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Sample records for twenty-four healthy subjects

  1. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

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    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  2. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

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    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  3. Twenty-four hour care for schizophrenia.

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    Macpherson, Rob; Edwards, Thomas Rhys; Chilvers, Rupatharshini; David, Chris; Elliott, Helen J

    2009-04-15

    Despite modern treatment approaches and a focus on community care, there remains a group of people who cannot easily be discharged from psychiatric hospital directly into the community. Twenty-four hour residential rehabilitation (a 'ward-in-a-house') is one model of care that has evolved in association with psychiatric hospital closure programmes. To determine the effects of 24 hour residential rehabilitation compared with standard treatment within a hospital setting. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2002 and February 2004). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared 24 hour residential rehabilitation with standard care for people with severe mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes we calculated the relative risk and its 95% confidence interval. We identified and included one study with 22 participants with important methodological shortcomings and limitations of reporting. The two-year controlled study evaluated "new long stay patients" in a hostel ward in the UK. One outcome 'unable to manage in the placement' provided usable data (n=22, RR 7.0 CI 0.4 to 121.4). The trial reported that hostel ward residents developed superior domestic skills, used more facilities in the community and were more likely to engage in constructive activities than those in hospital - although usable numerical data were not reported. These potential advantages were not purchased at a price. The limited economic data was not good but the cost of providing 24 hour care did not seem clearly different from the standard care provided by the hospital - and it may have been less. From the single, small and ill-reported, included study, the hostel ward type of facility appeared cheaper and positively effective. Currently, the value of this way of supporting people - which could be

  4. Pharmacokinetics of rilmenidine in healthy subjects

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    Genissel, P.; Bromet, N.; Fourtillan, J.B.; Mignot, A.; Albin, H.

    1988-01-01

    Rilmenidine is a novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, used in the treatment of mild or moderate hypertension at the oral dose of 1 mg once or twice daily. The pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated after single or repeated administration in healthy subjects, using labeled and unlabeled compounds. Rilmenidine was rapidly and extensively absorbed, with an absolute bioavailability factor close to 1 and a maximal plasma concentration achieved within 2 hours. Rilmenidine was not subject to presystemic metabolism. Distribution was independent of the free fraction because rilmenidine was weakly bound to plasma proteins (less than 10%). The volume of distribution was approximately 5 l.kg-1 (315 liters). Elimination was rapid with a total body plasma clearance of approximately 450 ml.min-1 and an elimination half-life of approximately 8 hours. Renal excretion was the major elimination process (two-thirds of the total clearance). Metabolism was very poor, with a renal elimination of rilmenidine as the parent drug (urinary fraction of rilmenidine was about 65% and no metabolite plasma levels were detected). Linear pharmacokinetics were demonstrated for rilmenidine from 0.5 to 2 mg but, at 3 mg, a slight deviation from linearity was observed. In repeated administration, the linear disposition of rilmenidine with dose was confirmed

  5. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

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    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  6. Soluble serum Klotho levels in healthy subjects

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    Pedersen, Lise Mariager; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Brasen, Claus Lohman

    2013-01-01

    Klotho concentrations were determined in 120 healthy adults aged 19-66years. Blood samples were collected, and stored sera were assayed for Klotho according to age and gender. In addition several other clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined in the cohort and compared to the levels...... genders. Concentrations of serum Klotho were independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and body weight using TRF whereas serum Klotho concentrations were associated with age using the ELISA. CONCLUSION: Comparison of two different immunoassays for serum Klotho indicate...

  7. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

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    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    .011) and post-prandial glycemia (P = 0.023). We conclude that prednisolone had no detectable effect on the ffERG in healthy lean men in this study. Retinal function may be less sensitive to changes in glycemia in healthy subjects than in people with diabetes, a characteristic that was unchanged by a short...

  8. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects

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    Aditya Mungee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. Methods: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were shown a reminder of the conditioned fearful stimulus. Shortly thereafter, they received either tDCS (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal for 20 min at 1 mA, or sham stimulation. A day later, fear responses of both groups were compared. Results: On Day 3, during fear response assessment, there were no significant differences between the tDCS and sham group (p > 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal did not influence fear memories.

  9. Action-blindsight in healthy subjects after transcranial magnetic stimulation

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    Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  10. Incretin and islet hormone responses to meals of increasing size in healthy subjects.

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    Alsalim, Wathik; Omar, Bilal; Pacini, Giovanni; Bizzotto, Roberto; Mari, Andrea; Ahrén, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Postprandial glucose homeostasis is regulated through the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) through the stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. However, how these processes dynamically adapt to demands created by caloric challenges achieved during daily life is not known. The objective of the study was to explore the adaptation of incretin and islet hormones after mixed meals of increasing size in healthy subjects. Twenty-four healthy lean subjects ingested a standard breakfast after an overnight fast followed, after 4 hours, by a lunch of a different size (511, 743, and 1034 kcal) but with identical nutrient composition together with 1.5 g paracetamol. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, intact GLP-1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and paracetamol were measured after the meals. Area under the 180-minute curve (AUC) for insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP and model-derived β-cell function and paracetamol appearance were calculated. Glucose profiles were similar after the two larger meals, whereas after the smaller meal, there was a postpeak reduction below baseline to a nadir of 3.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L after 75 minutes (P lunch meals of increasing size elicit a caloric-dependent insulin response due to increased β-cell secretion achieved by increased GIP and GLP-1 levels. The adaptation at larger meals results in identical glucose excursions, whereas after a lower caloric lunch, the insulin response is high, resulting in a postpeak suppression of glucose below baseline.

  11. Intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects

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    Hatamvand S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of cervicocephalic and head joint position sense has an important role in the recurrent and chronic of cervicocephalic pain. The various tools are suggested for evaluating the cervicocephalic joint position sense. Although reconstruction of cervical angle is a clinical criterion for measuring the cervicocephalic proprioception, the reliability of this method has not been completely accepted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects. twenty four healthy subjects (25.70±6.08 y through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeatedmeasures reliability study. Participants were asked to relocate the neck, as accurately as possible, after full active cervical flexion, extension and rotation to the left and right sides. Five trials were performed for each movement. Laser pointer was used in head of patient. The distance between zero spot and joint position which patient had been reconstructed, was measured by centimeter. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs and Pearson's correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values with 95% confidence interval (CI and the standard error of the measurement (SEM were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values were obtained for flexion movement (ICCs:0.75, good, extension movement (ICCs:0.81, very good, right rotation (ICCs:0.64, good and left rotation (ICCs:0.64, good. The cervicocephalic relocation test to neutral head position by laser pointer is a reliable method to measure cervical sensory motor function. Therefore, it can be used for evaluating cervicocephalic proprioception of patient with cervicocephalic pain.

  12. 24-h monitoring of calcineurin phosphatase activity in healthy subjects

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    Koefoed-Nielsen, P.B.; Karamperis, N.; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2005-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus are the cornerstone immunosuppressants used in solid organ transplantation. Studies investigating calcineurin (CaN) activity in renal transplanted patients have been published, but basic properties of the enzyme activity in healthy subjects...... remain to be described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CaN displays circadian variation or sex difference is present in healthy subjects. Twenty subjects had blood samples drawn every 4 h for a 24-h period. CaN activity was determined in whole blood as the release of 32P from...

  13. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in very elderly patients

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    Cappelleri, Claudia; Janoschka, Alin; Berli, Reto; Kohler, Sibylle; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger C.; Heuss, Ludwig T.; Wolfrum, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) is frequently diagnosed in very elderly hospitalized patients. Accurate diagnosis of hypertension is challenging in the hospital environment, due to the “white coat effect,” and both overtreatment and undertreatment can adversely affect clinical outcome. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has the potential to avoid the “white coat effect” and accurately guide the management of hypertension. However, effects of the hospital environment on ABPM are unknown in the very elderly. We set out to enroll 45 patients, age ≥70 years, with elevated conventional BP during hospitalization in this observational study. It was prespecified by protocol to assess initially the difference between 24-hour BP during hospital-admission and home follow-up. Subsequent analysis should investigate the change in anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A [HADS-A]) after discharge, the correlation with change in 24-hour BP after discharge, and the prevalence of orthostatic hypertension. Thirty-one patients were included in the final analysis (age 83.5 ± 4.4 years; 71% female). Twenty-four-hour BP decreased significantly after hospital discharge (systolic from 133.5 ± 15.6 to 126.2 ± 14.4 mm Hg [millimeter of mercury], P = .008; diastolic from 71.0 ± 9.0 to 68.3 ± 8.6 mm Hg, P = .046). Anxiety level (HADS-A) decreased significantly after discharge, from 7.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0–13.8) to 5.0 (IQR: 4.0–8.0, P = .012). The change in anxiety was a predictor of change in systolic BP after discharge (F[1,20] = 5.9, P = .025). Sixty-one percent of the patients had significant orthostatic hypotension during hospital stay. In conclusion, 24-hour BP in very elderly patients is lower in the home environment than during hospitalization. This phenomenon seems to be directly linked to a lower anxiety-level at home. Reassessing hypertension at home may decrease the

  14. Role of Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children on Dialysis

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    Sutherland, Scott M.; Begin, Brandy; Salsbery, Kari; McCabe, Lonisa; Potter, Donald; Alexander, Steven R.; Wong, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Pre- or postdialysis BP recordings are imprecise, can be biased, and have poor test–retest reliability in children on dialysis. We aimed to examine the possible differences between pre- and postdialysis BP levels and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in diagnosis of hypertension (HTN). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twenty-four children on dialysis had 24-hour ABPM in the interdialytic period, and values were compared with average pre- and postdialysis systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) recordings that week. Each patient had an echocardiogram to determine presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Results By ABPM, 8% of patients had white coat HTN and 12% had masked HTN. There was no significant difference in diagnosis of systolic HTN based on ABPM daytime SBP mean or load and postdialysis SBP. However, only 15% of patients had diastolic HTN based on postdialysis measures, whereas 46% of patients had significantly elevated daytime DBP loads and 71% had high nighttime DBP loads on ABPM. Forty-eight percent of patients were SBP nondippers. Children with LVH had higher daytime and nighttime SBP loads, significantly higher daytime and nighttime DBP loads, and lesser degree of nocturnal dipping of SBP compared with those who did not. Conclusion ABPM is more informative than pre- and postdialysis BPs and improves the predictability of BP as a risk factor for target organ damage. Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of HTN among pediatric dialysis patients is enhanced with addition of ABPM. PMID:21273374

  15. [Study on medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-four Histories].

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    Huang, Kai-Wen

    2012-03-01

    Through the combination of manual retrieval and computerized retrieval, medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-Four Histories were collected. Acupuncture cases from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.) to the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)were retrieved. From the medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in Chinese official history books, it can be found that systematic diseases or emergent and severe diseases were already treated by physicians with the combination of acupuncture and medicine as early as in the Spring and Autumn Period as well as the Warring States Period(475-221 B.C.). CANG Gong, a famous physician of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-A. D. 24), cured diseases by selecting points along the running courses of meridians where the illness inhabited, which indicates that the theory of meridians and collaterals was served as a guide for clinical practice as early as in the Western Han Dynasty. Blood letting therapy, which has surprising effect, was often adopted by physicians of various historical periods to treat diseases. And treatment of diseases with single point was approved to be easy and effective.

  16. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

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    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  17. Isolated total RNA and protein are preserved after thawing for more than twenty-four hours

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    de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Ramos, Débora Rothstein; Lopes, Karen Lucasechi; de Souza, Regiane Machado; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preservation of biological samples at a low temperature is important for later biochemical and/or histological analyses. However, the molecular viability of thawed samples has not been studied sufficiently in depth. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of intact tissues, tissue homogenates, and isolated total RNA after defrosting for more than twenty-four hours. METHODS: The molecular viability of the thawed samples (n = 82) was assessed using the A260/A280 ratio, the RNA concentration, the RNA integrity, the level of intact mRNA determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the protein level determined by Western blotting, and an examination of the histological structure. RESULTS: The integrity of the total RNA was not preserved in the thawed intact tissue, but the RNA integrity and level of mRNA were perfectly preserved in isolated defrosted samples of total RNA. Additionally, the level of β-actin protein was preserved in both thawed intact tissue and homogenates. CONCLUSION: Isolated total RNA does not undergo degradation due to thawing for at least 24 hours, and it is recommended to isolate the total RNA as soon as possible after tissue collection. Moreover, the protein level is preserved in defrosted tissues. PMID:22473407

  18. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined electroretinographic function in healthy subjects before and after prednisolone intake. To separate the effect of prednisolone on the retina from the potentially confounding hyperglycemia-inducing effect of prednisolone, electroretinography was made while fasting and at a pre-...

  19. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

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    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stress and inflammation in renal patients and healthy subjects.

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    Diana M Lee

    Full Text Available The first goal of this study was to measure the oxidative stress (OS and relate it to lipoprotein variables in 35 renal patients before dialysis (CKD, 37 on hemodialysis (HD and 63 healthy subjects. The method for OS was based on the ratio of cholesteryl esters (CE containing C18/C16 fatty acids (R2 measured by gas chromatography (GC which is a simple, direct, rapid and reliable procedure. The second goal was to investigate and identify a triacylglycerol peak on GC, referred to as TG48 (48 represents the sum of the three fatty acids carbon chain lengths which was markedly increased in renal patients compared to healthy controls. We measured TG48 in patients and controls. Mass spectrometry (MS and MS twice in tandem were used to analyze the fatty acid composition of TG48. MS showed that TG48 was abundant in saturated fatty acids (SFAs that were known for their pro-inflammatory property. TG48 was significantly and inversely correlated with OS. Renal patients were characterized by higher OS and inflammation than healthy subjects. Inflammation correlated strongly with TG, VLDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo C-III and apoC-III bound to apoB-containing lipoproteins, but not with either total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol.In conclusion, we have discovered a new inflammatory factor, TG48. It is characterized with TG rich in saturated fatty acids. Renal patients have increased TG48 than healthy controls.

  1. Behavioural relevance of atypical language lateralization in healthy subjects.

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    Knecht, S; Dräger, B; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Breitenstein, C; Deppe, M; Henningsen, H; Ringelstein, E B

    2001-08-01

    In most humans, language is lateralized to the left side of the brain. It has been speculated that this hemispheric specialization is a prerequisite for the full realization of linguistic potential. Using standardized questionnaires and performance measures, we attempted to determine if there are behavioural correlates of atypical, i.e. right-hemispheric and bilateral, language lateralization. The side and degree of language lateralization were determined by measuring the hemispheric perfusion differences by functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography during a word generation task in healthy volunteers. Subjects with left (n = 264), bilateral (n = 31) or right (n = 31) hemisphere language representation did not differ significantly with respect to mastery of foreign languages, academic achievement, artistic talents, verbal fluency or (as assessed in a representative subgroup) in intelligence or speed of linguistic processing. These findings suggest that atypical hemispheric specialization for language, i.e. right-hemisphere or bilateral specialization, is not associated with major impairments of linguistic faculties in otherwise healthy subjects.

  2. Safety pharmacology of acute MDMA administration in healthy subjects.

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    Vizeli, Patrick; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-05-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is being investigated in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. The present study characterized the safety pharmacology of single-dose administrations of MDMA (75 or 125 mg) using data from nine double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies performed in the same laboratory in a total of 166 healthy subjects. The duration of the subjective effects was 4.2 ± 1.3 h (range: 1.4-8.2 h). The 125 mg dose of MDMA produced greater 'good drug effect' ratings than 75 mg. MDMA produced moderate and transient 'bad drug effect' ratings, which were greater in women than in men. MDMA increased systolic blood pressure to >160 mmHg, heart rate >100 beats/min, and body temperature >38°C in 33%, 29% and 19% of the subjects, respectively. These proportions of subjects with hypertension (>160 mmHg), tachycardia, and body temperature >38°C were all significantly greater after 125 mg MDMA compared with the 75 mg dose. Acute and subacute adverse effects of MDMA as assessed by the List of Complaints were dose-dependent and more frequent in females. MDMA did not affect liver or kidney function at EOS 29 ± 22 days after use. No serious adverse events occurred. In conclusion, MDMA produced predominantly acute positive subjective drug effects. Bad subjective drug effects and other adverse effects were significantly more common in women. MDMA administration was overall safe in physically and psychiatrically healthy subjects and in a medical setting. However, the risks of MDMA are likely higher in patients with cardiovascular disease and remain to be investigated in patients with psychiatric disorders.

  3. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

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    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  4. Cytokine and chemokine levels in tears from healthy subjects.

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    Carreño, Ester; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Tesón, Marisa; García-Vázquez, Carmen; Stern, Michael E; Whitcup, Scott M; Calonge, Margarita

    2010-11-01

    There is growing evidence for the existence of an 'immune tone' in normal tears. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of a large panel of cytokines and chemokines in tears obtained from healthy subjects. These levels can then serve as baseline values for comparison with patients suffering from ocular surface diseases. Nine healthy subjects participated in this study, and normal ocular surface health was documented by the results of a dry eye questionnaire, Schirmer strip wetting, and vital staining of the cornea. Four microliters of tears were collected from each eye and analysed separately with multiplex bead-based assays for the concentration of 30 cytokines and chemokines. Twenty-five cytokines/chemokines were detected. CCL11/Eotaxin1, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-12p70, IL-15, CX3CL1/Fractalkine, TNF-α, epidermal growth factor, and CCL4/MIP-1β were present at 5-100 pg/ml. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-7A, CXCL8/IL-8, and CCL2/MCP-1 were present at 100-400 pg/ml. IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor were present at more than 1000 pg/ml. Multiplex bead-based assays are convenient for cytokine/chemokine detection in tears. Fracktalkine has been detected in human healthy tears for the first time. The knowledge of cytokine/chemokine concentrations in tears from normal subjects is an important reference for further comparison with patients suffering from ocular surface diseases. Variability in their levels can reflect a phenomenon of potential importance for the understanding of the ocular surface cytokine pattern. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  5. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

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    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS...... higher in men. Younger men also exhibited significantly higher values...... parasympathetic activity. The significant gender-related difference of HRV decreases with aging. These findings emphasize the need to determine age-, gender-, and nycthemeral-dependent normal ranges for HRV assessment....

  6. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

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    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  7. Gender differences associated with orienting attentional networks in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; HU Pan-pan; FAN Jin; WANG Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective attention is considered one of the main components of cognitive functioning.A number of studies have demonstrated gender differences in cognition.This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in selective attention in healthy subjects.Methods The present experiment examined the gender differences associated with the efficiency of three attentional networks:alerting,orienting,and executive control attention in 73 healthy subjects (38 males).All participants performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test (ANT).Results Females had higher orienting scores than males (t=2.172,P <0.05).Specifically,females were faster at covert orienting of attention to a spatially cued location.There were no gender differences between males and females in alerting (t=0.813,P >0.05) and executive control (t=0.945,P >0.05) attention networks.Conclusions There was a significant gender difference between males and females associated with the orienting network.Enhanced orienting attention in females may function to motivate females to direct their attention to a spatially cued location.

  8. Effects of neurofeedback therapy in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Sümeyra; Berberoglu, Bercim; Canan, Sinan; Dane, Şenol

    2016-12-01

    Neurofeedback refers to a form of operant conditioning of electrical brain activity, in which desirable brain activity is rewarded and undesirable brain activity is inhibited. The research team aimed to examine the efficacy of neurofeedback therapy on electroencephalogram (EEG) for heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) parameters in a healthy young male population. Forty healthy young male subjects aged between 18 to 30 years participated in this study. Neurofeedback application of one session was made with bipolar electrodes placed on T3 and T4 (temporal 3 and 4) regions and with reference electrode placed on PF1 (prefrontal 1). Electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) were assessed during Othmer neurofeedback application of one session to regulate slow wave activity for forty minutes thorough the session. Data assessed before neurofeedback application for 5 minutes and during neurofeedback application of 30 minutes and after neurofeedback application for 5 minutes throughout the session of 40 minutes. Means for each 5 minutes, that is to say, a total 8 data points for each subjects over 40 minutes, were assessed. Galvanic skin resistance increased and heart rate decreased after neurofeedback therapy. Beta activity in EEG increased and alfa activity decreased after neurofeedback therapy. These results suggest that neurofeedback can be used to restore sympathovagal imbalances. Also, it may be accepted as a preventive therapy for psychological and neurological problems.

  9. Pupillographic assessment of sleepiness in sleep-deprived healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B; Wilhelm, H; Lüdtke, H; Streicher, P; Adler, M

    1998-05-01

    Spontaneous pupillary-behavior in darkness provides information about a subject's level of sleepiness. In the present work, pupil measurements in complete darkness and quiet have been recorded continuously over 11-minute period with infrared video pupillography at 25 Hz. The data have been analyzed to yield three parameters describing pupil behavior; the power of diameter variation at frequencies below 0.8 Hz (slow changes in pupil size), the pupillary unrest index, and the average pupil size. To investigate the changes of these parameters in sleep deprivation, spontaneous pupillary behavior in darkness was recorded every 2 hours in 13 healthy subjects from 19:00 to 07:00 during forced wakefulness. On each occasion, comparative subjective sleepiness was assessed with a self-rating scale (Stanford Sleepiness Scale, SSS). The power of slow pupillary oscillations (< or = 0.8 Hz) increased significantly and so did the values of SSS, while basic pupil diameter decreased significantly. Slow pupillary oscillations and SSS did not correlate well in general but high values of pupil parameters were always associated with high values in subjective rating. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between ongoing sleep deprivation and typical changes in the frequency profiles of spontaneous pupillary oscillations and the tendency to instability in pupil size in normals. These findings suggest that the results of pupil data analysis permit an objective measurement of sleepiness.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of neratinib during coadministration with lansoprazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanjah, Kiana; DiPrimeo, Daniel; Li, Ai; Obaidi, Mohammad; Swearingen, Dennis; Wong, Alvin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of lansoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, on the absorption, pharmacokinetics, and safety of neratinib, a pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in healthy subjects. This was an open-label, two-period, fixed-sequence study. Fifteen healthy adult subjects received a single oral dose of neratinib 240 mg (Period 1), followed by a washout period, then oral lansoprazole 30 mg once daily for 7 days and a single dose of neratinib 240 mg on Day 5 (Period 2). Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed for 72 h following each neratinib dose. Plasma neratinib concentration-time data were analysed using noncompartmental methods. Geometric mean ratios for AUC 0-t , AUC 0-inf , and peak plasma concentrations (C max ) for neratinib plus lansoprazole vs. neratinib were used to assess the magnitude of the drug-drug interaction if the 90% confidence intervals were outside 80.00-125.00%. Neratinib geometric least-squares mean (LSM) C max was reduced from 84.5 ng ml -1 with neratinib alone to 24.5 ng ml -1 with neratinib plus lansoprazole. The extent of exposure to neratinib was also decreased: geometric LSM AUC 0-t was 1478 ng ml -1  h with neratinib vs. 426 ng ml -1  h with neratinib plus lansoprazole, and geometric LSM AUC 0-inf was 1557 ng ml -1  h vs. 542 ng ml -1  h, respectively. Mean t ½ was similar with both treatments (approximately 14 h). Geometric mean ratios 90% confidence intervals for AUC 0-t , AUC 0-inf and C max fell outside the prespecified equivalence range (80.0-125.0%). Treatment-emergent adverse events, all mild, were reported by five (33%) subjects. Coadministration of lansoprazole with neratinib reduced the rate and extent of neratinib exposure in healthy subjects. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Sonoelastography of Plantar Fascia: Reproducibility and Pattern Description in Healthy Subjects and Symptomatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Díaz, José; Martínez-Payá, Jacinto J; del Baño-Aledo, María Elena; de Groot-Ferrando, Ana; Botía-Castillo, Paloma; Fernández-Rodríguez, David

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to describe the sonoelastographic appearance of the plantar fascia of healthy volunteers and patients with fasciitis. Twenty-three healthy subjects and 21 patients with plantar fasciitis were examined using B-mode and real-time sonoelastography (RTSR) scanning. B-Mode examination included fascia thickness and echotexture. Echogenicity and echovariation of the color histogram were analyzed. Fasciae were classified into type 1, blue (more elastic); type 2, blue/green (intermediate); or type 3, green (less elastic). RTSE revealed 72.7% of fasciae as type 2, with no significant association with fasciitis (χ(2) = 3.6, df = 2, p = 0.17). Quantitative analysis of the color histogram revealed a significantly greater intensity of green (mean = 77.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.9-83.6) and blue (mean = 74.2, 95% CI = 69.7-78.8) in healthy subjects. Echovariation of the color red was 33.4% higher in the fasciitis group than in the healthy group (95% CI = 16.7-50.1). Sonoelastography with quantitative analysis of echovariation can be a useful tool for evaluation of plantar fascia pathology. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of oral neratinib during co-administration of ketoconazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Richat; Hug, Bruce A; Leister, Cathie; Burns, Jaime; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2011-04-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of neratinib, a potent, low-molecular-weight, orally administered, irreversible pan-ErbB (ErbB-1, -2, -4) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, during co-administration with ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor. This was an open-label, randomized, two-period, crossover study. Fasting healthy adults received a single oral dose of neratinib 240 mg alone and with multiple oral doses of ketoconazole 400 mg. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h after each neratinib dose. Plasma concentration data were analyzed using a noncompartmental method. The least square geometric mean ratios [90% confidence interval (CI)] of C(max) (neratinib+ketoconazole): C(max) (neratinib alone), and AUC(neratinib+ketoconazole): AUC(neratinib alone) were assessed. Twenty-four subjects were enrolled. Compared with neratinib administered alone, co-administration of ketoconazole increased neratinib C(max) by 3.2-fold (90% CI: 2.4, 4.3) and AUC by 4.8-fold (3.6, 6.5). Median t(max) was 6.0 h with both regimens. Ketoconazole decreased mean apparent oral clearance of neratinib from 346 lh(-1) to 87.1 lh(-1) and increased mean elimination half-life from 11.7 h to 18.0 h. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between the two regimens (50% neratinib alone, 65% co-administration with ketoconazole). Co-administration of neratinib with ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A inhibitor, increased neratinib C(max) by 3.2-fold and AUC by 4.8-fold compared with administration of neratinib alone. These results indicate that neratinib is a substrate of CYP3A and is susceptible to interaction with potent CYP3A inhibitors and, thus, dose adjustments may be needed if neratinib is administered with such compounds. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  15. Pharmacokinetic Study of Frusemide in Healthy and Cirrhotic Indian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuvrajsing Dhunnoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is associated with various complications such as ascites and fluid retention, progressing to development of hepatorenal syndrome, further compromising fluid elimination. Frusemide, a loop diuretic is normally administered to relieve fluid retentions. The kinetics of frusemide has not been conclusively reported in the three types of cirrhosis and among Indian subjects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the kinetics of frusemide among healthy and Child’s A, B and C cirrhosis and compare with earlier data. 24 cirrhotic were selected and classified according to the Child’s-Pugh classification. 12 healthy male volunteers were screened and included in the study. 40 mg of frusemide was administered orally to both groups and blood samples were withdrawn at various intervals of time for a duration of 8 hrs. The amount of frusemide present in plasma was analyzed using HPLC. The volumes of distribution (Vd, area under curve (AUC, systemic clearance (CL, maximum concentration (Cmax, time for maximum concentration (tmax in healthy volunteers were respectively 4.56 ± 0.15 L, 2258 ± 530.7, 4.97 ± 1.67 L/h, 892 ± 49.4 ng/ml, 85.20± 7.49 mins. Corresponding values in Group A were 5.00 ± 0.31 L, 2471 ± 228.6, 6.60 ± 2.90L/h, 1021 ± 47.97 ng/ml and 88.25 V 2.12 mins; in Group B 7.73 ± 1.10 L, 4038 ± 154.7, 8.84 ± 0.45 L/h, 1448 ± 43.20 ng/ml and 120 ± 1.89 mins; In group C cirrhosis 9.69 ± 1.32 L, 4085 ± 131.75, 3.49 ± 1.40 L/h, 1551± 59.02 ng/ml and 185.7 ± 2.68 mins respectively. Significant differences at 1% and 5% were observed among the cirrhotic groups and between healthy v/s cirrhotic patients. Data from current study do not correlate with earlier reports, carried mainly in Western population, due to possibly differences in instrumentation, etc but a possible genetic interplay should not be ruled out. Data from cirrhotic patients could not be effectively compared with earlier studies as kinetics of frusemide

  16. Twenty-four-Hour Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Mehdi-Rajaei, Seyed; Sadjadi, Reza; Selk-Ghaffari, Masoud; Williams, David L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in intact, healthy guinea pigs (15 male, 15 female) every 2 h for a 24-h period. First, IOP was measured by using rebound tonometry (RBT). After a 1-min rest period, 0.5% proparacaine ophthalmic solution, a topical anesthetic, was applied to both eyes; 4 min after anesthetic instillation, IOP was measured by using applanation tonometry (APT). The IOP was lower during the light period (0700 to 1900) than during the dark phase (2000 to 0600). The lowest IOP by both RBT and APT (3.68 and 13.37 mm Hg, respectively) occurred at 0700, whereas maximal IOP occurred at 2300 for RBT (8.12 mm Hg) but at 2100 for APT (20.62 mm Hg). No significant differences in IOP between the left and right eyes or between RBT and APT were noted. In addition, daily variations in the IOP of guinea pigs seem to be independent of sex and body weight. The results of this study may be beneficial in the diagnosis and observation of glaucoma in guinea pigs.

  17. Effect of chewing speed on energy expenditure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Leelayuwat, Naruemon; Boonyawat, Nattawat; Parniangtong, Auddamar; Sripratoom, Jindamanee

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of rate of chewing on energy expenditure in human subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects (aged 18-24 years) within the normal range of BMI participated in a cross-over experiment consisting of two 6-min sessions of gum chewing, slow (∼60 cycles/min) and fast (∼120 cycles/min) chewing. The resting energy expenditure (REE) and during gum chewing was measured using a ventilated hood connected to a gas analyzer system. The normality of data was explored using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The energy expenditure rate during chewing and the energy expenditure per chewing cycle were compared between the two chewing speeds using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. The energy expenditure per chewing cycle during slow chewing (median 1.4, range 5.2 cal; mean 2.1±1.6 cal) was significantly higher than that during fast chewing (median 0.9, range 2.2 cal; mean 1.0±0.7 cal) (p chewing speeds (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that chewing at a slower speed could increase the energy expenditure per cycle and might affect the total daily energy expenditure.

  18. Knee bioelectric impedance assessment in healthy/with osteoarthritis subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Pino, Alexandre Visintainer; De Almeida, Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues; De Souza, Márcio Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyzes parameters estimated by bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) in subjects with healthy and with osteoarthritis (OA) knees. Thirty-two male volunteers, members of the Parachute Military Infantry Brigade of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participated in the study (62 knee joints). Clinical specialists used the Dejour scale for OA classification and divided the subjects into a control (without OA) and a pathological group (with different degrees of OA). BIS data were obtained in a standing position using a BIS technique based on the current response to a step voltage excitation. Differences between groups were measured by means of a Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test. Results indicate that raw bioimpedance parameters seem to be sensitive to the physiological changes associated with OA. Thus, data indicate that extra-cellular resistance (Re) and reactance of the equivalent capacitance (Xcx) increase according to the disease intensity (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the BIS technique seems to be able to provide the objective and non-invasive basis for helping the diagnosis of knee OA

  19. Twenty-four-hour shift work, depressive symptoms, and job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Ueno, Takeji; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2008-05-01

    The influence of a 24-hr shift-work burden on firefighters' mental health has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationships between specific workload items among firefighters engaged in 24-hr shift work and job stress as estimated by the generic job-stress questionnaire on depressive symptoms and job dissatisfaction from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The subjects were 1,301 firefighters. The questionnaire covered age, gender, job type, job class, marital status, smoking and drinking habits, number of attendances, turnout time, extra work hours, average nap-time, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and questions from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire, including those on job satisfaction. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, a model that included all variables except the measures from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire showed that shorter nap-time had significant higher odds ratios (ORs) for depressive symptoms and job dissatisfaction, but the significances disappeared in a fully adjusted model. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, low quantitative workload, low variance in workload, high intra- and intergroup conflict, low social support from a supervisor, high role conflict and ambiguity, and low self-esteem had significant higher ORs for depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction. Amount of workload, variance in workload, intra- and intergroup conflict, social support from a supervisor, role conflict and ambiguity, and self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters. Moreover, inadequate nap-time may affect their mental health. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of moguisteine metabolites in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernareggi, A; Crema, A; Carlesi, R M; Castoldi, D; Ratti, E; Renoldi, M I; Ratti, D; Ceserani, R; Tognella, S

    1995-01-01

    We studied the pharmacokinetics of moguisteine, a racemic non-narcotic peripheral antitussive drug, in 12 healthy male subjects after a single oral administration of 200 mg. The unchanged drug was absent in plasma and urine of all subjects. Moguisteine was immediately and completely hydrolyzed to its main active metabolite, the free carboxylic acid M1. Therefore, we evaluated the kinetic profiles of M1, of its enantiomers R(+)-M1 and S(-)-M1, and of M1 sulfoxide optical isomers M2/I and M2/II by conventional and stereospecific HPLC. Maximum plasma concentrations for M1 (2.83 mg/l), M2/I (0.26 mg/l) and M2/II (0.40 mg/l), were respectively reached at 1.3, 1.6 and 1.5 h after moguisteine administration. Plasma concentrations declined after the peak with mean apparent terminal half-lives of 0.65 h (M1), 0.88 h (M2/I) and 0.84 h (M2/II). Most of the administered dose was recovered in urine within 6 h from moguisteine treatment. The systemic and renal clearance values indicated high renal extraction ratio for all moguisteine metabolites, and particularly for M1 sulfoxide optical isomers. Plasma concentration-time profiles and urinary excretion patterns for M1 enantiomers R(+)-M1 and S(-)-M1 were quite similar. Thus, for later moguisteine pharmacokinetic evaluations the investigation of the plasma concentration-time curve and the urinary excretion of the sole racemic M1 through non-stereospecific analytical methods may suffice in most cases.

  1. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartziokas, Konstantinos; Daenas, Christos; Preau, Sebastien; Zygoulis, Paris; Triantaris, Apostolos; Kerenidi, Theodora; Makris, Demosthenes; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Daniil, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI) obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF) of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration) and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases). Inter-rater median (IQR) agreement was 91% (82-96). The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC) obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases). Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia

  2. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  3. Exhaled nitric oxide - circadian variations in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosova M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO has been suggested as a marker of airway inflammatory diseases. The level of eNO is influenced by many various factor including age, sex, menstrual cycle, exercise, food, drugs, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate a potential influence of circadian variation on eNO level in healthy subjects. Methods Measurements were performed in 44 women and 10 men, non-smokers, without respiratory tract infection in last 2 weeks. The eNO was detected at 4-hour intervals from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. using an NIOX analyzer. We followed the ATS/ERS guidelines for eNO measurement and analysis. Results Peak of eNO levels were observed at 10 a.m. (11.1 ± 7.2 ppb, the lowest value was detected at 10 p.m. (10.0 ± 5.8 ppb. The difference was statistically significant (paired t-test, P Conclusions The daily variations in eNO, with the peak in the morning hours, could be of importance in clinical practice regarding the choice of optimal time for monitoring eNO in patients with respiratory disease.

  4. Impulsivity, gender, and the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Irene Masala, Francesca Golia, Giorgio Consoli, Gabriele Massimetti, Michela Picchetti, Mario Catena Dell’Osso, Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Antonio Lucacchini, Antonio CiapparelliDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT transporter (SERT, in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11, a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (Bmax of 3H-Par, was significantly and positively related to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with the dissociation constant, Kd, of (3H-Par binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.Keywords: impulsivity, gender, serotonin transporter, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, platelets, 3H-paroxetine

  5. ULTRAFINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS VS. PATIENTS WTH COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to particulate air pollution. The dosimetry of ultrafine aerosols (diameter # 0.1 :m) is not well characterized in the healthy or diseas...

  6. Physiological Responses to Two Hypoxic Conditioning Strategies in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacaroun, Samarmar; Borowik, Anna; Morrison, Shawnda A; Baillieul, Sébastien; Flore, Patrice; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypoxic exposure can be used as a therapeutic tool by inducing various cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic adaptations. Hypoxic conditioning strategies have been evaluated in patients with chronic diseases using either sustained (SH) or intermittent (IH) hypoxic sessions. Whether hypoxic conditioning via SH or IH may induce different physiological responses remains to be elucidated. Methods: Fourteen healthy active subjects (7 females, age 25 ± 8 years, body mass index 21.5 ± 2.5 kg·m -2 ) performed two interventions in a single blind, randomized cross-over design, starting with either 3 x SH (48 h apart), or 3 x IH (48 h apart), separated by a 2 week washout period. SH sessions consisted of breathing a gas mixture with reduced inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO 2 ), continuously adjusted to reach arterial oxygen saturations (SpO 2 ) of 70-80% for 1 h. IH sessions consisted of 5 min with reduced FiO 2 (SpO 2 = 70-80%), followed by 3-min normoxia, repeated seven times. During the first (S1) and third (S3) sessions of each hypoxic intervention, cardiorespiratory parameters, and muscle and pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) were assessed continuously. Results : Minute ventilation increased significantly during IH sessions (+2 ± 2 L·min -1 ) while heart rate increased during both SH (+11 ± 4 bpm) and IH (+13 ± 5 bpm) sessions. Arterial blood pressure increased during all hypoxic sessions, although baseline normoxic systolic blood pressure was reduced from S1 to S3 in IH only (-8 ± 11 mmHg). Muscle oxygenation decreased significantly during S3 but not S1, for both hypoxic interventions (S3: SH -6 ± 5%, IH -3 ± 4%); pre-frontal oxygenation decreased in S1 and S3, and to a greater extent in SH vs. IH (-13 ± 3% vs. -6 ± 6%). Heart rate variability indices indicated a significantly larger increase in sympathetic activity in SH vs. IH (lower SDNN, PNN50, and RMSSD values in SH). From S1 to S3, further reduction in heart

  7. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of chemoreflexes on respiratory variability in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Karemaker, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The background of this study was the hypothesis that respiratory variability is influenced by chemoreflex regulation, In search for periodicities in the variability due to instability of the respiratory control system, spectral analysis was applied to breath-to-breath variables in 19 healthy

  9. Fibrinolytic response to tumor necrosis factor in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Büller, H. R.; van Deventer, S. J.; de Boer, J. P.; Hack, C. E.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may be involved in the disturbance of the procoagulant-fibrinolytic balance in septicemia, leading to microvascular thrombosis. To assess the dynamics of the fibrinolytic response to TNF in humans, we performed a crossover saline-controlled study in six healthy men,

  10. The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin after administration of two different suppositories to healthy Vietnamese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Ha, L. D.; Duc, D. D.; Dien, T. K.; Kager, P. A.; Khanh, N. X.; van Boxtel, C. J.; de Vries, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Eight healthy Vietnamese male subjects received 400 mg artemisinin formulated into fatty suppositories (FS), and six different subjects received 500 mg of artemisinin formulated in polyethylene glycol suppositories (PEGS). Plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography

  11. Assessing the kidney function parameters glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow with dynamic FDG-PET/MRI in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Barbara K; Baltzer, Pascal; Fueger, Barbara; Hamboeck, Martina; Nakuz, Thomas; Papp, Laszlo; Rasul, Sazan; Sundar, Lalith Kumar Shiyam; Hacker, Marcus; Staudenherz, Anton

    2018-05-09

    A method was developed to assess the kidney parameters glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) from 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) concentration behavior in kidneys, measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Twenty-four healthy adult subjects prospectively underwent dynamic simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET series, with the guidance of MR information. Patlak analysis was performed to determine the GFR, and based on integrals, ERPF was calculated. Results were compared to intra-individually obtained reference values determined from venous blood samples. Total kidney GFR and ERPF as estimated by dynamic PET/MRI were highly correlated to their reference values (r = 0.88/p dynamic FDG PET/MRI scans in healthy kidneys. This has advantages for patients getting a routine scan, where additional examinations for kidney function estimation could be avoided. Further studies are required for transferring this PET/MRI method to PET/CT applications.

