The aim of this study is to report the contribution of TTE, TEE and Holter performed as a routine during the evaluation of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). This is a retrospective single-center study of 220 patients hospitalized between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2010 for a first IS or TIA. One hundred and forty-three IS and 77 TIA are identified. The average age of patients was 66 years (18-88 years). TTE/TEE/24-hour Holter allowed the diagnosis of cardiac sources of embolism in 135 patents (61.3%). TTE/TEE identified potential source of cardiogenic embolism in 126 patients (52.2%). Twenty four-hour Holter ECG tracked supraventricular arrhythmia in 15 patients (6.7%), 9 (4%) which had non-contributory ultrasound assessment. The systematic implementation of TTE/TEE/Holter is useful for identifying potential sources of cardiogenic embolism. The performance of TEE remains above the TTE. Holter should be recommended because it is a cost effective and non-invasive tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 2,445 Hours of Code: What I Learned from Facilitating Hour of Code Events in High School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a school librarian's experience with initiating an Hour of Code event for her school's student body. Hadi Partovi of Code.org conceived the Hour of Code "to get ten million students to try one hour of computer science" (Partovi, 2013a), which is implemented during Computer Science Education Week with a goal of…

  6. Randomized clinical trial between hourly titrated and 2 hourly static oral misoprostol solution for induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Alsahly, Nora; Alamoudi, Rana; Almansouri, Nisma; Alsinani, Nawal; Alkafy, Souzan; Rozzah, Rayyan; Abduljabbar, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Misoprostol is an effective agent for the induction of labor. Existing guidelines recommend oral misoprostol solution 25 μg every 2 hours. However, more research is required to optimize the use of oral misoprostol solution for the induction of labor. The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of hourly titrated-dose oral misoprostol solution with static-dose oral misoprostol solution every 2 hours for labor induction. In this randomized controlled study, oral misoprostol solution was administered as (1) 20 μg hourly (≤4 doses) that was increased in the absence of regular uterine contractions to 40 μg hourly (≤4 doses) and then to 60 μg hourly (≤16 doses) or (2) 25 μg every 2 hours until active labor began (≤12 doses). A sample size of 146 women was planned with the use of a projected 95% rate for the primary endpoint (vaginal delivery within 24 hours) for hourly titrated-dose misoprostol and 80% rate for static-dose misoprostol every 2 hours. Safety outcomes included maternal morbidity and adverse neonatal outcomes. From December 2013 to July 2015, 146 women were assigned randomly to treatment. Demographic and clinical factors were similar between groups, except for age. Vaginal delivery was achieved within 24 hours in 47 women (64.4%) who received hourly titrated-doses of misoprostol solution and 48 women (65.8%) who received 2-hourly static-dose misoprostol solution (P=1.00). Rates of vaginal delivery within 24 hours did not differ significantly between treatment groups for women who were nulliparous (P=1.00) or who had postterm pregnancies (P=.66), a Bishop score of ≤3 (P=.84), or oxytocin augmentation (P=.83). Cesarean deliveries were performed within 24 hours in 9 women who received hourly titrated-dose misoprostol solution and 2 women who received 2-hourly static-dose misoprostol solution (P=.056). Pyrexia and meconium-stained liquor occurred more frequently with the hourly titrated-dose regimen. The static-dose oral

  7. [Fluctuation of intraocular pressure in 24-hour telemonitoring compared to tonometry during normal office hours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, C; Antal, S; Henrici, K; Grossjohann, R; Tost, F H

    2009-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a clinically relevant factor in glaucoma progression. As a dynamic parameter the IOP depends on various internal and exogenic influencing factors. Therefore, we analysed intraindividual IOD variations between ambulant care and 24-h home-monitoring using self-tonometry. This study is based on paper-based glaucoma cards of 25 patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Additionally, all patients participated in a telemedical home-monitoring study with self-measurements of IOP and blood pressure stored in an electronic patient record. The glaucoma cards contained a total number of 409 IOP values with documentation periods from 0.5 to 10 years. In the teletonometry project all 25 patients were observed for 6 months with 1490 recorded IOP values. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. Average IOP values for all 25 glaucoma patients were 16.3 +/- 2.9 mmHg for both eyes in glaucoma card documentation, whereas the electronic patient records showed IOP averages of 18.9 +/- 4.7 mmHg for right eyes and 18.2 +/- 4.4 mmHg for left eyes. Corresponding to the practice opening hours the glaucoma cards contained no IOP records from 12:00 pm to 01:30 pm as well as between 06:00 pm and 07:15 am. In these time periods 17 % of all IOP values recorded in 24-hour teletonometry were higher than 20 mmHg. However, statistical analysis and clinical evaluation of device parameters and measurement characteristics revealed sporadic measuring errors. The additional involvement of self-tonometry in telemedical 24-h home-monitoring is a feasible method to record and detect intraday IOP fluctuations. Compared to single IOP measurements documented in common paper-based glaucoma cards, the 24-h electronic patient record showed more frequent circadian IOP variations. As a result, self-tonometry and home-monitoring can be a useful link to fill the gap between singular ambulant IOP measurement and hospitalisation with 24-hour IOP profiles.

  8. A novel diversion protocol dramatically reduces diversion hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah, Osei Kwame; Weiss, Steven J; Ernst, Amy A; Richards, Michael; Sklar, David P

    2008-07-01

    Ambulance diversion is a problem in many communities. When patients are diverted prompt and appropriate medical care may be delayed. Compare diversion hours and drop-off times before and after a dramatic change in diversion policy restricting each hospital to 1 hour out of every 8. This study was a retrospective study in a county of 600,000 people and 10 hospitals from September 2004 to February 2006. A countywide diversion protocol was implemented in March 2005 that limited diversion hours to 1 hour out of every 8 (maximum of 90 h/mo). No other changes were implemented during the study period. Pretrial (9/04-2/05), interim (3/05-8/05), and posttrial (9/05-2/06) periods were compared. The main outcome measures were ambulance diversion hours and emergency medical service (EMS) drop-off times. Results were compared using analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc analysis. P ambulance diversion hours (difference, 251 hours; 95% CI, 136-368) and significant increase in additional time that EMS crews required to transport patients (drop-off times) (difference, 178 hours; 95% CI, 74-283) were observed. Posttrial diversion hours decreased to 18% of the pretrial values (from 305 to 54). This novel ambulance diversion protocol dramatically reduced diversion hours at the cost of increasing EMS drop-off times in a large community.

  9. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  10. Interns shall not sleep: the duty hours boomerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On March 10, 2017, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME announced revisions to its common program requirements related to duty hours (1. Effective on July 1, 2017, the most important change will be an increase in the maximum consecutive hours that an intern may work. Interns will now be able to continuously perform patient care work up to a maximum of 24 hours with an additional 4 hours for managing care transitions. This reverses the controversial reduction to 16 hours that occurred in 2011 (2. The regulation of house staff duty hours formally began in the late 1980s. It was precipitated largely because of the publicity resulting from the 1984 death of Libby Zion in a New York teaching hospital that was attributed partly to poor decisions made by fatigued and overworked house staff (3. Consequently, the state of New York in 1989 passed laws restricting the …

  11. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Rossiter; Hugh O.'Flynn; Michael Kalush; Giorgos Kallis; Nicholas Ashford

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming ...

  12. Increased instruction hours and the widening gap in student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Huebener, Mathias; Kuger, Susanne; Marcus, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Do increased instruction hours improve the performance of all students? Using PISA scores of students in ninth grade, we analyse the effect of a German education reform that increased weekly instruction hours by two hours (6.5 percent) overalmost five years. In the additional time, students are taught new learning content. On average, the reform improves student performance. However, treatment effects are small and differ across the student performance distribution. While low-performing stude...

  13. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive non-human primates of twenty-four zoological gardens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhao, Bo; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Wang, Tao; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-01

    Captive primates are susceptible to gastrointestinal (GIT) parasitic infections, which are often zoonotic and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Fecal samples were examined by the means of direct smear, fecal flotation, fecal sedimentation, and fecal cultures. Of 26.51% (317/1196) of the captive primates were diagnosed gastrointestinal parasitic infections. Trichuris spp. were the most predominant in the primates, while Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in Old World monkeys (P primates and the safety of animal keepers and visitors.

  15. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density (structure) over time, but it was landscape variation in functional variables that declined substantially. Stand structure and function have not converged across the burned landscape, but our evidence suggests function will converge sooner than structure.

  16. Evaluation of Parents’ Knowledges and Experiences about Infant Feeding in Children between Six-Twenty Four Months

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Kaya; Özgül Yiğit; Meltem Erol; Özlem Bostan Gayret

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Complementary feeding is important in early childhood. Therefore, raising awareness of families about complementary feeding is of importance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the parents’ knowledge and experience of infant feeding. Methods: This study was made in the pediatric outpatient clinic at Bağcılar Training and Research Hospital between 25.09.2012 and 25.11.2012. A questionnaire including questions regarding infant feeding was administered to 417 parents (250 mothers, 167 f...

  17. A Seroprevalence Survey of Maedi-Visna Among Twenty-Four Ovine Floks from Twelve Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke-shan; HE Ji-jun; LIU Yong-jie; SHANG You-jun; LIU Xiang-tao

    2013-01-01

    Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is an ovine lentivirus that is widespread in many countries worldwide. Both clinical and subclinical MVV infections cause substantial economic losses. MVV infection in live sheep is usually diagnosed serologically, with antibody-positive sheep being regarded as infected. There have been few reports of maedi-visna in China, with no detailed epidemic analysis of MVV infection in ovine herds. In order to investigate the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of maedi-visna among ovine lfocks in China, a total of 672 serum samples were collected from different ovine lfocks in 12 regions (provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities) of China in 2011, and serum antibody levels were determined using a commercial ELISA Kit. This study represents the ifrst investigation of the seroepidemiology of maedi-visna in China, indicating a circulation of MMV among sheep.

  18. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, Chung-hong; Ip, Patrick

    2014-07-30

    Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child's online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries' prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered.

  19. Group of Twenty Four Countries and Three Tiers: An International Comparative Study on China’s Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Hao; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    It is of great signif icance to conduct an international comparative study on China’s and other countries’ urbanization by taking the concept of "scale" as a crucial study point. This paper puts forward that countries with an area over two million km2 or a GDP over 650 billion dollars are comparable with China. Accordingly, there are 24 such countries in the world leading the global socio-economic development. For consisting of almost all types of countries, they can be considered as basic references for international comparative studies on China’s urbanization. Based on the relationship between urbanization and economic levels, the 24 countries can be divided into three tiers. The fi rst tier countries are mainly developed countries at high urbanization and economic levels; the second tier countries are later starters yet urbanized at a rapid speed, thus have fallen into the "middle-income trap" because of an imbalanced urbanization and economic development; the third tier countries including China and India are still in the starting phase of urbanization, and the key to their future development is a steady economic growth and a balanced urbanization and economic development.

  20. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

  1. 75 FR 71545 - Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Personnel Records Center archival research room is located at 9700 Page Ave., St. Louis, MO 63132-5100. The... located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20408. Hours for the Research Center and the Central Research Room are posted at http://www.archives.gov . The exhibit areas' hours of operation are...

  2. 75 FR 54543 - Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... archival research room is located at 9700 Page Ave., St. Louis, MO 63132-5100. The telephone number is 314... Building is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20408. Hours for the Research Center and the Central Research Room are posted at http://www.archives.gov . The exhibit areas' hours of...

  3. Contact Hours in Dutch and Vietnamese Higher Education: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyen, Do Thi Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    The number of contact hours, one of the important institutional context factors, was examined and compared between Dutch and Vietnamese higher education at institute and student levels in Psychology and Business and/or Economics specializations. The quantity of contact hours per credit point given by institutions was investigated in a number of…

  4. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  5. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  6. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....

  7. With long hours of work, might depression then lurk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Marott, Jacob Louis; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship.......The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship....

  8. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  9. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in...

  10. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  11. 75 FR 19555 - NARA Facility Locations and Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ..., and 1280 [FDMS Docket NARA-10-0002] RIN 3095-AB66 NARA Facility Locations and Hours AGENCY: National... Regional Records Service Office, and the addition of facility information for the locations of two NARA... facility added. * * * * * PART 1253--LOCATION OF RECORDS AND HOURS OF USE 0 3. The authority citation for...

  12. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777 F... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location and business hours. 905.3 Section 905.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION...

  13. 19 CFR 132.3 - Observation of official hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Observation of official hours. 132.3 Section 132.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS General Provisions § 132.3 Observation of official hours. An entry summary for consumption...

  14. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section 551.421 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles in Relation to...

  15. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    be increased during peak hours. DATA AND METHODOLOGYData is collected by observation of activities during two weeks on for example whether halls are used or not; the amount of playing field used; and number of participants (Iversen, 2012). Data on 1.331 activities in 36 sport halls across 4 municipalities have...... been collected. RESULTS The number of participants per activity is higher during peak hours, which is expected when demand is high. However, the usage of sport floor only differs slightly between peak and low hours. Both during peak and low hours on average 80-100 per cent of floor space is used......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...

  16. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M. (Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Babic, B. (Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.-H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1993-07-01

    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  17. Hour-glass ceilings: Work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Huong; Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Long workhours erode health, which the setting of maximum weekly hours aims to avert. This 48-h limit, and the evidence base to support it, has evolved from a workforce that was largely male, whose time in the labour force was enabled by women's domestic work and care giving. The gender composition of the workforce has now changed, and many women (as well as some men) combine care-giving with paid work, a change viewed as fundamental for gender equality. However, it raises questions on the suitability of the work time limit and the extent it is protective of health. We estimate workhour-mental health thresholds, testing if they vary for men and women due to gendered workloads and constraints on and off the job. Using six waves of data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults (24-65 years), surveyed in the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (N = 3828 men; 4062 women), our study uses a longitudinal, simultaneous equation approach to address endogeneity. Averaging over the sample, we find an overall threshold of 39 h per week beyond which mental health declines. Separate curves then estimate thresholds for men and women, by high or low care and domestic time constraints, using stratified and pooled samples. We find gendered workhour-health limits (43.5 for men, 38 for women) which widen further once differences in resources on and off the job are considered. Only when time is 'unencumbered' and similar time constraints and contexts are assumed, do gender gaps narrow and thresholds approximate the 48-h limit. Our study reveals limits to contemporary workhour regulation which may be systematically disadvantaging women's health.

  18. Spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall over China with hourly through 24-hour accumulation periods based on national-level hourly rain gauge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiong; Tao, Zuyu

    2016-11-01

    Hourly rainfall measurements of 1919 national-level meteorological stations from 1981 through 2012 are used to document, for the first time, the climatology of extreme rainfall in hourly through 24-h accumulation periods in China. Rainfall amounts for 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-h periods at each station are constructed through running accumulation from hourly rainfall data that have been screened by proper quality control procedures. For each station and for each accumulation period, the historical maximum is found, and the corresponding 50-year return values are estimated using generalized extreme value theory. Based on the percentiles of the two types of extreme rainfall values among all the stations, standard thresholds separating Grade I, Grade II and Grade III extreme rainfall are established, which roughly correspond to the 70th and 90th percentiles for each of the accumulation periods. The spatial characteristics of the two types of extreme rainfall are then examined for different accumulation periods. The spatial distributions of extreme rainfall in hourly through 6-h periods are more similar than those of 12- and 24-h periods. Grade III rainfall is mostly found over South China, the western Sichuan Basin, along the southern and eastern coastlines, and in the large river basins and plains. There are similar numbers of stations with Grade III extreme hourly rainfall north and south of 30°N, but the percentage increases to about 70% south of 30°N as the accumulation period increases to 24 hours, reflecting richer moisture and more prolonged rain events in southern China. Potential applications of the extreme rainfall climatology and classification standards are suggested at the end.

  19. Impact of working hours on sleep and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, P; Fonseca, M; Pires, J F

    2017-07-01

    The number of hours people are required to work has a pervasive influence on both physical and mental health. Excessive working hours can also negatively affect sleep quality. The impact at work of mental health problems can have serious consequences for individuals' as well as for organizations' productivity. To evaluate differences in sleep quality and anxiety and depression symptoms between longer working hours group (LWHG) and regular working hours group (RWHG). To examine factors influencing weekly working hours, sleep quality and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were divided into two groups, RWHG and LWHG, based on working hours, with a cut-off of 48 h per week. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure the quality and patterns of sleep. The response rate was 23%. Among the 429 study participants, those in the LWHG group (n = 256, 53%) had significantly more depressive and anxiety symptoms and worse sleep quality than those in RWHG (n = 223, 47%). Working time was significantly positively correlated with higher corporate position and HADS scores. Moreover, HADS scores were positively correlated with PSQI scores and negatively correlated with age. This study suggests that longer working hours are associated with poorer mental health status and increasing levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and sleep disturbances.

  20. Work hours, social value of leisure and globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2012-01-01

    and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature......We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker’s marginal utility of leisure...

  1. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Montagna, Catia

    and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature......We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...

  2. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2010-01-01

    and raises the wage rate; there is a U-shaped (inverse-U-shaped) relationship between work hours (wages) and the degree of coordination; coordination is welfare improving; and, the gap between the coordinated and uncoordinated work hours (and the corresponding wage rates) is affected by the extent and nature......We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...

  3. QT variability index on 24-hour Holter independently predicts mortality in patients with heart failure: analysis of Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Insufficienza Cardiaca (GISSI-HF) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Craig P; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Goldstein, Robert; Olsen, Cara; Bernardinangeli, Marino; Veniani, Marco; Midi, Paolo; Tavazzi, Luigi; Haigney, Mark

    2011-08-01

    Increased temporal variability of repolarization, as reflected by QT interval variability measured over 10-15 minutes, predicted spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias and death in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients in mild to moderate heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that increased mean QT variability over 24 hours would be associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a heterogeneous HF population. The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Insufficienza Cardiaca-Heart Failure trial prospectively enrolled subjects with HF of any cause. Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings from 268 subjects were analyzed using a template-matching, semiautomatic algorithm to measure QT and heart rate time series in sequential 5-minute epochs over 24 hours. The QT variability index (QTVI) was expressed as the log ratio of the normalized QT variance over normalized heart rate variance. Total and CV mortality were assessed as a function of continuous and dichotomous QTVI (>-0.84) in univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for significant clinical predictors. After a median of 47 months, there were 53 deaths, of which 44 were from CV causes. A significant association with the outcome was found for QTVI both as continuous and dichotomous variables after adjustment for clinical covariates (age >70, New York Heart Association class III-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, creatinine): QTVI hazard ratio (HR) 4.0 (confidence interval [CI] 1.8-88; P = .008) for total and 4.4 (CI 1.9-10.1; P = .0006) for CV mortality; QTVI >-0.84 HR 2.0 (CI 1.1-3.6; P = .02) for total and 2.1 (CI 1.1-3.8; P = .02) for CV mortality. Increased repolarization lability, as reflected in QTVI measured over 24 hours, is associated with increased risk for total and CV mortality in a heterogeneous population with chronic HF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. 29 CFR 778.324 - Effect on hourly rate employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special... is accompanied by a new agreement altering the mode of compensation from an hourly rate basis to...

  5. Choice or constraint? Women's weekly working hours in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Yerkes (Mara)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses the influence of individualworking preferences onwomen's labour market behaviour in the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom, addressing the question: to what extent do individual preferences have a causal effect onwomen's averageweeklyworking hours? Using

  6. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  7. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  8. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  9. 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2008-11-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

  10. U.S. Hourly Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Hourly Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  11. US EPA Region 9 1-Hour Ozone NAAQS Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Esri polygon shapefile of 1-hour ozone designated areas in US EPA Region 9. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality...

  12. US EPA Region 9 24-Hour PM-25 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are...

  13. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data is digital data set DSI-6421, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI; formerly National Climatic...

  14. Unemployment and Hours of Work: The North Atlantic Divide Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Pissarides

    2006-01-01

    I examine the dynamic evolutions of unemployment, hours of work and the service share since the war in the United States and Europe. The theoretical model brings together all three and emphasizes technological growth. Computations show that the very low unemployment in Europe in the 1960s was due to the high productivity growth associated with technological catch-up. Productivity also played a role in the dynamics of hours but a full explanation for the fast rise of service employment and the...

  15. Modeling the Distribution of Rainfall Intensity using Hourly Data

    OpenAIRE

    Salisu Dan'azumi; Supiah Shamsudin; Azmi Aris

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Design of storm water best management practices to control runoff and water pollution can be achieved if a prior knowledge of the distribution of rainfall characteristics is known. Rainfall intensity, particularly in tropical climate, plays a major role in the design of runoff conveyance and erosion control systems. This study is aimed to explore the statistical distribution of rainfall intensity for Peninsular Malaysia using hourly rainfall data. Approach: Hourly rainfall ...

  16. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Giunta; R. Vernazza; Salerno, R.; Ceppi, A.; Ercolani, G.; Mancini, M

    2017-01-01

    An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a per...

  17. Verification of hourly forecasts of wind turbine power output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegley, H.L.

    1984-08-01

    A verification of hourly average wind speed forecasts in terms of hourly average power output of a MOD-2 was performed for four sites. Site-specific probabilistic transformation models were developed to transform the forecast and observed hourly average speeds to the percent probability of exceedance of an hourly average power output. (This transformation model also appears to have value in predicting annual energy production for use in wind energy feasibility studies.) The transformed forecasts were verified in a deterministic sense (i.e., as continuous values) and in a probabilistic sense (based upon the probability of power output falling in a specified category). Since the smoothing effects of time averaging are very pronounced, the 90% probability of exceedance was built into the transformation models. Semiobjective and objective (model output statistics) forecasts were made compared for the four sites. The verification results indicate that the correct category can be forecast an average of 75% of the time over a 24-hour period. Accuracy generally decreases with projection time out to approx. 18 hours and then may increase due to the fairly regular diurnal wind patterns that occur at many sites. The ability to forecast the correct power output category increases with increasing power output because occurrences of high hourly average power output (near rated) are relatively rare and are generally not forecast. The semiobjective forecasts proved superior to model output statistics in forecasting high values of power output and in the shorter time frames (1 to 6 hours). However, model output statistics were slightly more accurate at other power output levels and times. Noticeable differences were observed between deterministic and probabilistic (categorical) forecast verification results.

  18. Multiplicative ARMA models to generate hourly series of global irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Lopez, L. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Lenguajes y C. Computacion; Sidrach-de-Cardona, M. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Fisica Aplicada

    1998-11-01

    A methodology to generate hourly series of global irradiation is proposed. The only input parameter which is required is the monthly mean value of daily global irradiation, which is available for most locations. The procedure to obtain new series is based on the use of a multiplicative autoregressive moving-average statistical model for time series with regular and seasonal components. The multiplicative nature of these models enables capture of the two types of relationships observed in recorded hourly series of global irradiation: on the one hand, the relationship between the value at one hour and the value at the previous hour; and on the other hand, the relationship between the value at one hour in one day and the value at the same hour in the previous day. In this paper the main drawback which arises when using these models to generate new series is solved: namely, the need for available recorded series in order to obtain the three parameters contained in the statistical ARMA model which is proposed (autoregressive coefficient, moving-average coefficient and variance of the error term). Specifically, expressions which enable estimation of these parameters using only monthly mean values of daily global irradiation are proposed in this paper. (author)

  19. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Rossiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming the earning capacity of workers. There are reasons to believe that reducing working hours may absorb some unemployment, especially in the short-run, even if less than what is advocated by proponents of the proposal. Further, there may well be strong benefits for the quality of peoples’ lives. Environmental benefits are likely but depend crucially on complementary policies or social conditions that will ensure that the time liberated will not be directed to resource-intensive or environmentally harmful consumption. It is questionable whether reduced working hours are sustainable in the long-term given resource limits and climate change. We conclude that while the results of reducing working hours are uncertain, this may be a risk worth taking, especially as an interim measure that may relieve unemployment while other necessary structural changes are instituted.

  20. ACGME proposes dropping the 16 hour resident shift limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME is proposing that first-year residents would no longer be limited to 16-hour shifts during the 2017-2018 academic year under a controversial proposal released today (1. Instead, individual residency programs could assign first-year trainees to shifts as long as 28 hours, the current limit for all other residents. The 28-hour maximum includes 4 transitional hours that's designed in part to help residents improve continuity of care. The plan to revise training requirements does not change other rules designed to protect all residents from overwork. including the maximum80 hours per week. The ACGME capped the shifts of first-year residents at 16 hours in 2011 as a part of an ongoing effort to make trainee schedules more humane and avoid clinical errors caused by sleep deprivation. ACGME CEO Thomas Nasca, MD, told Medscape Medical News that the problem arises largely from first-year residents not being ...

  1. Duty hours and incidents in flight among commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anna Donnla; Issartel, Johann; Fletcher, Richard; Warrington, Giles

    2016-01-01

    Working long duty hours has often been associated with increased risk of incidents and accidents in transport industries. Despite this, information regarding the intermediate relationship between duty hours and incident risk is limited. This study aimed to test a work hours/incident model to identify the interplay of factors contributing to incidents within the aviation industry. Nine hundred and fifty-four European-registered commercial airline pilots completed a 30-item survey investigating self-report attitudes and experiences of fatigue. Path analysis was used to test the proposed model. The fit indices indicated this to be a good fit model (χ(2) = 11.066, df = 5, p = 0.05; Comparative Fit Index = 0.991; Normed Fit Index = 0.984; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.962; Root Mean Square of Approximation = 0.036). Highly significant relationships were identified between duty hours and sleep disturbance (r = 0.18, p < 0.001), sleep disturbance and fatigue in the cockpit (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and fatigue in the cockpit and microsleeps in the cockpit (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). A critical pathway from duty hours through to self-reported incidents in flight was identified. Further investigation employing both objective and subjective measures of sleep and fatigue is needed.

  2. Fuzzy peak hour for urban road traffic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Li-Min; Dong, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Zun-Dong; Ye, Yang-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Traffic congestion is now nearly ubiquitous in many urban areas and frequently occurs during rush hour periods. Rush hour avoidance is an effective way to ease traffic congestion. It is significant to calculate the rush hour for alleviating traffic congestion. This paper provides a method to calculate the fuzzy peak hour of the urban traffic network considering the flow, speed and occupancy. The process of calculation is based on betweenness centrality of network theory, optimal separation method, time period weighting, probability-possibility transformations and trapezoidal approximations of fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy peak hour of the urban road traffic network (URTN) is a trapezoidal fuzzy number [m1, m2, m3, m4]. It helps us (i) to confirm a more detailed traffic condition at each moment, (ii) to distinguish the five traffic states of the traffic network in one day, (iii) to analyze the characteristic of appearance and disappearance processes of the each traffic state and (iv) to find out the time pattern of residents travel in one city.