  12. Effects of fenfluramine on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Stein, D J; Saoud, J B; DeCaria, C M; Cooper, T B; Islam, M N; Liebowitz, M R; Stanley, M

    1992-01-01

    The specificity of fenfluramine as a pharmacological probe of the serotonin system has been questioned, since animal studies with high dose l-fenfluramine show increases in striatal levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid. To test the specificity of fenfluramine in humans with clinical doses, we compared plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentration in healthy volunteers after administration of fenfluramine (60 mg) and placebo. There were no significant effects on pHVA, which supports previous findings that at doses used in pharmacological challenge paradigms, the effect of fenfluramine on the dopamine system is insufficient to alter measures of its change.

  13. Impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, M.; Kruger, R.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We wanted to test the impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage (TOD) defined as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arterioclerosis and microvascular damage. Design and method: In a population based cohort study of 2115 healthy subjects (1049...... associated to hypertrophy, arteriosclerosis and microvascular damage in healthy subjects....

  14. Folic acid treatment increases homocysteine remethylation and methionine transmethylation in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.; Smulders, Y.M.; van Guldener, C.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; van der Meer, K.

    2005-01-01

    Folic acid treatment decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in healthy subjects, but the effects on homocysteine metabolism are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 3 weeks of oral treatment with 5 mg of folic acid on one-carbon flux rates in 12 healthy subjects,

  15. Assessment of myocardial viability in patients with myocardial infarction using twenty-four hour thallium-201 late redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiangjun; He Yongming; Zhang Bin; Wu Yiwei; Hui Jie; Jiang Tingbo; Song Jianping; Liu Zhihua; Jiang Wenping

    2006-01-01

    Rest thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging has been widely used for evaluation of myocardial ischemia/viability after myocardial infarction, but the ideal timing for imaging after injection to maximally estimate viability is not well established. Thirty-six patients with myocardial infarction underwent the initial, 3 h, and 24 h redistribution imaging after intravenous injection of 148-185 MBq 201 Tl. The initial and 3 h images, the initial and 24 h images, and the 3 and 24 h images were compared double-blinded. Out of the 184 abnormal segments based on the initial imaging, 56 (30%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 3 h imaging while 78 (42%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. The 24 h late imaging detected more viable myocardium than the 3 h imaging did, with a significant difference (χ 2 =5.680, p=0.017). There were 158 abnormal segments on the 3 h imaging, with average 28% (44) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. There were 128 initial abnormal segments with no improvement on the 3 h imaging. Out of these segments, the 24 h late redistribution imaging detected additional redistribution in 26 segments, taking up 20%. Twenty-four hour late 201 Tl imaging will demonstrated additional redistribution in patients who have incompletely reversible defects on early redistribution imaging at 3 h. (author)

  16. Reproducibility of Radial Pulse Wave Analysis in Healthy Subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipovský, J.; Svoboda, V.; Pecen, Ladislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2000), s. 1033-1040 ISSN 0263-6352 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : blood pressure * heart - rate * predictor * risk Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2000

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas; Rentsch, Katharina M; Hammann, Felix; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-10-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of oral LSD. We analyzed pharmacokinetic data from two published placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of the 100-µg dose is shown for the first time and data for the 200-µg dose were reanalyzed and included. Plasma concentrations of LSD, subjective effects, and vital signs were repeatedly assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental modeling. Concentration-effect relationships were described using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) maximum plasma concentration values of 1.3 (1.2-1.9) and 3.1 (2.6-4.0) ng/mL were reached 1.4 and 1.5 h after administration of 100 and 200 µg LSD, respectively. The plasma half-life was 2.6 h (2.2-3.4 h). The subjective effects lasted (mean ± standard deviation) 8.2 ± 2.1 and 11.6 ± 1.7 h for the 100- and 200-µg LSD doses, respectively. Subjective peak effects were reached 2.8 and 2.5 h after administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg, respectively. A close relationship was observed between the LSD concentration and subjective response within subjects, with moderate counterclockwise hysteresis. Half-maximal effective concentration values were in the range of 1 ng/mL. No correlations were found between plasma LSD concentrations and the effects of LSD across subjects at or near maximum plasma concentration and within dose groups. The present pharmacokinetic data are important for the evaluation of clinical study findings (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging studies) and the interpretation of LSD intoxication. Oral LSD presented dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and first-order elimination up to 12 h. The effects of LSD were related

  18. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  19. Parental overprotection increases interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The effect of parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity was studied in 469 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which consists of the factors of care and protection, and interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). In male subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of paternal protection (P < .01) and maternal protection (P < .05). In female subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of maternal protection (P < .001). The present study suggests that in both males and females, interpersonal sensitivity is increased by high protection of the same-sex parents and that in males there is an additional effect of high maternal protection.

  20. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  1. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.S.G. Monteiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER disorder was studied in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma. Ten children with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis, consecutively attended at the Pediatric Otolaryngology Outpatient Clinic, Federal University of São Paulo, were evaluated. Prolonged esophageal pH monitoring was used to investigate GER disorder. The mean age of the ten patients evaluated (eight males was 7.4 ± 2.4 years. Two patients presented vomiting as a clinical manifestation and one patient presented retrosternal pain with a burning sensation. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring was performed using the Sandhill apparatus. An antimony probe electrode was placed in the lower third of the esophagus, confirmed by fluoroscopy and later by a chest X-ray. The parameters analyzed by esophageal pH monitoring included: total percent time of the presence of acid esophageal pH, i.e., pH below 4 (<4.2%; total number of acid episodes (<50 episodes; number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min (3 or less, and duration of the longest reflux episode (<9.2 min. One patient (1/10, 10% presented a 24-h esophageal pH profile compatible with GER disorder. This data suggest that an association between chronic rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma and GER disorder may exist in children and adolescents, especially in those with compatible GER disorder symptoms. In these cases, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring should be performed before indicating surgery, since the present data suggest that 10% of chronic rhinosinusitis surgeries can be eliminated.

  2. Comparison between metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in healthy subjects, diabetics, and subjects with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Angela; Scalise, Filippo; Avanzini, Maria A; Tinelli, Carmine; Peros, Emmanouil; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2007-11-01

    We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2) would be abnormal in diabetes and in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We measured MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-1, -2 plasma levels in healthy subjects (controls), in type 2 diabetic patients, in nondiabetic patients with ACS (ACS) and in diabetic patients with ACS (DACS). We enrolled 165 controls, 181 diabetic patients, 78 ACS, and 46 DACS. We measured also BMI (body mass index), HbA(1c) (glycated hemoglobin) FPG (fasting plasma glucosa), FPI (fasting plasma insulin), HOMA index (homeostasis model assessment index), SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), TC (total cholesterol), LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), Tg (triglycerides), Lp(a) (lipoprotein(a)) PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), Hct (homocysteine), Fg (fibrinogen), and hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). A significant increase of BMI was observed in the diabetic group, in ACS and DACS patients compared to controls. A significant increase of SBP and DBP resulted in the diabetic and DACS groups, while only SBP improvement was present in ACS patients with respect to controls. A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed in the ACS group, while SBP variation was present in DACS patients compared to diabetics, and DBP increase was obtained in the DACS group with respect to ACS patients. TC, LDL-C, Tg, and Lp(a) increase was present in diabetics, while TC, Tg, and Lp(a) improvement was present in ACS and DACS patients with a significant decrease of HDL-C levels in diabetic, ACS, and DACS groups compared to controls. A decrease in LDL-C was obtained in ACS and DACS groups, while HDL-C increase was observed in these patients with respect to diabetics. Tg levels were higher in the DACS group compared to diabetics and ACS patients, respectively. Increases in PAI-1, Hct, Fg, and hs-CRP were present in diabetic and DACS

  3. Mass spectrometric quantification of salivary metanephrines-A study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Thamara E.; Horst-Schrivers, van der Anouk N. A.; van Faassen, Martijn; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Pacak, Karel; Links, Thera P.; Kema, Ido P.

    Background: Determination of metanephrine (MN), normetanephrine (NMN), and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) in saliva may offer potential diagnostic advantages in diagnosing pheochromocytoma. Methods: In this preliminary study, we determined metanephrine concentrations in saliva of healthy subjects and the

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Swallowing Function Between Dysphagia Patients and Healthy Subjects Using High-Resolution Manometry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Taek; Yi, Youbin; Lee, Jung-Sang; Kim, Kunwoo; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare swallowing function between healthy subjects and patients with pharyngeal dysphagia using high resolution manometry (HRM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HRM for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. Methods Seventy-five patients with dysphagia and 28 healthy subjects were included in this study. Diagnosis of dysphagia was confirmed by a videofluoroscopy. HRM was performed to measure pressure and timing information at the velopharynx (VP), tongue base (TB), and upper esophage...

  5. Hippocampal volume changes in healthy subjects at risk of unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaré, William F C; Vinberg, Maj; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    Unipolar depression is moderately heritable. It is unclear whether structural brain changes associated with unipolar depression are present in healthy persons at risk of the disorder. Here we investigated whether a genetic predisposition to unipolar depression is associated with structural brain...... changes. A priori, hippocampal volume reductions were hypothesized. Using a high-risk study design, magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from 59 healthy high-risk subjects having a co-twin with unipolar depression, and 53 healthy low-risk subjects without a first-degree family history...

  6. 'Where of is mad al mankynde' : an edition of and introduction to the twenty-four poems in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Louis Johan Philip

    2009-01-01

    'Where of is Mad al Mankynde' represents a new critical edition of the collection of twenty-four late-medieval anonymous poems contained, among other pieces, in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102. Each poem is introduced with a brief summary and closes with line-for-line explanatory comments.

  7. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal circadian variation...

  9. Acute myocardial infarction as first manifestation of primary anti phospholipid syndrome in a twenty-four years old patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, Carlos E; Cardenas, Juan M; Cabrales, Jaime; Bohorquez, Ricardo; Roa, Nubia I; Beltran, Javier; Urina, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Primary anti phospholipid syndrome is usually manifested with deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis, including cerebrovascular accidents. We report the case of a previously healthy young patient who suffered acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of a primary anti phospholipid syndrome

  10. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mefloquine pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and in peptic ulcer patients after cimetidine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, J A; Mustapha, A; Abudu-Aguye, I; Ochekpe, N

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of orally administered mefloquine were determined in six healthy male subjects and in six ulcer patients before and after a 3-day course of cimetidine (400 mg morning and evening). Peak plasma concentrations Cmax and AUC0-infinity were similarly and significantly (P infinity was increased by 37.5% in healthy and peptic ulcer subjects respectively. The values of t1/2ab absorption and t1/2 beta elimination, total crearance CLT/F and volume of distribution were altered to varying levels after cimetidine treatment but the changes were not statistically significant in both healthy and peptic ulcer subjects. The established long t1/2 beta and this apparent interaction between mefloquine and cimetidine which resulted in increased mefloquine plasma concentration might be of clinical significant in patients with neurological/psychiatric history.

  13. [Age-related changes of sensory peripheral nerve system in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitenkov, V B; Ekusheva, E V; Komancev, V N; Skripchenko, N V; Grigoryev, S G; Klimkin, A V; Aksenova, A I

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to present and evaluate age-related changes of peripheral nerves of limbs on a huge population of healthy subjects of different ages. In 2009-2016 subjects aged from 1months to 90 years were studied by nerve conduction velocity studies (NCV). Data of those confirmed healthy was included in our study. In total there were 372 healthy subjects. NCV for nn. Medianus et Ulnaris was registered, with NCV and amplitude of compound sensory action potential (CSAP) being analyzed. There were significant differences on both these parameters between different age groups. Since the childhood the improvement of conduction (which was reflected in rising of CSAP amplitudes and NCV quickening) was registered; from 40-50 years steady decline of both these parameters were observed in both nerves. Conduction studies of peripheral nerves may be implemented in gerontology for early detection of neurophysiology patterns reflecting physiological aging. Also our results may be implemented for accelerated aging detection.

  14. Effectiveness of a perceptual - proprioceptive training with virtual visual feedback in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vando, Stefano; Unim, Brigid; Cassarino, Salvatore A; Padulo, Johnny; Masala, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB) might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week) with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP) program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg) were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: t...

  15. iPad-assisted measurements of duration estimation in psychiatric patients and healthy control subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Preuschoff

    Full Text Available Handheld devices with touchscreen controls have become widespread in the general population. In this study, we examined the duration estimates (explicit timing made by patients in a major general hospital and healthy control subjects using a custom iPad application. We methodically assessed duration estimates using this novel device. We found that both psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients significantly overestimated time periods compared with healthy control subjects, who estimated elapsed time very precisely. The use of touchscreen-based methodologies can provide valuable information about patients.

  16. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g...... difference was observed between the fish oil groups. No changes in a variety of in vivo markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation or inflammation were observed after daily intake of oxidised fish oil for 3 or 7 weeks, indicating that intake of oxidised fish oil may not have unfavourable short......-term effects in healthy human subjects....

  17. Total and regional deposition of inhaled aerosols in supine healthy subjects and subjects with mild-to-moderate COPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darquenne, Chantal; Lamm, Wayne J.; Fine, Janelle M.; Corley, Richard A.; Glenny, Robb W.

    2016-09-01

    Despite substantial development of sophisticated subject-specific computational models of aerosol transport and deposition in human lungs, experimental validation of predic- tions from these new models is sparse. We collected aerosol retention and exhalation profiles in seven healthy volunteers and six subjects with mild-to-moderate COPD (FEV1 ¼ 50–80%predicted) in the supine posture. Total deposition was measured during continuous breathing of 1 and 2.9 mm-diameter particles (tidal volume of 1 L, flow rate of 0.3 L/s and 0.75 L/s). Bolus inhalations of 1 mm particles were performed to penetration volumes of 200, 500 and 800 mL (flow rate of 0.5 L/s). Aerosol bolus dispersion (H), deposition, and mode shift (MS) were calculated from these data. There was no significant difference in total deposition between healthy subjects and those with COPD. Total deposition increased with increasing particle size and also with increasing flow rate. Similarly, there was no significant difference in aerosol bolus deposition between subject groups. Yet, the rate of increase in dispersion and of decrease in MS with increasing penetration volume was higher in subjects with COPD than in healthy volunteers (H: 0.79870.205 vs. 0.52770.122 mL/mL, p¼ 0.01; MS: - 0.27170.129 vs. - 0.145 70.076 mL/mL, p¼ 0.05) indicating larger ventilation inhomogeneities (based on H) and increased flow sequencing (based on MS) in the COPD than in the healthy group. In conclusion, in the supine posture, deposition appears to lack sensitivity for assessing the effect of lung morphology and/or ventilation distribution alteration induced by mild-to- moderate lung disease on the fate of inhaled aerosols. However, other parameters such as aerosol bolus dispersion and mode shift may be more sensitive parameters for evaluating models of lungs with moderate disease.

  18. Sources of variability of resting cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) show large variability among healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effect of established factors influencing CBF on the variability of resting CBF. We retrospectively analyzed spontaneous variability in 430 CBF...... measurements acquired in 152 healthy, young subjects using (133)Xe single-photon emission computed tomography. Cerebral blood flow was correlated positively with both end-tidal expiratory PCO2 (PETCO2) and female gender and inversely with hematocrit (Hct). Between- and within-subject CO2 reactivity...... when Hct was also accounted for. The present study confirms large between-subject variability in CBF measurements and that gender, Hct, and PETCO2 explain only a small part of this variability. This implies that a large fraction of CBF variability may be due to unknown factors such as differences...

  19. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F.; Lenz, C.; Dolder, P. C.; Harder, S.; Schmid, Y.; Lang, U. E.; Liechti, M. E.; Borgwardt, S.

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological pea...

  20. Patients with gout differ from healthy subjects in renal response to changes in serum uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2017-03-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether a change in serum uric acid (sUA) resulted in a corresponding change in the fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) and whether the renal response was different in patients with gout versus healthy subjects. FEUA was calculated from previously published studies and four new phase I studies in healthy subjects and/or patients with gout before and after treatment to lower or raise sUA. Treatments included xanthine oxidase inhibitors to lower sUA as well as infusion of uric acid and provision of a high-purine diet to raise sUA. Plots were created of FEUA versus sUA before and after treatment. For the phase I studies, percent change in FEUA per mg/dL change in sUA was calculated separately for healthy subjects and patients with gout, and compared using Student's t test. Analysis of previously published data and the new phase I clinical data indicates that changing sUA by a non-renal mechanism leads to a change in FEUA. The magnitude of change is greater in subjects with higher baseline FEUA versus patients with gout. Healthy subjects excrete more urate than do patients with gout at physiological urate-filtered load; this difference disappears when the urate-filtered load is decreased to ∼5000mg/24hours. These observations are consistent with a less saturated urate reabsorption system in patients with gout versus healthy subjects, resulting in elevated retention of uric acid. Further investigation could lead to the discovery of mechanisms responsible for the etiology of hyperuricemia/gout. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Twenty-four Hour Workday: Proceedings of a Symposium on Variations in Work-Sleep Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    represent, to some extent, stereotyped responses; thus we cannot be sure that they correspond to real feelings, even subjective ones. Shiftworkers...hours; - Part-time work; - Overtime and moonlighting . The present paper considers the various effects of the irregular work hours imposed by shift work...in press). Fifty nurses were shown an ’in-service’ training film on the use of Radium therapy at 2030 or at 0400. Their memory for the information

  2. Effects of nanotechnologies-based devices on postural control in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi Albedi, Giovanna; Corna, Stefano; Aspesi, Valentina; Clerici, Daniela; Parisio, Cinzia; Seitanidis, Jonathan; Cau, Nicola; Brugliera, Luigia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2017-09-05

    The aim of the present preliminary randomized controlled study was to ascertain whether the use of newly developed nanotechnologies-based patches can influence posture control of healthy subjects. Thirty healthy female subjects (age 39.4 years, BMI 22.74 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to two groups: one with active patches and a control group with sham patches. Two patches were applied with a tape: one on the subject's sternum and the other on the C7 apophysis. Body sway during quiet upright stance was recorded with a dynamometric platform. Each subject was tested under two visual conditions, eyes open and closed. We used a blocked stratified randomization procedure conducted by a third party. Subjects wearing the sham patches showed a significant increase of the centre of pressure sway area after 4 hours when they performed the habitual moderate-intensity work activities. In the active patch group, a decrease of the sway path was evident, providing evidence of an enhanced balance control. Our preliminary findings on healthy subjects indicate that nanotechnological devices generating ultra-low electromagnetic fields can improve posture control.

  3. Understanding the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR): An electromyographic study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; van Royen, B.J.; Wu, W; Xia, C.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) is an important test in diagnosing pelvic girdle pain (PGP). It is difficult to understand what happens normally during the ASLR, let alone why it would be impaired in PGP. In the present study, healthy subjects performed the ASLR under normal conditions, with

  4. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree

    2017-09-01

    Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.

  5. Digestive Symptoms in Healthy People and Subjects With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Denis; Donazzolo, Yves; Gendre, David; Tanguy, Jérôme; Guarner, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Goals: The aim of this study was to validate the ability of symptom frequency questionnaire to differentiate between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy subjects. Background: A digestive symptom frequency questionnaire (DSFQ) was previously used in a food efficacy trial in a non-IBS population with mild gastrointestinal symptoms. Study: We compared 2 well-defined populations: 100 IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria (mean age 32 y; range, 18 to 59 y), and 100 sex-matched and age-matched healthy subjects. Frequency of individual digestive symptoms (abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, flatulence, borborygmi) was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale (from none to everyday of the week) and the IBS severity with the IBS-SSS questionnaire. Health-Related Quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Food and Benefits Assessment (FBA) and Functional Digestive Disorders Quality of Life (FDDQL) questionnaires. The digestive (dis)comfort dimension of these questionnaires was considered as the main dimension for HRQoL. Results: The DSFQ discriminated IBS from healthy subjects with a significant difference (Pdigestive discomfort measured by FDDQL (−0.816), digestive comfort measured by FBA (−0.789), and the IBS-SSS score (0.762). Conclusions: Measurement of digestive symptom frequency by means of the DSFQ can differentiate IBS from healthy subjects, and shows a good correlation with other validated questionnaires (clinical trial #NCT01457378). PMID:25014236

  6. Effect of food intake on pharmacokinetics of oral artemisinin in healthy Vietnamese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dien, T. K.; de Vries, P. J.; Khanh, N. X.; Koopmans, R.; Binh, L. N.; Duc, D. D.; Kager, P. A.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each

  7. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves word retrieval in healthy and nonfluent aphasic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Valentina; Coccia, Michela; Marinelli, Chiara V; Vecchi, Veronica; Bonifazi, Silvia; Ceravolo, M Gabriella; Provinciali, Leandro; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Marangolo, Paola

    2011-09-01

    A number of studies have shown that modulating cortical activity by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects performances of both healthy and brain-damaged subjects. In this study, we investigated the potential of tDCS to enhance associative verbal learning in 10 healthy individuals and to improve word retrieval deficits in three patients with stroke-induced aphasia. In healthy individuals, tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) was applied over Wernicke's area (position CP5 of the International 10-20 EEG System) while they learned 20 new "words" (legal nonwords arbitrarily assigned to 20 different pictures). The healthy subjects participated in a randomized counterbalanced double-blind procedure in which they were subjected to one session of anodic tDCS over left Wernicke's area, one sham session over this location and one session of anodic tDCS stimulating the right occipito-parietal area. Each experimental session was performed during a different week (over three consecutive weeks) with 6 days of intersession interval. Over 2 weeks, three aphasic subjects participated in a randomized double-blind experiment involving intensive language training for their anomic difficulties in two tDCS conditions. Each subject participated in five consecutive daily sessions of anodic tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) and sham stimulation over Wernicke's area while they performed a picture-naming task. By the end of each week, anodic tDCS had significantly improved their accuracy on the picture-naming task. Both normal subjects and aphasic patients also had shorter naming latencies during anodic tDCS than during sham condition. At two follow-ups (1 and 3 weeks after the end of treatment), performed only in two aphasic subjects, response accuracy and reaction times were still significantly better in the anodic than in the sham condition, suggesting a long-term effect on recovery of their anomic disturbances.

  9. Diamine oxidase determination in serum - Low assay reproducibility and misclassification of healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Heidi Julius; Mosbech, Holger Fausbøll; Skov, Per Stahl

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Impaired histamine degradation based on reduced diamine oxidase (DAO) activity has been suggested to cause symptoms mimicking an allergic reaction. Aim: To test whether patients presenting with possible histamine-induced symptoms have a low serum activity of DAO compared...... in the test kit was 86 %. Only 11 out of the 31 subjects were uniformly classified in all three runs. Among the healthy subjects, 9–12 out of 18 showed reduced or highly reduced activities; in the patient group, 0–5 out of 11 showed reduced or highly reduced activities in the three measurements...... normal range caused misclassification in more than half of the cases. Using a commercial immunoassay, it was not possible to distinguish healthy subjects from patients showing potentially histamine-induced symptoms....

  10. Left ventricular synchrony assessed by phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuetao; Wang Jianfeng; Yang Minfu; Niu Rong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of Cedars-Sinai quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) phase analysis for left ventricular synchrony assessment in healthy subjects. Methods: Seventy-four healthy subjects (41 males, 33 females,average age: (60±13) years) underwent both rest and exercise 99 Tc m -MIBI G-MPI. QGS software was used to analyze the reconstructed rest gated SPECT images automatically, and then the parameters of left ventricular synchrony including phase bandwidth (BW) and phase standard deviation (SD) were obtained. The influences of gender and age (age<60 years, n=36; age ≥ 60 years, n=38) on left ventricular systolic synchronicity were analyzed. The phase angle for original segmental contraction was measured to determine the onset of the ventricular contraction using 17-segment model. Forty healthy subjects were selected by simple random sampling method to evaluate the intra-observer and interobserver repeatability of QGS phase analysis software. Two-sample t test and linear correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The BW and SD of left ventricular in healthy subjects were (37.22 ±11.71)°, (11.84±5.39)° respectively. Comparisons between male and female for BW and SD yielded no statistical significance (BW: (36.00±9.70)°, (38.73±13.84)°; SD: (11.88±5.56)°, (11.79±5.26)°; t=0.96 and-0.07, both P>0.05); whereas the older subjects (age≥60 years) had larger BW than the others (age<60 years ; (39.95± 12.65)°, (34.33± 10.00)°; t=-2.11, P<0.05) and no statistical significance was shown for SD between the two age groups ((11.18±4.31)°, (12.54±6.33)°; t=1.08, P>0.05). Of the 74 subjects, the mechanical activation started from the ventricular base to apex in 54 subjects (73%), and from apex to base in only 20 subjects (27%). High repeatability of phase analysis was observed for both intra-observer and inter-observer (r=0.867-0.906, all P<0.001). Conclusions: Good left ventricular segmental synchrony is shown in healthy

  11. Correlation between the availability of dopamine transporter and olfactory function in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Kyoungjune; Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, In Joo; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Jae Meen; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong-Jang

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is usually prodromal to other symptoms. In this study, we aimed to explore the association of olfactory function with the availabilities of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy subjects. Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database (www.ppmi-info.org/data). The study population consisted of healthy controls with screening 123 I-FP-CIT single photon emission tomography (SPECT). University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was assessed to evaluate the olfactory function. Totally, 181 healthy subjects (117 male, 64 female) with 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT data were included in this study. Specific binding ratios (SBRs) of the caudate nucleus (rho = -0.4217, p < 0.0001), putamen (rho = -0.2292, p = 0.0019), and striatum (rho=-0.3425, p < 0.0001) showed a reduction with ageing. SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum were positively correlated with UPSIT (rho = 0.3716, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3655, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3880, p < 0.0001). After controlling for age by partial correlation, SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum showed an influence on UPSIT (rho = 0.3288, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3374, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3511, p < 0.0001). Olfactory function is associated with the availability of striatal DAT independent of age in healthy subjects. (orig.)

  12. Significance of changes of serum osteocalcin levels in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liren; Dai Yaozong; Liang Minwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of serum osteocalcin changes in healthy subjects and pathological conditions. Methods: The levels of S-BGP were measured with RIA in 270 normal subjects of different age groups (every 10 yrs as an age group), 60 patients with carebrovascular disease (CVD) and 85 patients with metabolic bone disease. Results: (1) The mean value of S-BGP in umbilical blood was 19.3 +- 16.8 μg/L (n = 89), in 3 day sold newborn infant was 7.4 +- 2.3 μg/L (n = 22), in healthy subjects (from 11 to 60 yrs, average age 39 yrs) was 5.2 +- 1.35 μg/L (n = 100), 5.3 +- 1.4 μg/L (n = 47) in males and 5.1 +- 1.34 μg/L (n = 53) in females. In old healthy subjects the mean value was 3.9 +- 1.48 μg/L (n = 30). The level of S-BGP was negatively correlated with the age significantly (r = -0.383, P < 0.001). (2) The mean levels of S-BGP in 85 patients with metabolic bone disease were: 21.7 +- 20.46 μg/L in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 55, age from 21 to 60 yrs, average 37 yrs), being significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01); 2.6 +- 0.99 μg/L in patients with NIDDM (n 30, from 60 to 79 yrs, average age 69 yrs), being significantly higher than in the old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). (3) In 60 patients with CVD (from 60 to 80 yrs, average age 66 yrs) the mean valve was 2.2 +- 1.1 μg/L in cerebral infarction (n = 30) and 2.5 +- 1.2 μg/L in cerebral hemorrhage (n = 30), both significantly higher than in old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: RIA of S-BGP is an important means for detecting changes of bone metabolism in normal and pathological condition

  13. Remote ischemic conditioning improves coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Kono,1 Shota Fukuda,1 Akihisa Hanatani,2 Koki Nakanishi,2 Kenichiro Otsuka,2 Haruyuki Taguchi,1 Kenei Shimada2 1Department of Medicine, Osaka Ekisaikai Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Osaka City University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Background: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC is a treatment modality that suppresses inflammation and improves endothelial function, which are factors involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary flow reserve (CFR is a physiological index of coronary microcirculation and is noninvasively measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RIC on CFR in healthy subjects and patients with HF, through the assessment by TTDE. Methods: Ten patients with HF with left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, and ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. RIC treatment was performed twice a day for 1 week. Our custom-made RIC device was programmed to automatically conduct 4 cycles of 5 minutes inflation and 5 minutes deflation of a blood pressure cuff to create intermittent arm ischemia. CFR measurements and laboratory tests were examined before, and after 1 week of RIC treatment. Results: One week of RIC treatment was well tolerated in both groups. RIC treatment increased CFR from 4.0±0.9 to 4.6±1.3 (mean ± standard deviation in healthy subjects (P=0.02, and from 1.9±0.4 to 2.3±0.7 in patients with HF (P=0.03, respectively. Systolic blood pressure in healthy subjects, and heart rate in HF patients decreased after RIC treatment (both P<0.01. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a 1 week course of RIC treatment improved coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with HF associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Keyword: echocardiography, coronary flow reserve, heart failure, preconditioning

  14. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  15. Twenty-four-hour duration of effect of intranasal corticosteroids for seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms: clinical evidence and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBuske, Lawrence M

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms are often most severe and/or disruptive during overnight and morning hours, resulting in cognitive/performance impairments and reduced quality of life throughout the following day. Surveys of allergy patients and health care practitioners reveal a common perception that intranasal steroids (INSs), many of which are dosed q.d., fail to adequately relieve symptoms for a full 24 hours. This review assessed whether perceptions of the 24-hour duration of action of INSs correspond with duration of action documented in clinical literature. SAR clinical trial literature of the last 5 years was reviewed to identify studies of INSs incorporating morning instantaneous (A.M. NOW) or instantaneous assessments of 24-hour duration of action. In numerous placebo-controlled trials of INSs in patients with SAR, treatment was associated with significantly greater improvements in A.M. NOW symptoms from baseline versus placebo. For congestion, this is noteworthy, because patients often cite this symptom, especially in the morning, as the most bothersome symptom. Comparison of A.M. NOW and daily scores suggests minimal drop in efficacy at 24 hours postdose. In several studies, INS treatment was found superior to intranasal or oral antihistamines in A.M. NOW symptom improvement. Once-daily INSs have potential for effective 24-hour symptom relief; however, there is an apparent disconnect between these findings and patient/physician perceptions. This discrepancy may be explained, in part, by less-than-ideal treatment adherence among "real-world" patients versus subjects treated in clinical trials. Proactive counseling can encourage proper INS use and help maximize treatment benefits.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with both arterial and ventricular stiffness in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeker, Taner; Gür, Mustafa; Kuloğlu, Osman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Şahin, Durmuş Yıldıray; Türkoğlu, Caner; Elbasan, Zafer; Baykan, Ahmet Oytun; Gözübüyük, Gökhan; Çaylı, Murat

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin D regulates the renin-angiotensin system, suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and improves endothelial cell dependent vasodilatation. These mechanisms may play a role on pathogenesis of arterial and left ventricular stiffness. We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with arterial and left ventricular stiffness in healthy subjects. We studied 125 healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors or overt heart disease (mean age: 60.2 ± 11.9 years). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured using a direct competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the serum vitamin D level; vitamin D sufficient (≥ 20 ng/ml, n = 56) and vitamin D deficient (stiffness such as E/A and E/E' were measured. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), which reflects arterial stiffness, was calculated using the single-point method via the Mobil-O-Graph(®) ARC solver algorithm. Systolic blood pressure, level of serum calcium, PWV and E/E' values were higher and E/A values were lower in vitamin D deficient group compared with vitamin D sufficient group. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that vitamin D level was independently associated with E/E' (β = -0.364, pstiffness as well as systolic blood pressure in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Ewert, H. K.; Ridker, P. M.; Rifai, N.; Price, N.; Dinges, D. F.; Mullington, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in otherwise healthy subjects has been shown to predict future risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. CRP is synthesized by the liver in response to interleukin-6, the serum concentration of which is subject to diurnal variation. METHODS: To examine the existence of a time-of-day effect for baseline CRP values, we determined CRP concentrations in hourly blood samples drawn from healthy subjects (10 males, 3 females; age range, 21-35 years) during a baseline day in a controlled environment (8 h of nighttime sleep). RESULTS: Overall CRP concentrations were low, with only three subjects having CRP concentrations >2 mg/L. Comparison of raw data showed stability of CRP concentrations throughout the 24 h studied. When compared with cutoff values of CRP quintile derived from population-based studies, misclassification of greater than one quintile did not occur as a result of diurnal variation in any of the subjects studied. Nonparametric ANOVA comparing different time points showed no significant differences for both raw and z-transformed data. Analysis for rhythmic diurnal variation using a method fitting a cosine curve to the group data was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that baseline CRP concentrations are not subject to time-of-day variation and thus help to explain why CRP concentrations are a better predictor of vascular risk than interleukin-6. Determination of CRP for cardiovascular risk prediction may be performed without concern for diurnal variation.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Effects of Antidrug Antibodies Occurring in Healthy Subjects After a Single Dose of Intravenous Infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2017-12-01

    Infliximab pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in patients receiving chronic infliximab therapy. In these patients, infliximab antidrug antibodies (ADAs) increase infliximab clearance and decrease serum levels and drug efficacy. This study analyzed the pharmacokinetic effect of infliximab ADAs in healthy subjects receiving a single dose of intravenous infliximab. Data were obtained from a single-blind, parallel-group, single-dose study of healthy subjects receiving 5 mg/kg of intravenous SB2 (infliximab biosimilar), EU-sourced Remicade (EU-IFX) or US-sourced Remicade (US-IFX). Serum infliximab was measured at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days after administration. ADAs were measured pre-dose and at 29 and 71 days. Data from the first ten subjects randomized to each treatment arm were utilized for this study. A two-compartment model of the serum infliximab vs. time curve was developed using nonlinear regression. At 10 weeks, 11 subjects (37%) developed ADAs. ADAs were detected in four subjects after SB2, one subject after EU-IFX, and six subjects after US-IFX infusion. Of these, neutralizing antibodies occurred in one subject after SB2, in no subjects after EU-IFX, and in three subjects after US-IFX infusion. Infliximab clearance was increased in subjects with ADAs vs. those without ADAs (12.89 ± 2.69 vs. 9.90 ± 1.74 ml/h; p ADAs (282.4 ± 56.4 vs. 343.3 ± 61.9 h; p ADAs are common in healthy subjects after a single intravenous dose of infliximab and result in faster infliximab clearance, shorter elimination time, and lower serum infliximab levels. These data confirm that ADAs are common with biologic therapy and significantly impact the efficacy of these drugs.

  19. A common optimization principle for motor execution in healthy subjects and parkinsonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraduc, Pierre; Thobois, Stéphane; Gan, Jing; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Desmurget, Michel

    2013-01-09

    Recent research on Parkinson's disease (PD) has emphasized that parkinsonian movement, although bradykinetic, shares many attributes with healthy behavior. This observation led to the suggestion that bradykinesia in PD could be due to a reduction in motor motivation. This hypothesis can be tested in the framework of optimal control theory, which accounts for many characteristics of healthy human movement while providing a link between the motor behavior and a cost/benefit trade-off. This approach offers the opportunity to interpret movement deficits of PD patients in the light of a computational theory of normal motor control. We studied 14 PD patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation and 16 age-matched healthy controls, and tested whether reaching movements were governed by similar rules in these two groups. A single optimal control model accounted for the reaching movements of healthy subjects and PD patients, whatever the condition of STN stimulation (on or off). The choice of movement speed was explained in all subjects by the existence of a preset dynamic range for the motor signals. This range was idiosyncratic and applied to all movements regardless of their amplitude. In PD patients this dynamic range was abnormally narrow and correlated with bradykinesia. STN stimulation reduced bradykinesia and widened this range in all patients, but did not restore it to a normal value. These results, consistent with the motor motivation hypothesis, suggest that constrained optimization of motor effort is the main determinant of movement planning (choice of speed) and movement production, in both healthy and PD subjects.

  20. Quantitative tissue parameters of Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in healthy subjects using a handheld myotonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orner, Sarah; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Schmidberger, Julian; Grüner, Beate

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the quantitative tissue properties of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia using a handheld, non-invasive MyotonPRO device, in order to generate normal values and examine the biomechanical relationship of both structures. Prospective study of a large, healthy sample population. The study sample included 207 healthy subjects (87 males and 120 females) for the Achilles tendon and 176 healthy subjects (73 males and 103 females) for the plantar fascia. For the correlations of the tissue parameters of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia an intersection of both groups was formed which included 150 healthy subjects (65 males and 85 females). All participants were measured in a prone position. Consecutive measurements of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia were performed by MyotonPRO device at defined sites. For the left and right Achilles tendons and plantar fasciae all five MyotonPRO parameters (Frequency [Hz], Decrement, Stiffness [N/m], Creep and Relaxation Time [ms]) were calculated of healthy males and females. The correlation of the tissue parameters of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia showed a significant positive correlation of all parameters on the left as well as on the right side. The MyotonPRO is a feasible device for easy measurement of passive tissue properties of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in a clinical setting. The generated normal values of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia are important for detecting abnormalities in patients with Achilles tendinopathy or plantar fasciitis in the future. Biomechanically, both structures are positively correlated. This may provide new aspects in the diagnostics and therapy of plantar fasciitis and Achilles tendinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2018-03-01

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA 1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  3. Is cerebral oxygenation negatively affected by infusion of norepinephrine in healthy subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, P.; Seifert, T.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion of norep......BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion...... of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation in healthy subjects. METHODS: Three doses of norepinephrine (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 20 min each) were infused in nine healthy subjects [six males; 26 (6) yr, mean (SD)]. MAP, cerebral oxygenation characterized by frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc(O2...

  4. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1981-02-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value.

  5. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Seibert Julia; Hysek Cédric M; Penno Carlos A; Schmid Yasmin; Kratschmar Denise V; Liechti Matthias E; Odermatt Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-h plasma steroid profiles. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) were treated with single doses of M...

  6. Low-frequency dynamics of autonomic regulation of circulatory system in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skazkina, V. V.; Borovkova, E. I.; Galushko, T. A.; Khorev, V. S.; Kiselev, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of dynamic of interactions between signals of autonomic circulatory regulation. We investigated two-hour experimental records of 30 healthy people. Phase synchronization was studied using the signals of the electrocardiogram and the photoplethysmogram of vessels. We found the presence of long synchronous intervals in some subjects. For analysis of the dynamic we calculated autocorrelation functions. The analysis made it possible to reveal indirect signs of the influence of the humoral regulation system.

  7. Differentiation of schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects by mismatch negativity and neuropsychological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility.

  8. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-10-12

    Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.

  9. Lack of association between systolic blood pressure and blood viscosity in normotensive healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina; Loprete, Antonio; Merante, Valentina; Gnasso, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    A direct relationship between blood pressure and viscosity has frequently been reported, although clear data are not available. To better understand the relationship between these two variables, we evaluated blood viscosity and blood pressure in a group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors. Healthy subjects were selected from participants in a campaign of prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 103). They underwent blood sampling for measurement of plasma and blood viscosity, haematocrit, blood lipids and glucose. The quantity and distribution of body fat was assessed by body mass index and waist/hip ratio, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated significantly with age (r = 0.222) and waist/hip ratio (r = 0.374). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) correlated significantly with waist/hip ratio (r = 0.216), haematocrit (r = 0.333) and blood viscosity (r = 0.258). Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the only variable significantly associated with SBP was age, while haematocrit was the only variable significantly associated with DBP. Blood viscosity was closely related to waist/hip ratio. These findings show that SBP, in healthy subjects, is not influenced by haematocrit and blood viscosity. In contrast, DBP is related to the values of haematocrit. Among classical cardiovascular risk factors, waist/hip ratio is closely related to blood viscosity.

  10. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemansson Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C. longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03 and 60 min (P = 0.041 after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048, 30 (P = 0.035, 90 (P = 0.03, and 120 (P = 0.02 minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327

  11. Pharmacokinetic interactions between glimepiride and rosuvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: does the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism affect these drug interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Choon Ok Kim,1 Eun Sil Oh,2 Hohyun Kim,3 Min Soo Park1,4 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Medicine and Regulatory Sciences, College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, 3Korea Medicine Research Institute, Inc., Seongnam, 4Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: To improve cardiovascular outcomes, dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes needs to be treated. Thus, these patients are likely to take glimepiride and rosuvastatin concomitantly. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK interactions between these two drugs in healthy males and to explore the effect of SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on their interactions in two randomized, open-label crossover studies. Glimepiride was studied in part 1 and rosuvastatin in part 2. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to each part. All subjects (n=24 completed part 1, and 22 subjects completed part 2. A total of 38 subjects among the participants of the PK interaction studies were enrolled in the genotype study to analyze their SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms retrospectively (n=22 in part 1, n=16 in part 2. Comparison of the PK and safety of each drug alone with those of the drugs in combination showed that both glimepiride and rosuvastatin did not interact with each other and had tolerable safety profiles in all subjects. However, with regard to glimepiride PK, the SLCO1B1 521TC group had a significantly higher maximum plasma concentration (Cmax,ss and area under the plasma concentration–time curve during the dose interval at steady state (AUCt,ss for glimepiride in combination with rosuvastatin than those for glimepiride alone. However, other significant effects of the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 polymorphism on the interaction between the two drugs were not observed. In conclusion, there were no significant PK

  12. Glycemic indices of five varieties of dates in healthy and diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to determine the glycemic indices of five commonly used varieties of dates in healthy subjects and their effects on postprandial glucose excursions in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Composition analysis was carried out for five types of dates (Tamer stage. The weights of the flesh of the dates equivalent to 50 g of available carbohydrates were calculated. The study subjects were thirteen healthy volunteers with a mean (± SD age of 40.2 ± 6.7 years and ten participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (controlled on lifestyle measures and/or metformin with a mean HbA1c (± SD of 6.6 ± (0.7% and a mean age (± SD of 40.8 ± 5.7 years. Each subject was tested on eight separate days with 50 g of glucose (on 3 occasions and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the 5 varieties of date (each on one occasion. Capillary glucose was measured in the healthy subjects at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min and for the diabetics at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. The glycemic indices were determined as ratios of the incremental areas under the response curves for the dates compared to glucose. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean glycemic indices ± SEM of the dates for the healthy individuals were 54.0 ± 6.1, 53.5 ± 8.6, 46.3 ± 7.1, 49.1 ± 3.6 and 55.1 ± 7.7 for Fara'd, Lulu, Bo ma'an, Dabbas and Khalas, respectively. Corresponding values for those with type 2 diabetes were very similar (46.1 ± 6.2, 43.8 ± 7.7, 51.8 ± 6.9, 50.2 ± 3.9 and 53.0 ± 6.0. There were no statistically significant differences in the GIs between the control and the diabetic groups for the five types of dates, nor were there statistically significant differences among the dates' GIs (df = 4, F = 0.365, p = 0.83. Conclusion The results show low glycemic indices for the five types of dates included in the study and

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Swallowing Function Between Dysphagia Patients and Healthy Subjects Using High-Resolution Manometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare swallowing function between healthy subjects and patients with pharyngeal dysphagia using high resolution manometry (HRM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HRM for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. Methods Seventy-five patients with dysphagia and 28 healthy subjects were included in this study. Diagnosis of dysphagia was confirmed by a videofluoroscopy. HRM was performed to measure pressure and timing information at the velopharynx (VP), tongue base (TB), and upper esophageal sphincter (UES). HRM parameters were compared between dysphagia and healthy groups. Optimal threshold values of significant HRM parameters for dysphagia were determined. Results VP maximal pressure, TB maximal pressure, UES relaxation duration, and UES resting pressure were lower in the dysphagia group than those in healthy group. UES minimal pressure was higher in dysphagia group than in the healthy group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to validate optimal threshold values for significant HRM parameters to identify patients with pharyngeal dysphagia. With maximal VP pressure at a threshold value of 144.0 mmHg, dysphagia was identified with 96.4% sensitivity and 74.7% specificity. With maximal TB pressure at a threshold value of 158.0 mmHg, dysphagia was identified with 96.4% sensitivity and 77.3% specificity. At a threshold value of 2.0 mmHg for UES minimal pressure, dysphagia was diagnosed at 74.7% sensitivity and 60.7% specificity. Lastly, UES relaxation duration of dysphagia. Conclusion We present evidence that HRM could be a useful evaluation tool for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:29201816

  14. Effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing Combined with psychosomatic relaxation on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingying; Zhou, Yiyi; Lai, Qiujia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing combined with psychosomatic relaxation on depression and anxiety in patients with Type-2 Diabetes. One hundred and twenty (120) patients with Type-2 Diabetes and depressive/anxious symptoms were divided into intervention group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) according to the minimum distribution principle of unbalanced indicators. Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing group used this intervention combined with psychosomatic relaxation. Control group underwent conventional treatment. All the patients in the two groups completed the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after treatment. Among the 52 people included in the statistical analysis, the recovery rate was 13.3%. The differences between depression and anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after treatment were statistically significant (PBoxing and psychosomatic relaxation has a beneficial auxiliary therapeutic effect on depression and anxiety accompanying Type-2 Diabetes.

  15. [Microflora of the upper part of the small bowel in healthy Peruvian subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Neira, L; Yi-Chu, A; León Barúa, R

    1983-01-01

    In 20 healthy Peruvians aerobic cultures were done of upper small bowel contents, obtained following the method of the string capsule or Enterotest, and of faringeal material, obtained doing gargles with sterilized water. In 15 (75%) of the 20 subjects cultures of small bowel contents either were sterile (in 5 subjects, or 25% of the total) or revealed only diverse aerobic germs (in 10 subjects, or 50% of the total), the germs more frequently found being: negative coagulase staphylococcus albus (in 7 subjects, or 35% of the total), alpha hemolytic streptococcus (in 4 subjects, or 20% of the total) and Neisseria catarrhalis (in 4 subjects, or 20% of the total). In 5 (25%) of the 20 subjects, coliform bacteria were found in the upper small bowel (Klebsiella pneumonia in 2, and Escherichia coli in the remaining 3). Of those 5 subjects, only 2 (10% or the total of 20) had the microorganisms exclusively in the bowel, and in both the concentration of germs was 10(4)/ml. On the contrary, the 3 remaining subjects (15% of the total) had coliforms also in the pharynx; in 2 of the 3 subjects the concentration of germs found in the bowel was 10(3)/ml, and, in the remaining one, 10/ml; only one of the 3 subjects presented germs in the pharynx in a greater concentration than in the bowel, while another presented germs in the same concentration in both localizations, and the remaining one presented germs in the bowel in a concentration lower than in the pharynx.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Morphology and Three-Dimensional Inhalation Flow in Human Airways in Healthy and Diseased Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Moortele, Tristan

    We investigate experimentally the relation between anatomical structure and respiratory function in healthy and diseased airways. Computed Tomography (CT) scans of human lungs are analyzed from the data base of a large multi-institution clinical study on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Through segmentation, the 3D volumes of the airways are determined at total lung capacity. A geometric analysis provides data on the morphometry of the airways, including the length and diameter of branches, the child-to-parent diameter ratio, and branching angles. While several geometric parameters are confirmed to match past studies for healthy subjects, previously unreported trends are reported on the length of branches. Specifically, in most dichotomous airway bifurcation, the branch of smaller diameter tends to be significantly longer than the one of larger diameter. Additionally, the branch diameter tends to be smaller in diseased airways than in healthy airways up to the 7th generation of bronchial branching. 3D fractal analysis is also performed on the airway volume. Fractal dimensions of 1.89 and 1.83 are found for healthy non-smokers and declining COPD subjects, respectively, furthering the belief that COPD (and lung disease in general) significantly affects the morphometry of the airways already in early stages of the disease. To investigate the inspiratory flow, 3D flow models of the airways are generated using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and 3D printed. Using Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV), 3-component 3D flow fields are acquired for steady inhalation at Reynolds number Re 2000 defined at the trachea. Analysis of the flow data reveals that diseased subjects may experience greater secondary flow strength in their conducting airways, especially in deeper generations.

  17. Pharyngeal chemosensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Zimmermann, Ingo; Sommer, J Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Herr, Raphael M; Stuck, Boris A

    2013-09-01

    Signs of pharyngeal neurodegeneration have been detected in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Along with this neurodegeneration, a decreased pharyngeal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation has been described. The decreased sensitivity may play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the chemosensitivity of the pharyngeal mucosa in patients with OSA compared with controls. Healthy controls and patients with OSA (age: 30-60 years) were included. Testing of oropharyngeal chemosensitivity was performed with subjective intensity ratings of capsaicin (SIR, visual analogue scale 0-10), air puffs (presented with an olfactometer), and stimulation with CO2 at the posterior pharyngeal wall. A 2-point discrimination test at the soft palate, an intensity rating of capsaicin at the tongue, and a nasal lateralization test were performed. Twenty-six patients with OSA and 18 healthy controls were included. No differences were detected in the SIR of capsaicin at the tongue or in the nasal lateralization test. At the pharynx, a decreased sensitivity to capsaicin (OSA: 6.8 ± 2.3; healthy control: 8.6 ± 1.3), air puffs (OSA: 2.8 ± 1.9; healthy control: 4.2 ± 1.6), and stimulation with CO2 (OSA: 1.5 ± 1.7; healthy control: 2.8 ± 1.8) were demonstrated in patients with OSA (all P < 0.05). Two-point discrimination at the soft palate was reduced with statistical significance in the OSA group (OSA: 11.5 ± 5.4 mm; healthy control: 5.0 ± 2.4 mm). The results suggest reduced pharyngeal chemosensitivity in OSA patients in addition to the reduced mechanical pharyngeal sensitivity shown with 2-point discrimination. This demonstrates peripheral neurodegeneration in the context of this disease.

  18. Suppressive effect of cellulose on osmotic diarrhea caused by maltitol in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Hongo, Ryoko; Nakamura, Sadako

    2008-08-01

    Using a single-group time-series design, we determined that osmotic diarrhea caused by maltitol ingestion was suppressed by the addition of not only soluble but also insoluble dietary fiber in healthy humans. We then clarified that cellulose delayed gastric emptying in rats. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers ingested maltitol step-wise at doses of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 g from small to large amounts. Within that range of ingested amounts, 22 out of 27 subjects experienced osmotic diarrhea from maltitol ingestion, and the minimal dose level of maltitol that induced osmotic diarrhea (MMD) was established for each subject. When 5 g of cellulose was added to the MMD, osmotic diarrhea was suppressed in 13 out of 19 subjects (68.4%), while partially hydrolyzed alginate-Na (PHA-Na), a soluble dietary fiber, suppressed osmotic diarrhea in 10 out of 20 subjects (50.0%). When a mixed solution of cellulose and maltitol was administered to rats, the gastric emptying of maltitol was significantly delayed at 30 and 60 min after administration (p=0.019, p=0.013), respectively. PHA-Na also significantly delayed gastric emptying at 30 min (p=0.013). In conclusion, cellulose can suppress the osmotic diarrhea caused by maltitol ingestion in humans and delay the gastric emptying of maltitol in rats. A new physiological property of cellulose was clarified in this study.

  19. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  20. Influence of nopal intake upon fasting glycemia in type II diabetics and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R; Cortés-Franco, R; Chávez-Negrete, A; Islas-Andrade, S

    1991-01-01

    To assess if the acute hypoglycemic effect of nopal which occurs in diabetic patients also appears in healthy individuals, 500 g of nopal stems (O. streptacantha Lem.) were given orally to 14 healthy volunteers and to 14 patients with NIDDM. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after nopal ingestion. A control test was performed with the intake of 400 ml of water. The intake of nopal by the NIDDM group was followed by a significant reduction of serum glucose and insulin concentration reaching 40.8 + 4.6 mg/dl (n = 14) (mean+SEM) and 7.8 + 1.5 uU/ml (n = 7) less than basal value, respectively, at 180 minutes. (P less than 0.001 vs control test). No significant changes were noticed in the healthy group as compared with the control test (P greater than 0.05). Acute hypoglycemic effect of nopal was observed in patients with NIDDM but not in healthy subjects, thus the mechanisms of this effect differs from current hypoglycemic agents.

  1. What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective lay evaluations in comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M

    2015-12-01

    To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  3. [Comparative effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on psychomotor performances and memory in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D; Lacomblez, L; Danjou, P; Weiller, E; Payan, C; Puech, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect on psychomotor and mnesic performances of acute oral dose (600 mg) of 2 Ginkgo biloba extracts were evaluated in twelve healthy female in a dummy placebo-controlled double blind study. Tests were performed comprising: objective measures of vigilance [critical flicker frequency (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory tasks (pictures and Sternberg scanning tests) and self-rating evaluation (visual analogue scales). Tests session took place before and 1 hour post-dosing. No statistically significant changes from placebo were observed on CFF, CRT or subjective rating of drug effects. No differences between treatment were evidenced on Sternberg scanning test and pictures recognition. Comparing to baseline, free recall score, while decreasing under placebo and Ginkgo, remained the same under Tanakan. As the differences between treatment are localized on one test, it appears important to examine the reproductility in healthy subjects. In order to verify the clinical relevance of these results, they need to be replicated in older healthy volunteers with age-associated memory impairment.

  4. Diquafosol Tetrasodium Increases the Concentration of Mucin-like Substances in Tears of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Hirano, Shinichiro; Akune, Yoko; Yamada, Masakazu

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of topical application of diquafosol tetrasodium on proteins and mucin-like substances from tears of clinically healthy subjects. Tears were collected from both the eyes of 10 healthy volunteers. Diquafosol tetrasodium solution (3%) was applied once to the right eye and 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline) once to the left eye. Tear samples were collected by Schirmer test strips before application and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after application. Sialic acid, a marker of mucin-like substances, and major tear proteins including secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of total protein, sIgA and lysozyme were transiently decreased in both groups but returned to baseline levels within 15 min after application. The concentration of lactoferrin and lipocalin-1 did not change significantly in both groups. Sialic acid in tears was significantly decreased 5 min after saline application, but significantly increased 5 min after diquafosol application. No significant difference in sialic acid was seen after 15 min in both groups. Topical application of saline and diquafosol resulted in transient decrease of tear proteins possibly due to wash out or dilution effects. In contrast, diquafosol application significantly increased sialic acid, although the effect was transient. This suggests diquafosol stimulates the secretion of mucins from ocular tissues of healthy human subjects.

  5. IRANIAN DIABETICS MAY NOT BE VITAMIN D DEFICIENT MORE THAN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Neyestani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThere are some reports of decreased serum levels of 25(OHD in the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. To assess vitamin D status of the Iranian diabetics, a pilot study was conducted on 90 subjects with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM (n= 30, T2DM (n= 30, or apparently healthy subjects (n= 30 during fall and winter of 2005. Serum samples were analyzed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol using three different methods: high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, competitive protein-binding assay (CPBA and radioimmunoassay (RIA. In this study serum levels of 25(OHD were categorized as follows: sufficient ≥ 37 nmol/L; 25 nmol/L ≤ mild deficiency < 37 nmol/L; 12.5 nmol/L ≤ moderate deficiency < 25 nmol/L; severe deficiency < 12.5 nmol/L. Results showed that the occurrence of vitamin D insufficiency was almost the same in patients with T1DM and healthy controls. Mean serum level of 25(OHD in patients with T2DM was significantly higher than in T1DM, as judged by HPLC (58.2 ± 8.5 vs. 35 ± 5 nmol/L, Mann Whitney U-Wilcoxon, P= 0.024. Moreover, both CPBA and RIA showed some over-estimation of serum 25(OHD, compared to HPLC. Our findings suggest that, at least in the cold seasons, vitamin D status of the healthy subjects may not be higher than that of T1DM patients.

  6. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Tsuruoka, Shu-ichi; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Hasegawa, Gohki; Obi, Yuri; Kaneda, Tae; Takahashi, Masaki; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Fujimura, Akio

    2009-01-01

    AIM To investigate a potential interaction between cranberry juice and diclofenac, a substrate of CYP2C9. METHODS The inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on diclofenac metabolism was determined using human liver microsome assay. Subsequently, we performed a clinical trial in healthy human subjects to determine whether the repeated consumption of cranberry juice changed the diclofenac pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Cranberry juice significantly suppressed diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, repeated consumption of cranberry juice did not influence the diclofenac pharmacokinetics in human subjects. CONCLUSIONS Cranberry juice inhibited diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in human subjects. Based on the present and previous findings, we think that although cranberry juice inhibits CYP2C9 activity in vitro, it does not change the pharmacokinetics of medications metabolized by CYP2C9 in clinical situations. PMID:19694738

  7. The effect of baclofen and diazepam on motor skill acquisition in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass

    2011-01-01

    investigated the influence of baclofen and diazepam on acquisition of a visuomotor skill. The study was designed as a semi-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 16 healthy human subjects. The motor skill task required the subjects to match a given force trajectory by increasing...... that diazepam and baclofen interfere with the acquisition of a motor skill by disrupting some of the neuroplastic changes that are involved in improved motor performance. This suggests that antispastic treatment should be used with caution in subjects receiving concomitant physiotherapy.......Antispastic medication is often used in the clinic together with physiotherapy. However, some of the antispastic drugs, e.g., baclofen and diazepam, may influence the plastic mechanisms that are necessary for motor learning and hence efficient physiotherapy. In the present study, we consequently...

  8. Breakfast high in whey protein or carbohydrates improves coping with workload in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Henelius, Andreas; Holm, Anu; Huotilainen, Minna; Müller, Kiti; Poussa, Tuija; Pettersson, Kati; Turpeinen, Anu; Peuhkuri, Katri

    2013-11-14

    Dietary components may affect brain function and influence behaviour by inducing the synthesis of neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of consumption of a whey protein-containing breakfast drink v. a carbohydrate drink v. control on subjective and physiological responses to mental workload in simulated work. In a randomised cross-over design, ten healthy subjects (seven women, median age 26 years, median BMI 23 kg/m(2)) participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The subjects performed demanding work-like tasks after having a breakfast drink high in protein (HP) or high in carbohydrate (HC) or a control drink on separate sessions. Subjective states were assessed using the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) and the modified Profile of Mood States. Heart rate was recorded during task performance. The ratio of plasma tryptophan (Trp) to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and salivary cortisol were also analysed. The plasma Trp:LNAA ratio was 30 % higher after the test drinks HP (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) and HC (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) than after the control drink (median 0·10 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)). The increase in heart rate was smaller after the HP (median 2·7 beats/min) and HC (median 1·9 beats/min) drinks when compared with the control drink (median 7·2 beats/min) during task performance. Subjective sleepiness was reduced more after the HC drink (median KSS - 1·5) than after the control drink (median KSS - 0·5). There were no significant differences between the breakfast types in the NASA-TLX index, cortisol levels or task performance. We conclude that a breakfast drink high in whey protein or carbohydrates may improve coping with mental tasks in healthy subjects.

  9. Quantitative Molecular Detection of Putative Periodontal Pathogens in Clinically Healthy and Periodontally Diseased Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, André; Hetzer, Adrian; Holtfreter, Birte; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Steinmetz, Ivo; Kocher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a multi-microbial oral infection with high prevalence among adults. Putative oral pathogens are commonly found in periodontally diseased individuals. However, these organisms can be also detected in the oral cavity of healthy subjects. This leads to the hypothesis, that alterations in the proportion of these organisms relative to the total amount of oral microorganisms, namely their abundance, rather than their simple presence might be important in the transition from health to disease. Therefore, we developed a quantitative molecular method to determine the abundance of various oral microorganisms and the portion of bacterial and archaeal nucleic acid relative to the total nucleic acid extracted from individual samples. We applied quantitative real-time PCRs targeting single-copy genes of periodontal bacteria and 16S-rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea. Testing tongue scrapings of 88 matched pairs of periodontally diseased and healthy subjects revealed a significantly higher abundance of P. gingivalis and a higher total bacterial abundance in diseased subjects. In fully adjusted models the risk of being periodontally diseased was significantly higher in subjects with high P. gingivalis and total bacterial abundance. Interestingly, we found that moderate abundances of A. actinomycetemcomitans were associated with reduced risk for periodontal disease compared to subjects with low abundances, whereas for high abundances, this protective effect leveled off. Moderate archaeal abundances were health associated compared to subjects with low abundances. In conclusion, our methodological approach unraveled associations of the oral flora with periodontal disease, which would have gone undetected if only qualitative data had been determined. PMID:25029268

  10. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  11. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  12. A novel noninvasive method for measuring fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line...... of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95...... fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions....

  13. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  14. Striatal μ-opioid receptor availability predicts cold pressor pain threshold in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelberg, Nora; Aalto, Sargo; Tuominen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    the potential associations between μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) and psychophysical measures. The results show that striatal μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) predicts cold pressor pain threshold, but not cold pressor pain tolerance or tactile sensitivity. This finding suggests that striatal μ-opioid receptor density......Previous PET studies in healthy humans have shown that brain μ-opioid receptor activation during experimental pain is associated with reductions in the sensory and affective ratings of the individual pain experience. The aim of this study was to find out whether brain μ-opioid receptor binding...... at the resting state, in absence of painful stimulation, can be a long-term predictor of experimental pain sensitivity. We measured μ-opioid receptor binding potential (BP(ND)) with μ-opioid receptor selective radiotracer [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 healthy male subjects...

  15. Effects of simulated altitude (normobaric hypoxia on cardiorespiratory parameters and circulating endothelial precursors in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierini Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating Endothelial Precursors (PB-EPCs are involved in the maintenance of the endothelial compartment being promptly mobilized after injuries of the vascular endothelium, but the effects of a brief normobaric hypoxia on PB-EPCs in healthy subjects are scarcely studied. Methods Clinical and molecular parameters were investigated in healthy subjects (n = 8 in basal conditions (T0 and after 1 h of normobaric hypoxia (T1, with Inspiratory Fraction of Oxygen set at 11.2% simulating 4850 mt of altitude. Blood samples were obtained at T0 and T1, as well as 7 days after hypoxia (T2. Results In all studied subjects we observed a prompt and significant increase in PB-EPCs, with a return to basal value at T2. The induction of hypoxia was confirmed by Alveolar Oxygen Partial Pressure (PAO2 and Spot Oxygen Saturation decreases. Heart rate increased, but arterial pressure and respiratory response were unaffected. The change in PB-EPCs percent from T0 to T1 was inversely related to PAO2 at T1. Rapid (T1 increases in serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor and erythropoietin, as well as in cellular PB-EPCs-expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α were observed. Conclusion In conclusion, the endothelial compartment seems quite responsive to standardized brief hypoxia, possibly important for PB-EPCs activation and recruitment.

  16. Nailfold capillary patterns in healthy subjects: a real issue in capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Lubatti, Chiara; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Gutierrez, Marwin; Boracchi, Patrizia; Fornili, Marco; De Angelis, Rossella

    2013-11-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy has been extensively applied in a broad spectrum of pathologic conditions, but very few data have been published in healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to describe the nailfold capillary findings on a large series of healthy subjects using the video-capillaroscopy technique. Nailfold capillaries were studied based on their morphology, dimensions and density. Then, to evaluate jointly the association between different capillary findings in groups of subjects which were homogeneous for their characteristics, cluster analysis was performed. The results (median) of capillary measurements were as follows: loop length 207μm, external diameter 39μm, internal diameter 17μm, apical diameter 17μm, and intercapillary distance 143μm. Based on the cluster analysis three major "normal" morphologic capillaroscopic patterns were depicted: 1) the "normal" pattern mainly with 2 to 5 U-shaped loops/mm and ≤2 tortuous loops/mm; 2) the "perfect normal" pattern with ≥5 U-shaped loops/mm and 3) the "unusual normal" with at least 1 meandering or bushy loop, or at least 1 microhemorrhage, or with >4 crossed loops/mm. Regarding the loop measurements, the majority of subjects had a median of 7capillaries/mm with a median length of 198μm. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on nasal mucociliary clearance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Seth; Fakhri, Samer; Luong, Amber; Whited, Chad; Citardi, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation has been implicated as an etiologic factor in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal irrigation with surfactants including dilute baby shampoo have been proposed as an antibiofilm treatment for CRS patients. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on normal sinonasal mucosal function is unknown. Mucociliary clearance time (MCT), as measured by the time in minutes for a subject to detect a sweet taste after the application of a saccharin granules at the anterior part of the inferior turbinate, was performed before and shortly after nasal irrigation with 50 ml of 1% baby shampoo (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ) in 27 healthy volunteers. Mean MCTs before and after irrigation were 12.09 (±4.83 minutes) and 15.45 (±7.71 minutes) minutes, respectively. The mean difference, 3.37 minutes, was statistically significant (p = 0.031). Pre- and post-MCTs for each subject were not correlated (r = 0.324; p = 0.100). Nasal irrigations with dilute baby shampoo increase MCTs in healthy subjects. The impact of such interventions in CRS patients warrants additional investigation.

  19. Difference in F-18 FDG uptake after esophago gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy in healthy sedated subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Ryool; Chang, Woo Jin; Bae, Seung Il; Song, In Wook; Bong, Jin Gu; Jeong, Hye Yeon; Park, So Young; Bae, Jeong Yup; Yoon, Hyun Dae [Raphael Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Hyoung [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineFatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the difference in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in sedated healthy subjects after they underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy procedures. The endoscopy group (n = 29) included healthy subjects who underwent screening via F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after an EGD and/or colonoscopy under sedation on the same day. The control group (n = 35) included healthy subjects who underwent screening via PET/CT only. FDG uptake in the tongue, uvula, epiglottis, vocal cords, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, cecum, colon, anus, and muscle were compared between the two groups. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the tongue, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus did not significantly differ between the endoscopy and control groups. In contrast, mean SUVmax in the whole stomach was 18 % higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (SUVmax: 2.96 vs. 2.51, P = 0.010). In the lower gastrointestinal track, SUVmax from the cecum to the rectum was not significantly different between the two groups, whereas SUVmax in the anus was 20 % higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (SUVmax: 4.21 vs. 3.50, P = 0.002). SUVmax in the liver and muscle was not significantly different between the two groups. Mean volume of the stomach and mean cross section of the colon was significantly higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (stomach: 313.28 cm{sup 3} vs. 209.93 cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001, colon: 8.82 cm{sup 2} vs. 5.98 cm{sup 2}, P = 0.001). EGD and colonoscopy under sedation does not lead to significant differences in SUVmax in most parts of the body. Only gastric FDG uptake in the EGD subjects and anal FDG uptake in the colonoscopy subjects was higher than uptake in those regions in the control subjects.

  20. Variability of hemodynamic parameters in young healthy subjects with and without hypertensive family history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palombo, C.; Michelassi, C.; Ghione, S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess the short-term variability of the hemodynamic pattern in healthy normal subjects, Transcutaneous Aortovelography, a continuous wave Doppler technique, was performed in 17 normotensive males, 11 with and 6 without hypertensive family history and repeated after 30'. Reproducibility of measurements in the whole sample was comparable with previous observation reported in literature, but in the group with a positive family history of hypertension the reproducibility of most parameters was lower than in the other, suggesting the existence of a greater hemodynamic variability in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents

  1. Effects of kinesthetic haptic feedback on standing stability of young healthy subjects and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Byun, Ha-Young; Oh, Min-Kyun; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-03-13

    Haptic control is a useful therapeutic option in rehabilitation featuring virtual reality interaction. As with visual and vibrotactile biofeedback, kinesthetic haptic feedback may assist in postural control, and can achieve balance control. Kinesthetic haptic feedback in terms of body sway can be delivered via a commercially available haptic device and can enhance the balance stability of both young healthy subjects and stroke patients. Our system features a waist-attached smartphone, software running on a computer (PC), and a dedicated Phantom Omni® device. Young healthy participants performed balance tasks after assumption of each of four distinct postures for 30 s (one foot on the ground; the Tandem Romberg stance; one foot on foam; and the Tandem Romberg stance on foam) with eyes closed. Patient eyes were not closed and assumption of the Romberg stance (only) was tested during a balance task 25 s in duration. An Android application running continuously on the smartphone sent mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) tilt angles to a PC, which generated kinesthetic haptic feedback via Phantom Omni®. A total of 16 subjects, 8 of whom were young healthy and 8 of whom had suffered stroke, participated in the study. Post-experiment data analysis was performed using MATLAB®. Mean Velocity Displacement (MVD), Planar Deviation (PD), Mediolateral Trajectory (MLT) and Anteroposterior Trajectory (APT) parameters were analyzed to measure reduction in body sway. Our kinesthetic haptic feedback system was effective to reduce postural sway in young healthy subjects regardless of posture and the condition of the substrate (the ground) and to improve MVD and PD in stroke patients who assumed the Romberg stance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that kinesthetic haptic feedback significantly reduced body sway in both categories of subjects. Kinesthetic haptic feedback can be implemented using a commercial haptic device and a smartphone. Intuitive balance cues were

  2. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Central Hospital Randers; Municipal Hospital Aarhus

    1981-01-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value. (orig.) [de

  3. Lack of Correlation Between Vasodilatation and Pharmacologically Induced Immediate Headache in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Dalgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    these experiments were vasodilators we examined a possible correlation between headache scores and increases in arterial diameter. Methods: We identified nine studies and retrieved raw data in 89 healthy subjects (46 females, 43 males), mean age 27 years (range 18–59 years). The following variables were collected...... intensity. Results: The scatter plots show no relationship between maximal headache score and the relative changes in VmeanMCA and diameter of the STA. The main analyses of covariance showed a significant effect only of heart rate on headache (p = .014). The interaction tests were insignificant for all...

  4. Correlation of Serum Ascorbic Acid with Serum Lipids in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    藤野, 武彦; 村田, 晃; 金谷, 庄蔵; 森田, ケイ; 宇都宮, 弘子; 本多, 理恵

    1985-01-01

    The serum levels of ascorbic acid (ASA), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride were estimated in 82 healthy persons who consisted of 41 men aged 18 to 69 and 41 women aged 32 to 69. None of fasting lipid profils correlated with the serum level of ASA in total subjects. In young men aged 18 to 23, however, there was significant negative correlation between ASA and total cholesterol. These findings suggest that ASA may be one of effective drug to decrease the level of cholesterol.

  5. Thermal and hemodynamic response to whole-body cryostimulation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Pawel; Klawe, Jacek J; Pawlak, Joanna; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Newton, Julia

    2013-06-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is an increasing applied cryotherapeutic method, that involves application of a cryotherapeutic factor to stimulate the body by the means of intense hypothermia of virtually the body's entire area. This method is still not well recognized in Western Europe. However in recent years it is becoming increasingly popular in sports medicine and also in clinical application. Cryotherapeutic agents used in WBC are considered to be a strong stress stimulus which is associated with a variety of changes in functional parameters, particularly of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. However, such strong influence upon the entire body could be associated with the risk of unexpected reactions which might be dangerous for homeostasis. The present study evaluated the complex hemodynamic physiological reactions in response to WBC exposure in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy male volunteers participated. Each subject was exposed to WBC (-120°C) for 3-min. None of the participants had been exposed to such conditions previously. The research was conducted with modern and reliable measurements techniques, which assessed complex hemodynamic reactions and skin temperature changes non-invasively. All measurements were performed four times (before WBC, after WBC, WBC+3h and WBC+6h) with a Task Force Monitor (TFM - CNSystems, Medizintechnik, Gratz, Austria). Body superficial temperature was measured by infrared thermographic techniques - infra-red camera Flir P640 (Flir Systems Inc., Sweden). Our results show a significant decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, and increase in stroke volume, total peripheral resistance and baroreceptors reflex sensitivity. These changes were observed just after WBC exposure. At stages WBC+3h and WBC+6h there was observed a significant drop in baroreceptors reflex sensitivity due to increased thermogenesis. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that WBC strongly stimulates the baroreceptor cardiac reflex in

  6. Pharmacokinetic comparison of controlled-release and immediate-release oral formulations of simvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Bong-Ju; Woo, Jong Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Min Soo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Kyungsoo

    2010-01-01

    A controlled-release (CR) formulation of simvastatin was recently developed in Korea. The formulation is expected to yield a lower C(max) and similar AUC values compared with the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the new CR formulation and an IR formulation of simvastatin after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, open-label, parallelgroup, 2-part study. Eligible subjects were healthy male or female volunteers between the ages of 19 and 55 years and within 20% of their ideal weight. In part I, each subject received a single dose of the CR or IR formulation of simvastatin 40 mg orally (20 mg x 2 tablets) after fasting. In part II, each subject received the same dose of the CR or IR formulation for 8 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained for 48 hours after the dose in part I and after the first and the last dose in part II. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both simvastatin (the inactive prodrug) and simvastatin acid (the active moiety). An adverse event (AE) was defined as any unfavorable sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding) or symptom, regardless of whether it had a causal relationship with the study medication. Serious AEs were defined as any events that are considered life threatening, require hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, cause persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or result in congenital abnormality, birth defect, or death. AEs were determined based on patient interviews and physical examinations. Twenty-four healthy subjects (17 men, 7 women; mean [SD] age, 29 [7] years; age range, 22-50 years) were enrolled in part I, and 29 subjects (17 men, 12 women; mean age, 33 [9] years; age range, 19-55 years) were enrolled in part II. For simvastatin acid, C

  7. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immediate effects of acupuncture on biceps brachii muscle function in healthy and post-stroke subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragoso Ana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of acupuncture on muscle function in healthy subjects are contradictory and cannot be extrapolated to post-stroke patients. This study evaluated the immediate effects of manual acupuncture on myoelectric activity and isometric force in healthy and post-stroke patients. Methods A randomized clinical trial, with parallel groups, single-blinded study design, was conducted with 32 healthy subjects and 15 post-stroke patients with chronic hemiparesis. Surface electromyography from biceps brachii during maximal isometric voluntary tests was performed before and after 20-min intermittent, and manual stimulation of acupoints Quchi (LI11 or Tianquan (PC2. Pattern differentiation was performed by an automated method based on logistic regression equations. Results Healthy subjects showed a decrease in the root mean-squared (RMS values after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 1.392 ± 0.826 V; post: 0.612 ± 0.0.320 V; P = 0.002 and PC2 (pre: 1.494 ± 0.826 V; post: 0.623 ± 0.320 V; P = 0.001. Elbow flexion maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC was not significantly different after acupuncture stimulation of LI11 (pre: 22.2 ± 10.7 kg; post: 21.7 ± 9.5 kg; P = 0.288 or PC2 (pre: 18.8 ± 4.6 kg; post: 18.7 ± 6.0 kg; P = 0.468. Post-stroke patients did not exhibit any significant decrease in the RMS values after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 0.627 ± 0.335 V; post: 0.530 ± 0.272 V; P = 0.187 and PC2 (pre: 0.601 ± 0.258 V; post: 0.591 ± 0.326 V; P = 0.398. Also, no significant decrease in the MIVC value was observed after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 9.6 ± 3.9 kg; post: 9.6 ± 4.7 kg; P = 0.499 or PC2 (pre: 10.7 ± 5.6 kg; post: 10.2 ± 5.3 kg; P = 0.251. Different frequency of patterns was observed among healthy subjects and post-stroke patients groups (χ2 = 9.759; P = 0.021. Conclusion Manual acupuncture provides sufficient neuromuscular stimuli to promote immediate changes in motor unit gross recruitment without

  9. Subjective and neurovegetative changes in healthy volunteers and panic patients performing simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Alexandre C B V; Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Guimarães, Francisco S; Graeff, Frederico G

    2005-12-01

    Drug-free symptomatic panic patients, drug-treated nonsymptomatic patients and healthy controls were submitted to simulated public speaking. Subjective anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort measured by the visual analog mood scale as well as skin conductance level were higher in symptomatic patients than in controls at the beginning of the experimental session, nonsymptomatic patients lying in between. Subjective sedation, spontaneous fluctuations of skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure were similar in the three groups. Preparation and performance of speech decreased sedation while increasing anxiety, cognitive impairment, level and fluctuations of skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure. Anxiety, cognitive impairment and conductance level were less increased in symptomatic patients than in controls. Electrodermal activity, but not cardiovascular measures of sympathetic arousal correlated with anticipatory anxiety. Chronic treatment with serotonin uptake inhibitors attenuated the differences between panic patients and controls, supporting the participation of serotonin in panic disorder.

  10. Effect of intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion on haemostatic parameters in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, TT; Thorsen, S; Jensen, SA

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: N-acetylcysteine is used to treat paracetamol overdose but depresses the activity of plasma coagulation factors II, VII, and X, which are often used to assess liver injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine on haemostasis in normal...... volunteers. METHODS: Haemostatic parameters in 10 healthy subjects were analysed before and following intravenous infusion of therapeutic doses of N-acetylcysteine, as well as in vitro. RESULTS: N-acetylcysteine induced significant decreases in plasma levels of vitamin K dependent haemostatic proteins...... activity, and free protein S reactivity, respectively. These data suggest that N-acetylcysteine induces protein modifications affecting activity. Five subjects developed an adverse reaction to infusion of N-acetylcysteine and these were associated with a rapid increase in levels of factor VIII and its...

  11. Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Någren, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples...... and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals...... with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may...

  12. Sleep electroencephalography and heart rate variability interdependence amongst healthy subjects and insomnia/schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Schilling, Claudia; Schredl, Michael; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of interdependencies within autonomic nervous system has gained increasing importance to characterise healthy and psychiatric disordered subjects. The present work introduces a biosignal processing approach, suggesting a computational resource to estimate coherent or synchronised interactions as an eventual supportive aid in the diagnosis of primary insomnia and schizophrenia pathologies. By deploying linear, nonlinear and statistical methods upon 25 electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic overnight sleep recordings, the assessment of cross-correlation, wavelet coherence and [Formula: see text]:[Formula: see text] phase synchronisation is focused on tracking discerning features amongst the clinical cohorts. Our results indicate that certain neuronal oscillations interact with cardiac power bands in distinctive ways responding to standardised sleep stages and patient groups, which promotes the hypothesis of subtle functional dynamics between neuronal assembles and (para)sympathetic activity subject to pathophysiological conditions.

  13. Microalbuminuria reflects a generalized transvascular albumin leakiness in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G

    1995-01-01

    1. In epidemiological studies microalbuminuria, i.e. slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, predicts increased atherosclerotic vascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that microalbuminuria in clinically healthy subjects is associated with a systemic...... transvascular albumin leakiness. In animal experiments the outflux of albumin and lipids to the arterial wall are highly correlated, and both are elevated in atherosclerosis. 2. All participants were recruited at random from a population-based epidemiological study, where the upper decile of urinary albumin...... excretion rate was 6.6 micrograms/min. Twenty-seven patients with persistent microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate 6.6-150 micrograms/min), and 56 age- and sex-matched control subjects with persistent normoalbuminuria (UAER

  14. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo......). To detect a reduced activation of the central motor pathways superimposed external electrical stimulations during voluntary contractions were applied. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to detect any alcohol-induced changes in sarcolemmal integrity. No change was seen in isokinetic as well as in isometric...