  3. Epidemiology of hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkoub F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems observed in newborns. Our purpose was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors on jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth.Methods: All newborns observed to have jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth were enrolled prospectively in this study. Laboratory evaluations included blood group typing of mother and newborn, hemoglobin and hematocrit, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity, maternal indirect and neonatal direct Coombs test, and serum total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin. In all cases, gender, birth weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth trauma, cephalhematoma, maternal age, parity, or any siblings with neonatal jaundice were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-, and chi-square tests.Results: Of a total of 2096 newborns delivered in one year, 122 (5.8% developed jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth. Risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, infection, G6PD deficiency, cephalhematoma, asphyxia, and Rh disease. There were no statistically significant relationships between jaundice and maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, neonatal gender or previous siblings with jaundice (p>0.05.Conclusions: Jaundice observed in the initial 24 hours after birth was infrequent, but clinically significant. All newborns should be followed by repeated exams within the first 24 hours after birth and before discharge, especially if the maternal blood group is O.

  4. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    the number of participants 7.5 persons higher pr. activity compared to club activities. This implies that clubs during peak hours could include more participants. Another possibility to increase utilization is if the management of sport facilities forced sport clubs and other organisers to adapt......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...... be increased during peak hours. DATA AND METHODOLOGYData is collected by observation of activities during two weeks on for example whether halls are used or not; the amount of playing field used; and number of participants (Iversen, 2012). Data on 1.331 activities in 36 sport halls across 4 municipalities have...

  5. Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) - Special working hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) entitled "Special working hours", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208539.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Special working hours" of January 2013. This document contains modifications to reflect the new career structure and ensuring the provision consistent with practice that compensation or remuneration of special working hours performed remotely is possible only in case of emergency.   This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  6. Results of a 1462 hour ammonia arcjet endurance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J. E.; Goodfellow, K. D.

    1992-07-01

    A total of 1462 hours of operaton were demonstrated in an endurance test of a 30 kWe-class ammonia arcjet operated at 10 kWe. The propellant flow rate was 0.170 g/s, and the measured performance increased from approximately 650 s specific impulse at 36 percent efficiency at the beginning of the test to 675 s at 39 percent near the end. The voltage increased and the current dropped slightly over the first 400 hours, and then remained approximately constant for the remainder of the test. The test, scheduled for 1500 hours, was terminated after an insulator in the rear of the engine failed. Post-test examination of the electrodes revealed only minimal damage. Although there was evidence of a number of mass transport processes occurring in the discharge chamber, the primary life-limiting wear mechanisms appear to be cathode tip erosion and constrictor melting.

  7. Averaging and sampling for magnetic-observatory hourly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A time and frequency-domain analysis is made of the effects of averaging and sampling methods used for constructing magnetic-observatory hourly data values. Using 1-min data as a proxy for continuous, geomagnetic variation, we construct synthetic hourly values of two standard types: instantaneous "spot" measurements and simple 1-h "boxcar" averages. We compare these average-sample types with others: 2-h average, Gaussian, and "brick-wall" low-frequency-pass. Hourly spot measurements provide a statistically unbiased representation of the amplitude range of geomagnetic-field variation, but as a representation of continuous field variation over time, they are significantly affected by aliasing, especially at high latitudes. The 1-h, 2-h, and Gaussian average-samples are affected by a combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing. Brick-wall values are not affected by either amplitude distortion or aliasing, but constructing them is, in an operational setting, relatively more difficult than it is for other average-sample types. It is noteworthy that 1-h average-samples, the present standard for observatory hourly data, have properties similar to Gaussian average-samples that have been optimized for a minimum residual sum of amplitude distortion and aliasing. For 1-h average-samples from medium and low-latitude observatories, the average of the combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing is less than the 5.0 nT accuracy standard established by Intermagnet for modern 1-min data. For medium and low-latitude observatories, average differences between monthly means constructed from 1-min data and monthly means constructed from any of the hourly average-sample types considered here are less than the 1.0 nT resolution of standard databases. We recommend that observatories and World Data Centers continue the standard practice of reporting simple 1-h-average hourly values.

  8. EISCAT Space Debris during the IPY- A 5000-Hour Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, J.; Jehn, R.; Krag, H.

    2009-03-01

    During the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2009, EISCAT measured space debris at its Svalbard radar (ESR, latitude 78.2°N), simultaneously with the standard ionospheric measurement. From the 239 000 events which were recorded in 5060 hours only a "Quality Set" (QS) was extracted for further analysis. The QS essentially consists of 101 complete 24-hour beam park debris measurements, between 13 Mar 2007 and 10 Feb 2008, and contains about 95 000 events. The data provide a relatively dense sampling of the debris environment above ESR in the first year following the Chinese ASAT event, in January 2007. The QS is freely available in the web.

  9. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2010-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure...... to be increasing in the leisure time taken by other workers. Coordination takes the form of internalising the leisure externality and other relevant constraints (e.g., labour demand). The extent of openness is measured by the degree of capital mobility. We find that: coordination lowers equilibrium work hours...

  10. Resident Work Hour Restrictions and Change Management: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z Amy; Hudson, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Residents are a significant part of coverage in many hospitals. Resident associations are negotiating work hour limits to prevent fatigue-induced medical errors. Our intensive care unit experienced an unexpected resident shortage and used the opportunity to trial a shift schedule for one month. Post-surveys were sent to nurses, attending physicians and residents to evaluate the effects on staff interactions, patient safety and education quality. The trial was clearly a failure on all fronts. Work hour restrictions are a reality in medical education, and administrators need to start considering alternative staffing models and discussing alternative schedules with their medicine faculty.

  11. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  12. General Aviation: Hours Flown and Avionics Purchase Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    cost and income on hours flown for the various hours flown categories will be considered in Section 2-4 of this chapter. 19 For the benefit of the...omitted because of irrelevance. 59 - 7it Results for the age related factors are as expected-- cider aircraft fly fewer and more recent vintage aircraft...based on the incremental benefits acquired by the "add-one," or simply a function of a larger number of owners having only one or the other type of

  13. Information meeting on the new provisions for working hours

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Monday 23 June 2008 at 14:00, Council Chamber (503/1-001) At the June 2008 Finance Committee and Council meetings, the Management will submit proposals to modify Chapter III, Section 1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations on Working Hours. These provisions will touch upon areas including compensation during the annual closure, periods of stand-by duty, plus compensation and eligibility for special working hours. A general information meeting, at which E. Chiaveri, Head of HR Department, will present the new policy, will be held on Monday 23 June at 14:00 in the Council Chamber. HR Department

  14. Work Hours and Well Being: An Investigation of Moderator Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria C.; Coelho, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between work hours and subjective well being is marked by contradictory findings, thereby implying that it is far from being completely understood. A study of moderator effects can help explain variations in results across studies and, thus, overcome inconsistencies in past research. Accordingly, the current study aims to…

  15. 29 CFR 778.100 - The maximum-hours provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION The Overtime Pay... hours and overtime compensation for employees who are within the general coverage of the Act and are not... permitted for the employment of such employees in any workweek without extra compensation for overtime,...

  16. The star-bright hour : [luuletused] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: The star-bright hour ; Not a dream ; The Piper ; Corals in an ancent river. Luuletused pärinevad kogumikust "Tuulelaeval valgusest on aerud = Windship with Oars of Light. (Tallinn : Huma, 2001). Orig.: Tähetund ; Mitte viirastus, meelepett ; Vilepuhuja ; Korallid Emajões

  17. Telework: Timesaving or Timeconsuming? An Investigation into Actual Working Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers' personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  18. Office Hours--None: An E-Mail Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Rubik; DeMoville, Wig

    1998-01-01

    In a college accounting course, two faculty members experimented with a new approach to office hours, with all communication between students and teachers other than classroom dialog. Through electronic mail and other methods of data transmission. This included distribution of course syllabus, reading lists, study materials, and exams, and…

  19. Ocular torsion before and after 1 hour centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess a possible otolith contribution to effects observed following prolonged expo-sure to hyper gravity, we used video-oculography to measure ocular torsion during static and dynamic conditions of lateral body tilt (roll) before and after one hour of centrifugation with a Gx-load of 3G. Static

  20. The star-bright hour : [poems] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 231. Sisu: The star-bright hour ; The debt ; Not a dream ; Fog-bound ; Corals in an Ancient river ; Frou-frou 1-3. Orig.: Tähetund ; Vilepuhuja ; Võlg ; "Mitte viirastus, meelepett..." ; Udus ; Korallid Emajões ; Froufrou 1-3

  1. The star-bright hour : [poems] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 231. Sisu: The star-bright hour ; The debt ; Not a dream ; Fog-bound ; Corals in an Ancient river ; Frou-frou 1-3. Orig.: Tähetund ; Vilepuhuja ; Võlg ; "Mitte viirastus, meelepett..." ; Udus ; Korallid Emajões ; Froufrou 1-3

  2. 8 Hour Ozone Design Value for 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest daily 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health...

  3. Allergic colitis presenting within the first hours of premature life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.R.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Semmekrot, B.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    A prematurely born infant developed rectal blood loss several hours after birth, after his first formula feeding. Discontinuing the feeding resolved symptoms, but after resuming feeding rectal blood loss reappeared. There were no signs of necrotizing enterocolitis. Suspecting cow's milk allergy, the

  4. Work Hours and Well Being: An Investigation of Moderator Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria C.; Coelho, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between work hours and subjective well being is marked by contradictory findings, thereby implying that it is far from being completely understood. A study of moderator effects can help explain variations in results across studies and, thus, overcome inconsistencies in past research. Accordingly, the current study aims to…

  5. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  6. The star-bright hour : [luuletused] / Betti Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Betti, 1906-1989

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: The star-bright hour ; Not a dream ; The Piper ; Corals in an ancent river. Luuletused pärinevad kogumikust "Tuulelaeval valgusest on aerud = Windship with Oars of Light. (Tallinn : Huma, 2001). Orig.: Tähetund ; Mitte viirastus, meelepett ; Vilepuhuja ; Korallid Emajões

  7. Globalization and working time: working hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges popular wisdom that economic globalization uniformly increases working time in industrialized countries. International investment and trade, they argue, have uneven effects for workplace bargaining over standard hours and over work-time flexibility, such as use of temporary

  8. [A 24-hour solid state Holter recording and analyzing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C; Duan, H; Yan, X; Lu, W

    1998-01-01

    The design and functions of a new type of multi-channel solid-state Holter system were introduced in this paper. The flash memory card based recorder can record 24 hours or more of data from up to all 12 leads. The full function scanner software can analysis automatically and archive with complete editing capabilities.

  9. The "Death" Theme in The Story of an Hour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双菊

    2010-01-01

    The Story of an Hour,written by Kate Chopin,a famous feminist woman writer,revolves around the death and revival of Mr.Mallard and the subsequent death of Mrs.Mallard.This paper intends to interpret the psychological movement of the people about their respective death from the perspective of convention and feminist.

  10. 77 FR 7544 - Hours of Service of Drivers: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    .... 2011-32696, appearing on page 81134 in the Federal Register of Tuesday, December 27, 2011, the following correction is made. Sec. 395.1 On page 81186, in the third column, in Part 395--Hours of Service..., 2012. Larry W. Minor, Associate Administrator for Policy. BILLING CODE 4910-EX-P...

  11. Transferring PSM craft skills in a 2 hour session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, E.J.A. van; Morill, N.; Shaw, D.; Belton, V.; Harvey, P.; Rouwette, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of those involved in the Problem Structuring Methods (PSM) community have commented on the struggle that novices face in building the craft skills associated with conducting a PSM intervention. As part of this year's Operational Research Society Conference, we have three 2-hour practical

  12. Achieving the Best: Gender and the Literacy Hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 30 British elementary children investigated the relationship between reading and gender and attitudes towards the literacy hour. Findings indicate boys wanted shorter time spans of learning activities, preferred independent work, and liked computer work. Both sexes liked working in small groups and disliked sharing their work…

  13. Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the presence of hours constraints on the UK labor market and its effect on older workers labor supply, both at the extensive and the intensive margin. Using panel data for the period 1991-2004, the results from a competing risks model show that over-employed male workers can freel

  14. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  15. Globalization and working time: working hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Burgoon; D. Raess

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges popular wisdom that economic globalization uniformly increases working time in industrialized countries. International investment and trade, they argue, have uneven effects for workplace bargaining over standard hours and over work-time flexibility, such as use of temporary o

  16. Effect of intraoperatory peritoneal bupivacaine irrigation on inmediate, 24 hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Hernando

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the response on inmediate, 24 hour abdominal pain and referred shoulder pain (omalgia, when an intraperitoneal irrigation of bupivacaine was used as opposed to saline irrigation, in a group of patients who has laparoscopy done in a medical center in Cali, between April and June of 2000. Material and methods: After previous authorization and consentment by all 100 patients, a placebo was applied to 50 patients and bupivacaine to the other 50 patients, without randomization. The drug came in unmarked bottles, some of which had the medication and some had only saline and nobody knew beforehand which one was given to the patient. Its effect on post surgical pain was evaluated throught the cromatic visual analog scale, which subjectively determines the intensity of the pain according to colors which range from white to dark red, with a numerical equivalent from 0 to 10, in the following manner: zero (0 no pain , 2 mild, 4 moderate, 6 strong, 8 sevre and 10 intolerable pain. The scale was measured in the postoperative room two hours after procedure. A telephonic follow up was done at 24 hours after surgery, applying the visual analog scale on abdominal and shoulder pain. The information was processed using Epi Info 2000. An univariante and bivariante analysis was done. A comparasion was established using the differences in averages with inmediate abdominal pain and omalgia, and at 24 hours according to the use or not bupivacaine. Results: The variable are described in a univariante manner in relation to the distribution of pain at 2 and 24 hours, as well as the shoulder pain, where the mean score of pain decreases from 3.8, to 2.1 to 1.1 respectively. The variables were also described in a bivariant way comparing the drug and its effect on the intensity of pain at 2 and 24 hours, and the omalgia, where no statistically significant difference was found between the drug, the saline and the scales of pain. The relationship between

  17. Characterization and simulation of hourly exposure series of global radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Lopez, L. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Lenguajes y C. Computacion; Sidrach-de-Cardona, M. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Fisica Aplicada

    1997-06-01

    A statistical model which captures the main features of hourly exposure series of global radiation is proposed. This model is used to obtain a procedure to generate radiation series without imposing, a priori, any restriction on the form of the probability distribution function of the series. The statistical model was taken from the stationary stochastic processes theory. Data were obtained from ten different Spanish locations. As monthly hourly exposure series of global radiation are not stationary, they are modified in order to remove the observed trends. A multiplicative autoregressive moving average model with regular and seasonal components was used. It is statistically accepted that this is the true model which generates most of the analyzed sequences. However, the underlying parameters of the model vary from one location to another and from one month to another. Therefore, it is necessary to examine further the relationship between the parameters of the model and the available data from most locations. (author)

  18. Detection of vancomycin resistances in enterococci within 3 ½ hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, U-Ch; Beleites, C; Assmann, C; Glaser, U; Hübner, U; Pfister, W; Fritzsche, W; Popp, J; Neugebauer, U

    2015-02-03

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) constitute a challenging problem in health care institutions worldwide. Novel methods to rapidly identify resistances are highly required to ensure an early start of tailored therapy and to prevent further spread of the bacteria. Here, a spectroscopy-based rapid test is presented that reveals resistances of enterococci towards vancomycin within 3.5 hours. Without any specific knowledge on the strain, VRE can be recognized with high accuracy in two different enterococci species. By means of dielectrophoresis, bacteria are directly captured from dilute suspensions, making sample preparation very easy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the trapped bacteria over a time span of two hours in absence and presence of antibiotics reveals characteristic differences in the molecular response of sensitive as well as resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Furthermore, the spectroscopic fingerprints provide an indication on the mechanisms of induced resistance in VRE.

  19. Hour-Scale Multiwavelength Variability in Markarian 421

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, M; Bradbury, S M; Breslin, A C; Buckley, J H; Burdett, A M; Carter-Lewis, D A; Cawley, M F; Dunlea, S; D'Vali, M; Fegan, D J; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Gaidos, J A; Hall, T A; Hillas, A M; Horan, D; Knapp, J; Krennrich, F; Le Bohec, S; Lessard, R W; Masterson, C; Moriarty, P; Quinn, J; Rose, H J; Samuelson, F W; Sembroski, G H; Vasilev, V; Weekes, T C; Maraschi, L; Fossati, G; Tavecchio, F; Chiappetti, L; Celotti, A; Ghisellini, G; Grandi, P; Pian, E; Tagliaferri, G; Treves, A

    1999-01-01

    Markarian 421 was observed for about four days with BeppoSAX and the Whipple Observatory gamma-ray telescope in April 1998. A pronounced, well-defined, flare with hour-scale variability was observed simultaneously in X-rays and very high energy gamma-rays. These data provide the first evidence that the X-ray and TeV intensities are well correlated on time-scales of hours. While the rise of the flare occurred on a similar time-scale in the two wavebands, the decay of the flare was much more rapid in gamma rays, providing the first clear indication that the X-ray and gamma-ray emission may not be completely correlated in Markarian 421.

  20. Households’ hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase. Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental......The electrification of residential energy demand for heating and transportation is expected to increase peak load and require additional generation and transmission capacities. Electrification also provides an opportunity to increase demand response. With a focus on household electricity...... incentives to shift consumption to or away from specified hours. The experiment focuses on the present classic consumption and shows that household customers do react to incentives, but today the flexibility of the classic consumption is limited. Considering electric vehicles and individual heat pumps...

  1. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  2. Simplified hourly method to calculate summer temperatures in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Aggerholm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for hourly calculation of the operating temperature in order to evaluate summer comfort in dwellings to help improve building design. A simplified method was developed on the basis of the simple hourly method of the standard ISO 13790...... program for thermal simulations of buildings. The results are based on one year simulations of two cases. The cases were based on a low energy dwelling of 196 m². The transmission loss for the building envelope was 3.3 W/m², not including windows and doors. The dwelling was tested in two cases, a case...... for the fulfilment of summer comfort. Thus it is very important to address both opening areas and ventilation rates. The developed simplified method makes it possible to test whether or not a building design for a dwelling will prevent excess of the summer comfort limits set by the building regulations....

  3. A Study of Postmodern Narrative in Michael Cunningham's The Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Abbasi Narinabad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project aims at providing a detailed analysis of the major features of the theory of postmodern narrative and at going through the novel The Hours by the American writer Michael Cunningham concentrating on some postmodern narrative techniques. To do so, the researcher goes through the theories set forth by some postmodern theoreticians like Roland Barthes, Jacque Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard and Julia Kristeva to investigate the postmodern narrative techniques and elements used in the novel. The researcher first examines the theories and then critically applies them on the novel. The article goes through the most eminent elements of postmodern narrative including intertextuality, stream of consciousness style, fragmentation and representation respectively which are delicately utilized in The Hours. The article concludes by recommending a few directions for the further research.

  4. Effect of intraoperatory peritoneal bupivacaine irrigation on inmediate, 24 hour

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the response on inmediate, 24 hour abdominal pain and referred shoulder pain (omalgia), when an intraperitoneal irrigation of bupivacaine was used as opposed to saline irrigation, in a group of patients who has laparoscopy done in a medical center in Cali, between April and June of 2000. Material and methods: After previous authorization and consentment by all 100 patients, a placebo was applied to 50 patients and bupivacaine to the other 50 patients, without randomizat...

  5. RBC Models and the Hours-Wages Puzzle: Puzzle Solved!

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that a modified real business cycle (RBC) model, one that includes home production and fiscal spending shocks, can solve one of the RBC puzzles and generates zero correlation between wages and hours. In addition, the micro-founded model presented here provides a sound theoretical model to analyze fiscal policy in a neoclassical framework and is able to capture many aspects of the data that the benchmark RBC model was missing.

  6. The Efficacy of Amphetamines for 64 Hours of Sustained Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    effects attributable to Dexedrine; functions of polyphasic and ultrashort sleep , however, one subject evidenced increased diastolic 217-244. Boston...the Adaptability to Irregular Rest-Work Rhythms/Status of the Use of Drugs in Sleep -Wakefulness Management [les Differences entre individus concernant...system (CNS) stimulant that improves of the usefulness of dextroamphetamine beyond 40- alertness and postpones the need for sleep . In aviation, hour

  7. Analysis of the Story of an Hour from Feminist Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立立

    2014-01-01

    The Story of an Hour is a short story written by Kate Chopin in 1894. It is mainly about a wife’s unexpected response to the news of her husband's death. In this paper, the plot, main characters, and conflicts will first be illustrated, and the author will analyze this story from feminist approaches. We see clearly that women in that time did not have the right to choose their own marriages, and the main character is just one of the victims.

  8. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  9. Work patterns, sleeping hours and excess weight in commercial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, M K; Hege, A; Perko, M; Sönmez, S; Apostolopoulos, Y

    2015-12-01

    Work and sleep patterns for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often include long working hours, shift work and diminished sleep duration and quality, which have been linked to overweight, obesity and other problems. To explore possible connections between work, sleep and obesity among CMV drivers. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from male long-haul CMV drivers in central North Carolina, USA, over a period of 6 months. Drivers' body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of total body obesity and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a measure of central adiposity. Among the 260 study subjects, mean BMI was 33.1 (64% were obese or morbidly obese) and mean SAD was 32.3cm, classifying 89% of drivers as being at high or very high cardiometabolic risk. About 83% of drivers worked an irregular daily schedule, 64% worked irregular total daily hours, 32% worked irregular days of the week and 46% reported getting work nights. Significant predictors of BMI included the number of hours worked daily (P work (P Work and sleep configurations appear to affect the weight status of CMV drivers. Shift work and sleep duration are both associated with the weight status of CMV drivers, and both appear to function as indicators of their sleep quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Understanding medical professionalism and its evaluation is essential to ensuring that physicians graduate with the requisite knowledge and skills in this domain. It is important to consider the context in which behaviours occur, along with tensions between competing values and the individual’s approach to resolving such conflicts. However, too much emphasis on behaviours can be misleading, as they may not reflect underlying attitudes or professionalism in general. The same behaviour can be viewed and evaluated quite differently, depending on the situation. These concepts are explored and illustrated in this paper in the context of duty hour regulations. The regulation of duty hours creates many conflicts that must be resolved, and yet their resolution is often hidden, especially when compliance with or violation of regulations carries significant consequences. This article challenges attending physicians and the medical education community to reflect on what we value in our trainees and the attributions we make regarding their behaviours. To fully support our trainees’ development as professionals, we must create opportunities to teach them the valuable skills they will need to achieve balance in their lives. [P]rofessionalism has no meaningful existence independent of the interactions that give it form and meaning. There is great folly in thinking otherwise. Hafferty and Levinson (2008)[1] Understanding and evaluating professionalism is essential to excellence in medical education and is mandated by organizations that oversee medical training [2]. Historically, attention has been focused largely on the professionalism of individual students or residents, at least for the purposes of evaluation. Yet there is now a growing appreciation that professionalism can be defined, understood, and evaluated from multiple perspectives [3]. Importantly, context has been recognized as critical to shaping trainees’ behaviours, and hence as important to our understanding of

  11. Disaggregation of Rainy Hours: Compared Performance of Various Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haha, M.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    In the urban environment, the response times of catchments are usually short. To de- sign or to diagnose waterworks in that context, it is necessary to describe rainfall events with a good time resolution: a 10mn time step is often necessary. Such in- formation is not always available. Rainfall disaggregation models have thus to be applied to produce from rough rainfall data that short time resolution information. The communication will present the performance obtained with several rainfall dis- aggregation models that allow for the disaggregation of rainy hours into six 10mn rainfall amounts. The ability of the models to reproduce some statistical character- istics of rainfall (mean, variance, overall distribution of 10mn-rainfall amounts; ex- treme values of maximal rainfall amounts over different durations) is evaluated thanks to different graphical and numerical criteria. The performance of simple models pre- sented in some scientific papers or developed in the Hydram laboratory as well as the performance of more sophisticated ones is compared with the performance of the basic constant disaggregation model. The compared models are either deterministic or stochastic; for some of them the disaggregation is based on scaling properties of rainfall. The compared models are in increasing complexity order: constant model, linear model (Ben Haha, 2001), Ormsbee Deterministic model (Ormsbee, 1989), Ar- tificial Neuronal Network based model (Burian et al. 2000), Hydram Stochastic 1 and Hydram Stochastic 2 (Ben Haha, 2001), Multiplicative Cascade based model (Olsson and Berndtsson, 1998), Ormsbee Stochastic model (Ormsbee, 1989). The 625 rainy hours used for that evaluation (with a hourly rainfall amount greater than 5mm) were extracted from the 21 years chronological rainfall series (10mn time step) observed at the Pully meteorological station, Switzerland. The models were also evaluated when applied to different rainfall classes depending on the season first and on the

  12. The 88-hour family: effects of the 80-hour work week on marriage and childbirth in a surgical residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Arden M; Jones, Kevin B

    2007-01-01

    The restriction of the resident physician work week to 80 hours has had dramatic affects on resident education and life-style. While effects on mood, psychological distress, and burn-out have been studied, the resultant changes in tangible quality of life have received little attention. Birth rate was considered a measurable, relevant outcome. The resident marital and parental status by duty month was collected from a single orthopaedic surgical residency program for the four academic years preceding and following the implementation of the 80-hour work week. The number of births to residents during these periods were also tallied. The relative prevalence of positive marital status changed very little between residents in the two time durations from 66 to 71 percent, but parental status increased from 27 to 43 percent. The number of births per married resident duty year also increased from 0.23 pre-restrictions to 0.32 post-restrictions. While the individual decisions involved in generating these observed changes are complex and difficult to entirely decipher, it is thought that an increased perception of life-control within the work-hour restrictions may have prompted the dramatic changes in birth rate among resident families.

  13. A model of human sleep-related growth hormone secretion in dogs: effects of 3, 6, and 12 hours of forced wakefulness on plasma growth hormone, cortisol, and sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Ebihara, S; Nakamura, Y; Takahashi, K

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-four canine GH (cGH) and cortisol secretion patterns associated with sleep stages were studied in 10 male adult dogs. Plasma samples were obtained at 30- or 15-min intervals via an indwelling catheter. Under baseline conditions, all dogs showed irregular polyphasic sleep, and the episodic cGH secretion had no apparent relationship with sleep or the light-dark cycle. Five dogs were subjected to regular sleep-wake cycles; 3, 6, and 12 h of forced wakefulness (FW) were repeated at 3-, 6-, and 12-h intervals (recovery sleep periods), respectively. Peak cGH secretion (mean +/- SD, 6.4 ng/ml +/- 2.4) occurred soon after recovery sleep onset in 25 of 40 total recovery periods. The incidence of sleep-onset cGH peaks and cGH secretion during the first hour of recovery sleep significantly increased with the length of the preceding FW, but were not affected by the time of day. Delta wave sleep increased during this hour, suggesting a possible correlation with the sleep-onset cGH peak. During the first 3 h of recovery after 6 and 12 h of FW, cGH secretion was significantly enhanced, but cortisol was not. Considering the characteristics of human sleep-related GH secretion, we suggest that this peak cGH secretion represents a model of human GH secretion. Possibly, a close association of cGH secretion with sleep is concealed under the baseline condition and uncovered by inducing longer sleep-wake cycles in dogs. No circadian cortisol variation was detected under the baseline or the experimental conditions.