  15. Urinary elimination of molybdenum by healthy subjects as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, P; Berre, S; Prémel-Cabic, A; Mauras, Y; Cledes, A; Cournot, A

    The concentration of molybdenum was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) in the urines of two groups of healthy people living in two areas of France, Brest and Paris, about 500 km away. The concentration of Mo in the 24-hour urines of 10 healthy subjects from the Brest region was 25 +/- 10 micrograms/l, 38 +/- 20 micrograms/24 h and 21 +/- 9 micrograms/g creatinine. The concentration of Mo in the morning urines of 23 healthy men of the Paris region was 41 +/- 34 micrograms/l and 21 +/- 15 micrograms/g creatinine. Thus the mean elimination of Mo per gram of creatinine was the same in the two groups (21 +/- 9 and 21 +/- 15). Since the three main isotopes of Mo m/z = 95, 96 and 98, corresponding to an abundance percentage of 16, 17 and 24.5, respectively, were simultaneously analyzed in each sample and led to similar results, the ICPMS method seems reliable.

  16. Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, S.H.X.; Cobbold, J.F.L.; Lim, A.K.P.; Eliahoo, J.; Thomas, E.L.; Mehta, S.R.; Durighel, G.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bell, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful clinical tool used increasingly in the research setting. We aimed to assess the prevalence of incidental findings in a sequential cohort of healthy volunteers undergoing whole-body MRI as part of a normal control database for imaging research studies. Materials and methods: 148 healthy volunteers (median age 36 years, range 21-69 years; 63.5% males, 36.5% females) were enrolled into a prospective observational study at a single hospital-based MRI research unit in London, UK. Individuals with a clinical illness, treated or under investigation were excluded from the study. Results: 43 (29.1%) scans were abnormal with a total of 49 abnormalities detected. Of these, 20 abnormalities in 19 patients (12.8%) were of clinical significance. The prevalence of incidental findings increased significantly with both increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Obese subjects had a fivefold greater risk of having an incidental abnormality on MRI (OR 5.4, CI 2.1-14.0). Conclusions: This study showed that more than one quarter of healthy volunteers have MR-demonstrable abnormalities. There was an increased risk of such findings in obese patients. This has ethical and financial implications for future imaging research, particularly with respect to informed consent and follow-up of those with abnormalities detected during the course of imaging studies.

  17. The Gut Microbiota of Healthy Chilean Subjects Reveals a High Abundance of the Phylum Verrucomicrobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujio-Vejar, Sayaka; Vasquez, Yessenia; Morales, Pamela; Magne, Fabien; Vera-Wolf, Patricia; Ugalde, Juan A.; Navarrete, Paola; Gotteland, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fecal samples were collected from 41 young, asymptomatic, normal weight volunteers (age: 25 ± 4 years; ♀:48.8%; BMI: 22.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2) with low levels of plasma (IL6 and hsCRP) and colonic (fecal calprotectin) inflammatory markers. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was amplified and sequenced using MiSeq Illumina system. 109,180 ± 13,148 sequences/sample were obtained, with an α-diversity of 3.86 ± 0.37. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes (43.6 ± 9.2%) and Bacteroidetes (41.6 ± 13.1%), followed by Verrucomicrobia (8.5 ± 10.4%), Proteobacteria (2.8 ± 4.8%), Actinobacteria (1.8 ± 3.9%) and Euryarchaeota (1.4 ± 2.7%). The core microbiota representing the genera present in all the subjects included Bacteroides, Prevotella, Parabacteroides (phylum Bacteroidetes), Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Oscillospira, Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Coprococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus (phylum Firmicutes), Akkermansia (phylum Verrucomicrobia), and Collinsella (phylum Actinobacteria). Butyrate-producing genera including Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Oscillospira were detected. The family Methanobacteriaceae was reported in 83% of the subjects and Desulfovibrio, the most representative sulfate-reducing genus, in 76%. The microbiota of the Chilean individuals significantly differed from those of Papua New Guinea and the Matses ethnic group and was closer to that of

  18. The Gut Microbiota of Healthy Chilean Subjects Reveals a High Abundance of the Phylum Verrucomicrobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Fujio-Vejar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fecal samples were collected from 41 young, asymptomatic, normal weight volunteers (age: 25 ± 4 years; ♀:48.8%; BMI: 22.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2 with low levels of plasma (IL6 and hsCRP and colonic (fecal calprotectin inflammatory markers. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was amplified and sequenced using MiSeq Illumina system. 109,180 ± 13,148 sequences/sample were obtained, with an α-diversity of 3.86 ± 0.37. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes (43.6 ± 9.2% and Bacteroidetes (41.6 ± 13.1%, followed by Verrucomicrobia (8.5 ± 10.4%, Proteobacteria (2.8 ± 4.8%, Actinobacteria (1.8 ± 3.9% and Euryarchaeota (1.4 ± 2.7%. The core microbiota representing the genera present in all the subjects included Bacteroides, Prevotella, Parabacteroides (phylum Bacteroidetes, Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Oscillospira, Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Coprococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus (phylum Firmicutes, Akkermansia (phylum Verrucomicrobia, and Collinsella (phylum Actinobacteria. Butyrate-producing genera including Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Oscillospira were detected. The family Methanobacteriaceae was reported in 83% of the subjects and Desulfovibrio, the most representative sulfate-reducing genus, in 76%. The microbiota of the Chilean individuals significantly differed from those of Papua New Guinea and the Matses ethnic group and was closer to

  19. Inhalation of a dry powder ciprofloxacin formulation in healthy subjects: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stass, Heino; Nagelschmitz, Johannes; Willmann, Stefan; Delesen, Heinz; Gupta, Abhishek; Baumann, Sybille

    2013-06-01

    Oral and intravenous formulations of ciprofloxacin have established efficacy and safety profiles in respiratory infections. A dry powder for inhalation (DPI) that uses Novartis' PulmoSphere™ technology has been developed to deliver high concentrations of ciprofloxacin to the lung with low systemic exposure using a portable and convenient passive dry powder inhaler (Novartis' T-326 inhaler). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of ciprofloxacin DPI in healthy male subjects, with a secondary objective to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin after ciprofloxacin DPI administration. This was a phase I, single-dose, single-site, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted in the hospital setting. Subjects were followed up for safety for approximately 2 weeks. Six healthy male subjects, aged 27-42 years with no history of pulmonary disease, repeated bronchitis or respiratory allergies were enrolled. In randomized order and separated by a 1-week washout period, subjects inhaled a single dose of ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or placebo from the T-326 inhaler. Primary safety parameters included vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, adverse events and lung function (total specific resistance, thoracic gas volume and forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Plasma concentration-time data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated with no clinically relevant adverse effects on lung function. Estimates of lung deposition derived from physiology-based pharmacokinetic modelling suggest that approximately 40 % of the total dose of ciprofloxacin DPI reached the trachea/bronchi and alveolar space. Systemic ciprofloxacin was detected soon after inhalation [peak concentration in plasma (C(max)) 56.42 μg/L, median time to C max 0.625 h], but total systemic exposure was minimal (area under the plasma concentration-time curve 354.4 μg·h/L). Terminal elimination half

  20. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  1. Narrow cervical canal in 1211 asymptomatic healthy subjects: the relationship with spinal cord compression on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Suda, Kota; Yamagata, Masatsune; Ueta, Takayoshi; Kato, Fumihiko

    2016-07-01

    Narrow cervical canal (NCC) has been a suspected risk factor for later development of cervical myelopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NCC in a large cohort of asymptomatic volunteers. This study was a cross-sectional study of 1211 asymptomatic volunteers. Approximately 100 men and 100 women representing each decade of life from the 20s to the 70s were included in this study. Cervical canal anteroposterior diameters at C5 midvertebral level on X-rays, and the prevalence of spinal cord compression (SCC) and increased signal intensity (ISI) changes on MRI were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value of the severity of canal stenosis resulting in SCC. NCC (<14 mm) was observed in 123 (10.2 %) subjects. SCC and ISI were found in 64 (5.3 %) and 28 (2.3 %) subjects, respectively. The prevalence of NCC was significantly higher in females and older subjects, but the occurrence of severe NCC (<12 mm) did not increase with age. The canal size in subjects with SCC or ISI was significantly smaller than in those without SCC (p < 0.0001). The cut-off values of cervical canal stenosis resulting in SCC were 14.8 and 13.9 mm in males and females, respectively. The prevalence of NCC was considerably lower among asymptomatic healthy volunteers; the cervical canal diameter in subjects with SCC or ISI was significantly smaller than in asymptomatic subjects; NCC is a risk factor for SCC.

  2. Gait variability measurements in lumbar spinal stenosis patients: part A. Comparison with healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, N C; Christakis, D G; Tzagarakis, G N; Chlouverakis, G I; Kampanis, N A; Stergiopoulos, K N; Katonis, P G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the gait variability of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (experimental group) with healthy individuals (control group). The hypothesis is that the preoperative gait variability of the experimental group is higher than the control group. The experimental group consisted of 35 adults (18 males, 17 females). The subjects of the experimental group suffered exclusively from spinal stenosis. The patients were determined by MRI scans. A tri-axial accelerometer sensor was used for the gait measurement, and differential entropy algorithm was used to quantify the gait acceleration signal. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire was used to determine the condition on the day of the measurement. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was utilized to assess the diagnostic value of the method and determine a cut-off value. There is a statistically significant difference between gait variability in the control group and the experimental group. ROC analysis determines a cut-off differential entropy value. The cut-off value has a 97.6% probability of separating patients with spinal stenosis from healthy subjects. The Oswestry Low Back Questionnaire is well correlated with the spectral differential entropy values

  3. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  4. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean François Le

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called "flip method" (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and "clustering" (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  5. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Toschi, N; Barbieri, R; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects through linear and nonlinear coupling measures of EEG spectrogram and instantaneous heart rate estimates. To this extent, affective pictures including different combinations of arousal and valence levels, gathered from the International Affective Picture System, were administered to twenty-two healthy subjects. Time-varying maps of cortical activation were obtained through EEG spectral analysis, whereas the associated instantaneous heartbeat dynamics was estimated using inhomogeneous point-process linear models. Brain-Heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC), considering EEG time-varying spectra and point-process estimates defined in the time and frequency domains. As a proof of concept, we here show preliminary results considering EEG oscillations in the θ band (4-8 Hz). This band, indeed, is known in the literature to be involved in emotional processes. MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes, mediated by the prefrontal cortex interplay especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels. Furthermore, lower and higher arousing elicitations were associated to not significant brain-heart coupling changes in response to pleasant/unpleasant elicitations.

  6. Atherosclerotic risk factors are increased in clinically healthy subjects with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G

    1995-01-01

    in clinically healthy subjects. All healthy 40-65 year-old participants with microalbuminuria, examined within the first 21 months of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, were invited, and 28 were studied. An age- and sex-matched group of 60 randomly chosen subjects with normoalbuminuria served as control....... Microalbuminuria was defined as a UAER of 6.6-150 micrograms/min, and normoalbuminuria as a UAER group, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were both elevated (mean (95% C.I.) 128 (123-134) vs. 119 (116-122) mmHg; P = 0.005, and 75 (71-78) vs. 69 (67-71) mm......Hg; P = 0.008, respectively), and serum apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 concentration was lower (1.30 (1.20-1.37) vs. 1.42 (1.36-1.47) milligrams; P = 0.02) in comparison with the normoalbuminuric group. Furthermore, serum HDL-cholesterol concentration tended to be lower, whereas body weight, body mass index...

  7. Introducing axonal myelination in connectomics: A preliminary analysis of g-ratio distribution in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Matteo; Giulietti, Giovanni; Dowell, Nicholas; Spanò, Barbara; Harrison, Neil; Bozzali, Marco; Cercignani, Mara

    2017-09-14

    Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI. In two different datasets of healthy subjects, we reconstructed the structural connectome and then used the g-ratio estimated from diffusion and magnetization transfer data to characterize the network structure. Significant characteristics of g-ratio weighted graphs emerged. First, the g-ratio distribution across the edges of the graph did not show the power-law distribution observed using the number of streamlines as a weight. Second, connections involving regions related to motor and sensory functions were the highest in myelin content. We also observed significant differences in terms of the hub structure and the rich-club organization suggesting that connections involving hub regions present higher myelination than peripheral connections. Taken together, these findings offer a characterization of g-ratio distribution across the connectome in healthy subjects and lay the foundations for further investigating plasticity and pathology using a similar approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Neurofeedback-Based Enhancement of Single Trial Auditory Evoked Potentials: Feasibility in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kathryn; Rarra, Marie-Helene; Moor, Nicolas; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Baenninger, Anja; Razavi, Nadja; Dierks, Thomas; Hubl, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies showed a global reduction of the event-related potential component N100 in patients with schizophrenia, a phenomenon that is even more pronounced during auditory verbal hallucinations. This reduction assumingly results from dysfunctional activation of the primary auditory cortex by inner speech, which reduces its responsiveness to external stimuli. With this study, we tested the feasibility of enhancing the responsiveness of the primary auditory cortex to external stimuli with an upregulation of the event-related potential component N100 in healthy control subjects. A total of 15 healthy subjects performed 8 double-sessions of EEG-neurofeedback training over 2 weeks. The results of the used linear mixed effect model showed a significant active learning effect within sessions ( t = 5.99, P < .001) against an unspecific habituation effect that lowered the N100 amplitude over time. Across sessions, a significant increase in the passive condition ( t = 2.42, P = .03), named as carry-over effect, was observed. Given that the carry-over effect is one of the ultimate aims of neurofeedback, it seems reasonable to apply this neurofeedback training protocol to influence the N100 amplitude in patients with schizophrenia. This intervention could provide an alternative treatment option for auditory verbal hallucinations in these patients.

  9. Relationship between leukocyte telomere length and personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahiro, R; Suzuki, A; Enokido, M; Matsumoto, Y; Shibuya, N; Kamata, M; Goto, K; Otani, K

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that certain personality traits are related to mortality and disease morbidity, but the biological mechanism linking them remains unclear. Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomere length is a predictor of mortality and late-life disease morbidity. Thus, it is possible that personality traits influence telomere length. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with personality traits in healthy subjects. The subjects were 209 unrelated healthy Japanese who were recruited from medical students at 4th-5th grade. Assessment of personality traits was performed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, shorter telomere length was related to lower scores of neuroticism (Ppersonality traits, and this association may be implicated in the relationship between personality traits and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  11. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean Francois Le

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference

  12. 113Insup(m) radiocardiographic measurements of cardiopulmonary parameters in healthy subjects and in cardiac patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, Jyrki.

    1976-05-01

    Single detector arrangements are used to measure heart radioactivity curves in healthy subjects and in patients with various heart failures. A method is developed from a modified gamma function to determine the cardiopulmonary parameters from the radiocardiograms: systemic flow, pulmonary flow, right to left shunting flow, left to right shunting flow, regurgitant fractions, stroke volume, atrial blood volumes, ventricular end-diastolic volumes, pulmonary blood volume and ejection fractions. The method is well suited to clinical routine and requires only a desk calculator or a mini-computer for data handling. The cardiopulmonary parameters were measured from 70 healthy subjects with following results: cardiac index 3.46+-0.72 l/min/m 2 , stroke index 49+-9 ml/b/m 2 , right atrial blood volume 35+-13 ml/m 2 , right ventricular end-diastolic volume 76+-15 ml/m 2 , pulmonary blood volume 250+-51 ml/m 2 , left atrial blood volume 41+-15 ml/m 2 , left ventricular end-diastolic volume 75+-15 ml/m 2 , right heart ejection fraction 0.64+-0.11, left heart ejection fraction 0.66+-0.12. These values agree closely with the data accumulated from more elaborate methods. (author)

  13. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo; Lodi, Alessandra; Cenci, Lorenzo; Parmagnani, Andrea; Grimaldi, Keith; Zhongjin, Yang; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  14. The effect of metabolic alkalosis on the ventilatory response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppersma, E; Doorduin, J; van der Hoeven, J G; Veltink, P H; van Hees, H W H; Heunks, L M A

    2018-02-01

    Patients with acute respiratory failure may develop respiratory acidosis. Metabolic compensation by bicarbonate production or retention results in posthypercapnic alkalosis with an increased arterial bicarbonate concentration. The hypothesis of this study was that elevated plasma bicarbonate levels decrease respiratory drive and minute ventilation. In an intervention study in 10 healthy subjects the ventilatory response using a hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) test was assessed, before and after administration of high dose sodium bicarbonate. Total dose of sodiumbicarbonate was 1000 ml 8.4% in 3 days. Plasma bicarbonate increased from 25.2 ± 2.2 to 29.2 ± 1.9 mmol/L. With increasing inspiratory CO 2 pressure during the HCVR test, RR, V t , Pdi, EAdi and V E increased. The clinical ratio ΔV E /ΔP et CO 2 remained unchanged, but Pdi, EAdi and V E were significantly lower after bicarbonate administration for similar levels of inspired CO 2 . This study demonstrates that in healthy subjects metabolic alkalosis decreases the neural respiratory drive and minute ventilation, as a response to inspiratory CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of gemfibrozil on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic warfarin in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Jari J; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2005-01-01

    Aims Case reports suggest that gemfobrozil can increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Because gemfibrozil inhibits CYP2C9 in vitro, we studied its effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic warfarin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 10 healthy subjects ingested 600 mg gemfibrozil or placebo twice daily for 8 days. On day 3, they were administered a single dose of 10 mg racemic R-S-warfarin orally. The concentrations of R- and S-warfarin in plasma and thromboplastin time were monitored up to 168 h. Results Gemfibrozil decreased the mean (±SD) area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0–∞)] of S-warfarin by 11%, from 19.9 ± 5.2 mg l−1 h to 17.6 ± 4.7 mg l−1 h (95% CI on the difference −3.7, −0.78; P gemfibrozil phase to 29.5 ± 6.9 mg l−1 h during the placebo phase (95% CI −3.3, −0.33; P Gemfibrozil did not alter the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Conclusion Unexpectedly, gemfibrozil slightly decreased the plasma concentrations of R- and S-warfarin. Displacement of warfarin from plasma albumin by gemfibrozil or its interference with the absorption of warfarin could explain the present findings. Usual therapeutic doses of gemfibrozil seem to have limited effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single dose warfarin in healthy subjects. PMID:15801938

  16. Is cerebral oxygenation negatively affected by infusion of norepinephrine in healthy subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, P.; Seifert, T.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion of norep......BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion...... of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation in healthy subjects. METHODS: Three doses of norepinephrine (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 20 min each) were infused in nine healthy subjects [six males; 26 (6) yr, mean (SD)]. MAP, cerebral oxygenation characterized by frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc(O2...... infused at 0.1 microg kg(-1) min(-1) [Sc(O2): 78 (75-94) to 69 (61-83)%; P

  17. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  18. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  19. Effectiveness of a perceptual - proprioceptive training with virtual visual feedback in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: the Wilcoxon Test showed improvements at the end of the training program compared to the baseline conditions. Basic Balance increased during the WFP (33.33% and was associated with a 19.92% decrease in center of pressure (COP lenght. The Single-leg Balance results incremented after the WFP (left 29.09% vs. right 47.92% and accompanied by a decrement in COP (left 28.71% vs. right 30.45%. The values for the Agility test increased both in WFP and COP (28.57% and 58.57%, respectively. The Stability test scores increased in the WFP (66.67% along with a consequent decrease in COP (10.53%. Finally, the Motion test values increased in the WFP (73.17%, whilst COP for this test decreased (12.02%. These results indicate that 6 weeks of virtual training produced a good adaptability. Younger participants (<20 years demonstrated to be more responsive to dynamic stimulation with respect to those >20 years.Conclusions: significant improvements in all participants were observed, indicating that virtual training can influence posture and balance in healthy people. Because of its characteristics of low cost and easy availability, a portable system for balance training for everyone offers the possibility to more readily measure motor skill and to gauge improvement.

  20. Analysis of prototypical narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silveira

    Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective:[1] To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. [2] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals. [3] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.

  1. Sensory Over-Responsiveness among Healthy Subjects is Associated with a Pronociceptive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Granovsky, Yelena; Bar-Shalita, Tami

    2018-04-01

    Chronic pain patients show hypersensitivity to sensory nonpainful stimuli. Sensory over-responsiveness (SOR) to innocuous daily stimuli, experienced as painful, is prevalent in 10% of the healthy population. This altered sensory processing may be an expression of overfacilitation, or a less efficient pain-inhibitory process in the pain pathways. We therefore aimed to investigate specifically the pain-inhibitory system of subjects with SOR who are otherwise healthy, not studied as of yet. Thirty healthy subjects, divided into an SOR group (n = 14) and a non-SOR group (n = 16) based on responses to the Sensory Responsiveness Questionnaire, were psychophysically tested in order to evaluate (1) hyperalgesic responses; (2) adaptation/sensitization to 14 phasic heat stimuli; (3) habituation; (4) 6-minute after-sensations; and (5) conditioned pain modulation (CPM) (ie, phasic heat stimuli applied with and without hand immersion in a hot water bath). The SOR group differed from the non-SOR group in (1) a steeper escalation in NPS ratings to temperature increase (P = 0.003), indicating hyperalgesia; (2) increased sensitization (P < 0.001); (3) habituation responses (P < 0.001); (4) enhanced pain ratings during the after-sensation (P = 0.006); and (5) no group difference was found in CPM. SOR is associated with a pronociceptive state, expressed by amplification of experimental pain, yet with sufficient inhibitory processes. Our results support previous findings of enhanced facilitation of pain-transmitting pathways but also reveal preserved inhibitory mechanisms, although they were slower to react. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Anterior lamina cribrosa insertion in primary open-angle glaucoma patients and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Min Lee

    Full Text Available To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients and healthy subjects.Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1 ALI distance (ALID--the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO to the ALI; and (2 marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD--the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian.Both ALID (256 ± 54 vs. 209 ± 37 µm, mean ± SD, p < 0.001 and mALCSD (232 ± 63 vs. 187 ± 40 µm, p < 0.001 were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o'clock and 11.5 o'clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group.The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation.

  3. Similar and contrasting dimensions of social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Bhagyavathi, H D; Keshav Kumar, J; Subbakrishna, D K; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Eack, Shaun M; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2014-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients experience substantial impairments in social cognition (SC) and these deficits are associated with their poor functional outcome. Though SC is consistently shown to emerge as a cognitive dimension distinct from neurocognition, the dimensionality of SC is poorly understood. Moreover, comparing the components of SC between schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects would provide specific insights on the construct validity of SC. We conducted principal component analyses of eight SC test scores (representing four domains of SC, namely, theory of mind, emotion processing, social perception and attributional bias) independently in 170 remitted schizophrenia patients and 111 matched healthy comparison subjects. We also conducted regression analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of individual SC components to other symptom dimensions, which are important clinical determinants of functional outcome (i.e., neurocognition, negative symptoms, motivational deficits and insight) in schizophrenia. A three-factor solution representing socio-emotional processing, social-inferential ability and external attribution components emerged in the patient group that accounted for 64.43% of the variance. In contrast, a two-factor solution representing socio-emotional processing and social-inferential ability was derived in the healthy comparison group that explained 56.5% of the variance. In the patient group, the social-inferential component predicted negative symptoms and motivational deficits. Our results suggest the presence of a multidimensional SC construct. The dimensionality of SC observed across the two groups, though not identical, displayed important parallels. Individual components also demonstrated distinct patterns of association with other symptom dimensions, thus supporting their external validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Circadian rhythms of acid production and alkalization in the stomach of healthy subjects and duodenal ulcer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, I Iu; Beliaeva, G S; Leint'eva, V A; Smirnova, A A

    2008-01-01

    We studied 24-h rhythms of acid production and alkalization in 30 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) and 30 healthy subjects using upper endoscopic examination and computer intragastric pH-metry. Gastric acid production was higher in DU patients and was more intensive in the daytime than at night. Healthy subjects had low and monotonous acid production. In DU decompensation of alkalization in the antral stomach and suppression of duodenogastric reflux is total. In healthy subjects antrum alkalization is more evident and intensive at night due to, among other causes, duodenogastric reflux.

  5. Deep pain thresholds in the distal limbs of healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, R; Andrews Campbell, K; Magerl, W; Treede, R-D

    2005-02-01

    Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in distal limbs have been under-investigated despite their potential clinical importance. Therefore, we compared PPTs over nail bed, bony prominences, and muscle in distal parts of upper and lower limbs. We investigated 12 healthy subjects using three handheld devices: a spring-loaded, analogue pressure threshold meter (PTM) with two operating ranges, and an electronic Algometer. PPTs were determined with three series of ascending stimulus intensities with a ramp of about 50 kPa/s. PPTs were normally distributed in logarithmic space. PPTs over different tissues varied significantly (ANOVA, pAlgometer than with PTMs (ANOVA, ptesting over muscle. There was no significant right-left difference (ANOVA, p=0.33). In spite of considerable variability across subjects, reproducibility within subjects was high (correlation coefficients>0.90). For within-subject comparisons, threshold elevations beyond 33-43% would be abnormal (95% confidence intervals), whereas only deviations from the group mean by at least a factor of two would be abnormal with respect to absolute normative values. PPTs over distal muscles were comparable to published values on proximal limb and trunk muscles. These findings suggest that pressure pain testing over distal muscles may be a sensitive test for deep pain sensitivity and that the simple and less expensive devices are sufficient for testing this tissue type. Intra-individual site-to-site comparisons will be more sensitive than absolute normative values.

  6. Single-dose FTY720 pharmacokinetics, food effect, and pharmacological responses in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, John M; Schmouder, Robert; Barilla, Denise; Wang, Yibin; Kraus, Gerolf

    2004-01-01

    Aims FTY720 is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist that redirects lymphocytes from the circulation to lymph nodes without impairing lymphocyte function. It is being developed as an immunomodulator for the prevention of acute rejection after organ transplantation. This study was performed to provide guidance on administration with respect to meals and to measure pharmacologic responses in healthy subjects. Methods In this randomized, two-period, crossover study, 14 healthy subjects received placebo on day −1 of each period with baseline circadian measurements of lymphocyte count and heart rate. Subjects subsequently received a single 1 mg oral dose of FTY720 on day 1 under fasting conditions and after a high fat meal. Blood FTY720 concentrations, lymphocyte count, and supine heart rate were assessed over an 8 day period after each FTY720 dose. The effect of food on FTY720 pharmacokinetics was assessed by standard bioequivalence testing. Results Both the peak concentration (0.65 ± 0.17 vs 0.64 ± 0.18 ng ml−1) and total exposure (AUC 149 ± 65 vs 139 ± 43 ng ml−1 h) did not differ significantly between fasting and fed states, respectively. The corresponding fed/fasting ratios and 90% confidence intervals were 1.00 (0.86, 1.17) for Cmax and 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) for AUC. Under both treatment conditions peripheral blood lymphocyte count decreased from baseline by 38 ± 9% over the first 2 days postdose and then increased towards predose values over the subsequent week. Whereas a circadian rhythm in supine heart rate was preserved in the presence of FTY720, the heart rate vs time curve was shifted downwards by 10% over the first day postdose and then recovered to prestudy values by days 3–5 postdose. These changes were asymptomatic. Conclusions Single 1 mg doses of FTY720 were well tolerated in healthy subjects and elicited a moderate decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte count and a transient decrease in heart rate consistent with its pharmacological

  7. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in healthy Chinese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Y

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yimin Cui,1 Yan Song,2 Jessie Wang,2 Zhigang Yu,2 Alan Schuster,2 Yu Chen Barrett,2 Charles Frost2 1Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA Background: The pharmacokinetics (PK, pharmacodynamics (PD, and safety of apixaban were assessed in healthy Chinese subjects in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-sequence, single- and multiple-dose study. Subjects and methods: Eighteen subjects 18–45 years of age were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio to receive apixaban or matched placebo. Subjects received a single 10 mg dose of apixaban or placebo on day 1, followed by 10 mg apixaban or placebo twice daily for 6 days (days 4–9. The PK and PD of apixaban were assessed by collecting plasma samples for 72 hours following the dose on day 1 and the morning dose on day 9, and measuring apixaban concentration and anti-Xa activity. Safety was assessed via physical examinations, vital sign measurements, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory evaluations. Results: PK analysis showed similar characteristics of apixaban after single and multiple doses, including a median time to maximum concentration of ~3 hours, mean elimination half-life of ~11 hours, and renal clearance of ~1.2 L/hour. The accumulation index was 1.7, consistent with twice-daily dosing and the observed elimination half-life. Single-dose data predict multiple-dose PK, therefore apixaban PK are time-independent. The relationship between anti-Xa activity and plasma apixaban concentrations appears to be linear. Apixaban was safe and well tolerated, with no bleeding-related adverse events reported. Conclusion: Apixaban was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. Apixaban PK and PD were predictable and consistent with findings from previous studies in Asian and non-Asian subjects. The administration of apixaban does not require any dose modification based on race. Keywords: apixaban, oral

  8. Retinal nerve fiber layer measurements by scanning laser polarimetry with enhanced corneal compensation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Venkatesh, Chirravuri R; Vidyasagar, Kelli; Yadav, Ravi K; Addepalli, Uday K; Jude, Aarthi; Senthil, Sirisha; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the (i) effects of biological (age and axial length) and instrument-related [typical scan score (TSS) and corneal birefringence] parameters on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements and (ii) repeatability of RNFL measurements with the enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) protocol of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) in healthy subjects. In a cross-sectional study, 140 eyes of 73 healthy subjects underwent RNFL imaging with the ECC protocol of SLP. Linear mixed modeling methods were used to evaluate the effects of age, axial length, TSS, and corneal birefringence on RNFL measurements. One randomly selected eye of 48 subjects from the cohort underwent 3 serial scans during the same session to determine the repeatability. Age significantly influenced all RNFL measurements. RNFL measurements decreased by 1 µm for every decade increase in age. TSS affected the overall average RNFL measurement (β=-0.62, P=0.003), whereas residual anterior segment retardance affected the superior quadrant measurement (β=1.14, P=0.01). Axial length and corneal birefringence measurements did not influence RNFL measurements. Repeatability, as assessed by the coefficient of variation, ranged between 1.7% for the overall average RNFL measurement and 11.4% for th nerve fiber indicator. Age significantly affected all RNFL measurements with the ECC protocol of SLP, whereas TSS and residual anterior segment retardance affected the overall average and the superior average RNFL measurements, respectively. Axial length and corneal birefringence measurements did not influence any RNFL measurements. RNFL measurements had good intrasession repeatability. These results are important while evaluating the change in structural measurements over time in glaucoma patients.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Liu, Man; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Huichen

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulphone (LPZS) after single intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects, and the relationship between the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 phenotypes and the plasma concentrations of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ. Twelve subjects were given lansoprazole by i.v. infusion. Blood samples were collected at designated time points up to 24 h. Plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were quantified by a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. After single i.v. doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg LPZ, C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)) of LPZ were 725 ± 151, 1480 ± 190, 3130 ± 480 µg · L(-1) and 1690 ± 1210, 3630 ± 2530, 8080 ± 4550 µg · h · L(-1), respectively. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects, and displayed linear PK in the range of 15-60 mg. There were significant differences in the elimination of LPZ and the formation of LPZS between the single CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) and the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM). The concentration of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ could be monitored for CYP2C19 phenotyping. As a probe drug for CYP2C19 phenotyping, LPZ for injection might be more suitable than LPZ oral formulations.

  10. Effect of Recumbent Body Positions on Dynamic Lung Function Parameters in Healthy Young Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arvind Kumar; Tiwari, Sunita; Verma, Dileep Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The change in body position can alter pulmonary functions parameters, therefore it is important to understand the physiological basis of these alteration. Ideally, spirometry is done in sitting position until the subject is unable to do so. Hospitalized patients often assume recumbent body positions irrespective of underlying pathology. Hence, need arises to find out best recumbent body positions for the benefit of these patients to make breathing comfortable for them. The aim of this study was to find out whether the change from the supine position to crook lying and Fowler's position (45° dorsal elevation) causes change in spirometric parameters. The present work was carried out at Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow. A total 131 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Lung function was assessed using a PC-based spirometer according to American Thoracic Society guideline in the supine, crook lying and Fowler's position (45° dorsal elevation). The study consisted of 131 subjects (male 66%, female 34%), with mean age of 20.15±2.71 years and BMI 21.20±3.28 Kg/m 2 . Repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test was used to compare the mean values between each body position. Compared with the other two positions, Fowler's position showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values for FVC, FEV 1 , PEF, FEF 25-75% . Recumbent body position influences spirometric parameters in young healthy subjects. We demonstrated that spirometric values are higher in the Fowler's position than in the supine or crook lying position. The results of this study will help in the selection of the best alternative position for the spirometry in bed ridden patients.

  11. Ocular Blood Flow Measurements in Healthy White Subjects Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy.

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    Nikolaus Luft

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility and reliability of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy (LSFG to measure ocular perfusion in a sample of healthy white subjects and to elucidate the age-dependence of the parameters obtained.This cross-sectional study included 80 eyes of 80 healthy, non-smoking white subjects of Western European descent between 19 and 79 years of age. A commercial LSFG instrument was applied to measure ocular blood flow at the optic nerve head (ONH three successive times before and after pharmacological pupil dilation. The mean blur rate (MBR, a measure of relative blood flow velocity, was obtained for different regions of the ONH. Eight parameters of ocular perfusion derived from the pulse-waveform analysis of MBR including blowout time (BOT and falling rate (FR were also recorded.Artifact-free LSFG images meeting the quality criteria for automated image analysis were obtainable in 93.8% without pupil dilation and in 98.8% with pharmacological pupil dilation. Measurements of MBR showed excellent repeatability with intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.937 and were barely affected by pupil dilation. The majority of pulse-waveform derived variables exhibited equally high repeatability. MBR-related blood flow indices exhibited significant age dependence (p<0.001. FR (r = 0.747, p<0.001 and BOT (r = -0.714, p<0.001 most strongly correlated with age.LSFG represents a reliable method for the quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow in white subjects. Our data affirms that the LSFG-derived variables FR and BOT may be useful biomarkers for age-related changes in ocular perfusion.

  12. Pomegranate juice does not affect the disposition of simvastatin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shim, Eon-Jeong; Kim, Hyunmi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook; Shon, Ji-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo investigations reported controversial results for the inhibitory potential of pomegranate on Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate juice on the disposition of simvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, and simvastatin acid, its active metabolite, compared with grapefruit juice in healthy subjects. A single oral pharmacokinetic study of 40 mg simvastatin was conducted as a three-way crossover (control, pomegranate, and grapefruit juices) in 12 healthy male subjects. The subjects took pomegranate or grapefruit juice three times per day for 3 days (900 mL/day) and on the third day, the pharmacokinetic study was executed. Blood samples were collected to 24 h post-dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were compared among the study periods. In the period of grapefruit juice, the mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin [the geometric mean ratio (90 % CI) 15.6 (11.6-21.0) and 9.1 (6.0-13.7)] were increased significantly when compared with the control period, whereas they were not significantly different in the period of pomegranate juice [C max and AUCinf 1.20 (0.89-1.62) and 1.29 (0.85-1.94)]. The mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin acid were increased significantly after intake of grapefruit juice, but not pomegranate juice. These results suggest that pomegranate juice affects little on the disposition of simvastatin in humans. Pomegranate juice does not seem to have a clinically relevant inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 activity.

  13. Retinal Oxygen Delivery and Metabolism in Healthy and Sickle Cell Retinopathy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Mahnaz; Felder, Anthony E; Tan, Ou; Blair, Norman P; Huang, David

    2018-04-01

    Reduction in inner retinal oxygen delivery (DO2) can cause retinal hypoxia and impair inner retinal oxygen metabolism (MO2), leading to vision loss. The purpose of the current study was to establish measurements of DO2 and MO2 in healthy subjects and test the hypothesis that DO2 and MO2 are reduced in sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) subjects. Dual wavelength retinal oximetry and Doppler optical coherence tomography were performed in 12 healthy control and 12 SCR subjects. Images were analyzed to measure retinal arterial and venous oxygen content (O2A and O2V), venous diameter (DV), and total retinal blood flow (TRBF). Retinal arteriovenous oxygen content difference (O2AV), DO2, MO2, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were calculated according to the following equations: O2AV = O2A - O2V; DO2 = TRBF * O2A; MO2 = TRBF * O2AV; OEF = MO2/DO2. Retinal DV and TRBF were higher in the SCR group as compared to the control group, whereas, O2A, O2V, and O2AV were lower in SCR group as compared to the control group. DO2, MO2, and OEF were not significantly different between control and SCR groups. MO2 and DO2 were linearly related, such that higher MO2 was associated with higher DO2. There was an inverse relationship between TRBF and OEF, such that lower TRBF was associated with higher OEF. Increased blood flow compensated for decreased oxygen content, thereby maintaining DO2, MO2, and OEF at predominately lower stages of SCR. Quantitative assessment of these parameters has the potential to advance knowledge and improve diagnostic evaluation of retinal ischemic conditions.

  14. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  15. Oxidative stress in patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects with anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ericson Leonardo; Ramos, Willy; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Tello, Mercedes; Ronceros, Gerardo; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G.

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, nevertheless, it remains unknown whether a similar response is characteristic of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Peru. Objectives To determine the oxidative stress response in endemic pemphigus foliaceus patients and subjects with positive for anti-desmoglein1 antibodies (anti-dsg1) from endemic areas of Peru. Subjects and Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The study population included 21 patients with Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus and 12 healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies from the Peruvian Amazon (Ucayali), as well as 30 healthy control subjects. Malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation by free radicals, was measured in serum. Results We collected 21 cases of endemic pemphigus foliaceus, 15 of them with active chronic disease and 6 in clinical remission. Serum malondialdehyde values in patients with chronic active evolution and healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies were statistically higher than those of healthy controls (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between serum values of localized and generalized clinical forms. Study limitations The main limitation of this present study is the small number of patients with endemic pemphigus and healthy subjects positive for desmoglein 1 antibodies. Conclusions The increased serum levels of malondialdehyde in patients with chronic active endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects from endemic areas with anti-dsg1 antibodies may suggest a contribution of systemic lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of endemic pemphigus foliaceus. PMID:29723379

  16. Intraocular pressure following 18 hours of systemic dehydration in ocular normotensive healthy subjects

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    Faustina K. Idu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of dehydration on intraocular pressure (IOP. Subjects: The study population comprised 50 subjects (27 men and 23 women with a mean age of 42.84 ± 2.64 years. Method: The subjects dehydrated for 18 hours. IOP was assessed in both eyes using the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer. Baseline measurement of IOP was taken before the subjects dehydrated for 18 hours and repeated after dehydration. Blood samples were taken before and after dehydration for the determination of plasma osmolality and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH concentrations. Results: A statistically significant (p < 0.001 reduction in the mean weight of subjects occurred after dehydration. There was a significant reduction in IOP from 16.68 mmHg ± 0.32 mmHg to 13.08 mmHg ± 0.31 mmHg after dehydration (p < 0.001. Mean plasma osmolality showed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05 from baseline of 290.02 mOsmol/kg ± 1.25 mOsmol/kg to 294.96 mOsmol/kg ± 1.33 mOsmol/kg after dehydration. There was also a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean plasma ADH concentration from 5.36 pg/mL ± 0.21 pg/mL to 6.40 pg/mL ± 0.20 pg/mL after dehydration. There were no significant differences in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures before and after dehydration. Conclusion: Dehydration decreases IOP in healthy humans; this decrease probably results from an increase in plasma osmolality and plasma ADH concentrations.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of nalmefene in healthy subjects and its relation to μ-opioid receptor occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyhl, Lars-Erik Broksoe; Li, Shen; Faerch, Kirstine Ullitz; Soegaard, Birgitte; Larsen, Frank; Areberg, Johan

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe the PK of nalmefene in healthy subjects and to relate the exposure of nalmefene to the μ-opioid receptor occupancy by simulations in the target population. Data from nine phase I studies (243 subjects) with extensive blood sampling were pooled and used for the population PK model building. Data from four other phase I studies (85 subjects) were pooled and used as an external validation dataset. Eight subjects from an imaging study contributed occupancy data and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship was modelled. Combining the population PK model and the PK/PD relationship enabled simulations to predict μ-opioid occupancy. A two compartment model with first order absorption best described the nalmefene PK data. The typical subject in the population was estimated to have a systemic clearance of 60.4 l h(-1) and a central volume of distribution of 266 l. Absolute oral bioavailability was estimated to 41% without food intake and with food about 53%. Simulation of the μ-opioid receptor occupancy shows that the 95% confidence bound is within or above 60-90% occupancy for up to 22-24 h after a single dose of 20 mg nalmefene. A robust population PK model for nalmefene was developed. Based on the concentration-occupancy model the μ-opioid receptor occupancy after a single 20 mg dose of nalmefene is predicted to be above the target therapeutic occupancy for about 24 h in about 95% of the target population. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-04-04

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing.

  19. Thermal balneotherapy induces changes of the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Catena Dell'Osso, Mario; Consoli, Giorgio; Picchetti, Michela; Carlini, Marina; Massimetti, Gabriele; Provenzano, Serafina; Galassi, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Although the beneficial effects of balneotherapy have been recognized since a long time, a few information is available on the biological mechanisms underlying them and the subjective feelings of increased well-being and mood. The links between the serotonin (5-HT) system and mood prompted us to investigate the 5-HT platelet transporter (SERT), which is considered a reliable, peripheral marker of the same structure present in presynaptic neurons, in 20 healthy volunteers before (t0) and 30 min after (t1) thermal balneotherapy with ozonized water of Montecatini spa, as compared with a similar group who underwent a bath in non-mineral water. The SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of (3)H-paroxetine ((3)H-Par) to platelet membranes. Equilibrium-saturation binding data, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (Kd), were obtained by means of the Scatchard analysis. The results showed that, while Bmax values did not change in both groups, the Kd values decreased significantly at t1 only in those subjects who bathed in ozonized water. The results of this study, while showing a decrease of the dissociation constant (Kd) which is the inverse of affinity constant, of (3)H-Par binding to SERT in all subjects after balneotherapy and not in those bathing in normal water, suggest that SERT modifications may be related to a specific effect of ozonized water and, perhaps, also to the increased sense of well-being.

  20. Modulation of the platelet serotonin transporter by thermal balneotherapy: a study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, S; Marazziti, D; Consoli, G; Picchetti, M; Catena-Dell'Osso, M; Galassi, A

    2012-05-01

    Although the beneficial effects of balneotherapy have been recognized since a long time, a few information is available on the biological mechanisms underlying them and the subjective feelings of increased well-being and mood. The links between the serotonin (5-HT) system and mood prompted us to investigate the 5-HT platelet transporter (SERT), which is considered a reliable, peripheral marker of the same structure present in presynaptic neurons, in 30 healthy volunteers before (t0) and 30 minutes after (t1) thermal balneotherapy with ozonized water, as compared with a similar group who underwent a bath in non-mineral water. MATERIALS AN METHODS: The SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par) to platelet membranes. Equilibrium-saturation binding data, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (Kd), were obtained by means of the Scatchard analysis. The results showed that, while Bmax values did not change in both groups, the Kd values decreased significantly at t1 only in those subjects who bathed in ozonized water. The results of this study, while showing a decrease of the dissociation constant (Kd) which is the inverse of affinity constant, of 3H-Par binding to SERT in all subjects after balneotherapy and not in those bathing in normal water, suggest that SERT modifications may be related to a specific effect of ozonized water and, perhaps, also to the increased sense of well-being.

  1. Uniform decrease of alpha-global field power induced by intermittent photic stimulation of healthy subjects

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    Rau R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from the scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16 males and 14 females, mean age: 34 years, SD: 11.7 years at rest and under trains of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hz. Digitalized data were submitted to spectral analysis with fast fourier transformation providing the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP. For quantification, GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data obtained under IPS. All subjects showed a photic driving effect at each rate of stimulation. GFP data were normally distributed, whereas ratios from photic driving effect data showed no uniform behavior due to high interindividual variability. Suppression of alpha-power after IPS with 10 Hz was observed in about 70% of the volunteers. In contrast, ratios of alpha-power were unequivocal in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP with 20-Hz IPS by alpha-GFP at rest (R = alpha-GFP IPS/alpha-GFPrest thus resulted in ratios lower than 1. We conclude that ratios from GFP data with 20-Hz IPS may provide a suitable paradigm for further investigations.

  2. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D

    2003-03-01

    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. In vivo measurement of GABA transmission in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankle, W Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y; Prasad, Konasale M; Mason, N Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A; Narendran, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. The binding of [(11)C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [(11)C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). [(11)C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [(11)C]flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition.

  4. Aerobic exercise modulation of mental stress-induced responses in cultured endothelial progenitor cells from healthy and metabolic syndrome subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Natalia G; Sales, Allan R K; Miranda, Renan L; Silva, Mayra S; Silva, Jemima F R; Silva, Bruno M; Santos, Aline A; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2015-02-15

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise acutely prevents the reduction in flow-mediated dilation induced by mental stress in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, it is unknown whether a similar effect occurs in endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs). This study investigated whether exercise protects from the deleterious effect of mental stress on cultured EPCs in healthy subjects and those with MetS. Ten healthy subjects (aged 31±2) and ten subjects with MetS (aged 36±2) were enrolled. Subjects underwent a mental stress test, followed immediately by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions: mental stress+non-exercise control (MS) and mental stress+exercise (MS+EXE). The Stroop Color-Word Test was used to elicit mental stress. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and following sessions to isolate mononuclear cells. These cells were cultured in fibronectin-coated plates for seven days, and EPCs were identified by immunofluorescence (acLDL(+)/ UEA-I Lectin(+)). All subjects presented similar increases in mean blood pressure and heart rate during the mental stress test (P0.05). The EPC response to MS and MS+EXE was increased in healthy subjects, whereas it was decreased in subjects with MetS (Pexercise session increased EPCs in healthy subjects but did not prevent the EPC reduction induced by mental stress among subjects with MetS. © 2015.

  5. [Bristol Stool Chart: Prospective and monocentric study of "stools introspection" in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, G

    2014-09-01

    The Bristol Stool Chart (BSC) allows patients to identify their stool form using seven different images with accompanying written descriptors. Stool form was found to correlate better than stool frequency with whole-gut transit as measured by a radio-opaque marker study. This score is widely used in order to verify the presence of a constipation and to evaluate the therapeutic impact of various treatments. In our clinical practice, we was strongly surprised by the facility and the great precision of the patients to report their stool form, meaning that they usually and daily verify these stools. We wanted to precise the goals of a such attitude. Two questionnaires were proposed to healthy and voluntary subjects. Q1 was supposedly presented in order to verify the sensibility of a French version of BSC in a healthy population. Thus, Q1 precised the difficulties or not to understand pictures and written descriptors, asked about exhaustive analysis by means of BSC of stool form and bowel condition. All subjects with history of ano-rectal disorders or specific treatment for bowel dysfunction were excluded. After Q1 fulfilled, Q2 was proposed to the subjects. Q2 was designed to precise the goals of the patient when he look at his stool and the frequency of such an investigation. Finally a specific question concerning the subject opinion about this behavior in terms of bothersome, shame, or metaphysic interrogation. Eighty-five healthy subjects were recruited (42 female and 43 male). Mean age was 37.2 (sd = 15.7). Mean score of BCS was 2.07 (sd =1.05) (2.07 for female and 1.81 for male, P = 0.22). Number of categories of stool form was only 1 in 40%, 2 categories in 31%, 3 in 19%, 4 in 10%. Presence of a constipation defined by category 1 or 2 was found in 17% (23% in F, 12% in M, P = 0.075). Precision of BSC was noted as excellent in 68%, moderated in 18% and poor in 14%. BSC was considered as easy to use in 75%. Frequency of inspection of feces was systematic for 37%, 1

  6. Comparison of color discrimination in chronic heavy smokers and healthy subjects [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Monteiro de Paiva Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD. Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam. We assessed color vision for healthy heavy smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, deprived smokers (n = 15, age range 20-45 years and healthy non-smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, using the psychophysical forced-choice method. All groups were matched for gender and education level. In this test, the volunteers had to choose the pseudoisochromatic stimulus containing a test frequency at four directions (e.g., up, down, right and left in the subtest of Cambridge Colour Test (CCT: Trivector. Results: Performance on CCT differed between groups, and the observed pattern was that smokers had lower discrimination compared to non-smokers. In addition, deprived smokers presented lower discrimination to smokers and non-smokers. Contrary to expectation, the largest differences were observed for medium and long wavelengths. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette smoking, chronic exposure to its compounds, and withdrawal from nicotine affect color discrimination. This highlights the importance of understanding the diverse effects of nicotine on attentional bias.

  7. Bilateral hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangjun, Wang; Yuying, Tian; Shuyong, Jia; Wenting, Zhou; Weibo, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Background. The specificity of acupuncture points (acupoints) is one of the key concepts in traditional acupuncture theory, but the question of whether there is adequate scientific evidence to prove or disprove specificity has been vigorously debated in recent years. Acupoint laterality is an important aspect of acupoint specificity. Data is particularly scarce regarding the laterality of the same channel, namesake acupoint located on opposite sides of the body. Our previous study results suggest that Neiguan acupoint (PC6) has the laterality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hegu (LI4) also has laterality from the perspective of heart rate variability. Methods. A total of twenty-eight healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study and were randomly separated into the group I (n = 14) and the group II (n = 14) according to the register order. In the group I, left LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and the right LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. In the group II, right LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and left LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. Electrocardiogram was recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed. Results. The results show that there were no significant differences of heart rate variablity between the group I and the group II in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Conclusions. Bilateral Hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

  8. Bilateral Hegu Acupoints Have the Same Effect on the Heart Rate Variability of the Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The specificity of acupuncture points (acupoints is one of the key concepts in traditional acupuncture theory, but the question of whether there is adequate scientific evidence to prove or disprove specificity has been vigorously debated in recent years. Acupoint laterality is an important aspect of acupoint specificity. Data is particularly scarce regarding the laterality of the same channel, namesake acupoint located on opposite sides of the body. Our previous study results suggest that Neiguan acupoint (PC6 has the laterality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hegu (LI4 also has laterality from the perspective of heart rate variability. Methods. A total of twenty-eight healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study and were randomly separated into the group I (n=14 and the group II (n=14 according to the register order. In the group I, left LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and the right LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. In the group II, right LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and left LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. Electrocardiogram was recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed. Results. The results show that there were no significant differences of heart rate variablity between the group I and the group II in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Conclusions. Bilateral Hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

  9. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...... NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  10. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

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    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  11. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Kacimi, Safia; Al-Kurd, Ref'at A; Fararjeh, Mohammad A; Bustanji, Yasser K; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Salem, Mohammad L

    2012-12-01

    Intermittent fasting and caloric restriction have been shown to extend life expectancy and reduce inflammation and cancer promotion in animal models. It was hypothesized that intermittent prolonged fasting practiced during the month of Ramadan (RIF) could positively affect the inflammatory state. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the impact of RIF on selected inflammatory cytokines and immune biomarkers in healthy subjects. Fifty (21 men and 29 women) healthy volunteers who practiced Ramadan fasting were recruited for the investigation of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α), immune cells (total leukocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes), and anthropometric and dietary assessments. The investigations were conducted 1 week before Ramadan fasting, at the end of the third week of Ramadan, and 1 month after the cessation of Ramadan month. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α; systolic and diastolic blood pressures; body weight; and body fat percentage were significantly lower (P fasting. Immune cells significantly decreased during Ramadan but still remained within the reference ranges. These results indicate that RIF attenuates inflammatory status of the body by suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and decreasing body fat and circulating levels of leukocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bradykinin or acetylcholine as vasodilators to test endothelial venous function in healthy subjects

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    Eneida R. Rabelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique. We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31% were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m². The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13, as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96. The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.

  13. Treadmill based reference running data for healthy subjects is dependent on speed and morphological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Stephan; Schwesig, René; Edel, Melanie; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Hermassi, Souhail; Laudner, Kevin G

    2017-10-01

    To obtain spatiotemporal and dynamic running parameters of healthy participants and to identify relationships between running parameters, speed, and physical characteristics. A dynamometric treadmill was used to collect running data among 417 asymptomatic subjects during speeds ranging from 10 to 24km/h. Spatiotemporal and dynamic running parameters were calculated and measured. Results of the analyses showed that assessing running parameters is dependent on running speed. Body height correlated with stride length (r=0.5), cadence (r=-0.5) and plantar forefoot force (r=0.6). Body mass also had a strong relationship to plantar forefoot forces at 14 and 24km/h and plantar midfoot forces at 14 and 24km/h. This reference data base can be used in the kinematic and kinetic evaluation of running under a wide range of speeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechevalier, B.; Petit, M.C.; Eustache, F.; Lambert, J.; Chapon, F.; Viader, F.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation

  16. Variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Klaus F; Hove, Jens D; Freiberg, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess regional and global variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects and to evaluate potentially responsible factors. Twenty men with a mean age of 64 years, no history of cardiovascular disease, and normal blood pressure...... rest and hyperaemic blood flow during dipyridamole infusion were measured with nitrogen-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography in 16 left ventricular myocardial segments. Intra-individual and inter-individual variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake [relative dispersion...... = (standard deviation/mean)] was 13% and 29% respectively. Although inter-individual variability of glucose uptake and blood flow at rest was of the same magnitude, no correlation was found between these measures. Regional and global insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake correlated linearly with whole...

  17. Test-retest reliability and task order effects of emotional cognitive tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Pounder, Zoe; Preston, Sally; Hanson, Andy; Gallagher, Peter; Harmer, Catherine J; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the retest reliability of emotional cognitive tasks or the impact of using different tasks employing similar emotional stimuli within a battery. We investigated this in healthy subjects. We found improved overall performance in an emotional attentional blink task (EABT) with repeat testing at one hour and one week compared to baseline, but the impact of an emotional stimulus on performance was unchanged. Similarly, performance on a facial expression recognition task (FERT) was better one week after a baseline test, though the relative effect of specific emotions was unaltered. There was no effect of repeat testing on an emotional word categorising, recall and recognition task. We found no difference in performance in the FERT and EABT irrespective of task order. We concluded that it is possible to use emotional cognitive tasks in longitudinal studies and combine tasks using emotional facial stimuli in a single battery.

  18. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated...... the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form......, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering...

  19. Effect of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Yotsutsuji, T; Kurachi, M; Itoh, H; Kurokawa, K; Saitoh, O

    1998-07-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have been suggested to provide a measure of dopaminergic activity in the central nervous system. The present study investigated the effect of mental stress by the Kraepelin test, a test of continuous arithmetic addition of single-digit figures for 30 min, on pHVA levels in 13 male psychiatrically normal healthy volunteers. Following an overnight fast and restricted physical activity, plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the administration of the Kraepelin test. Plasma HVA levels following the administration of the Kraepelin test were significantly lower than the pretest pHVA levels. The percent change in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pretest pHVA levels. The observed reduction in pHVA levels by mental stress in normal subjects may reflect some aspects of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain.

  20. Ketamine decreases resting state functional network connectivity in healthy subjects: implications for antidepressant drug action.

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    Milan Scheidegger

    Full Text Available Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, the "dorsal nexus "(DN was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN, the default mode network (DMN, and a rostral affective network (AN. Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010 proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.

  1. Exploring total cardiac variability in healthy and pathophysiological subjects using improved refined multiscale entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Puneeta; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) and refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) techniques are being widely used to evaluate the complexity of a time series across multiple time scales 't'. Both these techniques, at certain time scales (sometimes for the entire time scales, in the case of RMSE), assign higher entropy to the HRV time series of certain pathologies than that of healthy subjects, and to their corresponding randomized surrogate time series. This incorrect assessment of signal complexity may be due to the fact that these techniques suffer from the following limitations: (1) threshold value 'r' is updated as a function of long-term standard deviation and hence unable to explore the short-term variability as well as substantial variability inherited in beat-to-beat fluctuations of long-term HRV time series. (2) In RMSE, entropy values assigned to different filtered scaled time series are the result of changes in variance, but do not completely reflect the real structural organization inherited in original time series. In the present work, we propose an improved RMSE (I-RMSE) technique by introducing a new procedure to set the threshold value by taking into account the period-to-period variability inherited in a signal and evaluated it on simulated and real HRV database. The proposed I-RMSE assigns higher entropy to the age-matched healthy subjects than that of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death and diabetes mellitus, for the entire time scales. The results strongly support the reduction in complexity of HRV time series in female group, old-aged, patients suffering from severe cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases, and in their corresponding surrogate time series.

  2. Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, T; Falla, D; Tartaglia, G M; Sforza, C; Deregibus, A

    2012-09-01

    The effects of muscle pain and fatigue on the control of jaw elevator muscles are not well known. Furthermore, the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery from fatigue in the masticatory muscles are not reported in literature. The main aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the possible use of surface electromyography (sEMG) as an objective measure of fatigue of the jaw elevator muscles, (ii) to compare the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the temporalis anterior and masseter muscles bilaterally, (iii) to assess recovery of the investigated muscles after an endurance test and (iv) to compare fatigue and recovery of the jaw elevator muscles in healthy subjects and patients with muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study was performed on twenty healthy volunteers and eighteen patients with muscle-related TMD. An intra-oral compressive-force sensor was used to measure the voluntary contraction forces close to the intercuspal position and to provide visual feedback of submaximal forces to the subject. Surface EMG signals were recorded with linear electrode arrays during isometric contractions at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction force, during an endurance test and during the recovery phase. The results showed that (i) the slope of the mean power spectral frequency (MNF) and the initial average rectified value (ARV) could be used to monitor fatigue of the jaw elevators, (ii) the temporalis anterior and masseter muscle show the same myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery and (iii) the initial values of MNF and ARV were lower in patients with muscle-related TMD. The assessment of myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the masticatory muscles may assist in the clinical assessment of TMDs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Bioequivalence of eslicarbazepine acetate from two different sources of its active product ingredient in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-06-01

    To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18-40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) formulation (new API source) under a gender-balanced, two-period, two-sequence crossover open-label study design. Subjects were assigned to receive either 400 or 800 mg ESL dose strengths, and each was randomly administered on two occasions--either a single oral tablet of MF or a single oral tablet of TBM--separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. Formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if, for both 400 or 800 mg ESL dosage strengths, the test (TBM)/reference (MF) geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were within the predetermined range of 80-125%. Test/reference GMR (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUC was respectively 100% (94-109%) and 96% (94-98%) following 400 mg ESL and 100% (95-105%) and 100% (97-103%) following 800 mg ESL. Oral tablet formulations of either 400 or 800 mg ESL from the new API source were found to be bioequivalent to the corresponding marketed Zebinix® formulation according to the regulatory definition of bioequivalence.

  4. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Ah; Lee, Soo-Yun; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Ko, Jae-Wook; Jang, Seong Bok; Nam, Su Youn; Huh, Wooseong

    2015-01-01

    Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and rosuvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, are frequently coadministered to treat patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The study reported here sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy Korean subjects. Thirty healthy male Korean subjects were administered with rosuvastatin (20 mg/day), valsartan (160 mg/day), and both drugs concomitantly for 4 days in a randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-treatment, three-period crossover study. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin, N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, and valsartan were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Lipid profiles and vital signs (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate) were measured for the pharmacodynamic assessment. For rosuvastatin, the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals [CIs]) of coadministration to mono-administration were 0.8809 (0.7873-0.9857) for maximum plasma concentration at steady state and 0.9151 (0.8632-0.9701) for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) over a dosing interval at steady state. For valsartan, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) of those were 0.9300 (0.7946-1.0884) and 1.0072 (0.8893-1.1406), respectively. There were no significant differences in the metabolic ratio of N-desmethyl rosuvastatin AUC to rosuvastatin AUC between coadministration and rosuvastatin alone. No interaction was found in terms of systolic or diastolic blood pressure or lipid profiles. Combined treatment with valsartan and rosuvastatin was generally well tolerated without serious adverse events. The pharmacokinetic profiles of rosuvastatin and valsartan in combination were comparable with those of rosuvastatin and valsartan administered individually, suggesting that their individual pharmacokinetics were not affected by their

  5. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  6. Electrical and magnetic repetitive transcranial stimulation of the primary motor cortex in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Francesca; Iacovelli, Elisa; Frasca, Vittorio; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; De Lena, Carlo; Cipriani, Anna Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2009-05-08

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered in short trains at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity over the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy subjects facilitates the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude by increasing cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, to investigate whether rTES acts through similar mechanisms we compared the effects of rTMS and repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation (rTES) (10 stimuli-trains, 5Hz frequency, suprathreshold intensity) delivered over the M1 on the MEP amplitude. Four healthy subjects were studied in two separate sessions in a relaxed condition. rTMS and anodal rTES were delivered in trains to the left M1 over the motor area for evoking a MEP in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Changes in MEP size and latency during the course of the rTMS and rTES trains were compared. The possible effects of muscle activation on MEP amplitude were evaluated, and the possible effects of cutaneous trigeminal fibre activation on corticospinal excitability were excluded in a control experiment testing the MEP amplitude before and after supraorbital nerve repetitive electrical stimulation. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that rTES and rTMS trains elicited similar amplitude first MEPs and a similar magnitude MEP amplitude facilitation during the trains. rTES elicited a first MEP with a shorter latency than rTMS, without significant changes during the course of the train of stimuli. The MEP elicited by single-pulse TES delivered during muscle contraction had a smaller amplitude than the last MEP in the rTES trains. Repetitive supraorbital nerve stimulation left the conditioned MEP unchanged. Our results suggest that 5 Hz-rTES delivered in short trains increases cortical excitability and does so by acting on the excitatory interneurones probably through mechanisms similar to those underlying the rTMS-induced MEP facilitation.

  7. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.; Smith, H.J.; Simon, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy

  8. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.; Smith, H.J.; Simon, T.R.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lisdexamfetamine Compared with D-Amphetamine in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Dolder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of D-amphetamine used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Lisdexamfetamine is thought to have a prolonged pharmacokinetic profile compared with oral D-amphetamine, possibly associated with lower drug liking and a lower risk of oral misuse. However, differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lisdexamfetamine and D-amphetamine have not been directly compared.Methods: Equimolar doses of D-amphetamine (40 mg and lisdexamfetamine (100 mg, and placebo were administered in 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Plasma concentrations of amphetamine, subjective effects, and vital signs were repeatedly assessed. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental modeling.Results: The increase in plasma concentrations of amphetamine had a 0.6 ± 0.6 h (mean ± SD longer lag time and reached peak levels 1.1 ± 1.5 h later after lisdexamfetamine administration compared with D-amphetamine administration, but no differences in maximal concentrations or total exposure (AUC were found between the two treatments. Consistent with the pharmacokinetics, the subjective and cardiovascular stimulant effects of lisdexamfetamine also occurred later compared with D-amphetamine. However, no differences in peak ratings of potentially abuse-related subjective drug effects (e.g., drug liking, drug high, stimulation, happy, well-being, and self-confidence were observed after lisdexamfetamine administration compared with D-amphetamine administration. Lisdexamfetamine and D-amphetamine also produced similar peak increases in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, pupil size, and adverse effects.Conclusion: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lisdexamfetamine are similar to D-amphetamine administered 1h later. Lisdexamfetamine is likely associated with a similar risk of oral abuse as D

  10. Alteration of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years of age until nonagenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lebriz Altay,1 Cheryl Jahn,1 Mücella Arikan Yorgun,1 Albert Caramoy,1 Tina Schick,1 Carel B Hoyng,2 Anneke I den Hollander,2 Sascha Fauser1 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: To assess alterations of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years old. Methods: Retinal layers of 160 healthy subjects (aged 60–100 years without any retinal pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Mean thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer, photoreceptor complex (PR and retinal thickness (RT were measured in a 3.45 mm grid. Correlations between age and layers were estimated and linear regression equations were calculated. Different age-groups (60–69, 70–79, 80–89 years and nonagenarians, each group with 40 participants were compared. Results: Significant age-thickness correlations were observed for GCLIPL (P<0.001, r=-0.394, PR (P<0.001, r=-0.370 and RT (P<0.001, r=-0.290. A comparison between age groups 60–69 years and nonagenarians showed no significant thickness alteration of retinal nerve fiber layer (21.80±2.18 µm vs 22.82±2.97 µm, P=0.163, inner nuclear layer (37.23±3.02 µm vs 36.01±3.24 µm, P=0.07 and outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer (104.95±6.56 µm vs 104.23±7.59 µm, P=0.567, while GCLIPL (83.35±7.35 µm vs 74.38±9.09 µm, PR (83.03±3.31 µm vs 79.34±2.09 µm and RT (330.64±12.63 µm vs 316.83±18.35 µm showed a significant decrease (P<0.001 for all. Conclusion: Our study provides normative data of alterations of retinal layers for persons aged 60 years to nonagenarians and indicates a continuous decrease of RT, PR, and GCLIPL. This data may be useful for clinical trials investigating macular diseases in older patients

  11. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M; Smith, H J; Simon, T R

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. Although most of the liquid component of the meal, labeled with 111In, emptied during the first hour (as assessed simultaneously by radionuclide scintigraphy), few radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach during the first 2 h after the meal. Most markers emptied during the fourth postprandial hour, and all 10 markers had emptied by 6 h in 45 of 46 experiments. In contrast, not all of the solid radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach by 6 h in 16 of 26 experiments in patients with diabetes mellitus (p less than 0.001 vs. healthy controls). In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 = 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 = 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of

  12. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  13. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  14. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  15. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  16. Correlation between spirometry values and pulmonary artery pressure in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Benderly, Michal; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is frequently associated with parenchymal lung disease. We evaluated the association between spirometry values and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in young subjects without lung disease : We studied applicants to the Israeli Air Force, who undergo routine evaluation that includes resting spirometry and echocardiography. Applicants with overt lung disease were excluded. All echocardiographic studies performed in the years 1994 through 2010 (n = 6,598) were screened, and files that included PASP and spirometry values were analyzed for the association between PASP and FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow, and forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver. Of the 647 air force applicants who underwent echocardiography in which PASP was measurable and had spirometry data, 607 (94%) were male, and their average age was 18.16 ± 0.73 years. Mean PASP was 26.4 ± 5.2 mm Hg (range 10-41 mm Hg). None of the spirometry values significantly correlated with PASP. PASP in young healthy subjects is not significantly associated with spirometry values. Lung mechanics probably do not contribute significantly to PASP in this population.

  17. Doppler-echocardiographic assessment of valvular regurgitation in healthy young subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filcheva, K.; Gochev, D.; Petrovski, P.; Kotsev, P.

    1995-01-01

    The study covers 300 clinically healthy, randomly selected young subjects, aged 17 to 21 years. The incidence and characteristic features of the valvular regurgitations are assayed by means of pulsed and continuous transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Valvular insufficiency is registered in total of 198 cases (66%). Regurgitation of single valve is observed in 122 cases (61%), regurgitation of two valves - in 70 (36%) and three valves - in six (3%). Right-sided regurgitations (tricuspid, pulmonic and a combination of both) are detected in 156 subjects, and left-sided (mitral and/or aortic) in twenty-six of which only one regurgitation of the aortic valve. There is a definite tendency of the first two to prevail at a ratio 6:1. A constellation of various anatomical and physiological factors are considered as a likely underlying cause. Whenever atrio-ventricular valves are examined (the mitral one in particular), it is necessary that the regurgitation jet involves over 50% of systole in order to avoid hyperdiagnostics and the so-called 'Doppler's disease'. 14 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs. (author)

  18. Effect of Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation on Selected Gait Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Sajko, Igor; Hadamus, Anna; Mosiołek, Anna; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2017-08-31

    The sacroiliac joints have complicated biomechanics. While the movements in the joints are small, they exert a significant effect on gait. This study aimed to assess how sacroiliac joint manipulation influences selected gait parameters. The study enrolled 57 healthy subjects. The experimental group consisted of 26 participants diagnosed with dysfunction of one sacroiliac joint. The control group was composed of 31 persons. All subjects from the experimental group underwent sacroiliac joint manipulation. The experimental group showed significant lengthening of the step on both sides and the stride length in this group increased as well. Moreover, the duration of the stride increased (p=0.000826). The maximum midfoot pressure was higher and maximum heel pressure decreased. The differences were statistically significant. 1. Subclinical dysfunctions of the sacroiliac joints may cause functional gait disturbance. 2. Manipulation of the iliosacral joint exerts a significant effect on gait parameters, which may lead to improved gait economy and effec-tiveness. 3. Following manipulation of one iliosacral joint, altered gait parameters are noted on both the manipulated side and the contralateral side, which may translate into improved quality of locomotion.

  19. Ascorbic acid prevents vascular dysfunction induced by oral glucose load in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Sergio; Prior, Manlio; Rigoni, Anna; Zecchetto, Sara; Rulfo, Fanny; Arosio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of oral glucose load on forearm circulatory regulation before and after ascorbic acid administration in healthy subjects. Microcirculation study with laser Doppler was performed at the hand in basal conditions, after ischemia and after acetylcholine and nitroprusside; strain gauge plethysmography was performed at basal and after ischemia. The tests were repeated in the same sequence 2 hour after oral administration of glucose (75 g). The subjects were randomised for administration of ascorbic acid (1 g bid) or placebo (sodium bicarbonate 1 g bid) for 10 days. After that, the tests were repeated before and after a new oral glucose load. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Macrocirculatory flux, pressure values and heart rate were unvaried throughout the study. The glucose load caused a reduction in the hyperemic peak flow with laser Doppler and plethysmography; it reduced flux recovery time and hyperemic curve area after ischemia; acetylcholine elicited a minor increase in flux with laser Doppler. The response to nitroprusside was unvaried after glucose load as compared to basal conditions. Treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the decrease in hyperemia after glucose, detected with laser Doppler and plethysmography. Ascorbic acid prevented the decreased response to acetylcholine after glucose, the response to nitroprusside was unaffected by ascorbic acid. Results after placebo were unvaried. Oral glucose load impairs endothelium dependent dilation and hyperaemia at microcirculation, probably via oxidative stress; ascorbic acid can prevent it. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (pcooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of Blood Pulsation on Intraocular Pressure Measurement Results in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Koprowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood pulsation affects the results obtained using various medical devices in many different ways. Method. The paper proves the effect of blood pulsation on intraocular pressure measurements. Six measurements for each of the 10 healthy subjects were performed in various phases of blood pulsation. A total of 8400 corneal deformation images were recorded. The results of intraocular pressure measurements were related to the results of heartbeat phases measured with a pulse oximeter placed on the index finger of the subject’s left hand. Results. The correlation between the heartbeat phase measured with a pulse oximeter and intraocular pressure is 0.69±0.26 (p<0.05. The phase shift calculated for the maximum correlation is equal to 60±40° (p<0.05. When the moment of measuring intraocular pressure with an air-puff tonometer is not synchronized, the changes in IOP for the analysed group of subjects can vary in the range of ±2.31 mmHg (p<0.3. Conclusions. Blood pulsation has a statistically significant effect on the results of intraocular pressure measurement. For this reason, in modern ophthalmic devices, the measurement should be synchronized with the heartbeat phases. The paper proposes an additional method for synchronizing the time of pressure measurement with the blood pulsation phase.

  2. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar on gastric emptying rate (GER, postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Methods Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose Results The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher ( Conclusion The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response. Trial registration NTR1116

  3. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  4. Cognitive Components Predict Virtual Reality-Induced Analgesia: Repeated Measures in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naor Demeter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is an advanced and useful technology in the distraction from pain. The efficacy of VR for reducing pain is well established. Yet, the literature analyzing the unique attributes of VR which impact pain reduction is scarce. The present study evaluated the effect of two VR environments on experimental pain levels. Both VR environments are games used with an EyeToy application which is part of the video capture VR family. The VR environments were analyzed by expert occupational therapists using a method of activity analysis, allowing for a thorough evaluation of the VR activity performance requirements. The VR environments were found to differ in the cognitive load (CL demands they apply upon subjects. Sixty-two healthy students underwent psychophysical thermal pain tests, followed by exposure to tonic heat stimulation under one of three conditions: Low CL (LCL VR, high CL (HCL VR, and control. In addition, following participation in VR, the subjects completed a self-feedback inventory evaluating their experience in VR. The results showed significantly greater pain reduction during both VR conditions compared to the control condition (p = 0.001. Hierarchical regression revealed cognitive components which were evaluated in the self-feedback inventory to be predictive factors for pain reduction only during the high cognitive load (HCL VR environment (20.2%. CL involved in VR may predict the extent of pain decrease, a finding that should be considered in future clinical and laboratory research.

  5. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: a thermographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetti, Federica; Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Lacarbonara, Francesco; Sodi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo; Corvi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 ± 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two thermographic acquisitions both lasting 10 s, recorded before and during the immersion of both hands in a mixture of ice and water (1.6 °C ± 0.4 °C). Specifically, the second acquisition began 20 s after the hand immersion. Analysis of variance was used to compare the ocular surface temperature of the two profiles. The analysis of infrared images was carried out every 2 s: at the eye opening (t(0)) until 10 s (t(5)), for both profiles. Data showed that ocular surface temperature increased significantly (p-value temperature at t(0) for P(1) = 0.12 °C ± 0.13 °C). Therefore, these results suggest a response of the ocular hemodynamic to the peripheral vasoconstriction. The ocular surface temperature may represent a cheap, non-invasive and non-time-consuming test to evaluate ocular vaso-regulation.

  6. Local Muscle Fatigue and 3D Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Pippig, Torsten; Wall, Rudolf; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to further explore the effects of local muscle fatigue on cervical 3D kinematics and the interrelationship between these kinematic characteristics and local muscle endurance capacity in the unimpaired cervical spine. Twenty healthy subjects (38 ± 10 years; 5 women) performed 2 × 10 maximal cervical flexion-extension movements. Isometric muscle endurance tests (prone/supine lying) were applied between sets to induce local muscle fatigue quantified by Borg scale rates of perceived exertion (RPE) and slope in mean power frequency (MPF; surface electromyography; m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. splenius capitis). Cervical motion characteristics (maximal range of motion [ROM], coefficient of variation of the 10 repetitive movements, mean angular velocity, conjunct movements in transversal and frontal plane) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic movement data. Average isometric strength testing duration for flexion and extension correlated to the cervical ROM (r = .49/r = .48; p .05). Although subjects' cervical muscle endurance capacity and motor output seems to be conjugated, no impact of local cervical muscle fatigue on motor function was shown. These findings underline the importance of complementary measures to address muscular performance and kinematic characteristics in outcome assessment and functional rehabilitation of the cervical spine.

  7. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung JA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jin Ah Jung,1 Soo-Yun Lee,2 Jung-Ryul Kim,1 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Seong Bok Jang,3 Su Youn Nam,3 Wooseong Huh1,41Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, 2Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, 3Yuhan Research Institute, Yuhan Corporation, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaPurpose: Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and rosuvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, are frequently coadministered to treat patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The study reported here sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy Korean subjects. Subjects and methods: Thirty healthy male Korean subjects were administered with rosuvastatin (20 mg/day, valsartan (160 mg/day, and both drugs concomitantly for 4 days in a randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-treatment, three-period crossover study. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin, N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, and valsartan were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Lipid profiles and vital signs (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were measured for the pharmacodynamic assessment.Results: For rosuvastatin, the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals [CIs] of coadministration to mono-administration were 0.8809 (0.7873-0.9857 for maximum plasma concentration at steady state and 0.9151 (0.8632-0.9701 for area under the concentration–time curve (AUC over a dosing interval at steady state. For valsartan, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs of those were 0.9300 (0.7946-1.0884 and 1.0072 (0.8893-1.1406, respectively. There were no significant differences in the metabolic ratio of N

  8. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TA-8995, a selective cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, John; Lawson, Matt; Fowler, David; Maruyama, Nobuko; Mito, Seiji; Tomiyasu, Koichi; Kinoshita, Shuji; Suzuki, Chisa; Kawaguchi, Atsuhiro; Round, Patrick; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve; Weber, Werner; van Deventer, Sander; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Two double-blind, randomized studies were conducted to assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral TA-8995, a new cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, in healthy subjects. Study 1: Subjects received single doses of TA-8995 or placebo (fasted). Doses were 5,

  9. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  10. Iontophoresis driven concentrations of topically administered diclofenac in skeletal muscle and blood of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Richard; Burian, Angela; Oesterreicher, Zoe; Lackner, Edith; Jäger, Walter; Rezcicek, Gottfried; Keilani, Mohammad; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The present open single-centre, descriptive and comparative pharmacokinetic study aimed to investigate the efficacy of iontophoresis to enhance transdermal delivery by measuring concentration vs. time profiles of diclofenac in local tissue and in plasma in two separate study periods. Period 1 determined diclofenac concentrations in both calf muscles simultaneously by using microdialysis after applying diclofenac gel topically as a single dose of 5 g with or without iontophoresis in eight healthy volunteers. In period 2, the same dose was applied to another 8 volunteers to determine plasma concentrations of diclofenac either with or without iontophoresis in a cross over design. In period 1, tissue concentrations were found to be under the limit of detection of 0.5 ng/ml both with and without iontophoresis in all subjects. In period 2, after iontophoresis in 75% of study participants, plasma concentrations of diclofenac could be determined, but only in 25% without iontophoresis. Although area under the concentration-time-curve (AUC, 187.97 ± 315.92 vs. 22.92 ± 42.44 ng*min/ml) and maximum concentration (Cmax, 2.06 ± 3.79 vs. 0.22 ± 0.41 ng/ml) values showed a numerically clear trend for higher values with iontophoresis compared to passive diffusion, no significant difference could be found due to high inter-individual variability. In total, 18.75% of all subjects presented adverse events. Despite a higher percentage of subjects showed detectable plasma levels of diclofenac after iontophoresis, iontophoresis failed to achieve potentially more effective topical concentrations. The typical mechanism of iontophoresis like electromigration, electroosmosis and increased subcutaneous circulation could be responsible for the results of the present observation. Additional clinical studies are needed to justify the transdermal delivery of diclofenac by using iontophoresis.

  11. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p men: -3.7 ± 5.4 vs. 0.4 ± 5.4 kg, women: -3.6 ± 5.5 vs. 0.3 ± 5.2 kg, both p men: -3.6 ± 3.3 vs. -0.4 ± 2.7 kg, women: -1.8 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 2.5 kg, both p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in healthy subjects.