  14. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Janssen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. METHODS: Two studies - a company based survey (N=660 and an internet survey (N=528 - have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres. The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. RESULTS: The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include - besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible working hours - that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate, even if this variability is self-controlled.OBJETIVO: Investigar se ocorre prejuízo à saúde e à vida social com diferentes tipos de horas de trabalho flexíveis e se há relação entre estes efeitos e características específicas das horas de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados dois estudos, uma pesquisa em uma empresa (N=660 e outra pela Internet (N=528. O primeiro estudo consistiu de um questionário (papel e lápis aplicado a funcionários sujeitos a diferentes ajustes "típicos" de horas de

  15. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  16. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giunta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a period of thirteen months in 2012 and 2013 for six Italian CCGT power plants of 390 MW each (260 MW from the gas turbine and 130 MW from the steam turbine. These CCGT plants are placed in three different Italian climate areas: the Po Valley, the Adriatic coast, and the North Tyrrhenian coast. The meteorological model applied in this study is the eni-Kassandra Meteo Forecast (e‑kmf™, a multi-model approach system to provide probabilistic forecasts with a Kalman filter used to improve accuracy of local temperature predictions. Performance skill scores, computed by the output data of the meteorological model, are compared with local observations, and used to evaluate forecast reliability. In the study, the approach has shown good overall scores encompassing more than 50,000 hourly temperature values. Some differences from one site to another, due to local meteorological phenomena, can affect the short-term forecast performance, with consequent impacts on gas-to-power production and related negative imbalances. For operational application of the methodology in CCGT power plant, the benefits and limits have been successfully identified.

  17. 24 hours on-call and acute fatigue no longer worsen resident mood under the 80-hour work week regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michael; Civetta, Joseph; Bartus, Christine; Walsh, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Studies in on-call residents have shown that mood is worsened by fatigue as indicated by increased scores on measures of depression, anxiety, confusion, and anger using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). In prior sleep deprivation studies, mood has been shown to be more affected than either cognitive or motor performances. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the 80-hour work week regulations on resident mood in general and in a post-call period (PC). Institutional Review Board approval was obtained to survey the residents and publish the results. POMS is a 65-item adjective questionnaire that includes subscales for measuring tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, with the summation of the scales forming a total mood disturbance score. Surgical residents were tested at a 9 am didactic curriculum session (9 am has been shown to correlate with the nadir of performance). Residents were tested after nights off call (NOC) or after PC. Time asleep in the preceding 24 hours and other demographic data were also collected. Acute fatigue (AF) was defined as mood questionnaires were administered on 4 occasions to 51 surgical residents, 35 men and 16 women at levels PGY-1 through PGY-5. Overall, 33 tests (27%) were taken after PC and 90 (73%) were taken after NOC. Acute fatigue residents had a mean sleep time of 2.2 (+/-1.5) hours, whereas rested (R) residents had a mean sleep time of 6.7 (+/-2.2) hours (whether PC or NOC). No statistical differences in mean values of vigor, anger, depression, concentration, fatigue, tension, or total score were observed between PC and NOC or between AF and R residents. There was no significant relationship between acute sleep deprivation and total mood disturbance, whether PC or NOC. In linear relationships, NOC total score and hours slept had r2 = 0.01 (p = 0.44), whereas PC total score and hours slept had r2 = 0.07 (p = 0.14). Although POMS was

  18. Provisional hourly values of equatorial Dst for 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Tables and plots of provisional hourly values of the equatorial Dst index for 1971 are given, a table of daily mean Dst values for 1971 is also provided. The base line values for the four observatories, Hermanus, Kakioka, Honolulu, and San Juan, were obtained from extrapolations using the coefficients for the secular variations determined for the previous years. Examining the Dst values for quiet days, the base lines so determined appear to be slightly low, so that the Dst index for quiet periods tends to be high.

  19. Twenty-three hour recovery: observation versus hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, P; Sangermano, C

    1992-10-01

    In the wake of the rapidly changing health care delivery environment, it is becoming essential to health care organizations that unique, innovative methods of managing resources be implemented. Further, such developments must be achieved within the confines of those requirements and revisions occurring within the reimbursement structures of Medicare and Medicaid as well as other third-party payors in keeping with the delivery of quality patient care. The evaluation of patients in an outpatient environment for a period of time before a final decision regarding disposition is made creates the "observation concept." This article discusses the significance of 23-hour observation units for ambulatory surgery patients.

  20. LinkedIn Marketing An Hour a Day

    CERN Document Server

    von Rosen, Viveka

    2012-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for succeeding on the for ''business'' social media network LinkedIn Marketing: An Hour a Day helps you create, customize, and optimize a presence on LinkedIn, the world's largest social network for professionals. In this detailed, step-by-step book, LinkedIn expert Viveka von Rosen reveals how to use this powerful platform to ensure that you or your company get noticed by the right audience. Discover previously undocumented tips and tricks for community growth and management, including how to best use Groups, events, and other LinkedIn features and applications. Offers a

  1. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Facio Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia.

  2. Global solar radiation estimation from relative sunshine hours in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Aziz, J.; A-Nagi, A.; Zumailan, A.A.R. (Aden Univ. (Yemen, Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The existing measurements of global solar radiation and sunshine duration for Yemen are examined. The errors of estimating global solar radiation from sunshine hour measurements using Angstrom's relation are evaluated. As a simple predictor for global solar radiation, an average Angstrom relation in the form H-bar/H[sub o] = 0.3518 + 0.3162 n/N for all stations is evaluated. Other Angstrom correlation relations are also proposed by classifying the stations under study into four groups. The estimated results are compared and seem to be satisfactory in the latter case. (Author)

  3. Hourly resolved cloud modification factors in the ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staiger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud impacts on the transfer of Ultraviolet (UV radiation through the atmosphere can be assessed using a cloud modification factor (CMF. The total global solar irradiation has proven to be a solid basis to derive CMF's for the UV radiation (UV_CMF. Total global irradiance is frequently measured and forecasted by numerical weather prediction systems. Its advantage compared to for instance cloud cover is that measured solar global irradiance contains already the effect of multiple reflection between cloud layers, reflection between the sides of the clouds, as well as the distinct difference whether the solar disc is obscured by clouds or not. In the UV range clouds decrease the irradiance to a lesser extent than in the visible and infrared spectral range; Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere yields a larger fraction of scatter radiation compared to that of light and infrared, hence, obscuring the solar disc will not totally block out the irradiation. Thus the relationship between CMF's for solar radiation and for UV-radiation is not straight forwards, but will depend on e.g. the solar zenith angle (SZA and wavelength band or action spectrum in the UV considered. Den Outer et al. (2005 provide a UV_CMF algorithm on a daily base accounting for these influences. It requires as input a daily CMF in total global radiation (SOL_CMF and the SZA at noon. The calculation of SOL-CMF uses the clear sky algorithm of the European Solar Radiation Atlas to account for varying turbidity impacts. The algorithm's capability to derive hourly UV_CMF's based on the SZA at the corresponding hour and its worldwide applicability is validated using hourly resolved observational data retrieved from the databases of the COST-Action 726 on "Long term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe" and the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program. The model performance for hourly resolution is shown to be comparable in absolute and relative

  4. Development of a Stochastic Hourly Solar Irradiation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Brecl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new solar irradiation model and implemented it in the SunIrradiance photovoltaic cell/module simulator. This model uses stochastic methods to generate the hourly distribution of solar irradiation on a horizontal or inclined surface from monthly irradiation values on the horizontal surface of a selected location and was verified with the measured irradiance data in Ljubljana, located in Central Europe. The new model shows better simulation results with regard to the share of the diffuse irradiation in the region than the other models. The simulation results show that the new solar irradiation model is excellent for photovoltaic system simulations of single junction PV technologies.

  5. Eleventh Hour Network+ Exam N10-004 Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alpern, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    The 11th Hour Network+ Study Guide is keyed to the N10-004 revision of the CompTIA Network+ exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered with key concepts highlighted. ..: ..; Fast Facts quickly review fundamentals ..; Exam Warnings highlight particularly tough sections of the exam ..; Crunch Time sidebars point out key concepts to remember ..; Did You Know? sidebars cover sometimes forgotten details ..; Top Five Toughest Questions and answers help you to prepare ..

  6. NASA 50 amp hour nickel cadmium battery waste heat determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for determining the waste heat generated in a 50-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium battery as a function of the discharge rate is described and results are discussed. The technique involved is essentially calibration of the battery as a heat transfer rate calorimeter. The tests are run at three different levels of battery activity, one at 40-watts of waste heat generated, one at 60, and one at 100. Battery inefficiency ranges from 14 to 18 percent at discharge rates of 284 to 588 watts, respectively and top-of-cell temperatures of 20 C.

  7. Off-hours admission and quality of hip fracture care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Nina Sahlertz; Kristensen, Pia Kjær; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Higher risks of adverse outcomes have been reported for patients admitted acutely during off-hours. However, in relation to hip fracture, the evidence is inconsistent. We examined whether time of admission influenced compliance with performance measures, surgical delay and 30-day...... mortality in patients with hip fracture. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Data from The Danish Multidisciplinary Hip Fracture Registry linked with data from Danish National Registries. PARTICIPANTS: Danish patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, aged >65 years, admitted 1 March 2010 to 30 November 2013 (N...

  8. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  9. Analysis of the Story of an Hour from Feminist Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立立

    2014-01-01

    The Story of an Hour is a short story written by Kate Chopin in 1894. It is mainly about a wife’s unexpected response to the news of her husband’s death. In this paper, the plot, main characters, and conflicts will first be illustrated, and the author will analyze this story from feminist approaches. We see clearly that women in that time did not have the right to choose their own marriages, and the main character is just one of the victims.

  10. Hourly Calculation Method of Air Source Heat Pump Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Danza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an hourly simplified model for the evaluation of the energy performance of heat pumps in cooling mode maintaining a high accuracy and low computational cost. This approach differs from the methods used for the assessment of the overall energy consumption of the building, normally placed in the so-called white or black box models, where the transient conduction equation is deterministically and stochastically solved, respectively. The present method wants to be the expression of the grey box model, taking place between the previous approaches. The building envelope is defined using a building thermal model realized with a 3 Resistance 1 Capacitance (3R1C thermal network based on the solution of the lumped capacitance method. The simplified model evaluates the energy efficiency ratio (EER of a heat pump through the determination of the hourly second law efficiency of a reversed Carnot cycle. The results of the simplified method were finally compared with those provided by EnergyPlus, a dynamic building energy simulation program, and those collected from an outdoor test cell in real working conditions. The results are presented in temperatures and energy consumptions profiles and are validated using the Bland-Altman test.

  11. Forecasting geomagnetic activity three hours in advance for ionospheric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Franceschi, G.; Perrone, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Gulyaeva, T. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Space Research Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-12-01

    An attempt at forecasting the magnetic activity index three hours in advance is presented. This approach is based on a suitable treatment of time-weighted accumulations of the three-hourly magnetic index Kp. The statistical analysis of impact of magnetic activity on the positive and negative disturbances of the F{sub 2} layer peak electron density NmF{sub 2} is made for 25 ionosondes in Europe and Russia during 1997 to 2001. It is shown that the response of positive and negative ionosphere disturbances to peak of magnetic activity Kpmax delays by 1 to 48 h. Two peaks of occurrence of positive and negative ionospheric disturbed periods are found referring to Kpmax equal to 3 and 4 for DNmF{sub 2}+ and Kpmax equal to 4 and 5 for DNmF{sub 2}- shifted regarding similar distribution of forecasted Kpm indices depicting two maxima at Kp equal to 1.7 and 2.7. Comparisons are made with observations and IRI-2001 model predictions.

  12. Ex Situ Perfusion of Human Limb Allografts for 24 Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole L; Alghanem, Fares; Rakestraw, Stephanie L; Sarver, Dylan C; Nicely, Bruce; Pietroski, Richard E; Lange, Paul; Rudich, Steven M; Mendias, Christopher L; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Magee, John C; Bartlett, Robert H; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-03-01

    Vascularized composite allografts, particularly hand and forearm, have limited ischemic tolerance after procurement. In bilateral hand transplantations, this demands a 2 team approach and expedited transfer of the allograft, limiting the recovery to a small geographic area. Ex situ perfusion may be an alternative allograft preservation method to extend allograft survival time. This is a short report of 5 human limbs maintained for 24 hours with ex situ perfusion. Upper limbs were procured from brain-dead organ donors. Following recovery, the brachial artery was cannulated and flushed with 10 000 U of heparin. The limb was then attached to a custom-made, near-normothermic (30-33°C) ex situ perfusion system composed of a pump, reservoir, and oxygenator. Perfusate was plasma-based with a hemoglobin concentration of 4 to 6 g/dL. Average warm ischemia time was 76 minutes. Perfusion was maintained at an average systolic pressure of 93 ± 2 mm Hg, flow 310 ± 20 mL/min, and vascular resistance 153 ± 16 mm Hg/L per minute. Average oxygen consumption was 1.1 ± 0.2 mL/kg per minute. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation continually displayed contraction until the end of perfusion, and histology showed no myocyte injury. Human limb allografts appeared viable after 24 hours of near-normothermic ex situ perfusion. Although these results are early and need validation with transplantation, this technology has promise for extending allograft storage times.

  13. Hybrid methodology for hourly global radiation forecasting in Mediterranean area

    CERN Document Server

    Voyant, Cyril; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure

    2012-01-01

    The renewable energies prediction and particularly global radiation forecasting is a challenge studied by a growing number of research teams. This paper proposes an original technique to model the insolation time series based on combining Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA) model. While ANN by its non-linear nature is effective to predict cloudy days, ARMA techniques are more dedicated to sunny days without cloud occurrences. Thus, three hybrids models are suggested: the first proposes simply to use ARMA for 6 months in spring and summer and to use an optimized ANN for the other part of the year; the second model is equivalent to the first but with a seasonal learning; the last model depends on the error occurred the previous hour. These models were used to forecast the hourly global radiation for five places in Mediterranean area. The forecasting performance was compared among several models: the 3 above mentioned models, the best ANN and ARMA for each location. In t...

  14. Reviewing 741 patients records in two hours with FASTVISU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudié, Jean-Baptiste; Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Zapletal, Eric; Cohen, Sarah; Malamut, Georgia; Burgun, Anita; Rance, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The secondary use of electronic health records opens up new perspectives. They provide researchers with structured data and unstructured data, including free text reports. Many applications been developed to leverage knowledge from free-text reports, but manual review of documents is still a complex process. We developed FASTVISU a web-based application to assist clinicians in reviewing documents. We used FASTVISU to review a set of 6340 documents from 741 patients suffering from the celiac disease. A first automated selection pruned the original set to 847 documents from 276 patients’ records. The records were reviewed by two trained physicians to identify the presence of 15 auto-immune diseases. It took respectively two hours and two hours and a half to evaluate the entire corpus. Inter-annotator agreement was high (Cohen’s kappa at 0.89). FASTVISU is a user-friendly modular solution to validate entities extracted by NLP methods from free-text documents stored in clinical data warehouses. PMID:26958189

  15. Seamless Hourly Rainfall Ensemble Forecasts for 0 - 10 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shaun; Seed, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The Australian Bureau of Meteorology uses a number of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models to generate deterministic rainfall forecasts over a range of lead-times, each with a different resolution in space and time and with different forecast domains. High resolution regional NWP models are used to generate forecasts for the first three days, and are typically more accurate than lower resolution Global NWP models that produce forecasts for longer lead times. Consequently, there is a requirement for a seamless forecast system that is able to blend the various NWP forecasts into a single forecast with a uniform resolution over the entire forecast period. NWP rainfall forecasts contain errors at scales that are significant for even large river basins, and ensemble hydrological prediction systems require ensembles of the order of 100 members, which is well beyond the size that can be generated by NWP ensemble systems. The idea, therefore, is to blend the NWP models in such a way that recognises the skill of the NWP at a particular scale and lead time and to use a stochastic model of forecast errors to perturb the blended deterministic forecast to generate a large ensemble. NWP uncertainties are scale and forecast lead time dependent, especially at long forecast lead times, and are characteristic to each model. By blending the models scale by scale it is possible to recognise the increased skill of the models at larger spatial scales and shorter lead times. The stochastic model is applied at each scale, adding increasingly more variability at smaller spatial scales, while preserving the space-time structure of rain. This process allows an ensemble to be generated by blending deterministic forecasts. Two NWP models from the Bureau, ACCESS-G (Global) (~40 km by ~40 km, 3 hourly out to 10 days) and ACCESS-R (Regional) (~12 km by ~12 km, 1 hourly out to 3 days), are downscaled and blended with the stochastic model to produce an ensemble of hourly forecasts out to 10

  16. Hourly resolved cloud modification factors in the ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staiger

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud impacts on the transfer of ultraviolet (UV radiation through the atmosphere can be assessed by using a cloud modification factor (CMF. CMF, which is based on total global solar irradiation (SOLCMF, has proved to be a solid basis to derive CMFs for the UV radiation (UVCMF. This is an advantage, because total global irradiance, the basis for SOLCMF, is frequently measured and forecasted by numerical weather prediction systems and includes all relevant effects for radiation transmission, such as cloud optical depth, different cloud layers, multiple reflection, as well as the distinct difference as to whether the solar disc is obscured by clouds or not. In the UV range clouds decrease the irradiance to a lesser extent than in the visible and infrared spectral range. Thus the relationship between CMFs for solar radiation and for UV-radiation is not straight forward, but will depend on whether, for example, the solar zenith angle (SZA and wavelength band or action spectrum in the UV have been taken into consideration. Den Outer et al. provide a UVCMF algorithm on a daily basis, which accounts for these influences. It requires as input a daily SOLCMF and the SZA at noon. The calculation of SOLCMF uses the clear-sky algorithm of the European Solar Radiation Atlas to account for varying turbidity impacts. The algorithm's capability to derive hourly UVCMFs based on the SZA at the corresponding hour and its worldwide applicability is validated for erythemal UV using observational data retrieved from the databases of the COST-Action 726 on "Long-term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe" and the USDA UV-B Monitoring Program. The clear-sky part of the models has proved to be of good quality. Accumulated to daily doses it forms a tight cluster of points to the highest measured daily sums. All sky model performances for hourly resolution are shown to be

  17. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine...... the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. DESIGN AND SETTING: A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry...... data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number...

  18. Off-Hours Admission and Acute Stroke Care Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Nina Sahlertz; Mainz, Jan; Nørgård, Bente Mertz;

    2014-01-01

    stroke care processes, including the effect of a systematic quality improvement program, and to examine 30 days case-fatality. Methods-A population-based historical cohort study, including patients admitted to Danish hospitals with a first ever acute stroke (January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2011; N=64...... characteristics (in particular, stroke severity) decreased the odds ratio to 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.10). Additional adjustment for hospital characteristics and compliance with performance measures had no effect on the odds ratio. Conclusion-Patients admitted off-hours received a poorer quality...... of care. However, the admission time-related differences in care were substantially reduced over time, and the differences in 30 days case-fatality appeared primarily to be explained by differences in stroke severity....

  19. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P pressures......, but surprisingly normal arterial blood pressure during the nighttime, and the circadian variation in blood pressure and HR is diminished, probably because of an almost unaltered cardiac output during the 24 hours. These results may reflect a major defect in the ability of optimal regulation of blood pressure...

  20. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  1. Hourly rounding and patient falls: what factors boost success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsack, Jennifer; Bergey, Meredith; Mascioli, Susan; Cunningham, Janet

    2015-02-01

    Falls are a persistent problem in all healthcare settings, with rates in acute care hospitals ranging from 1.3 to 8.9 falls per 1,000 inpatient days, about 30% resulting in serious injury. A 30-day prospective pilot study was conducted on two units with pre- and postimplementation evaluation to determine the impact of patient-centered proactive hourly rounding on patient falls as part of a Lean Six Sigma process improvement project. Nurse leaders and a staff champion from Unit 1 were involved in the process from the start of the implementation period, while Unit 2 was introduced to the project for training shortly before the intervention began. On Unit 1, where staff and leadership were engaged in the project from the outset, the 1-year baseline mean fall rate was 3.9 falls/1,000 patient days. The pilot period fall rate of 1.3 falls/1,000 patient days was significantly lower than the baseline fall rate (P = 0.006). On Unit 2, where there was no run-in period, the 1-year baseline mean fall rate was 2.6 falls/1,000 patient days, which fell, but not significantly, to 2.5 falls/1,000 patient days during the pilot period (P = 0.799). Engaging an interdisciplinary team, including leadership and unit champions, to complete a Lean Six Sigma process improvement project and implement a patient-centered proactive hourly rounding program was associated with a significant reduction in the fall rate in Unit 1. Implementation of the same program in Unit 2 without engaging leadership or front-line staff in program design did not impact its fall rate. The active involvement of leadership and front-line staff in program design and as unit champions during the project run-in period was critical to significantly reducing inpatient fall rates and call bell use in an adult medical unit.

  2. A global surface drifter data set at hourly resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elipot, Shane; Lumpkin, Rick; Perez, Renellys C.; Lilly, Jonathan M.; Early, Jeffrey J.; Sykulski, Adam M.

    2016-05-01

    The surface drifting buoys, or drifters, of the Global Drifter Program (GDP) are predominantly tracked by the Argos positioning system, providing drifter locations with O(100 m) errors at nonuniform temporal intervals, with an average interval of 1.2 h since January 2005. This data set is thus a rich and global source of information on high-frequency and small-scale oceanic processes, yet is still relatively understudied because of the challenges associated with its large size and sampling characteristics. A methodology is described to produce a new high-resolution global data set since 2005, consisting of drifter locations and velocities estimated at hourly intervals, along with their respective errors. Locations and velocities are obtained by modeling locally in time trajectories as a first-order polynomial with coefficients obtained by maximizing a likelihood function. This function is derived by modeling the Argos location errors with t location-scale probability distribution functions. The methodology is motivated by analyzing 82 drifters tracked contemporaneously by Argos and by the Global Positioning System, where the latter is assumed to provide true locations. A global spectral analysis of the velocity variance from the new data set reveals a sharply defined ridge of energy closely following the inertial frequency as a function of latitude, distinct energy peaks near diurnal and semidiurnal frequencies, as well as higher-frequency peaks located near tidal harmonics as well as near replicates of the inertial frequency. Compared to the spectra that can be obtained using the standard 6-hourly GDP product, the new data set contains up to 100% more spectral energy at some latitudes.

  3. 29 CFR 778.318 - Productive and nonproductive hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION... Act; such nonproductive working hours must be counted and paid for. (b) Compensation payable for... hours standard is 40 hours is owed compensation at his regular rate for all of the first 40 hours and...

  4. Colleges Are Slashing Adjuncts' Hours to Skirt New Rules on Health-Insurance Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Sydni

    2013-01-01

    Allison G. Armentrout, an adjunct instructor at Stark State College, does not get paid by the hour. She earns $4,600 to teach two English composition courses. But now she carefully tracks how many hours she works on an electronic time sheet. During a recent week, she spent three hours preparing for her lectures, close to six hours in the…

  5. Credit Hours with No Set Time: A Study of Credit Policies in Asynchronous Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuhn, Frederick Carl

    2014-01-01

    U.S. public university system policies were examined to learn how credit hours were determined for asynchronous online education. Findings indicated that (a) credit hour meaning and use are not consistent, (b) primary responsibility for credit hour decisions was at the local level, and (c) no policies exist to guide credit hour application for…

  6. Credit Hours with No Set Time: A Study of Credit Policies in Asynchronous Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuhn, Frederick Carl

    2014-01-01

    U.S. public university system policies were examined to learn how credit hours were determined for asynchronous online education. Findings indicated that (a) credit hour meaning and use are not consistent, (b) primary responsibility for credit hour decisions was at the local level, and (c) no policies exist to guide credit hour application for…

  7. Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Granger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field study of open water evaporation carried out on three small lakes in Western and Northern Canada. In this case small lakes are defined as those for which the temperature above the water surface is governed by the upwind land surface conditions; that is, a continuous boundary layer exists over the lake, and large-scale atmospheric effects such as entrainment do not come into play. Lake evaporation was measured directly using eddy covariance equipment; profiles of wind speed, air temperature and humidity were also obtained over the water surfaces. Observations were made as well over the upwind land surface.

    The major factors controlling open water evaporation were examined. The study showed that for time periods shorter than daily, the open water evaporation bears no relationship to the net radiation; the wind speed is the most significant factor governing the evaporation rates, followed by the land-water temperature contrast and the land-water vapour pressure contrast. The effect of the stability on the wind field was demonstrated; relationships were developed relating the land-water wind speed contrast to the land-water temperature contrast. The open water period can be separated into two distinct evaporative regimes: the warming period in the Spring, when the land is warmer than the water, the turbulent fluxes over water are suppressed; and the cooling period, when the water is warmer than the land, the turbulent fluxes over water are enhanced.

    Relationships were developed between the hourly rates of lake evaporation and the following significant variables and parameters (wind speed, land-lake temperature and humidity contrasts, and the downwind distance from shore. The result is a relatively simple versatile model for estimating the hourly lake evaporation rates. The model was tested using two independent data sets. Results show that the modelled evaporation follows the observed values

  8. Hourly Wind Speed Interval Prediction in Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, M.; Ouarda, T.

    2013-12-01

    context, probabilistic forecasts might be more relevant than point forecasts for the planner to build scenarios In this paper, we are interested in estimating predictive intervals of the hourly wind speed measures in few cities in United Arab emirates (UAE). More precisely, given a wind speed time series, our target is to forecast the wind speed at any specific hour during the day and provide in addition an interval with the coverage probability 0forecast wind speed.

  9. A Global Stem Cell Niche – Need of the Hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Global Stem Cell Niche – Need of the Hour The time, this issue is online, most of us would be aware of the world’s first induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell based clinical trial for age-related macular degeneration which is underway in Japan. The first patient in the trial has been transplanted with the cell sheets of retinal pigment epithelium derived from the patient's own iPS cells in September 2014 [1] and is under follow-up. As we are overwhelmed with this scientific feat, an analysis of the trends of stem cell based clinical trials globally [2] makes us realize that there is a wide variation in the clinical trials between the nations, with differences being observed in diseases that are given priority, cell sources that are being chosen, principles of ethics, regulatory frameworks etc,. A realization dawns that the scientific communities in each group or country have their own niche of cell based research leading to the above mentioned variations. While in Japan, a hi-tech iPS trial has started, Mazini et al from Morocco, describe the hurdles in creating a public cord blood bank in their country with a background of the regulatory guidelines existing there while Lee et al's work from the United States of America (USA focuses on microencapsulation of adipose derived stem cells. While each of the above subject are equally important, a global consortium is the need of the hour, where interactions among all the stake holders of cell based therapies can be established for enabling exchange of information, technology, solutions and products, thereby avoiding repetition of the same work, while gaining the insight of different viewpoints into solving an issue which could be of significance either to a local community or the entire global society. References: Reardon S, Cyranoski D. Japan stem-cell trial stirs envy. Nature. 2014 ;513(7518:287-8. Li MD, Atkins H, Bubela T. The global landscape of stem cell clinical trials. Regen Med. 2014;9(1:27-39.

  10. Thrombectomy within 8 hours after symptom onset in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovin, Tudor G; Chamorro, Angel; Cobo, Erik; de Miquel, María A; Molina, Carlos A; Rovira, Alex; San Román, Luis; Serena, Joaquín; Abilleira, Sonia; Ribó, Marc; Millán, Mònica; Urra, Xabier; Cardona, Pere; López-Cancio, Elena; Tomasello, Alejandro; Castaño, Carlos; Blasco, Jordi; Aja, Lucía; Dorado, Laura; Quesada, Helena; Rubiera, Marta; Hernandez-Pérez, María; Goyal, Mayank; Demchuk, Andrew M; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Gallofré, Miquel; Dávalos, Antoni

    2015-06-11

    We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy for the treatment of stroke in a trial embedded within a population-based stroke reperfusion registry. During a 2-year period at four centers in Catalonia, Spain, we randomly assigned 206 patients who could be treated within 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute ischemic stroke to receive either medical therapy (including intravenous alteplase when eligible) and endovascular therapy with the Solitaire stent retriever (thrombectomy group) or medical therapy alone (control group). All patients had confirmed proximal anterior circulation occlusion and the absence of a large infarct on neuroimaging. In all study patients, the use of alteplase either did not achieve revascularization or was contraindicated. The primary outcome was the severity of global disability at 90 days, as measured on the modified Rankin scale (ranging from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). Although the maximum planned sample size was 690, enrollment was halted early because of loss of equipoise after positive results for thrombectomy were reported from other similar trials. Thrombectomy reduced the severity of disability over the range of the modified Rankin scale (adjusted odds ratio for improvement of 1 point, 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.8) and led to higher rates of functional independence (a score of 0 to 2) at 90 days (43.7% vs. 28.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.0). At 90 days, the rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were 1.9% in both the thrombectomy group and the control group (P=1.00), and rates of death were 18.4% and 15.5%, respectively (P=0.60). Registry data indicated that only eight patients who met the eligibility criteria were treated outside the trial at participating hospitals. Among patients with anterior circulation stroke who could be treated within 8 hours after symptom onset, stent retriever thrombectomy reduced the severity of post-stroke disability and increased the

  11. International 24-Hour LEO Space Debris Measurement Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joseph; Letsch, Klemens; Blackwell, Christopher; McSheehy, Richard; Quanette, Juarez

    2017-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) provides the organizational framework for sponsoring periodic international measurement campaigns of the space debris environment. The IADC has conducted two types of campaigns: high altitude campaigns designed to measure the debris environment at near-geostationary altitudes using mostly optical telescopes, and low altitude campaigns using primarily radars. One of the goals of the low altitude campaigns is to collect data for 24 contiguous hours. This way, all orbit planes can be sampled. Multiple sensors are used, each with its own strengths and weaknesses, to provide a more complete understanding of the environment. Comparing results between sensors also provides a better understanding of the potential biases resulting from any one sensor. Conducting the campaigns at roughly regular intervals over a long period also allows researchers to examine trends and growth of the environment over time. For this reason, low altitude campaigns are anticipated at two-year intervals. This is the eighth IADC low altitude campaign conducted. The first campaign was conducted in 1996 and two campaigns were conducted in 1999. The 2002 campaign was delayed until January 2003 because of scheduling conflicts, and the fifth, sixth, and seventh campaigns were conducted in 2004, 2008, and 2013 respectively. The eighth campaign was conducted on 8 December 2015.

  12. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  13. Inflight Exercise Regimen for the 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Philip P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Woodruff, Kristin K.; Schneider, Susan M.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A 10 min aerobic prebreathe exercise up to 75% V-O2(sub max) on a dual-cycle ergometer, included in the 2-hour prebreathe protocol, has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) at altitude. In-flight only leg ergometry will be available. A balanced exercise was developed using surgical tubing with the ergometer on-orbit. We hypothesize that a 75% V02max workload, individually prescribed, would be achieved using a target heart rate to regulate the intensity of the arm exercise. VO2, heart rate (HR) / ECG, V-CO2 /V-O2, V(sub E), and V(sub T), and rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale) were measured in eleven healthy subjects who passed a US Air Force Class III Physical examination. A V-O2 peak test was performed to assess the sub-maximal exercise prescription. Two series of sub-maximal tests were performed: (1) leg ergometer/hand ergometer and (2) leg ergometer/surgical tubes. We found no significant differences (P > 0.05) in comparing the means for V-O2 and HR between the predicted and measured values during the final 4 minute-stage at "75% V-O2 workload" or between the two types of sub-maximal tests. The prescribed prebreathe sub-maximal exercise performed with flight certified surgical tubes was achieved using the target HR.

  14. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  15. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc and cognitive test battery (CTB performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature. Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance.

  16. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  17. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is now installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. Two extended test of >1000 hr operation have been completed. Those results and discussion thereof are reported herein. Also included in Appendix A is the detailed description of the blower and its installation, while Appendix B documents the pressure vessel design analysis. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced. Test results and conclusions are in Appendix B.

  18. Infectious encephalitis: Management without etiological diagnosis 48hours after onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillatre, P; Crabol, Y; Morand, P; Piroth, L; Honnorat, J; Stahl, J P; Lecuit, M

    2017-05-01

    The etiological diagnosis of infectious encephalitis is often not established 48hours after onset. We aimed to review existing literature data before providing management guidelines. We performed a literature search on PubMed using filters such as "since 01/01/2000", "human", "adults", "English or French", and "clinical trial/review/guidelines". We also used the Mesh search terms "encephalitis/therapy" and "encephalitis/diagnosis". With Mesh search terms "encephalitis/therapy" and "encephalitis/diagnosis", we retrieved 223 and 258 articles, respectively. With search terms "encephalitis and corticosteroid", we identified 38 articles, and with "encephalitis and doxycycline" without the above-mentioned filters we identified 85 articles. A total of 210 articles were included in the analysis. Etiological investigations must focus on recent travels, animal exposures, age, immunodeficiency, neurological damage characteristics, and potential extra-neurological signs. The interest of a diagnosis of encephalitis for which there is no specific treatment is also to discontinue any empirical treatments initially prescribed. Physicians must consider and search for autoimmune encephalitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Approach to decreasing emergency department ambulance diversion hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilke, Gary M; Brown, Lana; Skogland, Patty; Simmons, Charles; Guss, David A

    2004-02-01

    Analysis between two local Emergency Departments (EDs) suggested an oscillatory phenomenon for ambulance diversion: When one hospital went on diversion it led to a disproportionate flow of ambulance traffic to a neighboring facility that subsequently was forced to go on divert. We hypothesized if one hospital could avoid diversion status, the need for diversion could be averted in the neighboring facility. ED A secured additional resources and made a commitment to no diversion for 1 week. No changes in operations occurred in hospital B. We found no differences in ambulance runs or ED census at either facility comparing the week before, during, and after the trial. There was a dramatic decline in diversion hours from 19.7 to 1.4 and 27.7 to 0 at hospitals A and B, respectively, during the trial period (p < 0.05) compared to the weeks before and after. We conclude that reciprocating effects can be decreased with one institution's commitment to avoid diversion, thus decreasing the need for diversion at a neighboring facility.

  20. Latent error detection: A golden two hours for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saward, Justin R E; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-03-01

    Undetected error in safety critical contexts generates a latent condition that can contribute to a future safety failure. The detection of latent errors post-task completion is observed in naval air engineers using a diary to record work-related latent error detection (LED) events. A systems view is combined with multi-process theories to explore sociotechnical factors associated with LED. Perception of cues in different environments facilitates successful LED, for which the deliberate review of past tasks within two hours of the error occurring and whilst remaining in the same or similar sociotechnical environment to that which the error occurred appears most effective. Identified ergonomic interventions offer potential mitigation for latent errors; particularly in simple everyday habitual tasks. It is thought safety critical organisations should look to engineer further resilience through the application of LED techniques that engage with system cues across the entire sociotechnical environment, rather than relying on consistent human performance. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to Big Data analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  2. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is now installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. Two extended tests of >1000 hr operation have been completed. Those results and discussion thereof are reported herein. Also included in Appendix A is the detailed description of the blower and its installation, while Appendix B documents the pressure vessel design analysis. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long-term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced. Test results and conclusions are in Appendix B.

  3. Full reconstruction of a 14-qubit state within four hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhibo; Zhong, Han-Sen; Tian, Ye; Dong, Daoyi; Qi, Bo; Li, Li; Wang, Yuanlong; Nori, Franco; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-08-01

    Full quantum state tomography (FQST) plays a unique role in the estimation of the state of a quantum system without a priori knowledge or assumptions. Unfortunately, since FQST requires informationally (over)complete measurements, both the number of measurement bases and the computational complexity of data processing suffer an exponential growth with the size of the quantum system. A 14-qubit entangled state has already been experimentally prepared in an ion trap, and the data processing capability for FQST of a 14-qubit state seems to be far away from practical applications. In this paper, the computational capability of FQST is pushed forward to reconstruct a 14-qubit state with a run time of only 3.35 hours using the linear regression estimation (LRE) algorithm, even when informationally overcomplete Pauli measurements are employed. The computational complexity of the LRE algorithm is first reduced from ∼1019 to ∼1015 for a 14-qubit state, by dropping all the zero elements, and its computational efficiency is further sped up by fully exploiting the parallelism of the LRE algorithm with parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) programming. Our result demonstrates the effectiveness of using parallel computation to speed up the postprocessing for FQST, and can play an important role in quantum information technologies with large quantum systems.

  4. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  5. Glucose turnover in 48-hour-fasted running rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, B.; Mikines, K.J.; Galbo, H.

    1987-03-01

    In fed rats, hyperglycemia develops during exercise. This contrasts with the view based on studies of fasted human and dog that euglycemia is maintained in exercise and glucose production (R/sub a/) controlled by feedback mechanisms. Forty-eight-hour-fasted rats (F) were compared to fed rats (C) and overnight food-restricted (FR) rats. (3-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)glucose were infused and blood and tissue sampled. During running (21 m/min, 0% grade) R/sub a/ increased most in C and least in F and only in F did R/sub a/ not significantly exceed glucose disappearance. Plasma glucose increased more in C (3.3 mmol/1) than in FR (1.6 mmol/l) and only modestly (0.6 mmol/l) and transiently in F. Resting liver glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and similar in FR and F. Resting muscle glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and lowest in F. During running, lactate production and gluconeogenesis were higher in FR than in F. At least in rats, responses of production and plasma concentration of glucose to exercise depend on size of liver and muscle glycogen stores; glucose production matches increase in clearance better in fasted than in fed states. Probably glucose production is stimulated by feedforward mechanisms and feedback mechanisms are added if plasma glucose decreases.

  6. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  7. Ergogenic demands of a 24 hour cycling event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J A; Ward, C; Nelson, H

    1984-09-01

    The maximal aerobic performance (VO2 max) and energy costs of cycling at various power outputs and equivalent road speeds of a highly trained endurance cyclist (age 23.4 yrs, height 1.95 m, weight 73.1 kg), were measured in the laboratory on an eddy-current cycle ergometer, and the physiological responses related to determinations made during a 24 h cycling time trial event, using continuous ECG recording from which estimates of ergogenic demands were obtained. The cyclist covered a distance of 694 km during the event at an average speed of 28.9 km.h-1 which corresponded to an equivalent oxygen cost of 38.5 ml.kg-1 min-1 and represented approximately 55% of his VO2 max. During the event, the cyclist expended an estimated 82,680 kJ of energy, of which approximately 44,278 kJ (54%) were supplied by repeated feedings of liquids, solids and semi-solids and some 38,402 kJ (46%) came from the stored energy reserves which resulted in a 1.19 kg loss of body weight during the event. The energy demands of the activity were more than three times greater than the highest recorded values of severe industrial work, and similar to the hourly rates of expenditure of shorter duration competitive events, but above the highest values reported over other extreme endurance events over the same period of time. The results thus represent near maximal levels of sustainable ergogenic effort by man over a complete 24 h cycle.

  8. Exploring the experiences patients who undergo 24hour Video- electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigoni Fountouki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a frequent neurological disorder well-known by ancient times. The most accurate and valid diagnostic tool for epilepsy, is electroencephalography which provides details on the brain's function by recording brain cells' waves. Aim of the study was the exploration of the patients' total experience at a psychological and emotional level during a 24hour EEG. Materials and Methods: The sample included 40 subjects aged 18-40 years with a history or suspicion of epileptic symptoms. Due to the study's explorative/explicative nature, a qualitative research design was used. Data collection was performed through semi-structured interviews, direct observations and field notes. Following patients' permission, the interviews were recorded and the verbatim data was analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: The verbatim text was the raw material where key words or phrases with autonomous meaning, relevant to the study's aims where subsequently organized in 4 major themes and 20 sub-categories, namely: Emotional-Psychological state (Positive: Joy, Optimism, Positive Thinking, Self-Confidence. Negative: Sadness, Anxiety, Fear, Panic, Pessimism. Behavior of patients (Calmness, Comfort, Nervousness, Aggravation. Options for patient involvement (TV, Reading, Music, Sleep, Lack of internet. Interpersonal relationships (family, friendly. Conclusions: During achieving the study's aims, many methodological and practical obstacles have been encountered as it proved to be particularly challenging to encompass patients' emotions and accurately cite their experiences during the EEG. However, results that have been revealed are adequate in formulating a holistic picture about the psychological state and the emotions that patients experience during the procedure.

  9. Padronização do desmame da ventilação mecânica em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: resultados após um ano Standardization of weaning of the mechanical ventilation in a Intensive Care Unit: results afterwards one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogério de Carvalho Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    : Method: It was included in this study all the patients in program of liberation from the mechanical ventilation, in which the evolution of the weaning was followed by the utilization of a pre-establish protocol and publicated by the service. RESULTS: It was studied 127 patients. In 91% (115 of the patients we had success in the weaning and unsuccess in 9% (12. The non-invasive ventilation after the extubation was utilized in 19% (24 of them. None obit was observed. Comparing the group of the patients that had success with the failed group, there were no statistically significant variations observed in sex (p = 0.96, APACHE II (19.5 versus 18.6 p = 0.75, risk of obit (29% versus 22% p = 0.54, MIP (38 versus 32 cmH2O p = 0.17, duration of mechanical ventilation (6 versus 7 days p = 0.70, PaO2/FiO2 relation (324 versus 312 p = 0.83, weaning modality (PSV or T Tube p = 0.29. There were statistically significant variations observed in rapid shallow respiratory index (59 versus 77 p = 0.02 and duration of the weaning (1 versus 30 hours p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The weaning of the ventilation realized following the standardization brought improvement in its conduction, maintaining the high success index with low mortality.

  10. Stochastic modeling of hourly rainfall times series in Campania (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, M.; Greco, R.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of flowslides and floods in small catchments is uneasy to predict, since it is affected by a number of variables, such as mechanical and hydraulic soil properties, slope morphology, vegetation coverage, rainfall spatial and temporal variability. Consequently, landslide risk assessment procedures and early warning systems still rely on simple empirical models based on correlation between recorded rainfall data and observed landslides and/or river discharges. Effectiveness of such systems could be improved by reliable quantitative rainfall prediction, which can allow gaining larger lead-times. Analysis of on-site recorded rainfall height time series represents the most effective approach for a reliable prediction of local temporal evolution of rainfall. Hydrological time series analysis is a widely studied field in hydrology, often carried out by means of autoregressive models, such as AR, ARMA, ARX, ARMAX (e.g. Salas [1992]). Such models gave the best results when applied to the analysis of autocorrelated hydrological time series, like river flow or level time series. Conversely, they are not able to model the behaviour of intermittent time series, like point rainfall height series usually are, especially when recorded with short sampling time intervals. More useful for this issue are the so-called DRIP (Disaggregated Rectangular Intensity Pulse) and NSRP (Neymann-Scott Rectangular Pulse) model [Heneker et al., 2001; Cowpertwait et al., 2002], usually adopted to generate synthetic point rainfall series. In this paper, the DRIP model approach is adopted, in which the sequence of rain storms and dry intervals constituting the structure of rainfall time series is modeled as an alternating renewal process. Final aim of the study is to provide a useful tool to implement an early warning system for hydrogeological risk management. Model calibration has been carried out with hourly rainfall hieght data provided by the rain gauges of Campania Region civil

  11. Forecasting of Hourly Photovoltaic Energy in Canarian Electrical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, D.; Castaño, C.; Nebot, R.; Piernavieja, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    2010-09-01

    The Canarian Archipelago face similar problems as most insular region lacking of endogenous conventional energy resources and not connected to continental electrical grids. A consequence of the "insular fact" is the existence of isolated electrical systems that are very difficult to interconnect due to the considerable sea depths between the islands. Currently, the Canary Islands have six isolated electrical systems, only one utility generating most of the electricity (burning fuel), a recently arrived TSO (REE) and still a low implementation of Renewable Energy Resources (RES). The low level of RES deployment is a consequence of two main facts: the weakness of the stand-alone grids (from 12 MW in El Hierro up to only 1 GW in Gran Canaria) and the lack of space to install RES systems (more than 50% of the land protected due to environmental reasons). To increase the penetration of renewable energy generation, like solar or wind energy, is necessary to develop tools to manage them. The penetration of non manageable sources into weak grids like the Canarian ones causes a big problem to the grid operator. There are currently 104 MW of PV connected to the islands grids (Dec. 2009) and additional 150 MW under licensing. This power presents a serious challenge for the operation and stability of the electrical system. ITC, together with the local TSO (Red Eléctrica de España, REE) started in 2008 and R&D project to develop a PV energy prediction tool for the six Canarian Insular electrical systems. The objective is to supply reliable information for hourly forecast of the generation dispatch programme and to predict daily solar radiation patterns, in order to help program spinning reserves. ITC has approached the task of weather forecasting using different numerical model (MM5 and WRF) in combination with MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) images. From the online data recorded at several monitored PV plants and meteorological stations, PV nominal power and energy produced

  12. STRESSORS IN NURSING WITH DOUBLE OR MORE WORKING HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinir Bezerra de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: investigar os principais agentes estressores nos trabalhadores de enfermagem com dupla ou mais jornada de trabalho; verificar os principais sinais e sintomas indicadores de estresse. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa. Desenvolvido em um hospital público da região metropolitana de Fortaleza-CE. A amostra constitui-se de 30 profissionais, sendo 46,7% auxiliares de enfermagem, 33,3% enfermeiros e 20% técnicos. A coleta ocorreu de novembro a dezembro de 2008, por meio de questionário semi-estruturado. Resultados: 93,3% dos profissionais são do sexo feminino na faixa etária de 31-40 anos. O estudo revelou vários fatores levando ao estresse, com destaque para insatisfação salarial (83%, falta de lazer (73% e sobrecarga de trabalho (60%, potencialmente prejudiciais à qualidade da assistência. Conclusão: percebeu-se a escassez de tempo que os trabalhadores de enfermagem dedicam ao descanso, ao lazer, ao convívio em família e à sua qualificação profissional. Descritores: Saúde mental, Estresse Ocupacional, Enfermagem, Ambiente de trabalho.   Abstract Objective: To investigate the main stressors in nursing workers double or more working hours, check the main signs and symptoms indicative of stress. Methods: A descriptive study with quantitative approach. It was developed in a public hospital in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza. The sample consisted of 30 professionals, and 46.7% nursing auxiliaries, 33.3% nurses and 20% technical. The data was collected during November-December 2008, through semi-structured questionnaire. Results: 93.3% of professionals are women aged 31-40 years. The study revealed several factors leading to stress, especially wage dissatisfaction (83%, lack of leisure (73% and workload (60%, potentially damaging the quality of care. Conclusion: it was perceived scarcity of time that the nursing staff dedicated to rest, leisure, living with the family and their professional

  13. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

  14. CMAQv5.1 Base NEIv1 AQS hourly site compare files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQv5.1 Base NEIv1 AQS hourly sitex files containing hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  15. Part 6: GPS Telemetry Detection Rates (Cougar FSR by Hour), GCS NAD83 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cougar GPS collar fix success varied by hour-of-day suggesting circadian rhythms with bouts of rest during daylight hours may change the orientation of the GPS...

  16. 75 FR 33664 - Hours of Service of Drivers: RockTenn, Application for Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... ``hurry back'' within 8 hours. As a result of the mandatory 10 hours off-duty requirement, RockTenn... drug testing, medical certification, and other driver-qualification requirements. RockTenn,...

  17. 29 CFR 778.406 - Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Exceptions From the Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.406 Nonovertime hours as well as overtime...

  18. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  19. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing... Charges § 91.37 Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services. (a) The standard hourly fee rate in this section for the individual laboratory analyses cover the costs of...

  20. Optimal staffing under an annualized hours regime using Cross-Entropy optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    This paper discusses staffing under annualized hours. Staffing is the selection of the most cost-efficient workforce to cover workforce demand. Annualized hours measure working time per year instead of per week, relaxing the restriction for employees to work the same number of hours every week. To

  1. Accumulated chilling hours during endodormancy impact blooming and fruit shape developmentin peach (Prunus persicaL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; FANG Wei-chao; ZHU Geng-rui; CAO Ke; CHEN Chang-wen; WANG Xin-wei; WANG Li-rong

    2016-01-01

    Winter chil is essential for the growth and development of deciduous species. To understand the relationship between accumulated chiling hours during endodormancy and blooming and fruit shape development, we controled chiling hours and investigated their effects on blooming date and fruit shape of peaches. The results showed that the number of days to full bloom date and the heat requirement for blooming were negatively correlated with accumulated chilling hours. Accumulated chiling hours were signiifcantly negatively correlated with fruit shape index and fruit tip lengths, suggesting that the number of chiling hours affect the fruit shape development. Fewer accumulated chiling hours may be the major reason for longer fruit shape and protruding fruit tips. In conclusion, our results indicate speciifcaly that decreased winter chiling hours can delay the bloom date and may lead to aberrant fruit shape development in peaches. Our study provides preliminary insights into the response of temperate fruit species to global climate change.

  2. A Comparison of 4- and 24-Hour Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Proteinuria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Amirabi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and it is vital to diagnosis the condition as early as possible. Proteinuria is an important symptom of preeclampsia, and repeated urine analysis to screen for the condition is part of the standard antenatal care. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine total protein values to examine whether the 4-hour urine samples could be used for the diagnosis of proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 110 pregnant (after gestational week 20 of pregnancy patients who were hypertensive (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and had proteinuria as defined by positive urinary protein of at least 1+ in dipstick. Patients' urine samples were collected over 24 hours; the first 4 hours were collected separately from the next 20-hours. Patients, who did not collect the 24-hour urine, were excluded from the study. One hundred patients met the criteria, and were included in the study. The urine volume, total protein and creatinine levels of 4- and 24-hours samples were measured. The correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour samples was examined using Pearson correlation test. Results: Of the 100 patients, 42 had no proteinuria, 44 had mild proteinuria, and 14 had severe proteinuria. The urine protein values of 4-hour samples correlated with those of the 24-hours samples for patients with mild and severe forms of the disease (P<0.001, r=0.86. Conclusion: This study showed there was a correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour urine proteins. The finding indicates that a random 4-hour sample might be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria

  3. Image, Imagery Thinking and the Twenty -four Poetry Style%意象、意象思维与《二十四诗品》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金路杰

    2012-01-01

    Imagery thinking is the unique ancient Chinese way of thinking, both in poetry writing and poetry review. The author uses images to express his mind. Sikong Tu's Twenty -Your Poetry Style in the Tang Dynasty is absolutely the aesthetic model in which there are intensive image groups constituted by the refining phrases in the text, in order to reflect the classical poetics. On the other hand, Sikong Tu is not only a theorist but also a poet; the book contains a profound meaning.%意象思维是中国古代特有一种思维方式,无论是诗歌创作还是诗学评论,即通过意象来表达作者的情思。唐代司空图的《二十四诗品》无疑就是其中的美学典范,文本中有着大量的精炼性词组构成的密集意象群,以此来体现古典文人的诗歌创作论和诗歌批评论。同时由于司空图的妙笔生花,《诗品》集诗学与诗歌一体的文本特殊性,又分析了《诗品》意象下所隐含的精神内涵。

  4. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  5. Determination of the Chronic Mammalian Toxicological Effects of TNT (twenty-Four Month Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Study of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) in the Fischer 344 Rat). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    4 SELJPITV :ZASSI rICA TION Z~ THIS HACE I -i - ~ - - . . - Contract No. DAMD17-79-C-9120 IITRI Project No. L6116 Study No. 9...for cataract formation (Table 1). Al Test Week 103, a higher incidence of cataracts was observed in el tesi groups. Although the incidences of

  6. Twenty-four mini-pool HCV RNA screening in a routine clinical virology laboratory setting: a six-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seme, Katja; Mocilnik, Tina; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening strategy was re-evaluated after a six-year continuous routine use in a clinical virology laboratory, at which more than half of newly diagnosed hepatitis C patients are intravenous drug users. Pools of 24 samples were prepared from 20,448 anti-HCV negative serum samples and tested using an automated commercial PCR assay with a lower limit of detection of 50 IU/ml. After detection of anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patients, responsible physicians provided follow-up samples. Thirty-eight (0.19%) anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive samples from 30 patients (28 intravenous drug users) were detected. Follow-up samples were available for 27/30 patients. Twenty, six and one patient seroconverted in the second, third and fourth available samples, respectively. The interval between the first HCV RNA positive and the first available anti-HCV positive sample was 17-517 days. The costs of detecting a single anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patient were 1227 Euros. Combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening is a useful and cost effective strategy, not only in blood-transfusion settings but also in a routine clinical virology laboratory, at which a significant proportion of the tested population belongs to a high-risk population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurocognitive performance and behavioral symptoms in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during twenty-four months of treatment with methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Chih-Ken; Huang, Yu-Shu

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the trends in neurocognitive function and behavioral symptoms among patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during 24 months of treatment with methylphenidate in a clinical setting. Study participants consisted of 181 ADHD patients with a mean age of 13.4±2.5 years (ages ranged from 8 to 18 years; 151 boys and 30 girls) who were prescribed oral short-acting methylphenidate two or three times daily, with each dose ranging between 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg. At baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months from baseline, neurocognitive function was assessed using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) on the day the patient was off medication, and behavioral symptoms were evaluated using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Version IV Scale for ADHD (SNAP-IV) parent form, the SNAP-IV teacher form, and the ADHD-Rating Scale (completed by a child psychiatrist). Of the 181 ADHD patients at the initial visit, 103 (56.9%) completed the study. During the 24-month methylphenidate treatment, only the commission errors in TOVA significantly improved; however, the omission errors, response time, response time variability, response sensitivity, and ADHD score did not. The behavioral symptoms of ADHD, observed by various informants, all declined substantially, and were significantly correlated with each other during the long-term follow-up. The severity of teacher ratings was lower than that of parent and psychiatrist ratings. However, the teacher-rated inattention symptoms showed the strongest correlations with TOVA performance. Findings suggest that neurocognitive deficits in ADHD patients, except inhibition ability, might be long lasting in realistic settings. In addition, obtaining behavior profile assessments from multiple informants, especially from teachers, is vital for establishing a complete understanding of ADHD patients.