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    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Chen, Shuguang; Peppercorn, Amanda; Wajima, Toshihiro; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2014-11-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG) is an HIV integrase inhibitor (INI) with demonstrated activity in INI-naive and INI-resistant patients. The objective of this open-label, 2-period, single-sequence study was to evaluate the effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV-RTV) on the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of DTG. Twelve healthy subjects received 50 mg DTG once daily for 5 days (period 1), followed by 10 days of 50 mg DTG once daily in combination with 700/100 mg FPV-RTV every 12 h (period 2). All doses were administered in the fasting state. Serial pharmacokinetic samples for DTG and amprenavir and safety assessments were obtained throughout the study. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed, and geometric least-squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were generated for within-subject treatment comparison. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir decreased the DTG area under the concentration-time curve, maximum concentration in plasma, and concentration in plasma at the end of the dosing interval by 35%, 24%, and 49%, respectively. Both DTG and DTG with FPV-RTV were well tolerated; no subject withdrew because of adverse events. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events were rash, abnormal dreams, and nasopharyngitis. The modest decrease in DTG exposure when it was coadministered with FPV-RTV is not considered clinically significant, and DTG dose adjustment is not required with coadministration of FPV-RTV in INI-naive patient populations on the basis of established "no-effect" boundaries of DTG. In the INI-resistant population, as a cautionary measure, alternative combinations that do not include FPV-RTV should be considered. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01209065.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers

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    Makoto eBannai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a nonessential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep

  14. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects

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    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). METHODS This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren® Emulgel® gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. RESULTS All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren® Emulgel® and were approximately 30–40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was 2.71 times greater than for Voltaren® Emulgel® (90% CI 99.27, 737.46%). Mild erythema at the application site was the most frequent adverse event associated with DCF100C. There were no local symptoms after treatment with the reference formulation. CONCLUSION DCF100C formulations were safe and facilitated greater diclofenac penetration through the skin compared with the commercial comparator. DCF100C represents a promising alternative to oral and topical diclofenac treatments that warrants further development. PMID:21241352

  15. Switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin: an open label pharmacodynamic study in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kenneth Todd; Byra, William; Vaidyanathan, Seema; Natarajan, Jaya; Ariyawansa, Jay; Salih, Hiba; Turner, Kenneth C

    2015-01-01

    Aims The primary objective was to explore the pharmacodynamic changes during transition from rivaroxaban to warfarin in healthy subjects. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were assessed as secondary objectives. Methods An open label, non-randomized, sequential two period study. In treatment period 1 (TP1), subjects received rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (5 days), followed by co-administration with a warfarin loading dose regimen of 5 or 10 mg (for the 10 mg regimen, the dose could be uptitrated to attain target international normalized ratio [INR] ≥2.0) once daily (2–4 days). When trough INR values ≥2.0 were attained, rivaroxaban was discontinued and warfarin treatment continued as monotherapy (INR 2.0–3.0). During treatment period 2, subjects received the same warfarin regimen as in TP1, but without rivaroxaban. Results During co-administration, maximum INR and prothrombin time (PT) values were higher than with rivaroxaban or warfarin monotherapy. The mean maximum effect (Emax) for INR after co-administration was 2.79–4.15 (mean PT Emax 41.0–62.7 s), compared with 1.41–1.74 (mean PT Emax 20.1–25.2 s) for warfarin alone. However, rivaroxaban had the smallest effect on INR at trough rivaroxaban concentrations. Neither rivaroxaban nor warfarin significantly affected maximum plasma concentrations of the other drug. Conclusions The combined pharmacodynamic effects during co-administration of rivaroxaban and warfarin were greater than additive, but the pharmacokinetics of both drugs were unaffected. Co-administration was well tolerated. When transitioning from rivaroxaban to warfarin, INR monitoring during co-administration should be performed at the trough rivaroxaban concentration to minimize the effect of rivaroxaban on INR. PMID:25475601

  16. Effect of resistant wheat starch on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy adults.

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    Emilien, Christine H; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at 10 time points after meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten was recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary, and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (P = 0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (P  0.05). These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-h period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

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    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the cathepsin S inhibitor, LY3000328, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher D; Deeg, Mark A; Chan, Melanie; Tan, Lai Hock; LaBell, Elizabeth Smith; Shen, Tong; DeBrota, David J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LY3000328 when administered as single escalating doses to healthy volunteers. This was a phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study with LY3000328 in 21 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were administered escalating LY3000328 doses up to 300 mg with food in this single dose study. Blood samples were collected at set times post-dose for the assessment of LY3000328 pharmacokinetics and the measurement of cathepsin S (CatS) activity, CatS mass and calculated CatS specific activity. All doses of LY3000328 were well tolerated, with linear pharmacokinetics up to the 300 mg dose. The pharmacodynamic activity of LY3000328 was measured ex vivo showing a biphasic response to LY3000328, where CatS activity declines, then returns to baseline, and then increases to a level above baseline. CatS mass was also assessed post-dose which increased in a dose-dependent manner, and continued to increase after LY3000328 had been cleared from the body. CatS specific activity was additionally calculated to normalize CatS activity for changes in CatS mass. This demonstrated the increase in CatS activity was attributable to the increase in CatS mass detected in plasma. A specific inhibitor of CatS which is cleared quickly from plasma may produce a transient decrease in plasma CatS activity which is followed by a more prolonged increase in plasma CatS mass which may have implications for the future clinical development of inhibitors of CatS. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Effects of dorsal and lateral decubitus on peak expiratory flow in healthy subjects

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    Heloisa H. Gianinis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the measures of the pulmonary function is the peak expiratory flow (PEF that can be defined as the major flow obtained in an expiratory pressure after a complete inspiration to the level of the total lung capacity. This measure depends on the effort and strength of expiratory muscles, the airway diameter and the lung volume. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the peak expiratory flow in healthy male and female obtained in a seated position and dorsal decubitus (DD, right lateral decubitus (RLD and left lateral decubitus (LLD. METHOD: Thirty young subjects with mean age 22.7 years, healthy and non-smokers were included at the study, 15 of male sex. They did spirometry and IPAQ questionnaire to check the normal pulmonary function and physical activity level. The measures of PEF were performed in four positions, being performed 3 measures in which position, in a random order. Statistical analysis was performed according to Student's t test, with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: There was a difference between the values obtained in sitting position(481±117.1 L/min with DD(453.2±116.3 L/min and RLD (454±112.9 L/min (p<0.05, however, did not find a significant difference between the sitting position and LLD (469±83 L/min. CONCLUSIONS: Body position affects the values of PEF, with decreasing values in DD and RLD. The LLD can be an alternative to optimize the expiratory flow in situations of constraint to the sitting position.

  20. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. Studies using long-chain and structured triglyceride emulsions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Jörgen; Thörne, Anders; Aberg, Wiveca; Carneheim, Claes; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    infused TG during the steady-state period (r = 0.58; P < .05). In conclusion, the hypertriglyceridemic clamp method was found to give reproducible results and could be considered for comparison of metabolic clearance properties of different types of fat emulsions. The capacity of healthy subjects to eliminate STGs from blood was greater than for LCTs. An increased LPL activity induced by the higher TG infusion rate may have contributed to the increased metabolic clearance of STGs.

  1. Vitamin D status after a high dose of cholecalciferol in healthy and burn subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Ledoux, Didier; Lukas, Pierre; Carlisi, Agnès; Le Goff, Caroline; Gadisseur, Romy; Cavalier, Etienne

    2015-08-01

    Burn patients are at risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency and may benefit from its pleiotropic effects as soon as acute phase. Aim of this observational study was to assess effects of a cholecalciferol (VD3) bolus on VD status in adult burn patients (Group B, GB) after admission, compared to healthy subjects (Group H, GH). Both groups received an oral dose of 100,000 IU VD3. Blood samples were collected before (D0) and 7 days (D7) after bolus to measure 250H-D, 1,25(OH)2-D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Albumin (ALB) and VD binding protein (DBP) were measured and used to calculate free 25OH-D level. Data were expressed as median (min-max) or proportions. A total of 49 subjects were included: 29 in GH and 20 in GB. At D0, prevalence of VD deficiency was higher in GB: 25OH-D was 21.5 (10.1-46.3) ng/ml in GH vs 11 (1.8-31.4) ng/ml in GB. DBP and ALB were lower in GB. At D7, DBP was stable in both groups while ALB decreased in GB. 25OH-D increased by 66.6 (13.5-260.3)% in GH. In GB, changes in 25OH-D extended from -36.7% to 333.3% with a median increase of 33.1%. Similar changes were observed in each group for free 25OH-D. High FGF23 levels were observed in GB. This study highlighted the differences in VD status and in response to a high dose VD3 in burn patients when compared to healthy patients. Pitfalls in VD status assessment are numerous during acute burn care: 25OH-D measurement needs cautious interpretation and interest of free 25OH-D is still questionable. They should not prevent burn patients to receive VD supplements during acute care. Higher doses than general recommendations should probably be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of CKD-519, a CETP inhibitor, in healthy subjects

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    Kim CO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Choon Ok Kim,1 Eun Sil Oh,2 Chungam Choi,1 Yeonjoo Kim,3 Sera Lee,4 Semi Kim,4 Min Soo Park1,5 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Medicines and Regulatory Science, Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, 3Chong Kun Dang Clinical Research, Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corp., 4Chong Kun Dang Research Institute, Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corp., 5Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: CKD-519 is a selective and potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP inhibitor being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single doses of CKD-519 in healthy adult subjects. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was performed. Eight healthy subjects were enrolled in each CKD-519 dose group (25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg and randomized to CKD-519 (n=6 or matching placebo (n=2. CKD-519 reached the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax at 5–6 h post-dose, and had a long terminal half-life ranging between 40–70 h. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC and Cmax increased with the dose, however, Cmax and AUC normalized by dose decreased with each incremental dose. CETP activity decreased with dose, and the maximum decrease (63%–83% was observed at 6–8 h post-dose. A sigmoid Emax model best described the relationship between CKD-519 plasma concentrations and CETP activity with an EC50 of 17.3 ng/mL. Overall, 11 adverse events (AEs were observed. All AEs were mild or moderate in intensity, and resolved without any complications. There were no clinically significant effects on blood pressure. In conclusion, single doses of CKD-519 up to 400 mg were well tolerated and showed potent

  3. The usefulness of twenty-four molecular markers in predicting treatment outcome with combination therapy of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea

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    Reeder John C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Papua New Guinea (PNG, combination therapy with amodiaquine (AQ or chloroquine (CQ plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP was introduced as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in 2000. Methods We assessed in vivo treatment failure rates with AQ+SP in two different areas in PNG and twenty-four molecular drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were characterized in pre-treatment samples. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between infecting genotype and treatment response in order to identify useful predictors of treatment failure with AQ+SP. Results In 2004, Day-28 treatment failure rates for AQ+SP were 29% in the Karimui and 19% in the South Wosera area, respectively. The strongest independent predictors for treatment failure with AQ+SP were pfmdr1 N86Y (OR = 7.87, p pfdhps A437G (OR = 3.44, p pfcrt K76T, A220S, N326D, and I356L did not help to increase the predictive value, the most likely reason being that these mutations reached almost fixed levels. Though mutations in SP related markers pfdhfr S108N and C59R were not associated with treatment failure, they increased the predictive value of pfdhps A437G. The difference in treatment failure rate in the two sites was reflected in the corresponding genetic profile of the parasite populations, with significant differences seen in the allele frequencies of mutant pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 Y184F, pfcrt A220S, and pfdhps A437G. Conclusion The study provides evidence for high levels of resistance to the combination regimen of AQ+SP in PNG and indicates which of the many molecular markers analysed are useful for the monitoring of parasite resistance to combinations with AQ+SP.

  4. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for clinical evaluation of hypertensive patients in primary care: which groups would most benefit?

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    Grezzana, Guilherme B; Stein, Airton T; Pellanda, Lucia C

    2017-04-01

    Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure (BP) control levels remain largely out of target among primary healthcare (PHC) patients. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may contribute toward the identification of cardiovascular risk groups. To assess concordance between conventional office BP measurements and 24-h ABPM of hypertension control in cardiovascular risk groups of PHC hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study with 569 hypertensive patients was carried out. The evaluation of BP was performed by a PHC doctor, and the 24-h ABPM was performed by a different and blinded provider. The therapeutic targets for BP followed the guidance of The Eighth Joint National Committee, the Brazilian guideline, and the 2013 European Society of Hypertension. Considering the hypertension control therapeutic targets, the guidelines were not similar and were used to evaluate differences in BP value concordances compared with BP standard measurements. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a conventional BP was used in comparison with ABPM in different cardiovascular risk groups of hypertensive patients. According to the ABPM by European Society of Hypertension guideline, the subgroup of inactive patients (P=0.006), with altered glycemia (P=0.015) and over 30 mg/dl albuminuria (P=0.001), presented discordance among methods. When a conventional BP measurement in comparison with the ABPM results according to the Brazilian ABPM guideline was used, the discordance occurred significantly in inactive (P=0.001) and microalbuminuria more than 30 mg/dl (P=0.022) subgroups. However, in this comparison, a concordance between high-density lipoprotein more than 60 mg/dl (P=0.015) and obesity (P=0.035) subgroups occurred. Uncontrolled glucose levels, a sedentary lifestyle, and the presence of microalbuminuria correspond to some cardiovascular risk groups that would particularly benefit from 24-h

  5. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

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    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  6. Effects of a visuotemporal cue on walking ability of independent ambulatory subjects with spinal cord injury as compared with healthy subjects.

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    Pramodhyakul, N; Amatachaya, P; Sooknuan, T; Arayawichanon, P; Amatachaya, S

    2014-03-01

    An experimental, cross-sectional study. To investigate effects of using a visuotemporal cue on the walking ability of independent ambulatory subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) as compared with healthy subjects. A tertiary rehabilitation center, Thailand. Forty independent ambulatory subjects with SCI and healthy subjects participated in the study (20 subjects per group). All of them were assessed for their walking speed, stride length, cadence and percents of step symmetry under two conditions, including walking at their fastest speed with and without a visuotemporal cue along a 10 m walkway. When walking with a visuotemporal cue, walking speed, stride length and cadence of the subjects were significantly increased from the uncued condition (Pwalking speed and cadence, whereas, subjects with SCI demonstrated significantly higher improvement in stride length as compared with the other group (Pbenefits of using a visuotemporal cue to improve variables relating to walking ability in subjects with intact integrative capability of the brain but with different levels of sensorimotor deterioration. The findings suggest the use of a visuotemporal cue to improve the effectiveness of programs in sport and exercise sciences, and rehabilitation treatments.

  7. Effects of a fibre-enriched milk drink on insulin and glucose levels in healthy subjects

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    Pilvi Taru K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycaemic response to foods is dependent on the quality and content of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates in the form of dietary fibre have favourable effects on insulin and glucose metabolism and may help to control energy intake. Dairy products have a relatively low carbohydrate content, and most of the carbohydrate is in the form of lactose which causes gastrointestinal symptoms in part of the population. In order to avoid these symptoms, dairy products can be replaced with lactose-free dairy products which are on the market in many parts of the world. However, the effects of lactose-free products on insulin and glucose metabolism have not been studied. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effects of 1 a lactose-free milk drink, 2 a novel fibre-enriched, fat- and lactose-free milk drink and 3 normal fat-free milk on serum glucose and insulin levels and satiety using a randomized block design. Following an overnight fast, 26 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of one of these drinks on three non-consecutive days. Insulin and glucose levels and subjective satiety ratings were measured before the ingestion of the milk product and 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion. The responses were calculated as the area under the curve subtracted by the baseline value (AUC minus baseline. Results The insulin response was significantly lower for the fibre-enriched milk drink than it was for the other milk products (AUC, P = 0.007. There were no differences in the response for glucose or in the AUC for the subjective satiety ratings between the studied milk products. Conclusion The present results suggest that this novel milk drink could have positive effects on insulin response.

  8. Effect of mushroom diet on pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Chinese subjects.

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    Toh, Dorothy Su Lin; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Yee, Jie Yin; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Boon-Cher; Murray, Michael; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Chinese subjects who received a diet rich in shiitake mushrooms. Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to contain high amount of ergothioneine. In vitro studies have shown that OCTN1-mediated secretion of gabapentin is trans-stimulated by ergothioneine. This study also investigated the concentrations of ergothioneine in plasma at baseline and following mushroom consumption. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited and received a diet containing no mushrooms (treatment A) or a high mushroom diet (treatment B; after at least a 7 day washout period) 1 day prior to administration of a single oral dose of gabapentin 600 mg. Ingestion of shiitake mushrooms produced significant increases in plasma ergothioneine concentrations that were sustained for more than 48 h. A statistically significant but modest increase in the renal clearance (CLR ) of gabapentin occurred after intake of the mushroom diet (91.1 ± 25.1 vs. 76.9 ± 20.6 ml min(-1) , P = 0.031). No significant changes in AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin were observed (P = 0.726). Creatinine clearance did not correlate with CLR of gabapentin at baseline (treatment A). After ingestion of the mushroom diet, creatinine clearance accounted for 65.3% of the variance in CLR of gabapentin. These data suggest that diet-drug pharmacokinetic interactions may occur during co-exposure to gabapentin and mushroom constituents. However, as it does not affect the AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin, it may not have clinically important consequences. Shiitake mushrooms can also be used as a source of ergothioneine for future clinical studies. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance in a sample of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Caramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory loss is a major complaint among the elderly population. However, the clinical significance of this symptom is variable and also controversial in the scientific literature. Objective: To compare the cognitive performance of two groups of healthy elderly, one group with and the other without, subjective memory complaints (SMC. Methods: Sixty cognitively intact elderly individuals (39 females and 21 males, aged 69.9±6.3 years and with educational level of 8.5±5.5 years, were included in the study. Participants were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and to the Cornell depression scale in order to rule out global cognitive impairment and depression, respectively. Moreover, they answered the MAC-Q, a questionnaire devised to evaluate subjective impression of memory function. Subsequently, they were submitted to the digit span forward and backward, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery, and to the Frontal Assessment Battery. Results: Twenty-seven individuals had MAC-Q scores <25 and thus were classified as not having SMC, while 33 had MAC-Q scores ³25 and were considered to have SMC. No differences for age, gender, education and MMSE scores were found between the two groups. The comparison between the performance of the groups of complainers and non-complainers on the different cognitive tests yielded no significant difference, although there was a trend toward non-complainers performing better on incidental memory. Conclusions: The presence of SMC was not associated to objective memory impairment or to other cognitive deficits in this group of elderly individuals.

  10. Effect of Semaglutide on the Pharmacokinetics of Metformin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin and Digoxin in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Helene; Derving Karsbøl, Julie; Holst, Anders G; Jacobsen, Jacob B; Wagner, Frank-Dietrich; Golor, Georg; Anderson, Thomas W

    2017-11-01

    Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the once-weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its effect on the rate and extent of absorption of concomitant oral medications (metformin, warfarin, atorvastatin and digoxin) was evaluated in healthy subjects. Subjects received metformin (500 mg twice daily for 3.5 days), warfarin (25 mg, single dose), atorvastatin (40 mg, single dose) or digoxin (0.5 mg, single dose) before and with subcutaneous semaglutide treatment at steady state (1.0 mg). Lack of drug-drug interaction was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratio before and with semaglutide were within a pre-specified interval (0.80-1.25). Overall, metformin, warfarin, atorvastatin and digoxin pharmacokinetics were not affected to a clinically relevant degree with semaglutide co-administration. Estimated area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for all concomitant medications before and with semaglutide treatment were within the pre-specified interval. In addition, semaglutide did not affect maximum plasma concentration of concomitant medications to a relevant degree. Furthermore, no clinically relevant change in international normalised ratio response to warfarin was observed with semaglutide co-administration. Most adverse events with semaglutide treatment were mild or moderate. Adverse events with semaglutide and co-administered medication were comparable to those reported during treatment with semaglutide alone, and were mostly gastrointestinal related. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions were identified and no new safety issues observed with combined treatment with semaglutide. This suggests that no dose adjustments should be required when semaglutide is administered concomitantly with these medications.

  11. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Fifty-six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25-10 mg over 9-10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1-12 vs. the non-titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3-7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min⁻¹; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9-12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. © 2012 Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBIR). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Velocity storage contribution to vestibular self-motion perception in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, G; Ramat, S; Laurens, J; Bockisch, C J; Marti, S; Straumann, D; Palla, A

    2011-01-01

    Self-motion perception after a sudden stop from a sustained rotation in darkness lasts approximately as long as reflexive eye movements. We hypothesized that, after an angular velocity step, self-motion perception and reflexive eye movements are driven by the same vestibular pathways. In 16 healthy subjects (25-71 years of age), perceived rotational velocity (PRV) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (rVOR) after sudden decelerations (90°/s(2)) from constant-velocity (90°/s) earth-vertical axis rotations were simultaneously measured (PRV reported by hand-lever turning; rVOR recorded by search coils). Subjects were upright (yaw) or 90° left-ear-down (pitch). After both yaw and pitch decelerations, PRV rose rapidly and showed a plateau before decaying. In contrast, slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) decayed immediately after the initial increase. SPV and PRV were fitted with the sum of two exponentials: one time constant accounting for the semicircular canal (SCC) dynamics and one time constant accounting for a central process, known as velocity storage mechanism (VSM). Parameters were constrained by requiring equal SCC time constant and VSM time constant for SPV and PRV. The gains weighting the two exponential functions were free to change. SPV were accurately fitted (variance-accounted-for: 0.85 ± 0.10) and PRV (variance-accounted-for: 0.86 ± 0.07), showing that SPV and PRV curve differences can be explained by a greater relative weight of VSM in PRV compared with SPV (twofold for yaw, threefold for pitch). These results support our hypothesis that self-motion perception after angular velocity steps is be driven by the same central vestibular processes as reflexive eye movements and that no additional mechanisms are required to explain the perceptual dynamics.

  13. Crossover and maximal fat-oxidation points in sedentary healthy subjects: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmada, N; Marzouki, H; Haboubi, M; Tabka, Z; Shephard, R J; Bouhlel, E

    2012-02-01

    Our study aimed to assess the influence of protocol on the crossover point and maximal fat-oxidation (LIPOX(max)) values in sedentary, but otherwise healthy, young men. Maximal oxygen intake was assessed in 23 subjects, using a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test. Twelve sedentary males (aged 20.5±1.0 years) whose directly measured maximal aerobic power (MAP) values were lower than their theoretical maximal values (tMAP) were selected from this group. These individuals performed, in random sequence, three submaximal graded exercise tests, separated by three-day intervals; work rates were based on the tMAP in one test and on MAP in the remaining two. The third test was used to assess the reliability of data. Heart rate, respiratory parameters, blood lactate, the crossover point and LIPOX(max) values were measured during each of these tests. The crossover point and LIPOX(max) values were significantly lower when the testing protocol was based on tMAP rather than on MAP (PtMAP at 30, 40, 50 and 60% of maximal aerobic power (PtMAP rather than MAP (P<0.001). During the first 5 min of recovery, EPOC(5 min) and blood lactate were significantly correlated (r=0.89; P<0.001). Our data show that, to assess the crossover point and LIPOX(max) values for research purposes, the protocol must be based on the measured MAP rather than on a theoretical value. Such a determination should improve individualization of training for initially sedentary subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ameliorating effect of transcutaneous electroacupuncture on impaired gastric accommodation induced by cold meal in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihui; Zhang, Nina; Xu, Feng; Yin, Jieyun; Dai, Ning; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2016-03-01

    Impaired gastric accommodation is recognized as one of major pathophysiologies in functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. Electroacupuncture has been shown to improve gastric accommodation in laboratory settings. It is, however, unknown whether it exerts similar ameliorating effect in humans and whether needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) is also effective in improving gastric accommodation. The aim was to investigate the effects of TEA on gastric accommodation, gastric slow waves, and dyspeptic related symptoms. Thirteen healthy volunteers were studied in four randomized sessions: control, cold nutrient liquid, cold nutrient liquid + sham-TEA, and cold nutrient liquid + TEA. The subjects were requested to drink Ensure until reaching maximum satiety. The electrogastrogram (EGG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded to assess the gastric and autonomic functions respectively. 1) Gastric accommodation was reduced with the cold drink in comparison with the warm drink (P = 0.023). TEA improved the impaired gastric accommodation from 539.2 ± 133.8 ml to 731.0 ± 185.7 ml (P = 0.005). 2) The percentage of normal gastric slow waves in six subjects was significantly decreased in the cold session (P = 0.002) and improved in the TEA session (P = 0.009 vs sham; P  0.05). TEA improves impaired gastric accommodation and slow waves induced by cold drink and the effect does not seem to be mediated via the vagal mechanisms. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Effect of kinesiotaping, non-elastic taping and bracing on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in healthy subjects and subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuni, B; Mussler, J; Kalkum, E; Schmitt, H; Wolf, S I

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of kinesiotape, non-elastic tape, and soft brace on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in subjects with chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects. Controlled study with repeated measurements. Three-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Twenty participants with chronic ankle instability and 20 healthy subjects. The subjects performed drop landings with 17 retroreflective markers on the foot and lower leg in four conditions: barefoot, with kinesiotape, with non-elastic tape and with a soft brace. Ranges of motion of foot segments using a foot measurement method. In participants with chronic ankle instability, midfoot movement in the frontal plane (inclination of the medial arch) was reduced significantly by non-elastic taping, but kinesiotaping and bracing had no effect. In healthy subjects, both non-elastic taping and bracing reduced that movement. In both groups, non-elastic taping and bracing reduced rearfoot excursion in inversion/eversion significantly, which indicates a stabilisation effect. No such effect was found with kinesiotaping. All three methods reduced maximum plantar flexion significantly. Non-elastic taping stabilised the midfoot best in patients with chronic ankle instability, while kinesiotaping did not influence foot kinematics other than to stabilise the rearfoot in the sagittal plane. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01810471. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Guo-Sheng; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Han Chun-Xiao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities, we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects. We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz–4 Hz), theta (4 Hz–8 Hz), alpha (8 Hz–13 Hz), and beta (13 Hz–30 Hz) bands. Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands), while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states. In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity, we compute the power ratio index. It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index, especially in frontal and central lobes. All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture. The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. The cybernetic rehabilitation aid: preliminary results for wrist and elbow motions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Erhan; Shima, Keisuke; Kataoka, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Masaki; Otsuka, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes the cybernetic rehabilitation aid (CRA) based on the concept of direct teaching using tactile feedback with electromyography (EMG)-based motor skill evaluation. Evaluation and teaching of motor skills are two important aspects of rehabilitation training, and the CRA provides novel and effective solutions to potentially solve the difficulties inherent in these two processes within a single system. In order to evaluate motor skills, EMG signals measured from a patient are analyzed using a log-linearized Gaussian mixture network that can classify motion patterns and compute the degree of similarity between the patient's measured EMG patterns and the desired pattern provided by the therapist. Tactile stimulators are used to convey motion instructions from the therapist or the system to the patient, and a rehabilitation robot can also be integrated into the developed prototype to increase its rehabilitation capacity. A series of experiments performed using the developed prototype demonstrated that the CRA can work as a human-human, human-computer and human-machine system. The experimental results indicated that the healthy (able-bodied) subjects were able to follow the desired muscular contraction levels instructed by the therapist or the system and perform proper joint motion without relying on visual feedback.

  18. The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariachiara eLongarzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one’s own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e. alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one’s own health status, i.e. hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ, a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20, and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS. The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= .88. We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one’s own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders.

  19. An evaluation of the effects of eyeball structure on ocular pulse amplitude in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kotaro; Mori, Mikiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of eyeball structure on ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) measured using dynamic contour tonometer (DCT). In 86 eyes of 43 healthy subjects, we measured OPA and intraocular pressure (IOP) with DCT (DCT-IOP), IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT-IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal thickness 2 mm (2 mmCT) and 4 mm (4 mmCT) apart from the center, corneal volume within a 3.5-mm radius from the corneal center, corneal curvature, anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber volume, and axial length (AL). OPA had a significant positive correlation with GAT-IOP (Pearson's r = 0.412, p < 0.001), DCT-IOP (r = 0.350, p < 0.001), and 4 mmCT (r = 0.244, p = 0.0231), and had a significant negative correlation with AL (r = -0.268, p = 0.0122). In a multiple linear regression analysis, AL and GAT-IOP were significantly associated with OPA. OPA measured with DCT is significantly influenced by several factors, such as IOP, peripheral corneal thickness (4 mmCT), and AL.

  20. Shoulder muscle activation during stable and suspended push-ups at different heights in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C; Tella, Victor; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Martin, Fernando; Rogers, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    To analyze shoulder muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions and heights. Comparative study by repeated measures. Valencia University laboratory. 29 healthy males participated. Subjects performed 3 push-ups each with their hands at 2 different heights (10 vs. 65 cm) under stable conditions and using a suspension device. Push-up speed was controlled and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic root mean square of the long head of the triceps brachii (TRICEP), upper trapezius (TRAPS), anterior deltoid (DELT) and clavicular pectoralis (PEC) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Suspended push-ups at 10 cm resulted in greater activation in the TRICEP (17.14 ± 1.31 %MVIC vs. 37.03 ± 1.80 %MVIC) and TRAPS (5.83 ± 0.58 %MVIC vs. 14.69 ± 1.91 %MVIC) than those performed on the floor. For DELT and PEC similar or higher activation was found performing the push-ups on the floor, respectively. Height determines different muscle activation patterns. Stable push-ups elicit similar PEC and higher DELT muscle activation, being greater at 10 cm; whereas suspended push-ups elicit greater TRAPS and TRICEP muscle activation, being greater at 65 cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajngot, A.; Khan, A.; Giacca, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S.

    1990-01-01

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with [2-3H]glucose and HGP with [6-3H]glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). [2-3H]- minus [6-3H]glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP

  2. Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in Human Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7. The electroencephalogram (EEG signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the “closed-eye” state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2. Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6 and occipital areas (O1, O2 during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5 and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital. Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS.

  3. Factors Associated with Visual Fatigue from Curved Monitor Use: A Prospective Study of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeng Jin Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors associated with visual fatigue using monitors with various radii of curvature.Twenty normal healthy adults (8 men, 12 women; mean age, 26.2 ± 2.5 years prospectively watched five types of monitors including flat, 4000R, 3000R, 2000R, and 1000R curved monitors for 30 min. An experienced examiner measured the ophthalmological factors including near point of accommodation (NPA, near point of convergence (NPC, refraction, parameters during pupil response at light and saccadic movement just before and after the visual tasks. The questionnaires about subjective ocular symptoms were also investigated just before and after the visual tasks.The NPA increased after the visual tasks with a flat monitor compared with the curved monitors, with the 1000R curved monitor showing the smallest change (p = 0.020. The NPC increased for every monitor after the visual tasks; the largest increase occurred with the flat monitor (p = 0.001. There was no difference in refractive error, pupil response, or saccadic movement in the comparison of before and after the visual tasks. Among the nine factors in the questionnaire, the score of "eye pain" was significantly higher for the flat monitor versus the 1000R curved monitor after the visual tasks (p = 0.034.We identified NPA, NPC, and eye pain as factors associated with visual fatigue. Also, the curvature of the monitor was related to the visual fatigue.

  4. Creatine metabolism: detection of creatine and guanidinoacetate in saliva of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Lidia D; Bezard, Miriam; Brunotto, Mabel; Dodelson de Kremer, Raquel

    2016-04-01

    Creatine (Cr) plays an important role in storage and transmission of phosphate-bound energy. Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes comprise three inherited defects in Cr biosynthesis and transport. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Cr and Guanidinoacetate (GAA) can be detected in saliva of healthy subjects and to establish the relationship between salivary and plasma levels of these molecules. An adapted gas chromatography (GC) method is described for the quantification of Cr and GAA biomarkers in saliva. Reference values were established for GAA and Cr in saliva. These values were age dependent (p= 0.001). No difference between genders was observed. We detected a difference between GAA and Cr concentrations in saliva and in plasma. The GC method for simultaneous determination of GAA and Cr in human saliva is fast, reliable, sensitive, non-invasive and precise to use as a biochemical approach in early detection of cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  5. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain values in the suppression head impulse test of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Thomas-Arrizabalaga, Izaskun; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Trinidad-Ruiz, Gabriel; Matiño-Soler, Eusebi; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2018-02-15

    To assess whether there are differences in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain for suppression head impulse (SHIMP) and head impulse (HIMP) video head impulse test paradigms, and if so, what are their causes. Prospective multicenter observational double-blind nonrandomized clinical study was performed by collecting 80 healthy subjects from four reference hospitals. SHIMP data was postprocessed to eliminate impulses in which early SHIMP saccades were detected. Differences between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were statistically evaluated. Head impulse maximum velocity, gender, age, direction of impulse, and hospital center were considered as possible influential factors. A small significant statistical difference between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values was found on repeated measures analysis of variance (-0.05 ± 0.006, P gain values and did not find influence between gain values differences and maximum head impulse velocity. Both HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were significant lower (-0.09, P gain values not adequately explained by known gain modification factors. The persistence of this slight but significant difference indicates that there are more factors causing lower SHIMP VOR gain values. This difference must to be considered in further studies as well as in the clinical SHIMP testing protocols. We hypothesized that VOR phasic response inhibition could be the underlying cause of this difference. IIb. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. The effects of the CXCR2 antagonist, MK-7123, on bone marrow functions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Nina; Khalilieh, Sauzanne; Dale, David C; Hanson, Lars G; Magnusson, Peter; Tzontcheva, Anjela; Tseng, Jack; Huyck, Susan; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Krogsgaard, Kim

    2015-04-01

    The CXCR2 antagonist MK-7123 causes dose-dependent reductions in absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) and decreases neutrophil tissue responses, but its effects on bone marrow functions are not yet known. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study in 18 healthy subjects comparing the effects of either MK-7123 (30mg, po, daily for 28days) or placebo on peripheral blood counts and bone marrow myeloid cell populations. MK-7123 caused a reversible decrease (approximately 50%) in the ANC as demonstrated on days 1 and 28, the first and last days of the treatment period. Bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy imprints did not differ in the proportion of mature neutrophils in pretreatment, day 28, day 56 or placebo samples. There were no treatment effects on biopsy or aspirate clot cellularity, myeloid to erythroid or myeloid post-mitotic to mitotic ratios; flow-cytometric analyses of aspirate cells; or bone marrow fat to cell balance as assessed by MRI. MK-7123 was generally well tolerated with neutropenia being the most common adverse event; however, there were no clinical symptoms associated with decreased ANCs. These findings indicate that the CXCR2 antagonist MK-7123 causes rapidly reversible decrease in the ANC without measurable myelosuppressive effects. The results support the development of CXCR2 antagonists as potentially useful anti-inflammatory agents, primarily interrupting neutrophil trafficking. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  8. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C

    1995-01-01

    before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively...... for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma...... levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 pg.ml-1 before NTG vs. 2.7 pg.ml-1 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did not affect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion....

  9. INCENTIVE SPIROMETRY AND BREATHING EXERCISES WERE NOT ABLE TO IMPROVE RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY CHARACTERISTICS INDUCED BY WATER IMMERSION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Aline A. Vepo,; Caroline S. Martinez; Giulia A. Wiggers; Franck M. Peçanha

    2016-01-01

    pulmonary volumes and capacities which could be at least in part similar to that happen in healthy individuals during water immersion. Objectives: To investigate if respiratory effects of water immersion are partially due to enhanced return venous from legs and arms and if physiotherapeutic techniques incentive spirometry (IS) and breathing exercises (BE) are able to improve pulmonary volumes and capacities in healthy subjects during water immersion. Design: Randomised, within-partici...

  10. Hysteresis of haptic vertical and straight ahead in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnutzer Alexander A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjective haptic vertical (SHV task requires subjects to adjust the roll orientation of an object, mostly in the roll plane, in such a way that it is parallel to perceived direction of gravity. Previously we found a tendency for clockwise rod rotations to deviate counter-clockwise and vice versa, indicating hysteresis. However, the contributing factors remained unclear. To clarify this we characterized the SHV in terms of handedness, hand used, direction of hand rotation, type of grasping (wrap vs. precision grip and gender, and compared findings with perceived straight-ahead (PSA. Healthy subjects repetitively performed adjustments along SHV (n = 21 and PSA (n = 10 in complete darkness. Results For both SHV and PSA significant effects of the hand used and the direction of rod/plate rotation were found. The latter effect was similar for SHV and PSA, leading to significantly larger counter-clockwise shifts (relative to true earth-vertical and objective straight-ahead for clockwise rotations compared to counter-clockwise rotations irrespective of the handedness and the type of grip. The effect of hand used, however, was opposite in the two tasks: while the SHV showed a counter-clockwise bias when the right hand was used and no bias for the left hand, in the PSA a counter-clockwise bias was obtained for the left hand without a bias for the right hand. No effects of grip and handedness (studied for SHV only on accuracy were observed, however, SHV precision was significantly (p  Conclusions Unimanual haptic tasks require control for the hand used and the type of grip as these factors significantly affect task performance. Furthermore, aligning objects with the SHV and PSA resulted in systematic direction-dependent deviations that could not be attributed to handedness, the hand used, or the type of grip. These deviations are consistent with hysteresis and are likely not related to gravitational pull, as they were

  11. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-06-01

    • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation. • This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation. To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was

  12. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  13. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K S; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M S

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  14. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  15. Effects of growth and aging on the reference values of pulmonary nitric oxide dynamics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högman, M; Thornadtsson, A; Liv, P; Hua-Huy, T; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Tufvesson, E; Dressel, H; Janson, C; Koskela, K; Oksa, P; Sauni, R; Uitti, J; Moilanen, E; Lehtimäki, L

    2017-09-13

    The lung just like all other organs is affected by age. The lung matures by the age of 20 and age-related changes start around middle age, at 40-50 years. Exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) has been shown to be age, height and gender dependent. We hypothesize that the nitric oxide (NO) parameters alveolar NO (C A NO), airway flux (J aw NO), airway diffusing capacity (D aw NO) and airway wall content (C aw NO) will also demonstrate this dependence. Data from healthy subjects were gathered by the current authors from their earlier publications in which healthy individuals were included as control subjects. Healthy subjects (n = 433) ranged in age from 7 to 78 years. Age-stratified reference values of the NO parameters were significantly different. Gender differences were only observed in the 20-49 age group. The results from the multiple regression models in subjects older than 20 years revealed that age, height and gender interaction together explained 6% of variation in F E NO at 50 ml s -1 (F E NO 50 ), 4% in J aw NO, 16% in C aw NO, 8% in D aw NO and 12% in C A NO. In conclusion, in this study we have generated reference values for NO parameters from an extended NO analysis of healthy subjects. This is important in order to be able to use these parameters in clinical practice.