  8. Clinical, functional and genetic analysis of twenty-four patients with chronic granulomatous disease - identification of eight novel mutations in CYBB and NCF2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Cécile; Mollin, Michelle; Beaumel, Sylvain; Brion, Jean Paul; Coutton, Charles; Satre, Véronique; Vieville, Gaëlle; Callanan, Mary; Lefebvre, Christine; Salmon, Alexandra; Pagnier, Anne; Plantaz, Dominique; Bost-Bru, Cécile; Eitenschenck, Laurence; Durieu, Isabelle; Floret, Daniel; Galambrun, Claire; Chambost, Hervé; Michel, Gérard; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Hermine, Olivier; Blanche, Stéphane; Blot, Nathalie; Rubié, Hervé; Pouessel, Guillaume; Drillon-Haus, Stephanie; Conrad, Bernard; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Havlicekova, Zuzana; Voskresenky-Baricic, Tamara; Jadranka, Kelecic; Arriazu, Maria Cristina; Garcia, Luis Alberto; Sfaihi, Lamia; Mansour, Lamia Sfaihi Ben; Bordigoni, Pierre; Stasia, Marie José

    2012-10-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease is an inherited disorder in which phagocytes lack a functional NADPH oxidase and cannot produce superoxide anions. The most common form is caused by mutations in CYBB encoding gp91phox. We investigated 24 CGD patients and their families. Twenty-one mutations in CYBB were classified as X91(0), X91(+) or X91(-) variants according to cytochrome b (558) expression. Point mutations in encoding regions represented 50 % of the mutations found in CYBB, splice site mutations 27 %, deletions and insertions 23 %. Eight mutations in CYBB were novel leading to X91(0)CGD cases. Two of these were point mutations: c493G>T and a double mutation c625C>G in exon 6 and c1510C>T in exon 12 leading to a premature stop codon at Gly165 in gp91phox and missense mutations His209Arg/Thr503Ile respectively. Two novel splice mutations in 5'intronic regions of introns 1 and 6 were found. A novel deletion/insertion c1024_1026delCTG/insT results in a frameshift introducing a stop codon at position 346 in gp91phox. The last novel mutation was the insertion of a T at c1373 leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 484 in gp91phox. For the first time the precise size of two large mutations in CYBB was determined by array-comparative genomic hybridization and carriers' status were evaluated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. No clear correlation between clinical severity and CYBB mutations could be established. Of three mutations in CYBA, NCF1 and NCF2 leading to rare autosomal recessive CGD, one nonsense mutation c29G>A in exon 1 of NCF2 was new.

  9. Correlations between phenolic content and antioxidant properties in twenty-four plant species of traditional ethnoveterinary use in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluzza, Giovanna; Bullitta, Simonetta

    2011-03-01

    Scientific information on antioxidant properties and phenolic content of less widely used plants can be useful. Therefore, the assessment of such properties remains an interesting and useful task, particularly for finding new sources for natural antioxidants, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. As knowledge about antioxidant properties and phenolic content of many plant species used as traditional plant remedies is limited, we determined in vitro the total antioxidant activity and the phenolic content of several plant species traditionally used for ethnoveterinary practices. For 24 extracts (70% acetone) from wild and cultivated plant species traditionally used for health care of animals we determined the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) by the two assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). The phenolic content was determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Total phenolics, calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE), showed variation ranging from 3.18 (Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae)) to 147.68 (Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae)) mgGAE/g dry weight (DW). High TEAC values corresponded to high phenolic content, while plants with low antioxidant activity exhibited low total phenolic content. The TEAC determined through each assay and total phenolic content were positively correlated, R² = 0.9152 and R² = 0.8896, respectively, for DPPH and ABTS assay. These findings suggest that phenolic content could be used as an indicator of antioxidant properties. The results of this study encourage investigations on Mediterranean plant species as sources of antioxidants.

  10. Development, characterization, and epitope mapping of a panel of twenty-four monoclonal antibodies specific for human inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Robert J; Rodriguez, John G; Webber, Douglas S; Dunnebacke, Thelma H

    2005-02-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) has been developed. By isotype analysis of the MAbs cloned from the 24 different positive hybridomas, 13 were determined to be mouse IgG1, two were mouse IgG2a, two were mouse IgG2b, and the seven others were mouse IgM antibodies: all contained kappa light chains. The anti-hiNOS MAbs were initially characterized by ELISA, RIA, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry, and then they were epitope mapped using synthetic peptides and a three-step mapping procedure. In the first step, each of the 24 MAbs was tested by indirect ELISA for binding to 96 overlapping 18-amino acid-long peptides that span the entire 1153-amino acid length of hiNOS. Eight IgG class anti-hiNOS MAbs were found to bind to one of five different peptides. In the second step, a series of amino terminal and carboxyl terminal truncated peptides were synthesized for each of the five peptides to which one or more of the MAbs bound. Each of the eight anti-hiNOS MAbs was found to bind to the truncated peptides with a unique specificity that identified the amino acid segment involved in binding. The third step in the epitope mapping process utilized three series of overlapping 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, and 9-amino acid-long peptides for each of these segments and identified the exact amino acids of hiNOS involved in antibody binding. Anti-hiNOS MAbs 2A1-F8, 2D2-B2, 21C10-1D10, and 24B10-2C7 were found to be especially useful in different immunoassays.

  11. Soft drinks : time trends and correlates in twenty-four European countries. A cross-national study using the DAFNE (Data Food Networking) databank

    OpenAIRE

    Naska, Androniki; Bountziouka, Vasiliki; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate time trends in the availability of soft drinks, to identify food choices associated with their consumption and to assess the relationship between socio-economic status and daily soft drink availability in a wide range of European countries. Design: Data on food and beverage availability collected through the national household budget surveys and harmonized in the DAFNE (Data Food Networking) project were used. Averages and variability of soft drink availability were est...

  12. Treatment and outcomes of an Australian cohort of outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder over twenty-four months: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jayashri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS is a 2-year, prospective, non-interventional, observational study designed to explore the clinical and functional outcomes associated with ‘real-world’ treatment of participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. All participants received treatment as usual. There was no study medication. Methods Participants prescribed either conventional mood stabilizers (CMS; n = 155 alone, or olanzapine with, or without, CMS (olanzapine ± CMS; n = 84 were assessed every 3 months using several measures, including the Young Mania Rating Scale, 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale – Bipolar Version, and the EuroQol Instrument. This paper reports 24-month longitudinal clinical, pharmacological, functional, and socioeconomic data. Results On average, participants were 42 (range 18 to 79 years of age, 58%; were female, and 73%; had a diagnosis of bipolar I. Polypharmacy was the usual approach to pharmacological treatment; participants took a median of 5 different psychotropic medications over the course of the study, and spent a median proportion of time of 100%; of the study on mood stabilizers, 90%; on antipsychotics, 9%; on antidepressants, and 5%; on benzodiazepines/hypnotics. By 24 months, the majority of participants had achieved both symptomatic and syndromal remission of both mania and depression. Symptomatic relapse rates were similar for both the CMS alone (65%; and the olanzapine ± CMS (61%; cohorts. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in this study were receiving complex medication treatments that were often discordant with recommendations made in contemporary major treatment guidelines. The majority of study participants demonstrated some clinical and functional improvements, but not all achieved remission of symptoms or syndrome.

  13. Twenty-four-week effects of liraglutide on body composition, adherence to appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondanelli M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mariangela Rondanelli,1 Simone Perna,1 Paolo Astrone,2 Annalisa Grugnetti,2 Sebastiano Bruno Solerte,2 Davide Guido3,4 1Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Section of Human Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Medical and Genomics Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Liraglutide has well-known effects on glucose patterns. However, its several other metabolic properties are still controversial. Given this background, the aims of the present study are to evaluate the effects of 24-week liraglutide treatment on body composition, appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods: A cohort study was carried out on overweight and obese T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c equal to 6% (42 mmol/mol-10% (86 mmol/mol, under a 3-month treatment (at least with maximal dose of metformin as stable regime, by adding liraglutide at doses up to 3 mg/d. Body composition markers were measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was monitored by glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment. Finally, the appetite sensation and plasma lipids were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-eight subjects (male/female: 16/12, mean age: 58.75±9.33 years, body mass index: 34.13±5.46 kg/m2 were evaluated. Accounting for the adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, we noted significant decreases in body mass index (-0.86 kg/m2, P=0.024, fat mass (-2.01 kg, P=0.015, fat mass index (-0.71 kg/m2, P=0.014, android fat (-1.72%, P=0.022, trunk fat (-1.52%, P=0.016, and waist circumference (-6.86 cm, P<0.001 from the baseline values. Haber score was increased by 3.82 units (P=0.009, and the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors was decreased (-0.69 units, P=0.012. The glucose control variables and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio also showed significant decreases from baseline values. Conclusion: The 24-week liraglutide treatment leads to the reduction of fat mass, android fat, trunk fat, and appetite by improving the lipid profile, glucose control, and insulin sensitivity. Keywords: liraglutide, weight loss, body composition, fat mass, type 2 diabetes mellitus, appetite

  14. Global Ecological Signpost, Local Reality: The Moraballi Creek Studies in Guyana and What Happened Afterwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Bulkan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a common assumption that when sustainable forest management (SFM is not practised the reasons are usually a lack of knowledge or lack of training in applying those techniques. We trace the intermittent development of techniques for SFM in the tropical rainforest of Guyana (South America, beginning with the classical observational ecology at Moraballi Creek in 1929. We reference the deliberate lack of application of SFM in spite of access to science-based information and repeated training. In this country, a precarious political democracy is destabilised by the gigantic profits from illegal logging and log trading which support corruption in the sector and generally across regulatory systems. The highest rate of graduate emigration in the world contributes to the difficulty of creating the core of moral leadership required to rise above the local tradition of under-the-table negotiation in place of the rule of law.

  15. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology: An Afterward to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Satodiya, Ritvij; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-12-01

    The articles in this Special Issue are devoted to integrating the fields of disaster mental health and positive psychology. Their focus on resilience building, individual and community preparation, meaning making, and posttraumatic growth represents an important new development in disaster mental health. The overarching goal of this effort is to inform strategies to help both individuals-including children, adolescent, adult disaster survivors, and relief workers-and communities prepare for, respond to, recover from, and possibly even grow stronger in the face of adversity. To achieve this goal, this body of literature suggests that it is important for disaster mental health workers to partner with community leaders, organizations, and the population at large to understand community vulnerabilities, take advantage of existing strengths, and respect cultural factors implicated in disaster recovery. It further suggests that an effective community-based approach to disaster recovery will make psychosocial support and skill-building programs available to large numbers of survivors, which is critical for responding to future national and international disasters. Continued high-quality research that is comprehensive and considers not only relevant psychological, social, cultural, and biological factors but also interrelations between individuals, organizations and communities is needed to advance this relatively new and important direction of the disaster mental health field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Verdere uitbouw van 'From Revolution to Reconstruction ....and what happened afterwards'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    A Hypertext on American History from the colonial period until Modern Times Department of Humanities Computing, University of Groningen, The Netherlands The main body of this hypertext project, which was started in 1994, comes from a number of USIA-publications: An Outline of American History, An Ou

  17. Educating Women Students in the Academy to Confront Gender Discrimination and Contribute to Equity Afterward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentkowski, Marcia; Rogers, Glen

    2010-01-01

    We argue that (1) faculty and other academic professionals who educate undergraduate women in capabilities such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership that are integrated with the disciplines (e.g., biology, history, fine arts) and professions (e.g., education, nursing, management) indirectly assist their students to confront gender…

  18. Rural Hospital Mergers and Acquisitions: Which Hospitals Are Being Acquired and How Are They Performing Afterward?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Marissa J; Reiter, Kristin L; Boortz-Marx, Jonathan; Pink, George

    2015-01-01

    The number of stand-alone rural hospitals has been shrinking as larger health systems target these hospitals for mergers and acquisitions (M and As). However, little research has focused specifically on rural hospital M and A transactions. Using data from Irving Levin Associates' Healthcare M and A Report and Medicare Cost Reports from 2005 to 2012, we examined two research questions: (1) What were the characteristics of rural hospitals that merged or were acquired, and (2) were there changes in rural hospital financial performance, staffing, or services after an M and A transaction? We used logistic regression to identify factors predictive of merger, and we used multiple regression to examine various hospital measures after an M or A. Study results showed that hospitals with weaker financial performance but lower staffing levels and staffing costs were more likely to merge or be acquired. Statistically weak evidence suggested that operating margins declined after the merger; stronger evidence suggested reductions in salary expense. There was no statistically significant evidence of changes to the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) employees, the service lines that were included in the study, capital expenditures, or the amount of debt financing among the hospitals that merged or were acquired. M and A may not result in a rapid influx of capital, a relief of debt burden, or an improvement in bottom-line profitability. However, M and A may be a viable option for maintaining the hospital and the access to care it provides.

  19. Long working hours and health status among employees in Europe: between-country differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Basart, Helena; Borrell, Carme

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to (i) identify family responsibilities associated with moderately long working hours (41-60 hours a week); (ii) examine the relationship between moderately long working hours and three health outcomes; and (iii) analyze whether patterns differ by welfare state regimes. The sample was composed of all employees aged 16-64 years working 30-60 hours a week interviewed in the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey (9288 men and 6295 women). We fitted multiple logistic regression models separated by sex and welfare state regime typologies. Married males were more likely to work long hours in countries with male breadwinner models whereas family responsibilities were related to long working hours among both sexes in countries with dual breadwinner models. The association between long working hours and health was (i) stronger among men in countries with male breadwinner models, primarily in Anglo-Saxon countries [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) associated with working 51-60 hours of 6.43, 6.04 and 9.60 for work-related poor health status, stress and psychological distress, respectively); (ii) similar among both sexes in Nordic countries; and (iii) stronger among women in Eastern European countries. In the European Union of 25 members (EU-25), working moderately long hours is associated with poor health outcomes with different patterns depending on welfare state regimes. The findings from this study suggest that the family responsibilities and breadwinner models can help explain the relationship between long working hours and health status.

  20. Long-term forecasting of hourly electricity load: Identification of consumption profiles and segmentation of customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Data for aggregated hourly electricity demand shows systematic variations over the day, week, and seasons, and forecasting of aggregated hourly electricity load has been the subject of many studies. With hourly metering of individual customers, data for individual consumption profiles is availabl...... as the shares of consumption by categories of customers change and new consumption technologies such as electrical vehicles and (for Denmark in particular) individual heat pumps are introduced. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Data for aggregated hourly electricity demand shows systematic variations over the day, week, and seasons, and forecasting of aggregated hourly electricity load has been the subject of many studies. With hourly metering of individual customers, data for individual consumption profiles is available....... Using this data and analysing the case of Denmark, we show that consumption profiles for categories of customers are equally systematic but very different for distinct categories, that is, distinct categories of customers contribute differently to the aggregated electricity load profile. Therefore...

  1. Hour of Code”: Can It Change Students’ Attitudes toward Programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Wimmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students’ attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two universities was selected to participate. Participants completed an Hour of Code tutorial as part of an undergraduate course. An electronic questionnaire was implemented in a pre-survey and post-survey format to gauge the change in student attitudes toward programming and their programming ability. The findings indicated the positive impact of the Hour of Code tutorial on students’ attitude toward programming. However, the students’ programming skills did not significantly change. The authors suggest that a deeper alignment of marketing, teaching, and content would help sustain the type of initiative exemplified by the Hour of Code.

  2. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI, food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  3. Effect of the timing of admission upon patient prognosis in the Intensive Care Unit: On-hours versus off-hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, A; Hermosa, C; Enciso, V; Torrejón, I; Molina, R; Díaz, M; Mozo, T; Gordo, F; Salinas, I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the repercussion of the timing of admission to the ICU upon patient prognosis. A prospective, observational, non-interventional cohort study was carried out. A second level hospital with 210 operational beds and a general ICU with 8 operational beds. The study comprised all patients admitted to the ICU during 3 years (January 2010 to December 2012), excluding those subjects admitted from the operating room after scheduled surgery. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of admission (on-hours or off-hours). Non-interventional study. An analysis was made of demographic variables (age, sex), origin (emergency room, hospital ward, operating room), comorbidities and SAPS 3 as severity score upon admission, length of stay in the ICU and hospital ward, and ICU and hospital mortality. A total of 504 patients were included in the on-hours group, versus 602 in the off-hours group. Multivariate analysis showed the factors independently associated to hospital mortality to be SAPS 3 (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.08-1.12), and off-hours admission (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.20-3.33). In a subgroup analysis of the off-hours group, the admission of patients on weekends or non-working days compared to daily night shifts was found to be independently associated to hospital mortality (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.23-4.30). Admission to the ICU in off-hours is independently associated to patient mortality, which is also higher in patients admitted on weekends and non-working days compared to the daily night shifts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. METHODS: We......-response association for stroke, with RR estimates of 1·10 (95% CI 0·94-1·28; p=0·24) for 41-48 working hours, 1·27 (1·03-1·56; p=0·03) for 49-54 working hours, and 1·33 (1·11-1·61; p=0·002) for 55 working hours or more per week compared with standard working hours (ptrendwork...... long hours have a higher risk of stroke than those working standard hours; the association with coronary heart disease is weaker. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the management of vascular risk factors in individuals who work long hours. FUNDING: Medical Research Council...

  5. Variation Characteristics of Sunshine Hours and Its Reason Analysis over Loess Plateau of Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study variation characteristics of sunshine hours over Loess Plateau of Shaanxi during 1961-2010.[Method] By using the climate tendency rate,climate trend coefficient and linear correlation,the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of sunshine hours in Loess Plateau of Shaanxi in recent 50 years were analyzed.Moreover,the main reason for inducing variation of sunshine hours in the zone was discussed.[Result] In recent 50 years,the variation of annual sunshine hours...

  6. Association Between Flexible Duty Hour Policies and General Surgery Resident Examination Performance: A Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Eddie; Hewitt, D Brock; Chung, Jeanette W; Biester, Thomas; Fiore, James F; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Lewis, Frank R; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Concerns persist about the effect of current duty hour reforms on resident educational outcomes. We investigated whether a flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policy (Flexible Policy) was associated with differential general surgery examination performance compared with current ACGME duty hour policy (Standard Policy). We obtained examination scores on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, Qualifying Examination (written boards), and Certifying Examination (oral boards) for residents in 117 general surgery residency programs that participated in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial. Using bivariate analyses and regression models, we compared resident examination performance across study arms (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) for 2015 and 2016, and 1 year of the Qualifying Examination and Certifying Examination. Adjusted analyses accounted for program-level factors, including the stratification variable for randomization. In 2016, FIRST trial participants were 4,363 general surgery residents. Mean American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores for residents were not significantly different between study groups (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) overall (Flexible Policy: mean [SD] 502.6 [100.9] vs Standard Policy: 502.7 [98.6]; p = 0.98) or for any individual postgraduate year level. There was no difference in pass rates between study arms for either the Qualifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 90.4% vs Standard Policy: 90.5%; p = 0.99) or Certifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 86.3% vs Standard Policy: 88.6%; p = 0.24). Results from adjusted analyses were consistent with these findings. Flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policies were not associated with differences in general surgery resident performance on examinations during the FIRST Trial. However, more years under flexible duty hour policies might be needed to observe an effect. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons

  7. 30 CFR 48.25 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... receive the remainder of the required 24 hours of training, or up to 16 hours, within 60 days. Operators...' representatives; and an introduction to the operator's rules and the procedures for reporting hazards. (2) Self...) Introduction to work environment. The course shall include a visit and tour of the mine, or portions of...

  8. 29 CFR 778.319 - Paying for but not counting hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION... more hours have been worked, the employee must be paid overtime compensation at not less than one and... of the applicable maximum hours standard, extra half-time compensation will be due regardless of...

  9. 29 CFR 778.308 - The overtime rate is an hourly rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION...) Section 7(a) of the Act requires the payment of overtime compensation for hours worked in excess of the... compensation (except statutory exclusions) by the total hours of work for which the payment is made. To...

  10. 49 CFR 1245.3 - Employees; definition, service hours, and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees; definition, service hours, and... CLASSIFICATION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; REPORTS OF SERVICE AND COMPENSATION § 1245.3 Employees; definition, service hours, and compensation. (a) Definition of “employees”. The word employees, as used in this part,...

  11. The Impact of 2011 ACGME Duty Hour Restrictions on Internal Medicine Resident Workload and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucicevic, Darko; Mookadam, Farouk; Webb, Brandon J.; Labonte, Helene R.; Cha, Stephen S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2015-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented work hour restrictions for physicians in training in 2003 that were revised July 1, 2011. Current published data are insufficient to assess whether such work hour restrictions will have long-term impact on residents' education. We searched computer-generated reports…

  12. Employees' views on home-based, after-hours telephone triage by Dutch GP cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Backhaus (Ramona); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Background:__ Dutch out-of-hours (OOH) centers find it difficult to attract sufficient triage staff. They regard home-based triage as an option that might attract employees. Specially trained nurses are supposed to conduct triage by telephone from home for after-hour

  13. Impact of duty hours restrictions on quality of care and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Jignesh; Montgomery, Daniel; Li, Jin; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Saab, Fadi; Motivala, Apurva; Froehlich, James B; Parekh, Vikas; Del Valle, John; Eagle, Kim A

    2007-11-01

    In July 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted residency duty-hours requirements in response to growing concerns regarding clinician fatigue and the incidence of medical errors. These changes, which limited maximum continuous hours worked and total hours per week, often resulted in increased discontinuity of care. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the duty-hours restrictions on quality of care and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1003 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome admitted to the University of Michigan Hospital between July 2002 and June 2004. Patients were stratified by hospital admission during academic year 2002-2003 (pre-duty-hours changes, n=572) and academic year 2003-2004 (post-duty-hours changes, n=431). Main outcome measures included differences in adherence to quality indicators, length of stay, and in-hospital and 6-month adverse events. Post-duty-hours changes, there was an increase in the usage of beta-blockers (85.8% vs 93.8%, P Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education residency duty-hours restrictions on an academic inpatient cardiology service was associated with improved quality of care and efficiency in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome. In addition, improved efficiency did not adversely impact patient outcomes, including mortality.

  14. An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Buchmiller, Brett L; Khan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization followed by maintenance therapy effectively improves symptom control in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The majority of current desensitization protocols use 3-hour dosing intervals and often require 2 to 3 days to complete. We evaluated hourly dose escalations in a subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma who historically reacted to aspirin within 1 hour or were avoiding aspirin with the goal of developing a safe and efficient desensitization protocol. Fifty-seven aspirin desensitizations were performed under the hourly protocol. All patients had refractory nasal polyposis as an indication for aspirin desensitization. The clinical characteristics of each subject were analyzed in relation to aspects of his or her reactions during the procedure. Ninety-eight percent of study patients were successfully treated under the hourly protocol, including those with a history of severe reactions and intubation. None required further medication than is available in an outpatient allergy clinic. A total of 96% of reactors recorded a bronchial or naso-ocular reaction within 1 hour of the preceding dose. Of the total patients on this protocol, 40% were able to complete the procedure in a single day, and 60% within 2 days. Patients with AERD who have a history of symptoms less than 1 hour after aspirin exposure can be safely desensitized with a 1-hour dose-escalation protocol that can often be completed in a single day. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 34 CFR 369.44 - What wage and hour standards apply to community rehabilitation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation programs? 369.44 Section 369.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... hour standards apply to community rehabilitation programs? All applicable Federal and State wage and hour standards must be observed in projects carried out in community rehabilitation...

  16. Tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness in phenylketonuria : prediction with the 48-hour loading test and genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Hofstede, Floris C; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; Boelen, Carolien C A; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Blau, Nenad; Fokkema, Margaretha; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2013-01-01

    Background: How to efficiently diagnose tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsiveness in patients with phenylketonuria remains unclear. This study investigated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the 48-hour BH4 loading test and the additional value of genotype. Methods: Data of the 48-hour BH4 loadin

  17. Need Satisfaction during Free Evening Hours: Examining Its Role in Daily Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to shed light on the role of satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in the recovery process during free evening hours. We examined to what extent (1) need satisfaction during free evening hours contributed to employees' re

  18. A study on the correlation between program contact hours and the successful matriculation into college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer D; Kiovsky, Richard D

    2014-10-01

    Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) play an important role in the recruitment and training of students to serve as practicing health care professionals in rural, primary care, and medically underserved communities. To analyze the relationship between the accumulated contact hours of past students in AHEC programs and their known matriculation into college. 5,189 students, whom participated in Indiana AHEC Network programs, were grouped into eight categories based on accumulated contact hours and matched against two college matriculation databases. The relationship between the number of accumulated contact hours and known college matriculation was statistically significant. The analysis of the data suggests two significant break points in which the number of accumulated contact hours appears to be correlated with increased known college matriculation. The findings indicate accumulated contact hours are significantly correlated with known college matriculation. Furthermore, two significant break points in contact hours at the 5 and 20 contact hours demonstrated increased correlations between program contact hours and known college matriculation. The results of this analysis between participation in area health education center programming and matriculation into higher education may be transferable to other areas of health education.

  19. Effects of a night-team system on resident sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Ping; Gordon, Mary Beth; Sectish, Theodore; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Children's Hospital Boston implemented a night-team system on general pediatric wards to reduce extended work shifts. Residents worked 5 consecutive nights for 1 week and worked day shifts for the remainder of the rotation. Of note, resident staffing at night decreased under this system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of this system on resident sleep and work hours. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which residents on the night-team system logged their sleep and work hours on work days. These data were compared with similar data collected in 2004, when there was a traditional call system. In 2004 and 2009, mean shift length was 15.22 ± 6.86 and 12.92 ± 5.70 hours, respectively (P = .161). Daily work hours were 10.49 ± 6.85 and 8.79 ± 6.42 hours, respectively (P = .08). Nightly sleep time decreased from 6.72 ± 2.60 to 4.77 ± 2.46 hours (P team system was unexpectedly associated with decreased sleep hours. As residency programs create work schedules that are compliant with the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards, resident sleep should be monitored carefully.

  20. 10 CFR 170.20 - Average cost per professional staff-hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 170.20 Average cost per professional staff-hour. Fees for permits, licenses, amendments, renewals, special projects, 10 CFR part 55 re-qualification and replacement examinations and tests, other... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average cost per professional staff-hour. 170.20...

  1. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  2. Starting the Conversation: An Exploratory Study of Factors That Influence Student Office Hour Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Whitney; Cohen, Steven D.; Berndtson, Rachel; Burson, Kristen M.; Camper, K. Martin; Chen, Yujie; Smith, Margaret Austin

    2014-01-01

    As part of best practices for increasing faculty-student interaction, higher education institutions across the country require faculty members to hold office hours. Various studies have reported factors affecting student use of office hours; however, results are unclear at best and in some cases conflicting with respect to which factors matter…

  3. 77 FR 31684 - Hours of Service of Drivers: RockTenn, Exemption Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... given duty period. It has three 8-hour shifts up to 7 days a week, and there are two shipping employees... minimum of at least 8 hours off duty. If exempt from the normal HOS requirements, these employees can... (FMCSRs). This limited exemption is for RockTenn's shipping department employees and occasional substitute...

  4. Development and validation of a direct-comparison method for cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine washout rates derived from late 3-hour and 4-hour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Koichi; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa [Kanazawa Medical University, Department of Physics, Kahoku, Ishikawa (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sugino, Shuichi [Okayama Kyokuto Hospital, Department of Radiology, Okayama, Okayama (Japan); Kirihara, Yumiko [FUJIFILM RI Pharma Co., Ltd., Chuo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    The washout rate (WR) has been used in {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic innervation. However, WR varies depending on the time between the early and late MIBG scans. Late scans are performed at either 3 or 4 hours after injection of MIBG. The aim of this study was to directly compare the WR at 3 hours (WR{sub 3h}) with the WR at 4 hours (WR{sub 4h}). We hypothesized that the cardiac count would reduce linearly between the 3-hour and 4-hour scans. A linear regression model for cardiac counts at two time-points was generated. We enrolled a total of 96 patients who underwent planar {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy early (15 min) and during the late phase at both 3 and 4 hours. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: a model-creation group (group 1) and a clinical validation group (group 2). Cardiac counts at 15 minutes (count{sub early}), 3 hours (count{sub 3h}) and 4 hours (count{sub 4h}) were measured. Cardiac count{sub 4h} was mathematically estimated using the linear regression model from count{sub early} and count{sub 3h}. In group 1, the actual cardiac count{sub 4h}/count{sub early} was highly significantly correlated with count{sub 3h}/count{sub early} (r = 0.979). In group 2, the average estimated count{sub 4h} was 92.8 ± 31.9, and there was no significant difference between this value and the actual count{sub 4h} (91.9 ± 31.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a small bias of -0.9 with 95 % limits of agreement of -6.2 and +4.3. WR{sub 4h} calculated using the estimated cardiac count{sub 4h} was comparable to the actual WR{sub 4h} (24.3 ± 9.6 % vs. 25.1 ± 9.7 %, p = ns). Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient showed that there was excellent agreement between the estimated and actual WR{sub 4h}. The linear regression model that we used accurately estimated cardiac count{sub 4h} using count{sub early} and count{sub 3h}. Moreover, WR{sub 4h} that was mathematically calculated using

  5. The prediction of AE, ap, and Dst at time lags between 0 and 30 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. F.; Garrett, H. B.; Shea, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic activity indexes AE, ap, and Dst are correlated with approximately 35,000 hours of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field measurements acquired near the Earth (assembled by NASA/NSSDC into a composite data sat). Lag times between the indexes and solar wind parameters ranged from 0 to 30 hours. Correlations at lags less than 6 hours yield results in agreement with previous studies. At greater lags, the correlation coefficients between the solar wind parameters and AE and ap approach these parameters' autocorrelation (persistence) values. For Dst the correlation with solar wind parameters is lower than that with AE and ap in the 3 to 4 hour lag range whereas the autocorrelation of Dst is significantly higher over the entire 0 to 30 hour lag range. The implications of these differences between AE, ap, and Dst are discussed in terms of persistence of solar wind structure.

  6. Recovery of the histogram of hourly ozone distribution from weekly average concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olcese, Luis E. [Departamento de Fisico Quimica/INFIQC, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: lolcese@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Toselli, Beatriz M. [Departamento de Fisico Quimica/INFIQC, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    A simple method is presented for estimating hourly distribution of air pollutants, based on data collected by passive sensors on a weekly or bi-weekly basis with no need for previous measurements at a site. In order for this method to be applied to locations where no hourly records are available, reference data from other sites are required to generate calibration histograms. The proposed procedure allows one to obtain the histogram of hourly ozone values during a given week with an error of about 30%, which is good considering the simplicity of this approach. This method can be a valuable tool for sites that lack previous hourly records of pollutant ambient concentrations, where it can be used to verify compliance with regulations or to estimate the AOT40 index with an acceptable degree of exactitude. - The histogram of hourly ozone distribution can be obtained based on passive sensor data.

  7. The prediction of AE, ap, and Dst at time lags between 0 and 30 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. F.; Garrett, H. B.; Shea, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic activity indexes AE, ap, and Dst are correlated with approximately 35,000 hours of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field measurements acquired near the Earth (assembled by NASA/NSSDC into a composite data sat). Lag times between the indexes and solar wind parameters ranged from 0 to 30 hours. Correlations at lags less than 6 hours yield results in agreement with previous studies. At greater lags, the correlation coefficients between the solar wind parameters and AE and ap approach these parameters' autocorrelation (persistence) values. For Dst the correlation with solar wind parameters is lower than that with AE and ap in the 3 to 4 hour lag range whereas the autocorrelation of Dst is significantly higher over the entire 0 to 30 hour lag range. The implications of these differences between AE, ap, and Dst are discussed in terms of persistence of solar wind structure.

  8. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. METHODS: We......·02-1·26; p=0·02) and incident stroke (1·33, 1·11-1·61; p=0·002). The excess risk of stroke remained unchanged in analyses that addressed reverse causation, multivariable adjustments for other risk factors, and different methods of stroke ascertainment (range of RR estimates 1·30-1·42). We recorded a dose...... long hours have a higher risk of stroke than those working standard hours; the association with coronary heart disease is weaker. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the management of vascular risk factors in individuals who work long hours. FUNDING: Medical Research Council...

  9. Long term forecasting of hourly electricity consumption in local areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.; Gaardestrup, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Long term projections of hourly electricity consumption in local areas are important for planning of the transmission grid. In Denmark, at present the method used for grid planning is based on statistical analysis of the hour of maximum load and for each local area the maximum load is projected...... to change proportional to changes in the aggregated national electricity consumption. That is, specific local conditions are not considered. Yet, from measurements of local consumption we know that:. •consumption profiles differ between local areas,•consumption by categories of customers contribute....... The model describes the entire profile of hourly consumption and is a first step towards differentiated local predictions of electricity consumption.The model is based on metering of aggregated hourly consumption at transformer stations covering selected local areas and on national statistics of hourly...

  10. Common long-range dependence in a panel of hourly Nord Pool electricity prices and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Haldrup, Niels; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    of the underlying production technology and because the demand is more volatile than the supply, equilibrium prices and loads are argued to identify the periodic power supply curve. The estimated supply elasticities are estimated from fractionally co-integrated relations and range between 0.5 and 1......Equilibrium electricity spot prices and loads are often determined simultaneously in a day-ahead auction market for each hour of the subsequent day. Hence daily observations of hourly prices take the form of a periodic panel rather than a time series of hourly observations. We consider novel panel...... data approaches to analyse the time series and the cross-sectional dependence of hourly Nord Pool electricity spot prices and loads for the period 2000-2013. Hourly electricity prices and loads data are characterized by strong serial long-range dependence in the time series dimension in addition...

  11. UTILITY OF THE METHOD T.H.M. (MACHINE - HOUR - RATE PRODUCTION CENTURY PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Otilia, ȚENOVICI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The method T.H.M. (machine - hour - rate gives greater accuracy in the factories or departments, where production is largely by machinery. In the specialty literature, the notion of price - the time - the car is defined as "œa rate calculated by dividing the budgeted or estimated overhead or labour and overhead cost attributable to a machine or group of similar machines by the appropriate number of machine hours. The hours may be the number of hours for which the machine or group is expected to be operated, the number of hours which would relate to normal working for the factory, or full capacity". In a highly mechanised cost centre, majority of the overhead expenses are incurred on account of using the machine, such as, depreciation, power, repairs and maintenance, insurance, etc. This method is currently offering the most equitable basis for absorption of overheads in machine intensive cost centres.

  12. ACGME Duty Hour Revisions and Self-Reported Intern ICU Sleep Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Dicker, Joshua; Herzig, Shoshana J; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Tess, Anjala

    2014-09-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour standards restrict continuous duty for postgraduate year (PGY)-1 residents to 16 hours. We aimed to assess the relationship between a duty hour-compliant schedule and resident sleep. To comply with 2011 duty hour limits, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center restructured its intensive care unit call model for internal medicine PGY-1 residents from a traditional shift model to an overlapping shorter-duration shift model with preserved educational periods. Before and after schedule changes, we used daily surveys of PGY-1 residents to collect self-reported data on quantity and quality of sleep and quality of education. A total of 1162 surveys were sent to 43 interns before scheduling changes, and 1305 were sent to 41 interns after the changes. Response rate was 31.2% (362 of 1161) before and 22.2% (290 of 1305) after. Before changes, 57.7% (209 of 362) reported receiving 6 hours or more of sleep in a 24-hour period compared to 72.4% (210 of 290) after the changes (adjusted relative risk, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.15-1.53), with an adjusted difference of 0.83 hours of sleep per 24 hours (95% CI, 0.28-1.38). After the intervention, on a 5-point Likert scale, residents reported higher quality of sleep (odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.01-2.60) and greater satisfaction with their education (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.40-4.81). Following conversion to a duty hour-compliant model with preserved didactic time, PGY-1 residents reported minor increases in quantity and quality of sleep per 24-hour period, and increased satisfaction with the educational experience.

  13. Out-of-office hours' elective surgical intensive care admissions and their associated complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok Ming; Ong, Yang Jian; Kolybaba, Marlene L

    2017-06-12

    The 'weekend' effect is a controversial theory that links reduced staffing levels, staffing seniority and supportive services at hospitals during 'out-of-office hours' time periods with worsening patient outcomes. It is uncertain whether admitting elective surgery patients to intensive care units (ICU) during 'out-of-office hours' time periods mitigates this affect through higher staffing ratios and seniority. Over a 3-year period in Western Australia's largest private hospital, this retrospective nested-cohort study compared all elective surgical patients admitted to the ICU based on whether their admission occurred 'in-office hours' (Monday-Friday 08.00-18.00 hours) or 'out-of-office hours' (all other times). The main outcomes were surgical complications using the Dindo-Clavien classification and length-of-stay data. Of the total 4363 ICU admissions, 3584 ICU admissions were planned following elective surgery resulting in 2515 (70.2%) in-office hours and 1069 (29.8%) out-of-office hours elective ICU surgical admissions. Out-of-office hours ICU admissions following elective surgery were associated with an increased risk of infection (P = 0.029), blood transfusion (P = 0.020), total parental nutrition (P office hours ICU admissions were also associated with an increased hospital length-of-stay, with (1.74 days longer, P office hours ICU admissions following elective surgery is common and associated with serious post-operative complications culminating in significantly longer hospital length-of-stays and greater transfers with important patient and health economic implications. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Abolishment of 24-hour continuous medical call duty in quebec: a quality of life survey of general surgical residents following implementation of the new work-hour restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Fadi T; Deckelbaum, Dan; Sauve, Alexandre; Khwaja, Kosar; Razek, Tarek; Fata, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of work hour restrictions across North America have resulted in decreased levels of self injury and medical errors for Residents. An arbitration ruling in Quebec has led to further curtailment of work hours beyond that proposed by the ACGME. This may threaten Resident quality of life and in turn decrease the educational quality of surgical residency training. We administered a quality of life questionnaire with an integrated education quality assessment tool to all General Surgery residents training at McGill 6 months after the work hour restrictions. Across several strata respondents reveal a decreased sense of educational quality and quality of life. The arbitration argued that work- hour restrictions would be necessary to improve quality of life for trainees and hence improve patient safety. Results from this study demonstrate the exact opposite in a large majority of respondents, who report a poorer quality of life and a self-reported inability on their part to provide continuous and safe patient care. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic prescribing during office hours and out-of-hours : a comparison of quality and quantity in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, Vera Ec; Verheij, Theo Jm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126027668; van der Velden, Alike W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/20448295X

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unnecessary and non-first-choice antibiotic prescribing is a significant problem in primary care. It is often argued that irrational prescribing is higher during out-of-hours (OOH) consultations. AIM: To obtain insight into the quantity and quality of OOH antibiotic prescribing for commo

  16. Generation of hourly solar radiation for inclined surfaces using monthly mean sunshine duration in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mefti, A.; Bouroubi, M.Y. [Centre of Development of Renewable Energy, Lab. of Energy Resources, Algiers (Algeria); Adane, A. [Univ. of Science and Technology of Algiers (U.S.T.H.B.), Lab. of Image Processing and Radiation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2003-11-01

    Hourly global solar radiation flux incident on an inclined surface is evaluated in any site of Algeria using monthly mean daily sunshine duration measurements. The methodology used consists of successive transformations of solar data, respectively, based on the exponential probability distribution of daily sunshine duration, Angstrom equation, beta probability distribution of hourly global solar radiation flux, polynomial correlations of hourly direct and diffuse radiation with global solar radiation and the Klucher model. Monthly mean values of daily sunshine duration data recorded in 54 meteorological stations of Algeria and hourly solar radiation data collected in Algiers, Bechar and Tamanrasset are available for this study. Knowing the monthly mean daily sunshine duration measurements, the hourly global solar radiation data are then obtained on a tilted surface for the locations of Algiers, Tamanrasset and Bechar. The monthly mean hourly global solar radiation data estimated for Algiers are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones. Associated with the principal component analysis, the above method has been extended to all the other meteorological stations, and monthly mean values of hourly global solar radiation flux incident on an inclined surface have been simulated for every site of Algeria. This yields an important database useful for solar energy applications. (Author)

  17. [Is It Time to Implement a 12-Hour Shift for Nurses in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Fung; Chang, Shiow-Ru; Wang, Li-Ting

    2017-04-01

    The twelve-hour shift system, first introduced in the U.S. in 1967 to address a nursing shortage, is now the main system of shift rotation used in numerous countries. In recent years, several hospitals in Taiwan have implemented the 12-hour shift model as one initiative to improve the problems of overtime and high turnover rate among nursing staff. Under this model, nurses work only three to four days per week for 12-hour shifts per day. Despite the increase in numbers of days off, there is growing concern that long shift hours may harm both the safety of patients and the well being of the nurses. The aim of the present article is to explain the application of the 12-hour shift system and to review the potential impacts of this model. Benefits of the 12-hour shift system include improving quality of life for nursing staff, reducing the turnover rate, and increasing job satisfaction. Primary concerns regarding this system include patient safety, nurse fatigue, and the potential negative effects on the sleep quality of nurses. These findings may be referenced by policymakers considering the development / implementation of flexible work schedules in Taiwan. The government must set a ceiling on work hours allowed per week and impose limits on overtime in order to prevent burnout in nursing staff.

  18. Flexible work in call centres: Working hours, work-life conflict & health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Philip; Willaby, Harold; Quinlan, Michael; McNamara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent full-time workers, 37 (20.7%) were permanent part-time, and 49 (27.4%) were casual employees. Hypothesised structural relationships between employment status, working hours and work organisation, work-life conflict and health were tested using partial least squares modelling in PLS (Chin, 1998). The final model demonstrated satisfactory fit. It supported important elements of the hypothesised structure, although four of the proposed paths failed to reach significance and the fit was enhanced by adding a path. The final model indicated that casual workers reported more variable working hours which were relatively weakly associated with greater dissatisfaction with hours. The interaction of schedule control and variability of hours also predicted dissatisfaction with hours. Conversely, permanent workers reported greater work intensity, which was associated with both lower work schedule control and greater work-life conflict. Greater work-life conflict was associated with more fatigue and psychological symptoms. Labour market factors and the undesirability of longer hours in a stressful, high-intensity work environment appear to have contributed to the results.

  19. Feasibility and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis 3-4.5 hours after stroke in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Hong-Hua; Li, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Lang

    2014-05-01

    The time window for intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has been extended to 4.5 hours. But little is known about the safety and efficacy of IV rt-PA treatment in the 3-4.5 hour time window in Chinese patients with AIS. A total of 119 patients who were treated with standard IV rt-PA therapy within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were included in this study: 85 were treated within 0-3 hours and 34 were treated within 3-4.5 hours. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 0-1 at 6 months. The safety of IV rt-PA treatment was assessed by the rate of mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) and other common complications. There were no significant differences in SICH rates (2.94% versus 2.35%; p=0.85) at 24-36 hours, mortality (5.88% versus 3.53%; p=0.56), other complications (14.71% versus 11.76%; p=0.66), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score improvement at 24 hours (41.18% versus 45.88%; p=0.64) and favorable mRS at 6 months (52.94% versus 54.12%; p=0.91) between the two time window groups. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, lower admission NIHSS score and shorter time from symptom onset to treatment were associated with a favorable clinical outcome. This finding showed an additional 29% of patients received IV rt-PA because of the treatment window expansion to 4.5 hours. IV rt-PA was feasible and safe for treating AIS patients in the 3-4.5 hour time window in our Chinese population.

  20. General practitioners' satisfaction with and attitudes to out-of-hours services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesseling Geertjan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Dutch general practitioner (GP out-of-hours service has been reorganised into large-scale GP cooperatives. Until now little is known about GPs' experiences with working at these cooperatives for out-of-hours care. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into GPs' satisfaction with working at GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care in separated and integrated cooperatives. Methods A GP cooperative separate from the hospital Accident and Emergency (A&E department, and a GP cooperative integrated within the A&E department of another hospital. Both cooperatives are situated in adjacent geographic regions in the South of the Netherlands. One hundred GPs were interviewed by telephone; fifty GPs working at the separated GP cooperative and fifty GPs from the integrated GP cooperative. Opinions on different aspects of GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care were measured, and regression analysis was performed to investigate if these could be related to GP satisfaction with out-of-hours care organisation. Results GPs from the separated model were more satisfied with the organisation of out-of-hours care than GPs from the integrated model (70 vs. 60 on a scale score from 0 to 100; P = 0.020. Satisfaction about out-of-hours care organisation was related to opinions on workload, guarantee of gatekeeper function, and attitude towards out-of-hours care as being an essential part of general practice. Cooperation with medical specialists was much more appreciated at the integrated model (77 vs. 48; P Conclusion GPs in this study appear to be generally satisfied with the organisation of GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care. Furthermore, GPs working at the separated cooperative seem to be more satisfied compared to GPs working at the integrated cooperative.

  1. Long working hours and psychological distress among school teachers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Long working hours have the possibility to influence human health. In Japan, it is well known that teachers have long working hours, and the number of leaves of absence due to mental disorders among public school teachers increased from 2,687 in 2002 to 4,960 in 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between long working hours and psychological distress among school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted from mid-July to September in 2013 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,245 teachers in public junior high schools. Information about basic characteristics, including working hours, and responses to the General Health Questionnaire-28 were collected anonymously. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between long working hours and psychological distress by gender. Of the 1,245 teachers contacted, 558 (44.8%) responded. After excluding responses with missing data, the final sample included 522 teachers (337 males and 185 females). Psychological distress was identified in 47.8% of males and 57.8% of females. Our results showed a significantly increased risk only in males working >60 hours per week (adjusted OR=4.71 [95% CI 2.04-11.56]) compared with those working ≤40 hours per week. There were no significant associations between long working hours and psychological distress for females. There is a significant association between long working hours and psychological distress in male teachers. However, the causal relationship remains unclear. Further studies such as cohort studies with large sample sizes are needed.

  2. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  3. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  4. Analysis on the Variation Characteristics of Sunshine Hours in Puyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze the variation characteristics of sunshine hours in Puyang City in recent 51 years.[Method] Based on the monthly sunshine hours in five meteorological stations of Puyang City during 1960-2010,the annual,seasonal and monthly variation trends of sunshine hours,mutation time node were analyzed by using the climate trend coefficient,climate tendency rate,sliding average method,SNR and so on.The objective fact and rule of sunshine variation in Puyang in recent 51 years we...

  5. One-hour blood xylose in the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Iyngkaran, N; Abidin, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The 1-hour xylose absorption test was evaluated as method for the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy in a prospective study of 48 infants with diarrhoea clinically suspected to be due to intolerance of cows' milk. The infants were maintained on a lactose and cows milk protein-free diet for 6-8 weeks and then were challenged with cows' milk protein. Jejunal biopsies and the 1-hour xylose absorption test were performed immediately before and 20-24 hours after cows' milk provo...

  6. Man-hour Estimation Model based on Standard Operation Unit for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhenggeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In flexible manufacturing system, the estimation of man-hour is a difficult problem because of its production-diversity. To explore a more effective method, this paper tried to estimate man-hour from the perspective of operation`s character by establishing standard operation unit (SOU in this paper. A method of parameterizing the SOU is proposed, and a new man-hour estimation model is established on the basis of SOU. At last, this paper verified the effectiveness of this method by the operation of large-scale welding parts.

  7. Working 61 plus hours a week: why do managers do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne M; Stroh, Linda K

    2003-02-01

    The authors investigated why some managers work extreme hours, defined as 61 or more hours per week. The authors tested explanations drawn from theories including the work-leisure tradeoff, work as an emotional respite, social contagion, and work as its own reward. In a demographically homogeneous sample of male managers, the best explanations for why some worked 61 or more hours per week were the financial and psychological rewards they received from doing so. The hypothesis derived from A. Hochschild's (1997) research that managers who work long hours seek relief at work from pressures at home was not supported. Findings in a small sample of managerial women were consistent with the work-leisure trade-off hypothesis, the social contagion hypothesis, and the work as its own reward hypothesis.

  8. Provisional hourly values of equatorial Dst for January to June 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Provisional hourly values of equatorial atmospheric radiation conditions for the period January to June 1972 were obtained. The data are presented in numerical tables with graphical presentation of the digital data included.

  9. Hour-glass magnetic excitations induced by nanoscopic phase separation in cobalt oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Y; Li, Z W; Ricci, A; Rotter, M; Schmidt, W; Lamago, D; Sobolev, O; Rütt, U; Gutowski, O; Sprung, M; Piovano, A; Castellan, J P; Komarek, A C

    2014-12-23

    The magnetic excitations in the cuprate superconductors might be essential for an understanding of high-temperature superconductivity. In these cuprate superconductors the magnetic excitation spectrum resembles an hour-glass and certain resonant magnetic excitations within are believed to be connected to the pairing mechanism, which is corroborated by the observation of a universal linear scaling of superconducting gap and magnetic resonance energy. So far, charge stripes are widely believed to be involved in the physics of hour-glass spectra. Here we study an isostructural cobaltate that also exhibits an hour-glass magnetic spectrum. Instead of the expected charge stripe order we observe nano phase separation and unravel a microscopically split origin of hour-glass spectra on the nano scale pointing to a connection between the magnetic resonance peak and the spin gap originating in islands of the antiferromagnetic parent insulator. Our findings open new ways to theories of magnetic excitations and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors.

  10. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.

  11. Optimal sleep duration in the subarctic with respect to obesity risk is 8-9 hours

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnsen, May Trude; Wynn, Rolf; Bratlid, Trond

    2013-01-01

    ...) and abdominal obesity. The optimal sleep duration regarding BMI has previously been found to be 7-8 hours, but these studies have not been carried out in the subarctic or have lacked some central variables...

  12. Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Duffy, J. F.; Shanahan, T. L.; Brown, E. N.; Mitchell, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Ronda, J. M.; Silva, E. J.; Allan, J. S.; Emens, J. S.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of circadian period in humans was thought to differ from that of other species, with the period of the activity rhythm reported to range from 13 to 65 hours (median 25.2 hours) and the period of the body temperature rhythm reported to average 25 hours in adulthood, and to shorten with age. However, those observations were based on studies of humans exposed to light levels sufficient to confound circadian period estimation. Precise estimation of the periods of the endogenous circadian rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, and cortisol in healthy young and older individuals living in carefully controlled lighting conditions has now revealed that the intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker averages 24.18 hours in both age groups, with a tight distribution consistent with other species. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of disrupted sleep in older people.

  13. 29 CFR 778.321 - Decrease in hours without decreasing pay-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee is actually employed, and since this rate is determined by dividing his total remuneration for... which such remuneration was paid, it necessarily follows that if the schedule of hours is reduced...

  14. Charming Tianjin——historical fascination only one hour away from Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUCE CONNOLLY

    2004-01-01

    <正> Although it is only one hour by direct express train from Beijing, visitors often overlookthe charming city of Tianjin. This is sad, because having an entirely different feel to the national capital, it is a fascinating

  15. CMAQv5.1 Base NEIv2 AQS Hourly site compare output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQv5.1 Base NEIv2 AQS Hourly site compare output containing paired model/ob values that were used for some of the plots in the manuscript. This dataset is...

  16. Estimation of the diffuse radiation fraction for hourly, daily and monthly-average global radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbs, D. G.; Klein, S. A.; Duffie, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Hourly pyrheliometer and pyranometer data from four U.S. locations are used to establish a relationship between the hourly diffuse fraction and the hourly clearness index. This relationship is compared to the relationship established by Orgill and Hollands (1977) and to a set of data from Highett, Australia, and agreement is within a few percent in both cases. The transient simulation program TRNSYS is used to calculate the annual performance of solar energy systems using several correlations. For the systems investigated, the effect of simulating the random distribution of the hourly diffuse fraction is negligible. A seasonally dependent daily diffuse correlation is developed from the data, and this daily relationship is used to derive a correlation for the monthly-average diffuse fraction.

  17. Fertility Intentions, Career Considerations and Subsequent Births: The Moderating Effects of Women's Work Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M; Johnson, David R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women's labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. We employed discrete event history models using panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,411) and found that the importance of career considerations mediates the work hours/fertility relationship. Further, fertility intentions and the importance of career considerations were more predictive of birth outcomes as women's work hours increase. Ultimately, our findings challenge the assumption that working more hours is the direct cause for employed women having fewer children and highlight the importance of career and fertility preferences in fertility outcomes.

  18. Performance Sustainment of Two Man Crews during 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness with Stimulants and Napping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Repeated Test of Sustained Wakefulness (RTSW) .........................................................17  Polysomnography (PSG...N ap 19 Polysomnography (PSG) Nap Effects. A 2-hour nap was provided to determine its effects on restoring performance. During this nap, PSG

  19. Hourly distributions of the diffuse fraction of global solar irradiation in Cordoba (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada/UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including ''mean solar altitude anti {alpha}'' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain). (author)

  20. Geomagnetic Absolute Mean Values at Hourly Intervals from 220 Observatories Worldwide

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file is comprised of absolute mean hourly values of the geomagnetic components D, H and Z or X, Y and Z. These values, on magnetic tape, are available from...

  1. Poor safety climate, long work hours, and musculoskeletal discomfort among Latino horse farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Gan, Wenqi; Flunker, John C; Westneat, Susan; Browning, Steven R

    2017-09-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and work-related factors associated with elevated MSD among Latino thoroughbred farm workers. Participants (N = 225) were recruited using a community-based purposive sampling approach to participate in in-person interviews. Of these workers, 85% experienced MSD. MSD was divided into tertiles; the upper tertile was defined as elevated. Multivariable Poisson regression revealed associations between any elevated MSD and longer tenure on horse farms, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated neck/back MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated upper extremity MSD was associated with age and poor safety climate. Elevated lower extremity MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and being female. Musculoskeletal discomfort is common among these workers. Improving safety climate and minimizing long work hours is recommended.