  16. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  17. Serum resistin level among healthy subjects: relationship to anthropometric and metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Chu; Li, Tsai-Chung; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Wang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2005-04-01

    Resistin is a novel adipocyte-secreted hormone that has been proposed to be the link between obesity and diabetes, although little appears to be known regarding the physiological role of resistin in human beings. We aimed to explore the relationship between serum resistin level and certain anthropometric and metabolic parameters. Seventy-one healthy subjects with a mean body mass index of 23 kg/m 2 or greater were recruited in this study. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure were recorded. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Fasting serum resistin, insulin and plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and uric acid levels were measured. The results revealed that serum resistin level did not correlate with any markers for adiposity, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, or uric acid level for either sex. Serum resistin level correlated negatively with fasting insulin level (gamma=-0.455, P=.006) and HOMA (gamma=-0.455, P=.006) in women but not in men. Serum resistin level only correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in men (gamma=-0.347, P=.038); there was no correlation between serum resistin level and lipid profiles in women. Multiple linear regression analysis using the logarithm of resistin as a dependent variable revealed that only HDL-C level (beta=-.058, P=.019) was an independent significant predictor for resistin in men; however, the analysis revealed that HDL-C level (beta=-.044, P=.029) and HOMA (beta=-.719, P=.004) were independent significant predictors for resistin in women. In conclusion, resistin is not related to adiposity, blood pressure, insulin resistance, fasting plasma glucose level, and most lipid profiles. Resistin correlates negatively with HDL-C level for both sexes. The role of resistin in metabolic syndrome warrants further investigation.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple intravenous doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miao; Wu, Xiao-Jie; Fan, Ya-Xin; Zhang, Ying-Yuan; Guo, Bei-Ning; Yu, Ji-Cheng; Cao, Guo-Ying; Chen, Yuan-Cheng; Wu, Ju-Fang; Shi, Yao-Guo; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    The high prevalence of extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as a last-line therapy. Knowledge on the pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and colistin has increased substantially; however, the pharmacokinetics in the Chinese population is still unknown due to lack of a CMS product in China. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a new CMS product developed in China in order to optimise dosing regimens. A total of 24 healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. Concentrations of CMS and formed colistin in plasma and urine were measured, and PK analysis was conducted using a non-compartmental approach. Following a single CMS dose [2.36 mg colistin base activity (CBA) per kg, 1 h infusion], peak concentrations (C max ) of CMS and formed colistin were 18.0 mg/L and 0.661 mg/L, respectively. The estimated half-life (t 1/2 ) of CMS and colistin were 1.38 h and 4.49 h, respectively. Approximately 62.5% of the CMS dose was excreted via urine within 24 h after dosing, whilst only 1.28% was present in the form of colistin. Following multiple CMS doses, colistin reached steady-state within 24 h; there was no accumulation of CMS, but colistin accumulated slightly (R AUC  = 1.33). This study provides the first PK data in the Chinese population and is essential for designing CMS dosing regimens for use in Chinese hospitals. The urinary PK data strongly support the use of intravenous CMS for serious urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. [Basic mechanisms of QRS voltage changes on ECG of healthy subjects during the exercise test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, M M

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiography is the most commonly used technique for detection stress-induced myocardial ischemia. However, the sensitivity of ECG-criteria is not high. One of the major problem is the difficulty in differentiating ECG changes caused by various factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of the QRS voltage changes during exercise on parameters of central hemodynamics, gender particularities and to reveal mechanisms causing these changes. To eliminate the effect of changes in cardiomyocytes transmembrane potentials under the influence of the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system during stepwise increasing exercises and/or due to a lack of ATP results from inadequate myocardial blood flow only healthy subjects not older than 35 years were included in the study (7 men and 7 women) and only periods of ventricular depolarization (QRS complex on the ECG) were included in the analysis. We compared the changes of QRS waves during exercise sessions with two upper and one lower limbs in both men and women. The exercise load was twice bigger in exercise with one leg relative to exercise with two arms. Responses of heart rate and systolic arterial pressure were similar. Amplitude of S-wave in left chest leads significantly increased in both sessions without significant difference between augmentations in the sessions and in groups of men and women. Significant relationship between the S wave augmentation and the peak systolic arterial pressure were revealed. Furthermore, the QRS changes during the exercise with vertical and a horizontal torso position were compared to assess the impact of diastolic arterial pressure and displacement of the diaphragm and heart rotation due to increase of abdominal pressure during the last steps of exercise. The obtained results allow us to exclude the impact of the heart position and size changes, as well as the exercise load on S-wave changes and make a conclusion about the dependence of this parameter on

  20. Test–retest reliability and repeatability of renal diffusion tensor MRI in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, Marica; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Clark, Christopher A.; Gordon, Isky

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed test–retest reliability and repeatability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the kidneys. Materials and methods: Seven healthy volunteers (age range, 19–31 years), were imaged three consecutive times on the same day (short-term reliability) and the same imaging protocol was repeated after a month (long-term reliability). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans in the coronal-oblique projection of the kidney were acquired on a 1.5 T scanner using a multi-section echo-planar sequence; six contiguous slices each 5 mm thick, diffusion sensitisation along 20 non-collinear directions, TR = 730 ms, TE = 73 ms and 2 b-values (0 and 400 s mm −2 ). Volunteers were asked to hold their breath throughout each data acquisition (approx. 20 s). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from maps generated using dedicated software MIStar (Apollo Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Australia). Results: Statistical analyses of both short- and long-term repeats were carried out from which the within-subject coefficient of variation (wsCV) was calculated. The wsCV obtained for both the ADC and FA values were less than 10% in all the analyses carried out. In addition, paired (repeated measures) t-test was used to measure the variation between the diffusion parameters collected from the two scanning sessions a month apart. It showed no significant difference and the wsCV obtained after comparing the first and second scans were found to be smaller than 15% for both ADC and FA. Conclusion: Renal DTI produces reliable and repeatable results which make longitudinal investigation of patients viable.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine and its metabolite 10-hydroxycarbazepine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Natalicia de Jesus; van Dijkman, Sven C; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Alexandre Junior, Veriano; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tozatto, Eduardo; van Hasselt, J G Coen; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2017-11-15

    Oxcarbazepine is indicated for the treatment of partial or generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Most of the absorbed oxcarbazepine is converted into its active metabolite, 10-hydroxycarbazepine (MHD), which can exist as R-(-)- and S-(+)-MHD enantiomers. Here we describe the influence of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil, on the disposition of oxcarbazepine and MHD enantiomers, both of which are P-gp substrates. Healthy subjects (n=12) were randomised to oxcarbazepine or oxcarbazepine combined with verapamil at doses of 300mg b.i.d. and 80mg t.i.d., respectively. Blood samples (n=185) were collected over a period of 12h post oxcarbazepine dose. An integrated PK model was developed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling using a meta-analytical approach. The pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine was described by a two-compartment model with absorption transit compartments and first-order elimination. The concentration-time profiles of both MHD enantiomers were characterised by a one-compartment distribution model. Clearance estimates (95% CI) were 84.9L/h (69.5-100.3) for oxcarbazepine and 2.0L/h (1.9-2.1) for both MHD enantiomers. The volume of distribution was much larger for oxcarbazepine (131L (97-165)) as compared to R-(-)- and S-(+)-MHD (23.6L (14.4-32.8) vs. 31.7L (22.5-40.9), respectively). Co-administration of verapamil resulted in a modest increase of the apparent bioavailability of oxcarbazepine by 12% (10-28), but did not affect parent or metabolite clearances. Despite the evidence of comparable systemic levels of OXC and MHD following administration of verapamil, differences in brain exposure to both moieties cannot be excluded after P-glycoprotein inhibition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Julia; Hysek, Cédric M; Penno, Carlos A; Schmid, Yasmin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Liechti, Matthias E; Odermatt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-hour plasma steroid profiles. 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) were treated with single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), MDMA + methylphenidate, and placebo on 4 separate days using a cross-over study design. Cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, and testosterone were repeatedly measured up to 24 h using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. MDMA significantly increased the plasma concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone and also tended to moderately increase aldosterone levels compared with placebo. MDMA also increased the sum of cortisol + cortisone and the cortisol/cortisone ratio, consistent with an increase in glucocorticoid production. MDMA did not alter the levels of cortisone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, or testosterone. Methylphenidate did not affect any of the steroid concentrations, and it did not change the effects of MDMA on circulating steroids. In summary, the serotonin releaser MDMA has acute effects on circulating steroids. These effects are not observed after stimulation of the dopamine and norepinephrine systems with methylphenidate. The present findings support the view that serotonin rather than dopamine and norepinephrine mediates the acute pharmacologically induced stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the absence of other stressors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of clopidogrel in healthy Jordanian subjects with emphasis optimal sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, A M; Melhem, M; Xue, B; Arafat, T; Reynolds, D K; Van Wart, S A

    2013-05-01

    Clopidogrel is metabolized primarily into an inactive carboxyl metabolite (clopidogrel-IM) or to a lesser extent an active thiol metabolite. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using NONMEM(®) to describe the time course of clopidogrel-IM in plasma and to design a sparse-sampling strategy to predict clopidogrel-IM exposures for use in characterizing anti-platelet activity. Serial blood samples from 76 healthy Jordanian subjects administered a single 75 mg oral dose of clopidogrel were collected and assayed for clopidogrel-IM using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. A two-compartment (2-CMT) PK model with first-order absorption and elimination plus an absorption lag-time was evaluated, as well as a variation of this model designed to mimic enterohepatic recycling (EHC). Optimal PK sampling strategies (OSS) were determined using WinPOPT based upon collection of 3-12 post-dose samples. A two-compartment model with EHC provided the best fit and reduced bias in C(max) (median prediction error (PE%) of 9.58% versus 12.2%) relative to the basic two-compartment model, AUC(0-24) was similar for both models (median PE% = 1.39%). The OSS for fitting the two-compartment model with EHC required the collection of seven samples (0.25, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 h). Reasonably unbiased and precise exposures were obtained when re-fitting this model to a reduced dataset considering only these sampling times. A two-compartment model considering EHC best characterized the time course of clopidogrel-IM in plasma. Use of the suggested OSS will allow for the collection of fewer PK samples when assessing clopidogrel-IM exposures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of Wheat Flour Noodles with Bombyx mori Powder on Glycemic Response in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Wanhee; Kim, JiEun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2016-01-01

    Recent trial results suggest that the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial in the prevention of high blood glucose levels. Identifying active hypoglycemic substances in ordinary foods could be a significant benefit to the management of blood glucose. It has been hypothesized that noodles with Bombyx mori powder are a low GI food. We evaluated GI and changes in postprandial glucose levels following consumption of those noodles and compared them with those following consumption of plain wheat flour noodles (control) and glucose (reference) in healthy subjects. Thirteen males (age: 34.2±4.5 years, body mass index: 23.2±1.1 kg/m2) consumed 75 g carbohydrate portions of glucose and the 2 kinds of noodle after an overnight fast. Capillary blood was measured at time 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min from the start of each food intake. The GI values were calculated by taking the ratio of the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) for the noodles and glucose. There was a significant difference in postprandial glucose concentrations at 30 and 45 min between the control noodles and the noodles with Bombyx mori powder: the IAUC and GI for the noodles with Bombyx mori powder were significantly lower than those for glucose and plain wheat flour noodles. The wheat flour noodles with Bombyx mori powder could help prevent an increase in postprandial glucose response and possibly provide an alternative to other carbohydrate staple foods for glycemic management. PMID:27752491

  5. Interaction between timolol eyedrops and oral nicardipine or oral diltiazem in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, Y I; Tsutsumi, K; Kotegawa, T; Nakamura, K; Nakano, S; Nakatsuka, K

    1998-04-01

    Timolol is widely used for the topical therapy of glaucoma. Adverse cardiovascular effects include slowing of the heart rate and weakening of myocardial contractility. We investigated pharmacodynamic interactions with respect to cardiovascular and ocular responses between timolol ophthalmic solution and either nicardipine, which does not directly inhibit cardiac conduction, or diltiazem, which does. Two studies utilized a randomized, double-blind, Latin-square, placebo-controlled design involving four separate treatments given at least 1 week apart. Eight healthy male Japanese volunteers received a single drop of 0.5% timolol or artificial tears in each eye with or without a single oral dose of nicardipine (40 mg), and with or without a single oral dose of diltiazem (60 mg). Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer before and 1.5 and 3 h after dosing. At these times, heart rate and blood pressure were measured at rest and after exercise. The intraocular pressure was measured at rest. One drop of 0.5% timolol per eye significantly reduced the exercise-induced increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and intraocular pressure at rest. The timolol ophthalmic solution suppressed the reflex sympathetic cardiac stimulation that resulted from the primarily vasodilative action of nicardipine. No additional reduction in heart rate occurred when the ophthalmic timolol solution was administered in conjunction with diltiazem. The concomitant use of timolol and nicardipine or diltiazem did not induce an additional reduction in intraocular pressure. Oral nicardipine or diltiazem did not reduce intraocular pressure. Care should be taken when using topical timolol in patients with cardiovascular or respiratory diseases.

  6. Acupuncture mobilizes the brain's default mode and its anti-correlated network in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kathleen K S; Marina, Ovidiu; Claunch, Joshua D; Nixon, Erika E; Fang, Jiliang; Liu, Jing; Li, Ming; Napadow, Vitaly; Vangel, Mark; Makris, Nikos; Chan, Suk-Tak; Kwong, Kenneth K; Rosen, Bruce R

    2009-09-01

    Previous work has shown that acupuncture stimulation evokes deactivation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) as well as activation of somatosensory brain regions. This study explores the activity and functional connectivity of these regions during acupuncture vs. tactile stimulation and vs. acupuncture associated with inadvertent sharp pain. Acupuncture during 201 scans and tactile stimulation during 74 scans for comparison at acupoints LI4, ST36 and LV3 was monitored with fMRI and psychophysical response in 48 healthy subjects. Clusters of deactivated regions in the medial prefrontal, medial parietal and medial temporal lobes as well as activated regions in the sensorimotor and a few paralimbic structures can be identified during acupuncture by general linear model analysis and seed-based cross correlation analysis. Importantly, these clusters showed virtual identity with the default mode network and the anti-correlated task-positive network in response to stimulation. In addition, the amygdala and hypothalamus, structures not routinely reported in the default mode literature, were frequently involved in acupuncture. When acupuncture induced sharp pain, the deactivation was attenuated or became activated instead. Tactile stimulation induced greater activation of the somatosensory regions but less extensive deactivation of the LPNN. These results indicate that the deactivation of the LPNN during acupuncture cannot be completely explained by the demand of attention that is commonly proposed in the default mode literature. Our results suggest that acupuncture mobilizes the anti-correlated functional networks of the brain to mediate its actions, and that the effect is dependent on the psychophysical response.

  7. New Mydriasis-Free Electroretinogram Recorded with Skin Electrodes in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Asakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the reproducibility and consistency of the new mydriasis-free electroretinogram (ERG with a skin electrode (RETeval device, to determine the normative values of parameters, and to clarify the usefulness of pupil records to colored-light stimulus. Methods. A total of 100 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.4 years were enrolled. The diagnostic parameters obtained by the RETeval device were examined under the following conditions. The reproducibility was determined with the coefficient of variation (CV. The consistency was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean value and the normal range were analyzed with a 95% confidence interval as the normative values of parameters. The correlation of parameters to pupil records (area ratio, constriction ratio and flicker ERG was also examined in the diabetic retinopathy assessment protocol. Results. From the CV for each of the two measurements, the amplitude has a low reproducibility compared with the implicit time. Generally good consistency was obtained with both ERG parameters (ICCs = 0.48–0.92. Moderate correlations were found for the white-, red-, and blue-light stimulus in the area ratio and the constriction ratio, respectively (r = 0.44–0.62; P = 0.010–<0.0001. No correlation was observed between pupil and flicker parameters (r = 0.06–0.34; P = 0.646–0.051. Conclusions. The RETeval device was suggested as a possible screening device to detect the visual afferent diseases by evaluating in combination with the ERG recording and the colored-light pupil response.

  8. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow: MRI measurements in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja; Larsson, Henrik B W; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-11-01

    Although both impaired cardiac function and reduced cerebral blood flow are associated with ageing, current knowledge of the influence of cardiac function on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cardiac function on CBF. CBF and cardiac output were measured in 31 healthy subjects 50-75 years old using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Mean values of CBF, cardiac output and cardiac index were 43.6 ml per 100 g min(-1), 5.5 l min(-1) and 2.7 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in males, and 53.4 ml per 100 g min(-1), 4.3 l min(-1) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed a gender-related inverse association of increased low-to-high-frequency power ratio with CBF and fractional brain flow. The findings do not support a direct effect of cardiac function on CBF, but demonstrates gender-related differences in cardiac output distribution. We propose fractional brain flow as a novel index that may be a useful marker of adequate brain perfusion in the context of ageing as well as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of ponatinib in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, N I; Dorer, D J; Niland, K; Haluska, F; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2013-12-01

    Ponatinib is a potent oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against BCR-ABL, the primary driver of chronic myeloid leukaemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This single-centre, single-dose, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of a single oral dose of ponatinib (45-mg tablet) under fasting conditions and following consumption of high- and low-fat meals by healthy subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the six possible treatment sequences, each evaluating three ponatinib 45-mg treatments: administered under fasting conditions; administered after a high-fat meal; or administered after a standardized low-fat meal. The high-fat meal derived approximately 50% of its total caloric content from fat, with approximately 150, 250 and 500-600 calories derived from protein, carbohydrates and fat, respectively (total of approximately 900-1000 calories). The standardized low-fat meal derived no more than 20% of total caloric content from fat, with approximately 56, 428 and 63 calories derived from protein, carbohydrates and fat, respectively (total of approximately 547 calories). During each of the three treatment periods, blood samples were collected predose and at 13 time points over the 96-h post-dose interval. Plasma concentrations of ponatinib were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed-model analyses of variance (anova) were performed on natural log-transformed PK parameters Cmax and AUC0-∞. Geometric mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values for the fasted, low-fat and high-fat regimens were 54·7, 51·6 and 51·5 ng/mL, respectively. Geometric mean area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) values for the fasted, low-fat and high-fat regimens were 1273, 1244 and 1392 h × ng/mL, respectively. All limits of the 90% CIs of the estimated geometric mean ratios for Cmax and all AUC

  10. Measuring Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Ji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the most common cause of death globally. To detect CAD noninvasively at an early stage before clinical symptoms occur is still nowadays challenging. Analysis of the variation of heartbeat interval (RRI opens a new avenue for evaluating the functional change of cardiovascular system which is accepted to occur at the subclinical stage of CAD. In addition, systolic time interval (STI and diastolic time interval (DTI also show potential. There may be coupling in these electromechanical time series due to their physiological connection. However, to the best of our knowledge no publication has systematically investigated how can the coupling be measured and how it changes in CAD patients. In this study, we enrolled 39 CAD patients and 36 healthy subjects and for each subject the electrocardiogram (ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG signals were recorded simultaneously for 5 min. The RRI series, STI series, and DTI series were constructed, respectively. We used linear cross correlation (CC, coherence function (CF, as well as nonlinear mutual information (MI, cross conditional entropy (XCE, cross sample entropy (XSampEn, and cross fuzzy entropy (XFuzzyEn to analyse the bivariate RRI-DTI coupling, RRI-STI coupling, and STI-DTI coupling, respectively. Our results suggest that the linear CC and CF generally have no significant difference between the two groups for all three types of bivariate coupling. The MI only shows weak change in RRI-DTI coupling. By comparison, the three entropy-based coupling measurements show significantly decreased coupling in CAD patients except XSampEn for RRI-DTI coupling (less significant and XCE for STI-DTI and RRI-STI coupling (not significant. Additionally, the XFuzzyEn performs best as it was still significant if we further applied the Bonferroni correction in our statistical analysis. Our study indicates that the intrinsic electromechanical coupling is most probably nonlinear and can better

  11. Effect of Graded Unilateral Sanding Exercise on Metabolic and Cardiopulmonary Function in the Healthy and the Hemiparetic Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Muraki, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how 18 elderly subjects with cerebral vascular accident (CVA) (14 men and 4 women) and 19 healthy elderly subjects (6 men and 13 women) would respond to a five-step graded unilateral sanding activity. Three indicators of pulmonary function such as expiratory tidal volume, respiratory rate, and expiratory volume and four indicators of cardiometabolic function such as metabolic equivalents (METS), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pressure rat...

  12. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G

    1995-04-04

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays.

  13. The effects of various sources of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasse-Wolthuis, M.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of several types of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in young healthy subjects. Dietary fibre has been defined as those plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances) and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis

  14. Assessment of torque-steadiness reliability at the ankle level in healthy young subjects: implications for cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin Høyer; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2008-01-01

    It was the primary objective of this study to investigate whether quantifying fluctuations in dorsi and plantarflexor torque during submaximal isometric contractions is a reliable measurement in young healthy subjects. A secondary objective was to investigate the reliability of the associated mus...

  15. Validation of reaction time as a measure of cognitive function and quality of life in healthy subjects and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Janice Marie; Rask, Ingeborg Krarup

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalized patients and is related to decreased cognitive function and impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated the validity of reaction time as a simple bedside tool for measuring cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients, and additionally...

  16. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Our objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John's wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. METHODS: We performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1 g...

  17. Gene expression patterns in CD4+ peripheral blood cells in healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Sara J; Van Keulen, Virginia P; Scheid, Adam D; Allen, Kathleen S; Bradshaw, Renee K; Jen, Jin; Peikert, Tobias; Middha, Sumit; Zhang, Yuji; Block, Matthew S; Markovic, Svetomir N; Pease, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Melanoma patients exhibit changes in immune responsiveness in the local tumor environment, draining lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Immune-targeting therapies are revolutionizing melanoma patient care increasingly, and studies show that patients derive clinical benefit from these newer agents. Nonetheless, predicting which patients will benefit from these costly therapies remains a challenge. In an effort to capture individual differences in immune responsiveness, we are analyzing patterns of gene expression in human peripheral blood cells using RNAseq. Focusing on CD4+ peripheral blood cells, we describe multiple categories of immune regulating genes, which are expressed in highly ordered patterns shared by cohorts of healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients. Despite displaying conservation in overall transcriptome structure, CD4+ peripheral blood cells from melanoma patients differ quantitatively from healthy subjects in the expression of more than 2000 genes. Moreover, 1300 differentially expressed genes are found in transcript response patterns following activation of CD4+ cells ex vivo, suggesting that widespread functional discrepancies differentiate the immune systems of healthy subjects and melanoma patients. While our analysis reveals that the transcriptome architecture characteristic of healthy subjects is maintained in cancer patients, the genes expressed differentially among individuals and across cohorts provide opportunities for understanding variable immune states as well as response potentials, thus establishing a foundation for predicting individual responses to stimuli such as immunotherapeutic agents.

  18. Changes in six-minute walking distance during pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD and in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Ben Cheikh Rejbi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Imen Ben Cheikh Rejbi1, Yassine Trabelsi1, Afef Chouchene1, Wafa Ben Turkia1, Helmi Ben Saad1, Abdelkarim Zbidi1, Abdelhamid Kerken2, Zouhair Tabka11Department of Physiology and Lung Testing, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, Tunisia; 2Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine of Monastir, TunisiaBackground: The six-minute walking distance (6MWD test has demonstrated validity and reliability to assess changes in functional capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. However, no attempt has been made to establish an iterative measurement of 6MWD during the overall period of pulmonary rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a twelve-week rehabilitation program on the iterative weekly measurement of 6MWD in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and healthy subjects.Methods: Twenty-six patients with COPD and nine age-matched healthy subjects were studied. Measurements were taken at baseline and after twelve weeks except for the 6MWD. The exercise measurements included a six-minute walking test (6MWT and an incremental exercise test. Oxygen saturation, heart rate, and dyspnea will be monitored during all these tests. Results: At baseline there were significant differences between groups, except in age, body mass index, and oxygen saturation. After 12 weeks, there was no significant change in lung function in patients with COPD and healthy subjects. The 6MWD, peak oxygen uptake VO2peak and anaerobic threshold increased significantly after training in both groups (P < 0.01. The averaged trace of the 6MWD of patients with COPD and healthy subjects was followed-up respectively by a logarithmic and linear fitting. 6MWD showed a plateau after eight weeks in patients with COPD, however, it increased continually overall in healthy subjects.Conclusion: Both patients with COPD and healthy subjects demonstrated functional responses to training but with

  19. Effect of changes of serum IGF-II and CT contents on bone metabolism in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Rongxing; Chen Wenhan; Chen Shaozhu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of changes of serum insulin like growth factor II (IGF-II) and calcitonin (CT) on bone metabolism in both male and female healthy subjects of different age groups. Methods: Serum IGF-II and CT contents were determined with RIA in 180 healthy subjects of both sexes in 5 age groups (27-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and over 70). Results: The serum contents of IGF-II and CT decreased gradually as the age increased. The IGF-II contents in subjects above 70 were significantly lower than those in all other subjects (P<0.01); the values in subjects of the age group 27-39 were also significantly higher than those in the 60-69 group (P<0.05). Again, the serum CT contents in subjects over 50 were significantly lower than those in subjects below 50 (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were little differences among the levels in both sexes, with the exception of a slight but not significant lower value in the females above 50. Conclusion: In older subjects, the decreased contents of serum IGF-II would exert less modulation on osteoblastic activity while the decreased contents of CT would exert less inhibition on osteolytic activity. The contents in older females were even lower due to the decreased estrogen level. Combination of these two factors would lead to the initiation and development of osteoporosis. (authors)

  20. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  1. [Influence of acupuncture of Zusanli (ST 36) on connectivity of brain functional network in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nuo; Wang, Pang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-le; Che, Yan-qiu; Jia, Chen-hui; Guo, Yi; Chao, Wang

    2011-08-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture of Zusanli (ST 36) on electroencephalogram (EEG) so as to probe into its law in regulating the interconnectivity of brain functional network. A total of 9 healthy young volunteer students (6 male, 3 female) participated in the present study. They were asked to take a dorsal position on a test-bed. EEG signals were acquired from 22 surface scalp electrodes (Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, F2, F4, F8, A1, T3, C3, C2, C4, T4, A2, T5, P3, P2, P4, T6, O2, O1 and O2) fixed on the subject's head. Acupuncture stimulation was applied to the right Zusanli (ST 36) by manipulating the filiform needle with uniform reducing-reinforcing method and at a frequency of about 50 cycles/min for 2 min. Then the stimulation was stopped for 10 min, and repeated once again (needle-twirling frequency: 150 and 200 cycles/min), 3 times altogether. The acquired EEG data were analyzed by using coherence estimation method, average path length, average clustering coefficient, and the average degree of the articulation points (nodes) for analyzing the synchronization of EEG signals before, during and after acupuncture. In comparison with pre-acupuncture, the coherence amplitude values of EEG-delta (1-4 Hz) and y (31-47 Hz) waves were increased significantly after acupuncture of ST 36. No significant changes were found in the amplitude values of EEG-theta (5-8 Hz), -alpha (9-13 Hz) and-beta (14-30 Hz) waves after acupuncture stimulation. During and after acupuncture, the synchronism values of EEG-delta waves of different leads and numbers of interconnectivity between every two brain functional regions in majority of the 9 volunteers were increased clearly. In all volunteers, the degree values of all nodes except A1 and A2, the average clustering coefficients along with the increase of the threshold (r), and the average path lengths of the brain functional network of EEG-delta waves during and after acupuncture were also increased evidently (the latter two items, P < 0

  2. Reproducibility indices applied to cervical pressure pain threshold measurements in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prushansky, Tamara; Dvir, Zeevi; Defrin-Assa, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    To apply various statistical indices for reproducibility analysis of pressure pain threshold measurements and to derive a preferred pressure pain threshold measurement protocol based on these indices. The pressure pain threshold of 3 pairs of right and left homologous cervical region sites were measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 women, 10 men) using a hand-held pressure algometer. Measurements took place on 2 occasions (test 1 and test 2) separated by a mean interval of 1 week. On each testing session, the site-related pressure pain thresholds were measured 3 times each according to 2 different protocols. Protocol A consisted of a repetitive order, namely 3 consecutive measurements at each site before proceeding to the next, whereas protocol B consisted of an alternate order in which 3 consecutive rounds of all individually tested sites took place. For test 1, protocol A was followed by protocol B with an hour interval. For test 2, the reverse order took place. The findings revealed no significant differences between the two protocols and indicated a significant rise (P test 1 to test 2 in both protocols. Absolute values (mean +/-SD) derived from the entire sample of pressure pain threshold sites ranged from 140 +/- 60 to 198.7 +/- 95 kPa (1.60 +/- 0.6 to 1.99 +/- 0.95 kg/cm, respectively). No significant gender or side differences were noted. Pearson r as well as the intraclass correlation coefficient revealed good to excellent reproducibility for both protocols and for all sites measured: r = 0.79-0.94 and intraclass correlation coefficient(3,3) = 0.85-0.96, respectively. To define site-specific cutoff values indicating change at the 95% confidence level, 1.96*SEM was calculated, and its values ranged from 31.6 to 58.2 kPa, which correspond to 16.8% to 32.8% of the absolute mean values. In addition, the limits of agreement, which depict the individual test-retest differences relative to their mean, indicated a heteroscedastic trend. The two protocols yielded

  3. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  4. Cimetidine Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Subjects: A Comparison of Tablets and Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of cimetidine 200 mg tablet with that of cimetidine suspension (200 mg/10 mL, a 20 mL suspension of 800 mg magnesium hydroxide and 912 mg aluminum hydroxide, and matching placebo on intragastric pH of healthy volunteers. There were 13 males and seven females, mean age 23 years (range 20 to 32 and mean weight 72 kg (range 55 to 89. The intragastric pH of each subject was measured over 6 h starting immediately before dosing on each of five study days. Cimetidine plasma levels were measured for 6 h after dosing on each of the cimetidine study days. Cimetidine tablet and suspension were superior to placebo tablet or suspension or to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in the area under the pH time curve from 0 to 6 h, percentage time pH of at least 3.5, change from pretreatment pH area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h and maximum increase in pH. Mean plasma cimetidine levels were significantly and positively correlated to mean intragastric pH for both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension. Comparing cimetidine concentration (Cmax and lower percentage time plasma cimetidine concentration was at least 0.5 μg/mL (the minimum therapeutic level. These pharmacokinetic variations between cimetidine suspension and tablets may have partially explained the pharmacodynamic differences of the lower area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h. The results indicate that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension significantly increase intragastric pH relative to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension, placebo tablets or placebo suspension. Based on the assumption that elevation of intragastric pH is an important factor for alleviation of the symptoms and for the healing of peptic disorders, the results of this study suggest that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension should be effective treatment.

  5. Potassium and magnesium distribution, ECG changes, and ventricular ectopic beats during beta 2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveskov, C; Djurhuus, M S; Klitgaard, N A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intravenous (i.v.) terbutaline on potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) distribution, ECG changes, and prevalence of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover. Subjects received either placebo or terbu......OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intravenous (i.v.) terbutaline on potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) distribution, ECG changes, and prevalence of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover. Subjects received either placebo......-potassium pump number. Urinary excretion of potassium and magnesium. ECG changes (T-wave and QTC interval) and the number of ventricular ectopic beats. MAIN RESULTS: Terbutaline produced an immediate decrease in serum potassium level from 4.17 (4.04 to 4.30) mmol/L to a nadir of 3.32 (3.06 to 3.58) mmol/L (p ... of sodium-potassium pumps. Furthermore, terbutaline induced changes in ECG with a highly significant lengthening of the QTc interval but with an unchanged number of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects....

  6. Effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation on practice-related changes in fast finger movements in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Rocco; Iezzi, Ennio; Dinapoli, Loredana; Suppa, Antonio; Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the primary motor cortex on practice-related changes in motor performance. Seventeen healthy subjects underwent two experimental sessions, one testing real iTBS and the other testing sham iTBS. Before and after both iTBS sessions, the subjects practiced fast right index-finger abductions for a few minutes. As measures of cortical excitability we calculated resting motor threshold and motor-evoked potential amplitude. As measures of practice-related changes we evaluated the mean movement amplitude, peak velocity and peak acceleration values for each block. When subjects practiced the movement task, the three variables measuring practice-related changes improved to a similar extent during real and sham iTBS whereas cortical excitability increased only during real iTBS. In a further group of five healthy subjects we investigated the effect of real and sham iTBS on changes in motor performance after a longer task practice and found no significant changes in motor performance and retention after real and sham iTBS. From our results overall we conclude that in healthy subjects iTBS applied to the primary motor cortex leaves practice-related changes in an index finger abduction task unaffected. We suggest that iTBS delivered over the primary motor cortex is insufficient to alter motor performance because early motor learning probably engages a wide cortical and subcortical network.

  7. Serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early and moderate Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, B; Deisenhammer, E A; Marksteiner, J; Papousek, I; Fink, A; Weiss, E M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the serial position effects in memory can differentiate patients with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from healthy controls and patients with different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The serial position effects was tested with the CERAD word list task in 184 persons (39 healthy control subjects, 15 amnestic MCI single domain subjects, 23 amnestic MCI multiple domain subjects, 31 nonamnestic MCI subjects, 45 early or mild AD patients, and 31 moderate AD patients). With progression of dementia, memory deficits increased and the impairment in the primacy effect during the learning trials advanced, whereas the recall of recent items was less impaired. The serial position profile of nonamnestic MCI patients resembled that of healthy control subjects, whereas amnestic MCI patients showed poorer performance in all 3 positions but no significant difference as a function of serial word position. Analyses of the serial position effect may be a useful complement to clinical neuropsychological measures for distinguishing amnestic MCI patients from normal aging and patients with different stages of dementia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of Contiflo ICON 400 µg tablets in healthy Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monif, T; Arora, V; Madan, S; Arora, R; Balaji, A; Jha, D; Thudi, N R

    2010-12-01

    Tamsulosin, an alpha1 adrenoceptor blocking agent, exhibits selectivity for alpha1 receptors in human prostate. Blockade of these adrenoceptors can cause smooth muscles in the bladder neck and prostate to relax, resulting in an improvement in urine flow rate and a reduction in symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. A new formulation Contiflo ICON 400 µg has been developed by Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, India similar to Flomaxtra XL 400 µg of Astellas Pharma Limited, United Kingdom. This product is specifically designed to achieve a more consistent plasma concentration over a period of 24-h, a lower maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and an independence of pharmacokinetics (PKs) on food intake. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the new formulation Contiflo ICON 400 µg of Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, India and Flomaxtra XL 400 µg prolonged release tablets (containing tamsulosin hydrochloride prolonged release 400 µg) of Astellas Pharma Limited, United Kingdom. Study was conducted as an open label, balanced, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, cross over, single-dose bioequivalence study in 32 adult male human subjects under fed conditions. The mean (range) age, weight and height of the study subjects were 27.03 years (19 - 40 years), 57.19 kg (48 - 72 kg) and 166.81 cm (154 - 181 cm) respectively. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h post dose in each period. Plasma samples were analyzed for tamsulosin by using validated liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The Mean ± SD of pharmacokinetic parameters tmax, Cmax, AUC24, AUClast and AUCinf for Tamsulosin were 11.741 ± 4.7201 and 12.155 ± 6.3077 h, 10.7614 ± 4.76709 and 10.4954 ± 5.08979 ng/ml, 171.4674 ± 77.39695 and 160.6738 ± 77.98628 ng.h/ml, 262.7771 ± 150.21432 and 250.6854 ± 156.75581 ng

  9. The Impact of the Level of the Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Versus Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda-Faujan, N.; Abdulamir, A.S.; Fatimah, A.B.; Anas, O. Muhammad; Shuhaimi, M.; Yazid, A.M.; Loong, Y.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in faeces of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients compared to healthy subjects. SCFAs such as pyruvic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric and butyric acids were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This study showed that the level of acetic, 162.0 µmol/g wet faeces, butyric, 86.9 µmol/g wet faeces, and propionic acids, 65.6 µmol/g wet faeces, decreased remarkably in IBD faecal samples when compared with that of healthy individuals, 209.7, 176.0, and 93.3 µmol/g wet faeces respectively. On the contrary, lactic and pyruvic acids showed higher levels in faecal samples of IBD than in healthy subjects. In the context of butyric acid level, this study also found that the molar ratio of butyric acid was higher than propionic acid in both faecal samples. This might be due to the high intake of starch from rice among Malaysian population. It was concluded that the level of SCFAs differ remarkably between faecal samples in healthy subjects and that in IBD patients providing evidence that SCFAs more likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:20563285

  10. Colour Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of vascularization in the wrist and finger joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carotti, M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Salaffi, F., E-mail: fsalaff@tin.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Morbiducci, J. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Ciapetti, A., E-mail: ciapetti.a@libero.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Bartolucci, L. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Gasparini, S. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Ferraccioli, G. [Division of Rheumatology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Giuseppetti, G.M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Grassi, W. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the presence of blood flow by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) in the wrist and finger joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy subjects and to define a cut-off value of CDUS resistive index (RI). Methods: Forty-three patients with RA and 43 healthy controls were examined by CDUS. The wrists, second and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints were evaluated in each patient and healthy subject. Spectral Doppler analysis was performed in order to characterize the type of flow and a mean RI was measured to define a cut-off level. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the screening method's performance. Results: Flow was detected in 219 of the 430 total joints (50.9%) of RA patients (111 in the wrists, 49 in the MCP and 30 in the PIP joints). Healthy subjects had a quantifiable flow in 45 of the 430 joints (10.5%) and, in particular, 39 (86.4%) in the wrist, 5 (11.14%) in the MCP and 1 (2.2%) in the PIP joints. The intra- and inter-reader agreements for the detection of Doppler signal were very good (kappa 0.82 and 0.89, respectively). Mean RI values were 0.72 {+-} 0.06 in RA patients and 0.86 {+-} 0.06 in healthy subjects (p < 0.01). At cut-off point of RI < 0.79 the sensitivity was 89.6% and the specificity was 78.8% (positive likelihood ratio 4.22). Conclusion: DUS is a useful tool for the detection of abnormal blood flow in inflammatory joints of RA patients.

  11. The Effects of the Disturbance of the Vestibular System on the Dynamic Balance of Idiopathic Scoliotic Subjects with and Without Exercise Therapy Compared to Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farahpour

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the neuromuscular system’s disorders in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS are not well known. The objectives of this study were to assess the dynamic balance of the AIS patients and the influence of exercise therapy on patients' dynamic balance. Eleven teenager scoliotic subjects after three months exercise therapy, nine similar patients without therapy and 13 healthy age matched subjects as control group were studied. Using dynamic stability platform, the deviation of COG of subjects in different positions, including up right standing, standing with head flexion and standing with head hyper extension were measured. The tests were repeated in both lose and stable condition of the foot platform. Results showed that the stability of the foot platform resulted in COG's deviation by 1.13 0.08 in all subjects. Dynamic balance of scoliotic patients without treatment was similar to that of the normal subjects. While, exercised patients had less COG deviation than the other groups. The change in head position increased the COG deviation by 2.5 times in control and non-exercised patients and 1.5 times in exercised patients. The dynamic balance in scoliosis was not affected. Exercise improved the dynamic balance in scoliotic subjects. Exercise therapy is recommended to improve the proprioceptives function.

  12. Comparative gut microbiota and resistome profiling of intensive care patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Elena; Bello González, Teresita D J; Fuentes, Susana; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Lahti, Leo; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Majoor, Eline A M; Braat, Johanna C; van Mourik, Maaike S M; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Willems, Rob J L; Bonten, Marc J M; van Passel, Mark W J; Smidt, Hauke; van Schaik, Willem

    2017-08-14

    The gut microbiota is a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in critically ill patients during their stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). To suppress gut colonization with opportunistic pathogens, a prophylactic antibiotic regimen, termed "selective decontamination of the digestive tract" (SDD), is used in some countries where it improves clinical outcome in ICU patients. Yet, the impact of ICU hospitalization and SDD on the gut microbiota remains largely unknown. Here, we characterize the composition of the gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance genes ("the resistome") of ICU patients during SDD and of healthy subjects. From ten patients that were acutely admitted to the ICU, 30 fecal samples were collected during ICU stay. Additionally, feces were collected from five of these patients after transfer to a medium-care ward and cessation of SDD. Feces from ten healthy subjects were collected twice, with a 1-year interval. Gut microbiota and resistome composition were determined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic profiling and nanolitre-scale quantitative PCRs. The microbiota of the ICU patients differed from the microbiota of healthy subjects and was characterized by lower microbial diversity, decreased levels of Escherichia coli and of anaerobic Gram-positive, butyrate-producing bacteria of the Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, and an increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and enterococci. Four resistance genes (aac(6')-Ii, ermC, qacA, tetQ), providing resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, disinfectants, and tetracyclines, respectively, were significantly more abundant among ICU patients than in healthy subjects, while a chloramphenicol resistance gene (catA) and a tetracycline resistance gene (tetW) were more abundant in healthy subjects. The gut microbiota of SDD-treated ICU patients deviated strongly from the gut microbiota of healthy subjects. The negative effects on the resistome were limited to selection

  13. Clinical pharmacokinetics of Icotinib, an anti-cancer drug: evaluation of dose proportionality, food effect, and tolerability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyang; Jiang, Ji; Zhang, Li; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yingxiang; Zhang, Don; Hu, Pei

    2014-04-01

    Icotinib, an oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has proved effectiveness in xenografted nude mice. Purpose of the present studies was to investigate tolerability and pharmacokinetics of Icotinib in healthy subjects for the first time, including dose proportionality, food effect, and tolerability. Two studies were conducted in total of 22 healthy subjects: a randomized, two-Latin-square crossover, dose proportional study (n = 12) and a randomized two-way crossover food-effect study (n = 10). Plasma concentration of Icotinib reached peak at a median Tmax of 0.75-3.5 h after single dose and then declined with a mean t1/2β of 6.02-7.83 h. Over the dose range of 100-600 mg, AUC values were proportional to dose and Cmax showed a slight saturation when dose increases. Only 0.2 % of the dose was excreted through kidney in unchanged Icotinib. After dosing 400 mg of Icotinib with high-fat and high-calorie meal, mean Cmax and AUC were significantly increased by 59 and 79 %, respectively. Three subjects experienced four adverse events (rash, increase in AST and ALT, and external injury). Rash and increased levels of AST and ALT were considered as drug-related. No serious adverse events were reported. The current work demonstrated that Icotinib was well tolerated in healthy male subjects (n = 22) over the dose range of 100-600 mg with or without food. Icotinib exposure, expressed in AUC, was proportionally increased with dose over the above dose range. Food intake significantly increased the absorption and exposure of Icotinib in healthy subjects.