  2. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the overall agreement between observed and simulated cumulative wind speed probability distributions appears excellent, especially for the wind speeds greater than 5 m s-1 range (erosive wind speed). The results further revealed that the values of daily average erosive wind power density (AWPD) calculated from generated wind speeds fit the counterparts computed from measured wind speeds well with high models' efficiency (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient). So that the hourly wind speed data can be predicted from daily average and maximu...

  3. Recovery of the histogram of hourly ozone distribution from weekly average concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcese, Luis E; Toselli, Beatriz M

    2006-05-01

    A simple method is presented for estimating hourly distribution of air pollutants, based on data collected by passive sensors on a weekly or bi-weekly basis with no need for previous measurements at a site. In order for this method to be applied to locations where no hourly records are available, reference data from other sites are required to generate calibration histograms. The proposed procedure allows one to obtain the histogram of hourly ozone values during a given week with an error of about 30%, which is good considering the simplicity of this approach. This method can be a valuable tool for sites that lack previous hourly records of pollutant ambient concentrations, where it can be used to verify compliance with regulations or to estimate the AOT40 index with an acceptable degree of exactitude.

  4. A vascular laboratory protocol for improving and managing after-hours suspected acute deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela H; Eckert, George; Lemmon, Gary W; Sawchuk, Alan; Dalsing, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    This study reviews the clinical and workforce impact of a suggested protocol designed for the management of suspected acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients seen after standard vascular laboratory business hours. The protocol included the use of Wells score, D-dimer and a single dose of therapeutic anticoagulant to defer venous duplex ultrasound (VDU) testing until routine business hours unless contraindicated. Information was collected on medical history, physical exam and the timing of any diagnostic studies and treatment provided. Over 15% of studies done after-hours were deemed unnecessary by our protocol and in every individual the results were negative for an acute DVT. There were no adverse events from a one-time dose of anticoagulant. Limiting emergency VDU coverage to evaluate for acute DVT based on a management protocol can eliminate unnecessary after-hours VDU testing without having a negative impact on patient care.

  5. HOURS: Simulation and analysis software for the KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, A. G.; Leisos, A.; Tzamarias, S. E.

    2017-02-01

    The Hellenic Open University Reconstruction & Simulation (HOURS) software package contains a realistic simulation package of the detector response of very large (km3-scale) underwater neutrino telescopes, including an accurate description of all the relevant physical processes, the production of signal and background as well as several analysis strategies for triggering and pattern recognition, event reconstruction, tracking and energy estimation. HOURS also provides tools for simulating calibration techniques and other studies for estimating the detector sensitivity to several neutrino sources.

  6. Assessing response to stroke thrombolysis: validation of 24-hour multimodal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce C V; Tu, Hans T H; Christensen, Søren; Desmond, Patricia M; Levi, Christopher R; Bladin, Christopher F; Hjort, Niels; Ashkanian, Mahmoud; Sølling, Christine; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M; Ostergaard, Leif; Parsons, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Imaging is used as a surrogate for clinical outcome in early-phase stroke trials. Assessment of infarct growth earlier than the standard 90 days used for clinical end points may be equally accurate and more practical. To compare assessment of the effect of reperfusion therapies using 24-hour vs day 90 magnetic resonance imaging. Infarct volume was assessed on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at baseline and 24 hours after stroke onset and on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images at day 90. The DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions were manually outlined by 2 independent raters, and the volumes were averaged. Interrater consistency was assessed using the median difference in lesion volume between raters. Referral center. Patients  Imaging data were available for 83 patients; 77 of these patients received thrombolysis. Infarct volume at 24 hours and 90 days. The 24-hour DWI infarct volume had a strong linear correlation with day 90 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery infarct volume (r = 0.98, 95% confidence interval, 0.97-0.99). Recanalization had a significant effect on infarct evolution between baseline and 24 hours but not between 24 hours and day 90. Infarct growth from baseline was significantly reduced by recanalization, whether assessed at 24 hours or day 90. Infarct volume at either time point predicted functional outcome independent of age and baseline stroke severity. Interrater agreement was better for DWI than fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (1.4 mL [8%] vs 1.8 mL [17%]; P = .002). Assessment of final infarct volume using DWI at 24 hours captures the effect of reperfusion therapies on infarct growth and predicts functional outcome similarly to imaging at day 90. This has the potential to reduce loss to follow-up in trials and may add early prognostic information in clinical practice.

  7. Children's Working Hours, School Enrolment and Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, F; M. Rossi

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of school attendance and hours worked by children in Pakistan and Nicaragua. On the basis of a theoretical model of children's labour supply, we simultaneously estimate the school attendance decision and the hours worked by Full Model Maximum Likelihood. We analyse the marginal effects of explanatory variables conditioning on the "latent" status of children in terms of schooling and work. We show that these effects are rather different, and discuss the policy impli...

  8. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided in this paper. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  9. Stochastic modeling and generation of synthetic sequences of hourly global solar irradiation at Quetta, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, Lalarukh [Balochistan Univ., Dept. of Mathematics, Quetta (Pakistan); Jafri, Yasmin Zahra [Balochistan Univ., Dept. of Statistics, Quetta (Pakistan)

    1999-07-01

    Using hourly global radiation data at Quetta, Pakistan for 10 yr, an Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) process is fitted. Markov Transition Matrices have also been developed. These models are used for generating synthetic sequences for hourly radiations in MJ/m{sup 2} and that the generated sequences are compared with the observed data. We found the MTM approach relatively better as a simulator compared to ARMA modeling. (Author)

  10. After-hours equine emergency admissions at a university referral hospital (1998 - 2007) : causes and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, A; M.N. Saulez; C.M. Donnellan; Bester, L; B. Gummow

    2009-01-01

    Medical records of equine after-hours admissions from 1998 to 2007 are reviewed. Data extracted from the medical records included signalment, reason for admission, pre-admission treatment, clinical presentation, procedures performed, final diagnoses, complications occurring in hospital, length of stay and outcome. Eight hundred and twenty after-hours admissions were available of which 75 % were classified as emergencies. Most horses originated from Gauteng province (82 %), with Thoroughbred, ...

  11. Career satisfaction and retention of a sample of women physicians who work reduced hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Rosalind C; Gareis, Karen C; Carr, Phyllis L

    2005-03-01

    To better understand the career satisfaction and factors related to retention of women physicians who work reduced hours and are in dual-earner couples in comparison to their full-time counterparts. Survey of a random sample of female physicians between 25 and 50 years of age working within 25 miles of Boston, whose names were obtained from the Board of Registration in Medicine in Massachusetts. Interviewers conducted a 60-minute face-to-face closed-ended interview after interviewees completed a 20-minute mailed questionnaire. Fifty-one full-time physicians and 47 reduced hours physicians completed the study; the completion rate was 49.5%. The two groups were similar in age, years as a physician, mean household income, number of children, and presence of an infant in the home. Reduced hours physicians in this sample had a different relationship to experiences in the family than full-time physicians. (1) When reduced hours physicians had low marital role quality, there was an associated lower career satisfaction; full-time physicians report high career satisfaction regardless of their marital role quality. (2) When reduced hours physicians had low marital role or parental role quality, there was an associated higher intention to leave their jobs than for full-time physicians; when marital role or parental role quality was high, there was an associated lower intention to leave their jobs than for full-time physicians. (3) When reduced hours physicians perceived that work interfering with family was high, there was an associated greater intention to leave their jobs that was not apparent for full-time physicians. Women physicians in this sample who worked reduced hours had stronger relationships between family experiences (marital and parental role quality and work interference with family) and professional outcomes than had their full-time counterparts. Both career satisfaction and intention to leave their employment are correlated with the quality of home life for

  12. Reassessing After-Hour Arrival Patterns and Outcomes in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langabeer, James

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differences in after-hours capability or performance of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI centers has the potential to impact outcomes of patients presenting outside of regular hours. Methods: Using a prospective observational study, we analyzed all 1,247 non-transfer STEMI patients treated in 15 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI facilities in Dallas, Texas, during a 24-month period (2010-2012. Controlling for confounding factors through a variety of statistical techniques, we explored differences in door-to-balloon (D2B and in-hospital mortality for those presenting on weekends vs. weekdays and business vs. after hours. Results: Patients who arrived at the hospital on weekends had larger D2B times compared to weekdays (75 vs. 65 minutes; KW=48.9; p16 minutes longer than those who arrived during business hours and a higher likelihood of mortality (OR 2.23, CI [1.15-4.32], p<0.05. Conclusion: Weekends and after-hour PCI coverage is still associated with adverse D2B outcomes and in-hospital mortality, even in major urban settings. Disparities remain in after-hour STEMI treatment. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:388–394.

  13. Long Working Hours and Work-related Cerebro-cardiovascular Disease in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHUNG, Yun Kyung; KWON, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers’ compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker’s compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84–0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation. PMID:23892901

  14. Increase in Cesarean Operative Time Following Institution of the 80-Hour Workweek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrtka, Michael P.; Gunatilake, Ravindu P.; Harris, Benjamin; Yu, Miao; Lan, Lan; Brancazio, Leo R.; Valea, Fidel A.; Grotegut, Chad A.; Brown, Haywood L.

    2015-01-01

    Background  In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education limited resident duty hours to 80 hours per week. More than a decade later, the effect of the limits on resident clinical competence is not fully understood. Objective  We sought to assess the effect of duty hour restrictions on resident performance of an uncomplicated cesarean delivery. Methods  We reviewed unlabored primary cesarean deliveries at Duke University Hospital after 34 weeks gestation, between 2003 and 2011. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were used to compare total operative time with incision to delivery time as a function of years since institution of the 80-hour workweek. Resident training level, subject body mass index, estimated blood loss, and skin closure method were controlled for in the regression model. Results  We identified 444 deliveries that met study criteria. The mean (SD) total operative time in 2003–2004 was 43.3 (14.3) minutes and 59.6 (10.7) minutes in 2010–2011 (P delivery time (P = .05). The magnitude of increased operative time was seen among junior residents (2.0 min/y, P < .001) compared to that of senior residents (1.2 min/y, P = .06). Conclusions  Since introduction of the 2003 duty hour limits, there has been an increase of nearly 20 minutes in the time required for a routine cesarean delivery. It is unclear if the findings are due to a change in residency duty hours or to another aspect of residency training. PMID:26457141

  15. Stress relaxation properties of four orthodontic aligner materials: A 24-hour in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Martines, Elisa; Mazzanti, Valentina; Arreghini, Angela; Mollica, Francesco; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the stress release properties of four thermoplastic materials used to make orthodontic aligners when subjected to 24 consecutive hours of deflection. Four types of aligner materials (two single and two double layered) were selected. After initial yield strength testing to characterize the materials, each sample was subjected to a constant load for 24 hours in a moist, temperature-regulated environment, and the stress release over time was measured. The test was performed three times on each type of material. All polymers analyzed released a significant amount of stress during the 24-hour period. Stress release was greater during the first 8 hours, reaching a plateau that generally remained constant. The single-layer materials, F22 Aligner polyurethane (Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, Padova, Italy) and Duran polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (SCHEU, Iserlohn, Germany), exhibited the greatest values for both absolute stress and stress decay speed. The double-layer materials, Erkoloc-Pro (Erkodent, Pfalzgrafenweiler, Germany) and Durasoft (SCHEU), exhibited very constant stress release, but at absolute values up to four times lower than the single-layer samples tested. Orthodontic aligner performance is strongly influenced by the material of their construction. Stress release, which may exceed 50% of the initial stress value in the early hours of wear, may cause significant changes in the behavior of the polymers at 24 hours from the application of orthodontic loads, which may influence programmed tooth movement.

  16. Long working hours and work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers' compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker's compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84-0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation.

  17. Investigation on Hourly and Monthly Thermal Comfort in the Humid Tropics of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimi Djamila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on hourly and monthly indoor neutral temperature variations in the humid tropics are limited in literature. In Malaysia, the variation of hourly outdoor mean temperature is slightly higher than the monthly mean temperature. Consequently, this leads to the hypothesis that the variation of hourly neutral temperatures might be higher than the monthly neutral temperatures. Understanding the impact of hourly and monthly temperature variation on thermal comfort will certainly provide the design direction of future indoor environments. In this study, extensive measurements from residential buildings were used to investigate the observed variation. Linear regression and Griffiths methods were explored for analyzing the results. There was almost no variation on hourly and monthly neutral temperatures within the range under study. Further research is highly recommended due to the limited data collection and the limitations of the employed methods. It is highly advised to further investigate the hourly temperature variation on thermal comfort during nighttime and early morning. This is for an accurate interpretation of the results.

  18. Sunlight Exposure, Work Hours, Caffeine Consumption, and Sleep Duration in the Naval Environment.

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    Shattuck, Nita L; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2017-06-01

    Sailors in the U.S. Navy are habitual shiftworkers, often experiencing circadian misalignment due to their irregular work/rest schedules. This study assessed the effect of sunlight exposure, work hours, and caffeinated beverage consumption on the daily sleep duration of crewmembers of a U.S. Navy ship during a 2-wk underway period. Working in an artificially lit area with no access to sunlight during work hours, U.S. Navy crew members (N = 91) used daily logs to report their daily activity, caffeinated beverage consumption, and exposure to sunlight while off-duty; sleep was assessed by wrist-worn actigraphy. Hours of sunlight exposure, work duration, and the amount of coffee/tea/soft drinks were statistically significant predictors of sleep duration. On average, crewmembers who reported more than one half-hour of sunlight each day slept on average ∼40 min (10%) less than their peers working the same shifts who received less than one half-hour of sunlight (on average 6.05 ± 0.90 h vs. 6.71 ± 0.91 h, respectively). Exposure to sunlight, work hours, and consumption of caffeinated beverages are important factors when planning watchstanding schedules at sea. Even though further research is needed, our results suggest that even brief exposure to sunlight may contribute to circadian misalignment that negatively affects sleep in the operational environment. Educating crewmembers about sleep hygiene, especially the important roles played by sunlight and caffeine, could potentially improve the sleep and fatigue levels of this population of maritime shiftworkers.Shattuck NL, Matsangas P. Sunlight exposure, work hours, caffeine consumption, and sleep duration in the naval environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):579-585.

  19. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from <1.5 to ≥ 1.5 hours per day) had a reduction in sleep duration at follow-up visits. Results were similar when examining television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of

  20. Analysis of 72-hour sterility of common pediatric continuous intravenous infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Christina C; Davis, Jennifer; Frelix, Arlesia; Grisso, Alison G; Sinclair-Pingel, Julie; Willingham, Harold; Wright, Lorianne; Potts, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Patient morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated and improperly prepared sterile products has captured national attention. In response, both the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have published recommendations in an effort to minimize the risk of infection. While the CDC recommends that administration sets are not changed more frequently than every 72 hours, the USP recommends a maximum beyond use date of 48 hours. Neither organization provides specific guidance on expiration dating once the intravenous drug is dispensed. Likewise, neither addresses the length of time that a bag containing medication for continuous infusion may hang once administration to the patient has begun. We evaluated the sterility of medications that are commonly administered by continuous infusion to pediatric patients. Because frequent manipulation of infusion and administration sets may predispose the patient to adverse events, we evaluated sterility for extended beyond use dating up to 72 hours. Thirty-five common intravenous (IV) continuous infusions using 94 standard concentrations and diluents were identified. IV solutions were mixed using sterile technique in the laminar flow hood in accordance with USP guidelines. Medications were excluded for short stability, short durations of use or high cost. A sample from each solution was tested for contamination or bacterial growth at 72 hours. Any visible discoloration suggesting physical instability was also evaluated. None of the syringes or chambers resulted in contamination, bacterial growth or discoloration after 72 hours. This study provides sufficient data that these compounded sterile products may be stored using a beyond use date up to 72 hours for a number of commonly used continuous IV infusions in pediatric patients. In our institution, this allows for a more convenient and consistent change of both administration sets and continuous infusions at 72 hours to potentially minimize

  1. Shift Schedules and Intern Work Hours, Patient Numbers, Conference Attendance, and Sleep at a Single Pediatric Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocolas, Irene; Day, Kristen; King, Marta; Stevenson, Adam; Sheng, Xiaoming; Hobson, Wendy; Bruse, Jaime; Bale, James

    2017-03-01

    The effects of 2011 Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour standards on intern work hours, patient load, conference attendance, and sleep have not been fully determined. We prospectively compared intern work hours, patient numbers, conference attendance, sleep duration, pattern, and quality in a 2011 ACGME duty hour-compliant shift schedule with a 2003 ACGME duty hour-compliant call schedule at a single pediatric residency program. Interns were assigned to shift or call schedules during 4 alternate months in the winter of 2010-2011. Work hours, patient numbers, conference attendance, sleep duration, pattern, and quality were tracked. Interns worked significantly fewer hours per week on day (73.2 hours) or night (71.6 hours) shifts than during q4 call (79.6 hours; P interns cared for significantly more patients/day (8.1/day shift vs 6.2/call; P interns. Night shift interns slept more hours per 24-hour period than call schedule interns (7.2 ± 0.5 vs 6.3 ± 0.9 hours; P intern work hours and improved sleep duration and pattern. Although intern didactic conference attendance declined significantly during high census months, opportunities for experiential learning remained robust with unchanged or increased intern patient numbers. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

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    Rüst CA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandBackground: Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners.Methods: The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites, previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time, and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05, had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05 and thigh (P < 0.01, and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05 compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001 and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001, but were running slower (P < 0.01 compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05. In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001 and running speed during training (P < 0.0001 were related to marathon race times.Conclusion: In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do

  3. [How does sleep deprivation during 24 hours on call duty affect the cognitive performance orthopaedic residents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergo, J I; Fernández, M C; Zaifrani, L; Giunta, D H; Albergo, L

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is usually present in residents during their training program. The purpose of our study was to analyze the cognitive performance of a group of orthopaedic residents before and after 24 hours on call duty. We include orthopaedic residents and their cognitive functions were evaluated by the following tests: Continuous Performance Test (CPT 2), Digit Spam (Versión 5), 1 letter Fonologic Fluence y Pasat Test. All the tests were done after a sleeping period at home of at least 6 hours and after being on call (sleeping less than 3 hours). Nineteen residents were included in the study. The median age was 27 ± 1.89 and 15 were male. The mean hours of sleeping at home was 6.5 (range 6-8) and after on call duty was 1.5 (range 0.5-3). Statistical difference were found in CPT 2 test en terms of correct answers (p=0.007), omissions (p=0.004) and perseverations (p=0.036). No significant differences were found in the other tests. Sleep deprivation after 24 hours on call duty affects cognitive performance of orthopaedic residents, increasing the number of errors and omissions. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. [Evaluation of 24-hour home help services in a community by the focus group interview method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, T; Maeda, A; Motohashi, Y

    1999-11-01

    The 24-hour home help services that provide day and night care services at home becomes a public health interest in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the system of 24-hour home help services in a community that has successfully developed it. Participants of this focus group interview were home helpers who were actually engaged in 24-hour home help services in A town of Akita Prefecture. The focus group session was tape-recorded and the tapes were transcribed. The transcripts were evaluated and summarized in order to identify major categories and number of descriptive statements in each category. The results were as follows. First, the home helpers considered that their system of 24-hour home help services could be technically transferred to other communities in Japan. Secondary, the political leadership and the democratic system of community participation were the essential elements for promoting the 24-hour home help services. Thirdly, the regular meetings for discussion about cases and opinion exchanges were required more extensively in the future.

  5. Clinical outcome of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after hours: the role of urgent endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dong-Won; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Hyub; Shin, Cheol Min; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical role of urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) performed by experienced endoscopists after hours. A retrospective analysis was performed for consecutively collected data of patients with ANVUGIB between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 158 patients visited the emergency unit for ANVUGIB after hours. Among them, 60 underwent urgent EGD (within 8 hours) and 98 underwent early EGD (8 to 24 hours) by experienced endoscopists. The frequencies of hemodynamic instability, fresh blood aspirate on the nasogastric tube, and high-risk endoscopic findings were significantly higher in the urgent EGD group. Primary hemostasis was achieved in all except two patients. There were nine cases of recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality occurred in three patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary hemostasis, recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality. In a multiple linear regression analysis, urgent EGD significantly reduced the hospital stay compared with early EGD. In patients with a high clinical Rockall score (more than 3), urgent EGD tended to decrease the hospital stay, although this was not statistically significant (7.7 days vs. 12.0 days, p > 0.05). Urgent EGD after hours by experienced endoscopists had an excellent endoscopic success rate. However, clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the urgent and early EGD groups.

  6. Sixth hour transcutaneous bilirubin predicting significant hyperbilirubinemia in ABO incompatible neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh Y Bhat; Pavan CG Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neonates with ABO hemolytic disease are at greater risk for developing significant hyperbilirubinemia. We aimed to determine whether sixth hour transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) could predict such a risk. Methods: TcB measurements were obtained at the 6th hour of life in blood group A or B neonates born to blood group O, rhesus factor compatible mothers. Subsequent hyperbilirubinemia was monitored and considered significant if a neonate required phototherapy/exchange transfusion. The predictive role of sixth hour TcB was estimated. Results: Of 144 ABO incompatible neonates, 41(OA, 24; O-B, 17) had significant hyperbilirubinemia. Mean sixth hour TcB was significantly higher among neonates who developed significant hyperbilirubinemia than those who did not (5.83±1.35 mg/dL vs. 3.65±0.96 mg/dL, P4 mg/dL had the highest sensitivity of 93.5% and >6 mg/dL had the highest specifi city of 99%. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.898. Conclusion: Sixth hour TcB predicts subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia in ABO incompatible neonates.

  7. Education of dietitian's in Brazil: Minimum clock hours of instruction for a bachelor's degree in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Tavares de Medeiros

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to debate the minimum clock hours of instruction necessary for obtaining a bachelor's degree in nutrition considering the challenges to educate health professionals. Official documents on the minimum clock hours of instruction required by undergraduate nutrition programs were analyzed to investigate compliance with the curriculum guidelines for the area, the law that regulates the profession of dietitian, and the necessary education for the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health Care System. Compared with other health programs, nutrition presented the smallest increase in the minimum clock hours of instruction required for the degree. The changes that occurred in the epidemiological, demographic, and nutritional profile of the population and scientific advances require specific nutrition actions. Since Sistema Único de Saúde focuses on comprehensiveness in the three levels of care, on humanization, and on health care, the theoretical and methodological concepts given in undergraduate programs need to be improved for the dietitians education to meet the Sistema Único de Saúde needs. Incorporation of the knowledge needed for working with food and nutritional phenomena, including its social and cultural dimensions, management of public policies, quantity cooking, and food and nutritional surveillance requires a higher minimum clock hours of instruction. In conclusion, dietitians need a minimum clock hours of instruction of 4,000 to acquire a proper education, integrate into the university life, and coordinate interdisciplinary experiences of the triad teaching/research/extension.

  8. Long working hours in Korea: results of the 2010 Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Long working hours adversely affect workers' safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation limiting the working week to 40 h, to improve quality-of-life and to increase business competitiveness. In the present study, we explored the characteristics of work in Korea and compared our data of the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) with those of the first KWCS. We found that the average number of hours worked weekly has been reduced but the proportions of workers who work for more than 48 h per week has increased over the 4 yr between the two Korean surveys in all categories studied (male, female, employee, self-employed, and employer). We also found that self-employed and employers work much longer hours than do employees, who are protected by the Labor Standards Act. This was particularly true in the accommodation and food service sectors. In conclusion, Korean workers work longer than do workers of EU countries. The use of average figures masks differences in the numbers of working hours among those engaged in various types of employment, or in certain work sectors. Therefore, the Korean government should not simply monitor reductions in average weekly working hours, but should identify employees working for over 60 h weekly, and reduce their working time.

  9. Efficacy of fesoterodine over 24 hours in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskin, David; Michel, Martin C; Nitti, Victor; Morrow, Jon D; Wang, Joseph; Guan, Zhonghong

    2010-04-01

    Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic agent indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fesoterodine versus placebo over selected intervals during a 24-hour period in subjects with OAB. In a post hoc analysis, data were analyzed from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week phase III trials in which subjects with a history of OAB symptoms for >or=6 months were treated with morning doses of fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg, or placebo. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723). Changes were evaluated in number of micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, and mean voided volume (MVV) divided into three 8-hour intervals: 08:00-15:59 (daytime), 16:00-23:59 (evening), and 00:00-07:59 (nighttime). Comparisons with placebo were made using analysis of covariance (for least squares mean changes) and Wilcoxon rank sum test (for median percent changes); differences were considered significant at p fesoterodine 4 mg and fesoterodine 8 mg compared with placebo during each 8-hour time interval (all p fesoterodine doses compared with placebo during all time intervals (all p Fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg given once daily demonstrated efficacy over placebo for OAB symptoms during all three 8-hour intervals of a 24-hour period, thus providing clinical support for once-daily dosing. Limitations include that this was a post hoc analysis.

  10. Making sense: duty hours, work flow, and waste in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Roger W; Philibert, Ingrid

    2009-12-01

    Parsimony, and not industry, is the immediate cause of the increase of capital. Industry, indeed, provides the subject which parsimony accumulates. But whatever industry might acquire, if parsimony did not save and store up, the capital would never be the greater.Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, book 2, chapter 31In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented resident duty hour limits that included a weekly limit and limits on continuous hours. Recent recommendations for added reductions in resident duty hours have produced concern about concomitant reductions in future graduates' preparedness for independent practice. The current debate about resident hours largely does not consider whether all hours residents spend in the educational and clinical-care environment contribute meaningfully either to residents' learning or to effective patient care. This may distract the community from waste in the current clinical-education model. We propose that use of "lean production" and quality improvement methods may assist teaching institutions in attaining a deeper understanding of work flow and waste. These methods can be used to assign value to patient- and learner-centered activities and outputs and to optimize the competing and synergistic aspects of all desired outcomes to produce the care the Institute of Medicine recommends: safe, effective, efficient, patient-centered, timely, and equitable. Finally, engagement of senior clinical faculty in determining the culture of the care and education system will contribute to an advanced social-learning and care network.

  11. Duty hour restrictions: organizational dynamics, systems issues, and the impact on faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Glen; Hynes, Melissa Kennedy; Spadafora, Salvatore M

    2014-01-01

    The potential impact of resident duty hour restrictions on faculty is likely significant; however, the extent of this impact has still not been well documented. We undertook a narrative review of the literature to determine the magnitude of that potential impact and the nature of the evolving discourse related to faculty members as individuals. The literature provides an inconsistent picture of the impact of duty hour restrictions on faculty. While some studies have reported a significant increase in faculty workload, others suggest that the impact of duty hour restrictions has been minimal. Some papers suggest that duty hour restrictions may fundamentally change the nature of resident-teacher interactions and, as a result, will necessitate significant changes to the way education is delivered. Overall, the majority of issues of concern relate to one of the following: volume and composition of work, impact on faculty career choice, evolving perceptions of residents as learners, and the need to find an appropriate balance between learning and the quality and quantity of patient care. In describing these themes we identify some potential solutions and future directions for reconciling duty hour restrictions with faculty perceptions, anxieties, and desired outcomes.

  12. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Ase M; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-12-01

    The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5 seconds) handgrip contractions at 10% of the maximal voluntary contraction combined with mental demands for concentration and attention. Muscle activity in the working forearm muscles, cardiovascular responses, and concentrations of biomarkers in biological fluids were recorded along with exerted force, performance, and ratings of perceived physical exertion (RPE), and perceived mental exertion. The urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol concentrations were higher during the repetitive task than on a reference day, but only the norepinephrine concentrations increased progressively during the 4 hours. In accordance, the RPE recorded for the hand, forearm, and shoulder regions increased progressively. For the remaining physiological measures, no accumulative changes were found. Forearm muscle activity was higher during a mental reference task with lower exerted force than during the repetitive task. The variation in exerted force was higher during the repetitive task than during a force reference task without mental demands. The urinary biomarkers were increased during the repetitive task. However, only norepinephrine increased progressively during the 4 hours. Forearm muscle activity during a mental reference task with low exerted force indicated attention-related muscle activity. Finally, it was indicated that repetitive work including high demands for attention is performed at the expense of the precision of the exerted force.

  13. The new Australian after-hours general practice incentive payment mechanism: equity for rural general practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Amanda L; Nelson, Mark; Palmer, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    In July 2015, a national scheme for after-hours incentive funding for general practices was re-introduced in Australia, 2-years after funding was transferred to regional primary health care organisations (Medicare Locals). The re-introduction was recommended in a 2014 review of after-hours primary care reflecting the "overwhelming desire" among general practice. Given the centrality of after-hours care provision in rural and remote practices identified in the review, we compare and contrast the current and historical after-hours incentive funding mechanisms focussing on fairness towards rural general practices. While there are similarities between the current and historical mechanisms, significant differences exist. The comparison is not straightforward. The major consistency is utilisation of practice standardised whole patient equivalents (SWPE) as the basis of funding, inherently favouring large urban general practices. This bias is expected to increase given a shift in focus from practices with no option but to provide 24/7 care to any practice providing 24/7 care; and an associated increased funding per SWPE. Differences primarily pertain to classification processes, in which the realities of rural service provision and recognition of regional support mechanisms are given minimal consideration. Rapid introduction of the new general practice after-hours incentive funding mechanism has led to inconsistencies and has exacerbated inherent biases, particularly inequity towards rural providers. Impact on morale and service provision in non-urban areas should be monitored.

  14. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  15. Assessment of workplace air concentrations of formaldehyde during and before working hours in medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashikubo, Ichiro; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Satoru; Tanaka, Shinsuke; Matsuoka, Mitsunori; Arito, Heihachiro; Araki, Akihiro; Shimizu, Hidesuke; Sakurai, Haruhiko

    2017-04-07

    Workplace air concentrations of formaldehyde (FA) in medical facilities where FA and FA-treated organs were stored and handled were measured before and during working hours and assessed by the official method specified by Work Environment Measurement Law. Sixty-percent of the total facilities examined were judged as inappropriately controlled work environment. The concentrations of FA before working hours by spot sampling were found to exceed 0.1 ppm in some facilities, and tended to increase with increasing volume of containers storing FA and FA-treated materials. Regression analysis revealed that logarithmic concentrations of FA during working hours by the Law-specified analytical method were highly correlated with those before working hours by spot sampling, suggesting the importance for appropriate storing methods of FA and FA-treated materials. The concentrations of FA during working hours are considered to be lowered by effective ventilation of FA-contaminated workplace air and appropriate storage of FA and FA-treated materials in plastic containers in the medical facilities. In particular, such improvement by a local exhaust ventilation system and tightly-sealed containment of FA-treated material were urgently needed for the dissecting room where FA-treated cadavers were prepared and handled for a gross anatomy course in a medical school.

  16. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-08-01

    Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca(2+) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic.

  17. Work Hours Offer in Colombia: an Approach to its Determinants, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eduardo Rangel Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When participating in the job market, an individual must determine the amount of work hours to offer, a situation illustrated by economic theory through the income and substitution effects. This paper reports the results of the econometric estimation of a three-stage model of the hours of individual work for Colombia, based on the 2012 Quality of Life Survey. In the first stage, a model of the probability of being employed is made; then, a Mincer Equation corrected by selection bias is estimated and, finally, an equation of work hours is estimated using the Tobit model, in terms of wages predicted to correct endogeneity. Results show that the substitution effect takes precedence over the income effect; that age (up to a threshold, being head of household, having children under five years of age, being married or living in a common-law marriage and, finally, having a written employment contract, have a positive effect on the number of hours offered; on the other hand, unearned income has a negative effect on the number of hours offered.

  18. The association between working hours and sleep disturbances according to occupation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to explore the relationship between working hours and sleep disturbance according to occupation and gender among Korean workers. Data were derived from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2011 by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. From a total of 50,032 workers, 34,783 salaried contract workers were selected. Work hours were categorized as 60 h/week. The outcome variable was sleep disturbance, which was assessed by a single question item (During the past 12 months, have you experienced sleep disturbance or insomnia?). Multiple survey logistic regression models were performed after adjusting with age, education level, marital status, self-rated health, salary, shift work, smoking and alcohol drinking. Gender and occupation were stratified in these models. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance in male non-manual workers with long work hours (>60 h/week) was 3.017 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.956-4.653]. In female non-manual workers who work 49-60 working hour per week, the OR was 1.525 (95% CI 1.034-2.249). Long working hours can be a risk factor for sleep disturbance in Korean workers. The association was especially prominent in male non-manual workers.

  19. Direct Susceptibility testing of Urine samples after 6, 9 and 16 hours incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghatian, Khaled; Littauer, Pia; Llado, Minna Fyhn Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: At present, susceptibility testing of infective bacteria from urine samples, according to EUCAST, is interpretation of zones after 16 hours of incubation. Using a semi-automated sample processing, the Kiestra (BD) system, to incubate of the agar plates and digital image processing...... testing on urine samples. Methods: In total 675 consecutive urine samples from out-patients, were inoculated directly, according to our laboratory standard, as 10µL on each part of a bi-plate (oxoid chomogene agar and 5% horse blood-agar) and 10µL on a MH plate for resistance testing, using an Inoqula...... (Kiestra-BD). The plates were photographed at 6, 9 and 16 hours after incubation. As a gold standard, the susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST, as a secondary susceptibility testing, for colonies identified on the biplates, and read after 16 hours incubation.The disks used (Oxoid, Termo...

  20. CHIS – Opening hours of UNIQA offices during end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The office of UNIQA at CERN (Main Building) will be closed during the end-of-year closure.   During that period, the Geneva offices of UNIQA will be open on 23, 26, 27 and 30 December as well as on 2 and 3 January. Opening hours: 8 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. and 1.30 p.m. to 5 p.m. During these hours, you can also call 022 718 63 00. Mail sent to uniqa.assurances@cern.ch will be handled only during these opening hours. For urgent medical assistance, you may call +43 512 224 22, 24h/day.  Please note that this service only provides medical advice and is not in a position to inform you on your administrative situation nor on the coverage by CHIS of medical expenses. HR Department Tel.: 74125

  1. HOURLY STABILITY ANALYSIS AS THE KEY PARAMETER OF LEAN MANUFACTURING AND LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Besta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing belongs to the basic philosophies originating in automotive industry. It was originally based on a number of elementary principles and methods. Companies from other industrial areas have also been gradually trying to apply these principles. This leads to the incorporation of other tools from various areas into this concept. The fundamental techniques of lean manufacturing include the hourly stability (output analysis. This method can be applied in a wide variety of manufacturing fields. The aim is a stable working worker, not a worker working rapidly and with large fluctuations. Speed and sudden changes mean inaccuracy, poor quality and problems to the manufacturing companies. The research has also carried out the hourly stability analysis in a company manufacturing components for a variety of global car manufacturers. The objective of this article is to evaluate the research of hourly stability for the selected workplaces.

  2. Impact of gender and personality traits on preferred pricing of public transport in rush hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Price is an inherent part of marketing mix. It is used for multiple reasons, from skimming consumer's surplus to antimarketing. In public transport, higher prices are often used in rush hours. The logic is to give an incentive to customers to travel outside rush hours, thus more evenly distribute...... the load. But it is possible to argue that prices should be lower in rush hours because means of public transportation tend to be full, i.e. there is a lower comfort of travelling, possibly even taking longer to travel the same distance. It is also possible to argue that the prices should be the same all...... the time because the distance of travel stays the same. The paper analyzes if gender and personality traits influence for which pricing a person would decide. The logic for the three ways of pricing were not provided in the questionnaire. Big Five Inventory-10 was used to measure personality traits...

  3. Service Users' and Caregivers' Perspectives on Continuity of Care in Out-of-Hours Primary Care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Niamh

    2012-12-20

    Modernization policies in primary care, such as the introduction of out-of-hours general practice cooperatives, signify a marked departure from many service users\\' traditional experiences of continuity of care. We report on a case study of accounts of service users with chronic conditions and their caregivers of continuity of care in an out-of-hours general practice cooperative in Ireland. Using Strauss and colleagues\\' Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework, we explored users\\' and caregivers\\' experiences of continuity in this context. Whereas those dealing with "routine trajectories" were largely satisfied with their experiences, those dealing with "problematic trajectories" (characterized by the presence of, for example, multimorbidity and complex care regimes) had considerable concerns about continuity of experiences in this service. Results highlight that modernization policies that have given rise to out-of-hours cooperatives have had a differential impact on service users with chronic conditions and their caregivers, with serious consequences for those who have "problematic" trajectories.

  4. Resident education in developmental behavioral pediatrics: the impact of the 80-hour work week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Viren A; High, Pamela C

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed the structure of pediatric resident developmental behavioral pediatrics (DBP) rotations in the context of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour mandates. : We distributed an online survey addressing rotation structure, call schedule, and impact of the duty hour policy to resident DBP rotation directors in 114 of 204 pediatric residency programs in the United States and Canada and received responses from 81 programs (71% response rate). Seventy-five percent of respondents reported an average of 16% reduction in their DBP rotation after implementation of the Duty Hours rule in 2003. More programs having overnight calls during the rotation reported decreases versus those without overnight calls (91% vs 52%, p rotations. Attention may need to be given to the consequences for resident education in DBP.

  5. Determining Optimal Hourly and Annual Coefficient District Cooling - One of the Aspects use of Green Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefik M.Bajmak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Work together more cooling source (refrigeration machines the system of centralized supply cooling energy ( SCSCE is a way to achieve cost-effective operation and safe and rational supply consumption area with cool water for central cooling and air conditioning . Maximum energy needs cold water occurs rarely , because the extremely high temperatures occur rarely . Therefore , the total cooling load is divided into basic and peak . One of the main characteristics that define the justification of the use of coupled processes and sizes hourly coefficient centralized supply of cold water, temperature regime , or hour coefficient district cooling . Determination of Optimal hour coefficient district cooling is one of the most techno economic tasks at the design of the system of centralized supply cold water for air conditioning and industrial building social housing and business districts .

  6. Generating Hourly Rainfall Model using Bayesian Time Series Model (A Case Study at Sentral Station, Bondowoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entin Hidayah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation of hourly rainfall data is very important to fulfil the input of continual rainfall-runoff model, when the availability of automatic rainfall records are limited. Continual rainfall-runoff modeling requires rainfall data in form of series of hourly. Such specification can be obtained by temporal disaggregation in single site. The paper attempts to generate single-site rainfall model based upon time series (AR1 model by adjusting and establishing dummy procedure. Estimated with Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC the objective variable is hourly rainfall depth. Performance of model has been evaluated by comparison of history data and model prediction. The result shows that the model has a good performance for dry interval periods. The performance of the model good represented by smaller number of MAE by 0.21 respectively.

  7. Comparative analysis of hourly and dynamic power balancing models for validating future energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan R.; Heussen, Kai; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    Energy system analyses on the basis of fast and simple tools have proven particularly useful for interdisciplinary planning projects with frequent iterations and re-evaluation of alternative scenarios. As such, the tool “EnergyPLAN” is used for hourly balanced and spatially aggregate annual......, the model is verified on the basis of the existing energy mix on Bornholm as an islanded energy system. Future energy scenarios for the year 2030 are analysed to study a feasible technology mix for a higher share of wind power. Finally, the results of the hourly simulations are compared to dynamic frequency...... simulations incorporating the Vehicle-to-grid technology. The results indicate how the EnergyPLAN model may be improved in terms of intra-hour variability, stability and ancillary services to achieve a better reflection of energy and power capacity requirements....

  8. Infection Rates in Open Fractures of the Tibia: Is the 6-Hour Rule Fact or Fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya S. Kamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Emergency debridement has long been the standard of care for open fractures of the tibia as infection is an important complication. The timing of operative debridement can be debated. We review open fractures of the tibia and compare infection rates in those that were operated on within and after 6-hours. Method. 103 consecutive open fractures of the tibia were reviewed. The data was analysed retrospectively with regard to severity of fracture and incidence of infection. Infection rates over a three-month period were compared between the two groups. Results. 12 (11.6% patients developed an infection within the first 3 months of injury. 7 of which were taken to theatre within 6-hours, and 5 after 6-hours. No significant differences were found between these two groups. Conclusion. There is no significant difference in timing of surgery. Initial basic interventions may play more of a role in limiting the risk of infection.

  9. Sub-Hour Solar Data for Power System Modeling From Static Spatial Variability Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.; Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.

    2012-12-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies need high quality solar power data with spatial-temporal correlations that are representative of a real system. This paper will summarize the research relating sequential point-source sub-hour global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values to static, spatially distributed GHI values. This research led to the development of an algorithm for generating coherent sub-hour datasets that span distances ranging from 10 km to 4,000 km. The algorithm, in brief, generates synthetic GHI values at an interval of one-minute, for a specific location, using SUNY/Clean Power Research, satellite-derived, hourly irradiance values for the nearest grid cell to that location and grid cells within 40 km.

  10. Exploring users' experiences of accessing out‐of‐hours primary medical care services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, S H; Pound, P; Dickens, A; Greco, M; Campbell, J L

    2007-01-01

    Background Since 2000, out‐of‐hours primary medical care services in the UK have undergone major changes in the organisation and delivery of services in response to recommendations by the Carson Review and more recently, through the new General Medical Services Contract (GMS2). People calling their general practice in the evening or at weekends are redirected to the out‐of‐hours service which may offer telephone advice, a home visit or a visit to a treatment centre. Little is known about users' experiences under the new arrangements. Aim To explore users' experiences of out‐of‐hours primary medical care. Design of study A qualitative study employing focus groups and telephone interviews. Setting Three out‐of‐hours primary medical care service providers in England. Methods Focus groups and telephone interviews were conducted with 27 recent users of out‐of‐hours services. Results Key areas of concern included the urgency with which cases are handled, and delays when waiting for a call back or home visit. Users felt that providers were reluctant to do home visits. The service was regarded as under‐resourced and frequently misused. Many expressed anxiety about calling, feeling unsure about how appropriate their call was and many were uncertain about how the service operated. Conclusions Service users need clear information on how current out‐of‐hours services operate and how it should be used. Problems with triaging need to be addressed, users should be kept informed of any delays, and care needs to be taken to ensure that the new arrangements do not alienate older people or individuals with complex health needs. PMID:18055893

  11. Paediatric cardiology fellowship training: effect of work-hour regulations on scholarly activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronai, Christina; Lang, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, work-hour regulations were implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Much has been published regarding resident rest and quality of life as well as patient safety. There has been no examination on the effect of work-hour restrictions on academic productivity of fellows in training. Paediatric subspecialty fellows have a scholarly requirement mandated by the American Board of Pediatrics. We have examined the impact of work-hour restrictions on the scholarly productivity of paediatric cardiology fellows during their fellowship. We conducted a literature search for all paediatric cardiology fellows between 1998 and 2007 at a single academic institution as first or senior authors on papers published during their 3-year fellowship and 3 years after completion of their categorical fellowship (n=63, 30 fellows before 2003 and 33 fellows after 2003). The numbers of first- or senior-author fellow publications before and after 2003 were compared. We also collected data on final paediatric cardiology subspecialty career choice. There was no difference in the number of fellow first-author publications before and after 2003. Before work-hour restrictions, the mean number of publications per fellow was 2.1 (±2.2), and after work-hour restrictions it was 2.0 (±1.8), (p=0.89). By subspecialty career choice, fellows who select electrophysiology, preventative cardiology, and heart failure always published within the 6-year time period. Since the implementation of work-hour regulations, total number of fellow first-authored publications has not changed. The role of subspecialty choice may play a role in academic productivity of fellows in training.

  12. Continuity of care: a casualty of the 80-hour work week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Josef E

    2004-05-01

    The controversy concerning the limit of residents' work time to 80 hours a week has generated unprecedented dismay for many involved in graduate medical education, particularly surgeons. The author maintains that 80 hours a week is too short a time for surgery residents to provide excellent care and that this new rule undercuts the importance of continuity of care, a principle highly valued by surgeons. General surgeons and those specialty surgeons most closely associated with them think of themselves as the last "compleat physicians," who should and can take care of the entire patient, and that when difficulties arise, they should not transfer the patient to another physician but instead ask someone else to help them continue to care for the patient. The author traces the arbitrary choice of an 80-hour work week (instead of a 92-hour one) to several sources, including the leadership of internal medicine, which he feels has largely de-emphasized patient contact for many years and has become focused on research and/or administration. He also maintains that the issue of moonlighting has also driven the push for an 80-hour work week, and that the view of moonlighting by surgical residencies (i.e., that it is almost always counterproductive) is different from that of other residencies. He concludes by acknowledging that the 80-hour work week and the abandonment of the principle of continuity of care are societal decisions, and have occurred because surgeons and other physicians did not make their case strongly enough or in time.

  13. Analyzing the Impact of Solar Power on Multi-Hourly Thermal Generator Ramping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkranz, Joshua-Benedict; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-04-08

    Solar power generation, unlike conventional forms of electricity generation, has higher variability and uncertainty in its output because solar plant output is strongly impacted by weather. As the penetration rate of solar capacity increases, grid operators are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty that solar power provides. This paper illustrates the impacts of increasing solar power penetration on the ramping of conventional electricity generators by simulating the operation of the Independent System Operator -- New England power system. A production cost model was used to simulate the power system under five different scenarios, one without solar power and four with increasing solar power penetrations up to 18%, in terms of annual energy. The impact of solar power is analyzed on six different temporal intervals, including hourly and multi-hourly (2- to 6-hour) ramping. The results show how the integration of solar power increases the 1- to 6-hour ramping events of the net load (electric load minus solar power). The study also analyzes the impact of solar power on the distribution of multi-hourly ramping events of fossil-fueled generators and shows increasing 1- to 6-hour ramping events for all different generators. Generators with higher ramp rates such as gas and oil turbine and internal combustion engine generators increased their ramping events by 200% to 280%. For other generator types--including gas combined-cycle generators, coal steam turbine generators, and gas and oil steam turbine generators--more and higher ramping events occurred as well for higher solar power penetration levels.

  14. Asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever: 24-hour electrocardiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Mehmet; Işıkay, Sedat; Olgun, Haşim; Ceviz, Naci

    2010-12-01

    Some rhythm and conduction abnormalities can occur in children with acute rheumatic fever. These abnormalities have been defined based on standard electrocardiography; however, the real prevalence of these abnormalities has not been investigated previously by the evaluation of long-term electrocardiographic recordings. In this study, we evaluated the asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever by evaluating the 24-hour electrocardiography. We evaluated the standard electrocardiography and the 24-hour electrocardiography of 64 children with acute rheumatic fever. On standard electrocardiography, the frequency of the first-degree atrioventricular block was found to be 21.9%. Electrocardiography at 24 hours detected three additional and separate patients with a long PR interval. Mobitz type I block and atypical Wenckebach periodicity were determined in one patient (1.56%) on 24-hour electrocardiography. While accelerated junctional rhythm was detected in three patients on standard electrocardiography, it was present in nine patients according to 24-hour electrocardiography. Premature contractions were present in 1.7% of standard electrocardiography, but in 29.7% of 24-hour electrocardiography. Absence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of accelerated junctional rhythm (p > 0.05), and the presence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of premature contractions (p = 0.000). In conclusion, our results suggest that in children with acute rheumatic fever, the prevalence of rhythm and conduction abnormalities may be much higher than determined on standard electrocardiography. Further studies are needed to clarify whether or not these abnormalities are specific to acute rheumatic fever.

  15. Comparison of Oral Intake Profiles at 2 and 8 Hours following Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbabi Kalati Farshid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: After cesarean section, practices vary considerably between institutions and individual practitioners, ranging from early oral fluids or food to delayed introduction of oral fluids and food which may be after 24 hours or more. This study was carried out to assess and compare the outcome, length of hospital stay and maternal satisfaction of early (2 hours and late (8 hours postoperative feeding after uncomplicated cesarean section done under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 112 women undertaking uncomplicated cesarean section under regional anesthesia from August 2008 to August 2009 were randomly assigned to early feeding ( 2 hours after operation and late feeding (conventional 8 hours after operation groups. Two groups were compared for the occurrence of postoperative outcome, possible complications, length of hospital stay and patient´s satisfaction. Chi Squared and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05.Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic data and operation variables between the two groups. No significant differences were noted between the groups regarding post feeding nausea and vomiting, post operative ileus and other complications and duration of hospitalization. Compared with the late postoperative feeding, the early feeding group had a shorter mean time to first flatus (P=0.03 and higher satisfaction rate (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Early feeding (2 hours after uncomplicated cesarean in low-risk woman is associated with higher maternal satisfaction without higher rates of gastrointestinal and non gastrointestinal complications

  16. Out-of-hours care in western countries: assessment of different organizational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibers, Linda; Giesen, Paul; Wensing, Michel; Grol, Richard

    2009-06-23

    Internationally, different organizational models are used for providing out-of-hours care. The aim of this study was to assess prevailing models in order to identify their potential strengths and weaknesses. An international web-based survey was done in 2007 in a sample of purposefully selected key informants from 25 western countries. The questions concerned prevailing organizational models for out-of-hours care, the most dominant model in each country, perceived weaknesses, and national plans for changes in out-of-hours care. A total of 71 key informants from 25 countries provided answers. In most countries several different models existed alongside each other. The Accident and Emergency department was the organizational model most frequently used. Perceived weaknesses of this model concerned the coordination and continuity of care, its efficiency and accessibility. In about a third of the countries, the rota group was the most dominant organizational model for out-of-hours care. A perceived weakness of this model was lowered job satisfaction of physicians. The GP cooperative existed in a majority of the participating countries; no weaknesses were mentioned with respect to this model. Most of the countries had plans to change the out-of-hours care, mainly toward large scale organizations. GP cooperatives combine size of scale advantages with organizational features of strong primary care, such as high accessibility, continuity and coordination of care. While specific patients require other organizational models, the co-existence of different organizational models for out-of-hours care in a country may be less efficient for health systems.

  17. Impact of Duty Hour Regulations on Medical Students’ Education: Views of Key Clinical Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B.; Miller, Redonda G.; Ashar, Bimal H.; Bass, Eric B.; Rice, Tasha; Cofrancesco, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teaching faculty have valuable perspectives on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to elicit faculty views on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students’ educational experience on inpatient medicine rotations. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a National Survey of Key Clinical Faculty (KCF) at 40 internal medicine residency programs affiliated with U.S. medical schools using a random sample stratified by National Institutes of Health funding and program size. MEASUREMENTS This study measures KCF opinions on the effect of duty hour regulations on students’ education. RESULTS Of 154 KCF targeted, 111 responded (72%). Fifty-two percent of KCF reported worsening in the overall quality of students’ education compared to just 2.7% reporting improvement (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis adjusted for gender, academic rank, specialty, and years of teaching experience, faculty who spent ≥15 hours per week teaching were more likely to report worsening in medical students’ level of responsibility on inpatient teams [odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–7.6], ability to follow patients throughout hospitalization (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3–7.9), ability to develop working relationships with residents (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0–5.2), and the overall quality of students’ education (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.4–8.1) compared to faculty who spent less time teaching. CONCLUSION Key clincal faculty report concerns about the impact of duty hour regulations on aspects of medical students’ education in internal medicine. Medical schools and residency programs should identify ways to ensure optimal educational experiences for students within duty hour requirements. PMID:18612749

  18. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Resident Duty Hour Restrictions in Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Katharine S.; Keshet, Itay; Spicer, Jonathan; Imrie, Kevin; Feldman, Liane; Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Kayssi, Ahmed; Lipsman, Nir; Elmi, Maryam; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Parshuram, Chris; Mainprize, Todd; Warren, Richard J.; Fata, Paola; Gorman, M. Sean; Feinberg, Stan; Rutka, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandated 80-hour resident duty limits. In 2011 the ACGME mandated 16-hour duty maximums for PGY1 (post graduate year) residents. The stated goals were to improve patient safety, resident well-being, and education. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of resident duty hours (RDH) on clinical and educational outcomes in surgery. Methods: A systematic review (1980–2013) was executed on CINAHL, Cochrane Database, Embase, Medline, and Scopus. Quality of articles was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Sixteen-hour shifts and night float systems were analyzed separately. Articles that examined mortality data were combined in a random-effects meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of RDH on patient mortality. Results: A total of 135 articles met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 42% (N = 57) were considered moderate-high quality. There was no overall improvement in patient outcomes as a result of RDH; however, some studies suggest increased complication rates in high-acuity patients. There was no improvement in education related to RDH restrictions, and performance on certification examinations has declined in some specialties. Survey studies revealed a perception of worsened education and patient safety. There were improvements in resident wellness after the 80-hour workweek, but there was little improvement or negative effects on wellness after 16-hour duty maximums were implemented. Conclusions: Recent RDH changes are not consistently associated with improvements in resident well-being, and have negative impacts on patient outcomes and performance on certification examinations. Greater flexibility to accommodate resident training needs is required. Further erosion of training time should be considered with great caution. PMID:24662409

  19. Productivity, hours worked, and tax/benefit systems in Europe and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitila, Ville

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the development of labour productivity and hours worked by the working-aged population in the EU25 countries and other OECD countries in 1960-2004. We emphasise the possible effects of taxes, benefits and other labour-market variables. First, we describe the trends in productivity and hours worked especially in the EU15 countries relative to the United States. Then we use both cross-section analyses of the 1995-2004 period and pooled least squares panel data analyses of the 1960-20...

  20. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study...... or three contacts per year. The setting was out-of-hours general practice in Aarhus County, Denmark. Data were collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County. The county had approximately 600,000 inhabitants, of whom 465,000 were aged 18 years and over. The subjects were 101...