  14. The relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with hypovitaminosis D. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH D and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentration with body mass index (BMI in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control subjects and their predicting role in obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects (100 type 2 diabetics and 100 healthy controls. Concentration of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was determined in the fasting samples. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI were also measured. Results Eighty-five percent of type 2 diabetics and 79% of healthy subjects were suffering from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Serum concentration of 25(OH D (22.08 ± 15.20 ng/ml (r = −0.11, P = 0.04 and calcium (8.94 ± 0.59 mg/dl (r = −2.25, P = 0.04 has significant statistically with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum concentration of PTH has non-significantly associated with BMI in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Serum levels of vitamin D inversely and PTH positively are associated with BMI after adjusted for age, gender and serum calcium in both type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. These associations were statistically significant for serum concentration of vitamin D and calcium only in diabetic patients. So the status of vitamin D is considered as an important factor in type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  16. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  17. Cognitive reserve in young and old healthy subjects: differences and similarities in a testing-the-limits paradigm with DSST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is understood as capacity to cope with challenging conditions, e.g. after brain injury or in states of brain dysfunction, or age-related cognitive decline. CR in elderly subjects has attracted much research interest, but differences between healthy older and younger subjects have not been addressed in detail hitherto. Usually, one-time standard individual assessments are used to characterise CR. Here we observe CR as individual improvement in cognitive performance (gain in a complex testing-the-limits paradigm, the digit symbol substitution test (DSST, with 10 repeated measurements, in 140 younger (20-30 yrs and 140 older (57-74 yrs healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed attention, memory and executive function, and mood and personality traits as potential influence factors for CR. We found that both, younger and older subjects showed significant gains, which were significantly correlated with speed of information processing, verbal short-term memory and visual problem solving in the older group only. Gender, personality traits and mood did not significantly influence gains in either group. Surprisingly about half of the older subjects performed at the level of the younger group, suggesting that interindividual differences in CR are possibly age-independent. We propose that these findings may also be understood as indication that one-time standard individual measurements do not allow assessment of CR, and that the use of DSST in a testing-the-limits paradigm is a valuable assessment method for CR in young and elderly subjects.

  18. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Siepmann, N

    2003-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In the isolated perfused pancreas, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been shown to enhance glucagon secretion at basal glucose concentrations, but in healthy humans no glucagonotropic effect of GIP has yet been reported. Therefore, we studied the effect of GIP on glucagon ...

  19. The relationship between gallbladder dynamics and the migrating motor complex in fasting healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Rasmussen, L

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between gallbladder dynamics and the interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC) was investigated in 10 healthy male volunteers by a hepatobiliary scintigraphy and gastroduodenal pressure recordings. Filling of the gallbladder commenced in late phase II or in phase III of the MM...

  20. The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in healthy subjects. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Knorr, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) show antidepressant properties in many patients with a diagnosis of depression. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the effect of SSRIs in healthy patients may lead to an understanding of the yet unclear pathophysiology of d...

  1. Antipyrine, oxazepam, and indocyanine green clearance in patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Larsen, S

    1999-01-01

    Hepatic drug metabolism was examined in patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy controls by using a cocktail design with three different model compounds: antipyrine to express phase-I oxidation, oxazepam to express phase-II conjugation, and indocyanine green (ICG), a high-clearance compound....

  2. DIFFERENT ACUTE METABOLISM OF FRUCTOSE IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS COMPARED TO HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Anderstam

    2012-06-01

    We conclude that a fatty meal is associated with a delayed post-prandial fructose absorption and/or metabolism, as well as increased uric acid levels in HD patients. In an ongoing new study, the fructose metabolism will be further studied in CKD patients, diabetics and healthy controls.

  3. Gender differences in the associations between cortisol and insulin in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, FH; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE

    To investigate the role of cortisol in the etiology of insulin resistance in men and women, we examined 218 healthy non-hospitalized elderly, selected from the Rotterdam Study. Free cortisol was assessed by the ratio of fasting serum cortisol over corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and insulin

  4. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  5. DEFB1 polymorphisms and salivary hBD-1 concentration in Oral Lichen Planus patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesello, Vania; Zupin, Luisa; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Biasotto, Matteo; Pozzato, Gabriele; Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Crovella, Sergio; Segat, Ludovica

    2017-01-01

    The aetiology of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, is not yet well understood. Since innate immunity may be hypothesized as involved in the susceptibility to OLP, we studied human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1) an antimicrobial peptide constitutively expressed in the saliva, looking at functional genetic variants possibly able to diminish hBD-1 production an consequently conferring major susceptibility to OLP. We analysed three DEFB1 polymorphisms at 5' UTR, -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), -20G>A (rs11362) and two DEFB1 polymorphisms at 3'UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031), c*87A>G (rs1800971), with the aim of correlating these genetic variants and hBD-1 salivary level in a group of OLP patients and in healthy subjects. We also evaluated hBD-1 salivary concentrations, using ELISA, in OLP and healthy controls. We compared hBD-1 concentrations in OLP and healthy subjects: hBD-1 concentration was significantly higher in OLP patients respect to control. When considering the correlation between DEFB1 polymorphisms genotypes and hBD-1 expression levels, significant results were obtained for SNPs -52G>A (p=0.03 both in OLP patients and healthy individuals) and -44C>G (p=0.02 in OLP patients). hBD-1 production was different between OLP and healthy subjects (not age-matched with OLP). DEFB1 gene polymorphisms, -52G>A and -44C>G, correlated with hBD-1 salivary concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib, in Asian and Western healthy subjects: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Elks, Cathy; Martin, Paul; Carlile, David J; Mariani, Gabriella; Lovick, Susan; Huang, Yifan; Lorch, Ulrike; Brown, Helen; So, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Emerging data on selumetinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor in clinical development, suggest a possible difference in pharmacokinetics (PK) between Japanese and Western patients. This pooled analysis sought to assess the effect of ethnicity on selumetinib exposure in healthy Western and Asian subjects, and to identify any association between genetic variants in the UGT1A1, CYP2C19 and ABCG2 genes and observed differences in selumetinib PK. A pooled analysis of data from ten Phase I studies, one in Asian subjects (encompassing Japanese, non-Japanese Asian and Indian Asian subjects) and nine in Western subjects, was conducted. Key findings were derived from the collective exposure data across doses of 25, 35, 50 and 75 mg selumetinib; primary variables were dose-normalized AUC and C max . PK data from 308 subjects (10 studies) were available for the pooled analysis; genetic data from 87 subjects (3 studies) were available for the pharmacogenetic analysis. Dose-normalized AUC and C max were 35% (95% CI: 25-47%) and 39% (95% CI: 24-56%) higher in the pooled Asian group, respectively, compared with Western subjects. PK exposure parameters were similar between the Japanese, non-Japanese Asian and Indian groups. There was no evidence that the polymorphisms assessed in the genes UGT1A1, CYP2C19 and ABCG2 account for observed PK differences. Selumetinib exposure was higher in healthy Asian subjects compared with Western subjects, and these data provide valuable insight for clinicians to consider when treating patients of Asian ethnicity with selumetinib.

  7. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    )] were explored in 322 male university students in suburban Tokyo. The subjects constituted part of a large cross-sectional survey on the reference value of semen quality of Japanese men. Urinary 3-PBA was detectable in 91% of the subjects demonstrating ubiquitous exposure among the general population....... However, there were no associations between urinary 3-PBA and serum hormone levels. This result was inconsistent with those reported in China and the USA for subjects who had similar levels of urinary 3-PBA to the present subjects. One of the possible reasons of the inconsistency might be different...

  8. Reaching in reality and virtual reality: a comparison of movement kinematics in healthy subjects and in adults with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Anatol G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR is an innovative tool for sensorimotor rehabilitation increasingly being employed in clinical and community settings. Despite the growing interest in VR, few studies have determined the validity of movements made in VR environments with respect to real physical environments. The goal of this study was to compare movements done in physical and virtual environments in adults with motor deficits to those in healthy individuals. Methods The participants were 8 healthy adults and 7 adults with mild left hemiparesis due to stroke. Kinematics of functional arm movements involving reaching, grasping and releasing made in physical and virtual environments were analyzed in two phases: 1 reaching and grasping the ball and 2 ball transport and release. The virtual environment included interaction with an object on a 2D computer screen and haptic force feedback from a virtual ball. Temporal and spatial parameters of reaching and grasping were determined for each phase. Results Individuals in both groups were able to reach, grasp, transport, place and release the virtual and real ball using similar movement strategies. In healthy subjects, reaching and grasping movements in both environments were similar but these subjects used less wrist extension and more elbow extension to place the ball on the virtual vertical surface. Participants with hemiparesis made slower movements in both environments compared to healthy subjects and during transport and placing of the ball, trajectories were more curved and interjoint coordination was altered. Despite these differences, patients with hemiparesis also tended to use less wrist extension during the whole movement and more elbow extension at the end of the placing phase. Conclusion Differences in movements made by healthy subjects in the two environments may be explained by the use of a 2D instead of a 3D virtual environment and the absence of haptic feedback from the VR target

  9. Assessment of macrovascular endothelial function using pulse wave analysis and its association with microvascular reactivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N N I N; Rasool, A H G

    2017-08-01

    Pulse wave analysis (PWA) and laser Doppler fluximetry (LDF) are non-invasive methods of assessing macrovascular endothelial function and microvascular reactivity respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between macrovascular endothelial function assessed by PWA and microvascular reactivity assessed by LDF. 297 healthy and non-smoking subjects (159 females, mean age (±SD) 23.56 ± 4.54 years) underwent microvascular reactivity assessment using LDF followed by macrovascular endothelial function assessments using PWA. Pearson's correlation showed no correlation between macrovascular endothelial function and microvascular reactivity (r = -0.10, P = 0.12). There was no significant correlation between macrovascular endothelial function assessed by PWA and microvascular reactivity assessed by LDF in healthy subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. GLP-1 suppresses gastrointestinal motility and inhibits the migrating motor complex in healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; Edholm, T

    2008-01-01

    hormones, and gut tissue expression of GLP-1 receptor was studied. In healthy subjects, GLP-1 0.7 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) reduced the migrating motor complexes (MMCs) from a median of 2 (range 2-3) to 0.5 (0-2), and motility index from 4.9 +/- 0.1 to 4.3 +/- 0.3 ln Sigma(mmHg*s min(-1)) in jejunum, while GLP-1...

  11. Impaired basal glucose effectiveness but unaltered fasting glucose release and gluconeogenesis during short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael F; Caumo, Andrea; Chandramouli, Visvanathan

    2004-01-01

    Excess cortisol has been demonstrated to impair hepatic and extrahepatic insulin action. To determine whether glucose effectiveness and, in terms of endogenous glucose release (EGR), gluconeogenesis, also are altered by hypercortisolemia, eight healthy subjects were studied after overnight infusion...... resistance. Postabsorptive glucose production (P = 0.64) and the fractional....... Hepatic GE was lower during cortisol than during saline infusion (2.39 +/- 0.24 vs. 3.82 +/- 0.51 ml.kg-1.min-1; P

  12. Pre-analytical and biological variability in circulating interleukin 6 in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lene S; Christensen, Ib J; Lottenburger, Tine

    2008-01-01

    in serum IL-6 over a 3-year period (14%, p=0.33). Exercise (cycling) increased serum IL-6 in healthy subjects but not in RA patients. In conclusion, circulating IL-6 is stable regarding sample handling and shows little variation over time. Changes in IL-6 concentrations >60% (2 times the biological...... variation) are likely to reflect changes in disease activity and not only pre-analytical or normal biological variability....

  13. Overweight causes left ventricular diastolic asynchrony and diastolic dysfunction: a study based on speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabachi, Masahiro; Mikami, Taisei; Okada, Kazunori; Onozuka, Hisao; Kaga, Sanae; Inoue, Mamiko; Yokoyama, Shinobu; Nishida, Mutsumi; Shimizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Iwano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is often observed in healthy subjects and can be a cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EF). We aimed to investigate the role of LV diastolic asynchrony as a cause of diastolic dysfunction in healthy subjects. In 40 healthy subjects, two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2DSTI) was performed to measure the peak early diastolic longitudinal strain rates (Esr) of the apical, mid-ventricular, and basal segments of the septum and posterior wall. A mean value of the Esr of the 6 segments (mEsr) was calculated. The time from aortic valve closure to the Esr was measured for each segment, and the standard deviation (SDTEsr) was calculated. The peak global early diastolic strain rate (gEsr) was measured with a region of interest (ROI) on the whole LV myocardium. LV flow propagation velocity (FPV) was measured using conventional Doppler techniques. SDTEsr was not correlated with age, but was significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). Although no significant correlation was observed between mEsr and FPV, gEsr and SDTEsr significantly correlated with FPV (r = 0.41, p < 0.01; r = -0.54, p < 0.001). As a result of the multiple regression analysis, SDTEsr was the single determinant of FPV. Diastolic asynchrony, associated with overweight but not with aging, may contribute to diastolic dysfunction in healthy subjects.

  14. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  15. Theta Burst Stimulation Enhances Connectivity of the Dorsal Attention Network in Young Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomira Anderkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined effects of theta burst stimulation (TBS applied over two distinct cortical areas (the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule on the Stroop task performance in 20 young healthy subjects. Neural underpinnings of the behavioral effect were tested using fMRI. A single session of intermittent TBS of the left superior parietal lobule induced certain cognitive speed enhancement and significantly increased resting-state connectivity of the dorsal attention network. This is an exploratory study that prompts further research with multiple-session TBS in subjects with cognitive impairment.

  16. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.

  18. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  19. Alteration patterns of brain glucose metabolism: comparisons of healthy controls, subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Uk; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Chung, Yong-An; Chung, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Some groups have focused on the detection and management of subjective memory impairment (SMI) as the stage that precedes mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there have been few clinical studies that have examined biomarkers of SMI to date. To investigate the differences in glucose metabolism as a prodromal marker of dementia in patients with SMI, MCI, and healthy controls using brain F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Sixty-eight consecutive patients with SMI, 47 patients with MCI, and 42 age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects underwent FDG-PET and detailed neuropsychological testing. FDG-PET images were analyzed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program. FDG-PET analysis showed glucose hypometabolism in the periventricular regions of patients with SMI and in the parietal, precentral frontal, and periventricular regions of patients with MCI compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, hypometabolism on FDG-PET was noted in the parietal and precentral frontal regions in MCI patients compared to SMI patients. The results suggest that hypometabolism in the periventricular regions as seen on FDG-PET may play a role as a predictive biomarker of pre-dementia, and the extension of reduced glucose metabolism into parietal regions likely reflects progression of cognitive deterioration. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  20. Does Mindfulness Improve After Heart Coherence Training in Patients With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Healthy Subjects? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; de Jong, Annemieke B; Hofstra, Bert L; Preuper, Henrica R Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-07-01

    Mindfulness and heart coherence training (HCT) training are applied increasingly in the treatment of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Questionnaires have been developed to assess changes in mindfulness but no gold standard is available. Explore the relationship between changes in mindfulness scores and changes in heart coherence after 3 sessions of HCT in patients with CMP and in healthy subjects. Ten patients with CMP and 15 healthy subjects were trained in self-regulation with the use of HCT following a standardized stress relief program developed by the HeartMath Institute. A heart coherence-score (HC-score) was constructed with scores ranging from 0-100 with higher scores reflecting more heart rate variability (HRV) coherency. Change scores, Spearman correlation coefficients, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test were calculated to test relationships and differences between HC-score, the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). A new questionnaire was constructed to explore on which mindfulness-related domains patients with CMP report changes after HCT. Increases were present on HC-score in healthy subjects (Ppilot study, mindfulness as assessed by the MAAS and FFMQ does not appear to improve after HCT. HRV coherency, MAAS, and FFMQ measure different constructs and are weakly related. It is of great importance to choose and develop valid measures that reflect patients' states of mindfulness. Content and face validity of measures of mindfulness may be considered in the light of performance-based measures.

  1. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between healthy aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer′s patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer′s disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of Alzheimer′s, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer′s or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in differentiating between Alzheimer′s, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and healthy aging. To prove fMRI′s ability, resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects were compared using Independent Component Analysis (ICA algorithm. Forty age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer′s subjects were examined. Results: The results showed that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer′s group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network. Conclusions: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer′s Disease (AD, MCI and healthy aging.

  2. Arterial stiffness estimation in healthy subjects: a validation of oscillometric (Arteriograph) and tonometric (SphygmoCor) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Margareta; Eriksson, Maria Jolanta; Zierath, Juleen Rae; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Arterial stiffness is an important cardiovascular risk marker, which can be measured noninvasively with different techniques. To validate such techniques in healthy subjects, we compared the recently introduced oscillometric Arteriograph (AG) technique with the tonometric SphygmoCor (SC) method and their associations with carotid ultrasound measures and traditional risk indicators. Sixty-three healthy subjects aged 20-69 (mean 48 ± 15) years were included. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) and augmentation index (AIx) by AG and SC, and with SC also the PWVao standardized to 80% of the direct distance between carotid and femoral sites (St-PWVaoSC). The carotid strain, stiffness index and intima-media thickness (cIMTmean) were evaluated by ultrasound. PWVaoAG (8.00 ± 2.16 m s(-1)) was higher (Pstiffness indices by AG and SC correlate with vascular risk markers in healthy subjects. AIxao results by AG and SC are closely interrelated, but higher values are obtained by AG. In the lower range, PWVao values by AG and SC are similar, but differ for higher values. Our results imply the necessity to apply one and the same technique for repeated studies.

  3. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  4. Bio-impedance body composition comparisons between athletes and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarion, A; Ribbe, E; Rebeyrol, J; Moreno, M-V; Rousseaux-Rousseaux-Blanchi, M-P; Dechavanne, C

    2013-01-01

    Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.

  5. Echocardiographic evaluation of the arterial stiffness in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients under 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiente Mustelier, Juan; Suarez Vazquez, Leisy; Cabrera Rego, Julio Oscar; Gandarilla Sarmientos, Julio Cesar

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 83 patients (healthy, n=43; hypertensive, n=40) assisted in the external consultation of the National Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery Institute, from April to October, 2009. We included clinical (age, sex, personal antecedents of smoking habit, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension) and echocardiographic (diastolic function, arterial stiffness index [β], pressure strain elastic modulus [Ep], arterial compliance, local pulse wave velocity [LPWV]) variables

  6. Performance on a probabilistic inference task in healthy subjects receiving ketamine compared with patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahdi, Basil; Sultan, Pervez; Sohanpal, Imrat; Brandner, Brigitta; Collier, Tracey; Shergill, Sukhi S; Cregg, Roman; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some aspects of schizophrenia can be induced in healthy volunteers through acute administration of the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, ketamine. In probabilistic inference tasks, patients with schizophrenia have been shown to ‘jump to conclusions’ (JTC) when asked to make a decision. We aimed to test whether healthy participants receiving ketamine would adopt a JTC response pattern resembling that of patients. The paradigmatic task used to investigate JTC has been the ‘urn’ task, where participants are shown a sequence of beads drawn from one of two ‘urns’, each containing coloured beads in different proportions. Participants make a decision when they think they know the urn from which beads are being drawn. We compared performance on the urn task between controls receiving acute ketamine or placebo with that of patients with schizophrenia and another group of controls matched to the patient group. Patients were shown to exhibit a JTC response pattern relative to their matched controls, whereas JTC was not evident in controls receiving ketamine relative to placebo. Ketamine does not appear to promote JTC in healthy controls, suggesting that ketamine does not affect probabilistic inferences. PMID:22389244

  7. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  9. A study of diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Jayapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR reflects the strength and condition of respiratory muscles and the degree of airflow limitation in large airways. PEFR shows hour to hour variation that follows a specific pattern in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Adequate data is not available for the diurnal variation in normal individuals who are students in professional courses and had a sedentary life style. Hence, this study was undertaken to study the diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India. Materials and Methods: Peak expiratory flow rate was recorded in 50 adult healthy female students aged 18-23 years and studying in professional courses. Mini Wright′s peak flow meter was used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate. PEFR were recorded at 7-8 a.m., 10-11 a.m., 1-2 p.m., 4-5 p.m., and 7-8 p.m. for two consecutive days. Results: On analysis of PEFR records of individual subjects, it was seen that there was an overall dip in the morning at 7-8 h PEFR, which increased in the daytime, peaking in the afternoon at 1-2 p.m. and eventually decreased in the night. Subjects did not show the peak PEFR values at the same time point, 10% of subjects had a rise in PEFR in the early morning, afternoon (1-2 p.m. peak was observed in 48% subjects and evening (4-5 p.m. peak was observed in 16% subjects. 14% subjects showed a peak in the night time (7-8 p.m. PEFR values. Conclusion: This study provided the preliminary reference data of diurnal variation of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy adults. Since, there is a variation in the peak expiratory flow rate recorded during different time points of the day; hence, to compare the PEFR between individuals it is advisable to record the PEFR at the same time point.

  10. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-06-01

    ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Postural strategies assessed with inertial sensors in healthy and parkinsonian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Chiara; Mancini, Martina; Schoneburg, Bernadette; Horak, Fay; Rocchi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel instrumented method to characterize postural movement strategies to maintain balance during stance (ankle and hip strategy), by means of inertial sensors, positioned on the legs and on the trunk. We evaluated postural strategies in subjects with 2 types of Parkinsonism: idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), and in age-matched control subjects standing under perturbed conditions implemented by the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). Coordination between the upper and lower segments of the body during postural sway was measured using a covariance index over time, by a sliding-window algorithm. Afterwards, a postural strategy index was computed. We also measured the amount of postural sway, as adjunctive information to characterize balance, by the root mean square of the horizontal trunk acceleration signal (RMS). showed that control subjects were able to change their postural strategy, whilst PSP and PD subjects persisted in use of an ankle strategy in all conditions. PD subjects had RMS values similar to control subjects even without changing postural strategy appropriately, whereas PSP subjects showed much larger RMS values than controls, resulting in several falls during the most challenging SOT conditions (5 and 6). Results are in accordance with the corresponding clinical literature describing postural behavior in the same kind of subjects. The proposed strategy index, based on the use of inertial sensors on the upper and lower body segments, is a promising and unobtrusive tool to characterize postural strategies performed to attain balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical Parameters following Multiple Oral Dose Administration of a Standardized Andrographis paniculata Capsule in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyo, Tawit; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Panomvana, Duangchit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Pongpun, Wanwisa; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2017-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been widely used in Scandinavian and Asian counties for the treatment of the common cold, fever, and noninfectious diarrhea. The present study was carried out to investigate the physiological effects of short-term multiple dose administration of a standardized A. paniculata capsule used for treatment of the common cold and uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections, including blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood chemistry, hematological profiles, urinalysis, and blood coagulation in healthy Thai subjects. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females) received 12 capsules per day orally of 4.2 g of a standardized A. paniculata crude powder (4 capsules of 1.4 g of A. paniculata , 3 times per day, 8 h intervals) for 3 consecutive days. The results showed that all of the measured clinical parameters were found to be within normal ranges for a healthy person. However, modulation of some parameters was observed after the third day of treatment, for example, inductions of white blood cells and absolute neutrophil count in the blood, a reduction of plasma alkaline phosphatase, and an induction of urine pH. A rapid and transient reduction in blood pressure was observed at 30 min after capsule administration, resulting in a significant reduction of mean systolic blood pressure. There were no serious adverse events observed in the subjects during the treatment period. In conclusion, this study suggests that multiple oral dosing of A. paniculata at the normal therapeutic dose for the common cold and uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections modulates various clinical parameters within normal ranges for a healthy person. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Joël; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-10-05

    A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL) were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects' preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment. A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe) were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the auto-injector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment. This study indicated that the autoinjector used by the subject was similar to a syringe used by a nurse in terms of performance and safety in administering the injections, and better in terms of pain, overall acceptance, and preference.

  15. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Juscelino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD. Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active diet (AD with a control diet (CD devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313. Results Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P P P P = 0.0056, LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P P 1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013, hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497 and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123. The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P P Conclusion The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD.

  16. Pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies of commercially available simvastatin tablets in healthy and moderately hyperlipidaemic human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Qamar-uz-Zaman, M.; Madni, A.; Usman, M.; Atif, M.; Akhtar, N.; Murtaza, G.

    2011-01-01

    Simvastatin, an analogue of Lovostatin, is a HMG.CoA reductase inhibitor. It is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and coronary heart disease (CHD) with low incidence of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. As these diseases may alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs, the present study was aimed to elaborate the variation in the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of simvastatin in local healthy and moderately hyperlipidaemic population. Open, single dose and parallel design was applied to study. A total of 36 male volunteers were used for healthy and moderately hyperlipidaemic groups (n 18 for each) in this study on the basis of screening procedures, body chemistry and physical examination. Simvastatin 40 mg tablets (Saista 40, Bosch, Pakistan) were administered to over-night fasted volunteers. Blood samples were collected before dosing (zero time) and at regular intervals of time. The plasma samples were processed through a liquid-liquid extraction procedure and assayed by using HPLC consisting reversed phase C/sub 18/ column (ZORBAX, 4.6 x 150 mm, 5 mu m), UV detector set at 238 nm. The mobile phase consisted of the mixture of 0.025 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.5): acetonitrile (35: 65, v/v) which was pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL.min/sup -1/. The retention time of simvastatin was 7.5 minutes. The plasma drug concentration-time profiles of both groups were found significantly (P 0.05) difference between the values of following pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy and hyperlipidaemic volunteers i.e. C/sub max/, t/sub max/, AUC/sub 0-fi), AUMC/sub 0-enfinity), MRT, t/sub 1/2/, Cl/sub t /and K/sub e/. This study confirmed no significant (P > 0.05) difference in pharmacokinetics and bioavailability parameters after the administration of a single oral dose of 40 mg simvastatin (cholesterol lowering drug) to healthy and moderately hyperlipidaemic volunteers. (author)

  17. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on cerebral hemodynamics and headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Ashina, Messoud; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    InvestigationSodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a powerful vasodilatory agent that, similarly to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), releases nitric oxide (NO) but in contrast does not pass the blood-brain barrier. Nevertheless, it has already been used in animal models without any knowledge of its headache......-inducing potential. We hypothesized that SNP would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and radial but not cerebral arteries.MethodsFive healthy volunteers received intravenous infusions of SNP in a non-randomized dose-titration (1-5 µg/kg/min) study. We recorded headache intensity (verbal rating scale from...

  18. Donepezil impairs memory in healthy older subjects: behavioural, EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Balsters

    Full Text Available Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs, by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta, right frontal-parietal network (Alpha, and default-mode network (Beta. We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify

  19. Unprecedented high insulin secretion in a healthy human subject after intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Lund, Asger; Madsbad, Sten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gut-derived incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, are released in response to ingestion of nutrients. Both hormones are highly insulinotropic in strictly glucose-dependent fashions and glucagon-like peptide-1 is often referred...... to as one of the most insulinotropic substances known. CASE PRESENTATION: Plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in a healthy Caucasian male (age: 53 years; body mass index: 28.6 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose: 5.7 mM; 2 h plasma glucose value following 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test: 3...

  20. Defining guilt in depression: a comparison of subjects with major depression, chronic medical illness and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatavi, Kayhan; Nicolson, Rob; MacDonald, Cathy; Osher, Sue; Levitt, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Although guilt is a widely accepted feature of depression, there is limited and inconsistent data defining the nature of this symptom. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specificity and nature of guilt in subjects with major depression as compared to patients with another chronic medical illness and healthy controls. Outpatients with current major depressive episode (MDE; n=34), past-MDE (n=22), chronic cardiac illness (n=20) and healthy controls (n=59) were administered the following measures: The Guilt Inventory (GI), State Shame and Guilt Scale (SSGS), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Overall multivariate analysis of covariance comparing mean scores for the six guilt subscales [state-guilt, trait-guilt, moral standards (from the GI); state-guilt, -pride, and -shame (from the SSGS)] across the four groups was significant (F=9.1, df=6:121, pguilt (GI), current-MDE>past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for trait-guilt (GI), current-MDE=past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for state-shame, -guilt and -pride (SSGS), current-MDE>past-MDE, past-MDE=cardiac, past-MDE>healthy, cardiac=healthy controls. Among depressed patients, there was significant correlation between Ham-D score and all guilt sub-scales (pguilt, shame and low pride distinguish acutely depressed from all other groups, and are highly influenced by severity of depression. Trait-guilt does not differentiate acute from past depressed. Data suggests guilt may represent both an enduring and fluctuating feature of depressive illness over its longitudinal course.

  1. Modulating Memory Performance in Healthy Subjects with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Cipolotti, Lisa; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) in recognition memory has been well documented in lesion, neuroimaging and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the left and the right DLPFC during the delay interval of a non-verbal recognition memory task. 36 right-handed young healthy subjects participated in the study. The experimental task was an Italian version of Recognition Memory Test for unknown faces. Study included two experiments: in a first experiment, each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right cathodal tDCS; in a second experiment each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right anodal tDCS. Cathodal tDCS over the right DLPFC significantly improved non verbal recognition memory performance, while cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC had no effect. Anodal tDCS of both the left and right DLPFC did not modify non verbal recognition memory performance. Complementing the majority of previous studies, reporting long term memory facilitations following left prefrontal anodal tDCS, the present findings show that cathodal tDCS of the right DLPFC can also improve recognition memory in healthy subjects.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Intravenous Murepavadin Infusion in Healthy Adult Subjects Administered Single and Multiple Ascending Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Achim; Dembowsky, Klaus; Dale, Glenn E

    2018-04-01

    Murepavadin is the first in class of the outer membrane protein-targeting antibiotics (OMPTA) and a pathogen-specific peptidomimetic antibacterial with a novel, nonlytic mechanism of action targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Murepavadin is being developed for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP). The pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single and multiple doses of murepavadin were investigated in healthy male subjects. Part A of the study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose investigation in 10 sequential cohorts where each cohort comprised 6 healthy male subjects; 4 subjects were randomized to murepavadin, and 2 subjects were randomized to placebo. Part B was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose investigation in 3 sequential cohorts. After a single dose of murepavadin, the geometric mean half-life (2.52 to 5.30 h), the total clearance (80.1 to 114 ml/h/kg), and the volume of distribution (415 to 724 ml/kg) were consistent across dose levels. The pharmacokinetics of the dosing regimens evaluated were dose proportional and linear. Murepavadin was well tolerated, adverse events were transient and generally mild, and no dose-limiting toxicity was identified. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant effect of a new functional food enriched with Sideritis euboea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Kastanidou, Olympia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Vourli, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    Sideritis euboea is a Greek plant that is traditionally consumed as a beverage (mountain tea). From in vitro studies, its extract has shown antioxidant and estrogenic activities. In our study we used S. euboea as an enriching food factor in order to produce a new functional food, a jelly dessert, in order to explore its antioxidant effects if consumed on a daily basis by healthy subjects. In this placebo-controlled clinical trial, 63 subjects were recruited for a 1-month nutritional intervention. Twelve subjects were excluded. The remaining 51 subjects were randomly classified in the intervention group (daily consumption of the jelly containing 0.3 g of S. euboea extract) or the placebo group (daily consumption of the same jelly without the enrichment). Vitamins C, A, and E, glutathione, coenzyme Q10, total nitrites, nitrates, total nitrogen oxide, nitrites/nitrates ratio, and total antioxidant status were measured in blood samples before and after the intervention. After the intervention, free glutathione and coenzyme Q10 increased, and nitrites decreased significantly in both groups. The other antioxidant markers were not altered. No statistical significant differences were observed between the two groups. The daily consumption of the functional food, for 30 days, had no effects on the antioxidant status of healthy volunteers.

  4. Effect of repeated gaboxadol administration on night sleep and next-day performance in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Stefan; Zihl, Josef; Steiger, Axel; Lancel, Marike

    2005-04-01

    Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in sleep continuity and sleep intensity. Since gaboxadol, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, has been demonstrated to improve sleep consolidation and promote deep sleep, it may be an effective hypnotic, particularly for elderly patients with insomnia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subchronic gaboxadol administration on nocturnal sleep and its residual effects during the next days in elderly subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in 10 healthy elderly subjects without sleep complaints. The subjects were administered either placebo or 15 mg gaboxadol hydrochloride at bedtime on three consecutive nights. Sleep was recorded during each night from 2300 to 0700 h and tests assessing attention (target detection, stroop test) and memory function (visual form recognition, immediate word recall, digit span) were applied at 0900, 1400, and 1700 h during the following days. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol significantly shortened subjective sleep onset latency and increased self-rated sleep intensity and quality. Polysomnographic recordings showed that it significantly decreased the number of awakenings, the amount of intermittent wakefulness, and stage 1, and increased slow wave sleep and stage 2. These effects were stable over the three nights. None of the subjects reported side effects. Next-day cognitive performance was not affected by gaboxadol. Gaboxadol persistently improved subjective and objective sleep quality and was devoid of residual effects. Thus, at the employed dose, it seems an effective hypnotic in elderly subjects.

  5. New in vitro effects of clopidogrel on platelets in hyperlipidemic and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Özsavcı

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to detect novel in vitro effects of clopidogrel on platelets by assessment of the following parameters: malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitrite, aggregation response, and expressions of P-selectin, fibrinogen, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, and phosphatidylserine.Materials and Methods: Platelets were obtained from healthy (n: 9 and hyperlipidemic (n: 9 volunteers. Expressions of P-selectin, fibrinogen, apolipoproteins A1/B and phosphatidylserine with and without clopidogrel were assayed by flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde, glutathione, aggregation and nitrite levels were also assayed. Results: Without clopidogrel, the baseline values of platelet aggregation, malondialdehyde, and expressions of P-selectin, fibrinogen and phosphatidylserine were significantly higher, whereas nitrite and expression of apolipoproteins A1/B were significantly lower in hyperlipidemics than in the healthy group. In both groups, clopidogrel significantly reduced aggregation and expression of fibrinogen, but it elevated nitrite levels. Clopidogrel significantly decreased P-selectin and phosphatidylserine expression and malondialdehyde but increased expressions of apolipoproteins A1/B only in hyperlipidemics. Conclusion: It seems that clopidogrel has some new in vitro antiplatelet effects. The present study is a basic in vitro study to suggest new insights into the effects of clopidogrel on platelet functions.

  6. Baroreflex function: determinants in healthy subjects and disturbances in diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrapari, Ioanna; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Arterial baroreceptors play an important role in the short-term regulation of arterial pressure, by reflex chronotropic effect on the heart and by reflex regulation of sympathetic outflow. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) represents an index of arterial baroreceptors function. Several methods of measuring BRS are available nowadays. Different factors influence BRS in the healthy population, including sex, age, blood pressure, heart rate, body fatness, arterial stiffness, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as physical activity. Baroreceptors dysfunction is evident in diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The underlying mechanism of BRS attenuation in diabetes or obesity is not yet well known; however, there is increasing evidence that it is at least partly related to autonomic nervous system dysfunction and particularly to sympathetic overactivity that accompanies these diseases. Blunted BRS provides prognostic information for cardiovascular diseases and possibly for diabetes, while its' prognostic information for obesity is not yet established. This review deals with the mechanisms affecting baroreflex function, the newer techniques of BRS estimation and the most recent insights of baroreflex function in the healthy population and in various diseases with emphasis on diabetes and obesity. In addition, the clinical implication of a reduced BRS in these disorders is discussed.

  7. Assessment of pharmacokinetic interaction between piracetam and l-carnitine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gustavo D; Zaffalon, Gabriela Traldi; Silveira, Antonio Sérgio; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Lopes, Anibal Gil; de Almeida Magalhães, José Cássio; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific method for quantifying piracetam in human plasma using Piracetam d-8 as the internal standard (IS) is described. The analyte and the IS were extracted from plasma by one-step precipitation of protein using an acetonitrile (100%). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The method had a chromatographic run time of 3.8 min and a linear calibration curve over the range 0.5-50 µg/mL (r > 0.99). This LC-MS-MS procedure was used to assess the bioavailability of two piracetam formulations: piracetam + l-carnitine (Piracar®; 270/330 mg tablet) and piracetam (Nootropil®; 800 mg tablet) in healthy volunteers of both sexes. The geometric means with corresponding 90% confidence interval (CI) for test/reference percentage ratios were 88.49% (90% CI = 81.19 - 96.46) for peak concentration/dose and 102.55% (90% CI = 100.62 - 104.51) for AUCinf /dose. The limit of quantitation of 0.5 µg/mL is well suited for pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers. It was concluded that piracetam (Piracar®; 270/330 mg tablet) has a bioavailability equivalent to the piracetam (Nootropil®; 800 mg tablet) formulation with regard to both the rate and the extent of absorption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  9. Effect of Ramadan fasting on intra ocular pressure changes in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Karimi Rad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, millions of Muslims all over the world observe the fasting rules based on its measures; this highlights the importance of studies in this field as a worthwhile model for intermittent fasting. It is obvious that changes in lifestyle over fasting have outstanding effects on physiological parameters. The current study was carried out to investigate the IOP and serum electrolytes as two important factors that are influenced by human lifestyle. Methods: Eighty-nine fasting and healthy participants including men and women with mean age of 34.97 were included in our study based on the inclusion and exclusion parameters. During this project, Ramadan coincided with the summer (between June and July 2015. All participants were monitored by an expert examiner and blood samples were collected and IOP was measured by tonometer (Topcon, 1-75, Hasunuma-cho, Itabashi-KU, Tokyo, Japan 2014. The participants were examined one week before and one week after Ramadan. Results: There was a significant reduction in physiological IOP in healthy people after Ramadan. In line with this, the serum electrolytes were altered by fasting so that Na, K, Se experienced a significant decrease while serum phosphorous increased (P

  10. Callosal involvement in a lateralized stroop task in alcoholic and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, T; Müller-Oehring, E M; Salo, R; Pfefferbaum, A; Sullivan, E V

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the role of interhemispheric attentional processes, 25 alcoholic and 28 control subjects were tested with a Stroop match-to-sample task and callosal areas were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Stroop color-word stimuli were presented to the left or right visual field (VF) and were preceded by a color cue that did or did not match the word's color. For matching colors, both groups showed a right VF advantage; for nonmatching colors, controls showed a left VF advantage, whereas alcoholic subjects showed no VF advantage. For nonmatch trials, VF advantage correlated with callosal splenium area in controls but not alcoholic subjects, supporting the position that information presented to the nonpreferred hemisphere is transmitted via the splenium to the hemisphere specialized for efficient processing. The authors speculate that alcoholism-associated callosal thinning disrupts this processing route.

  11. Heart rate variability analysis in healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure and heart transplanted patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentina Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find parameters to characterize heart rate variability (HRV and discriminate healthy subjects and patients with heart diseases. The parameters used for discrimination characterize the different components of HRV memory (short and long and are extracted from HRV recordings using parametric as well as non parametric methods. Thus, the parameters are: spectral components at low frequencies (LH and high frequencies (HF which are associated with the short memory of HRV and the long memory parameter (d obtained from autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA models. In the non parametric context, short memory (α1 and long memory (α2 parameters are obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The sample used in this study contains 24-hour Holter HRV recordings of 30 subjects: 10 healthy individuals, 10 patients suffering from congestive heart failure and 10 heart transplanted patients from the Noltisalis database. It was found that short memory parameters present higher values for the healthy individuals whereas long memory parameters present higher values for the diseased individuals. Moreover, there is evidence that ARFIMA modeling allows the discrimination between the 3 groups under study, being advantageous over DFA.

  12. Mode of action of cupping--local metabolism and pain thresholds in neck pain patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, M; Braeunig, M; Clement, H W; Lüdtke, R; Huber, R

    2014-02-01

    Cupping worldwide has been part of traditional medicine systems and is in the western world used as CAM therapy mainly for treating pain syndromes. The mode of action is up to now unclear. In order to investigate its mechanism we measured in parallel metabolic changes in the tissue under the cupping glass and pressure pain thresholds. In 12 volunteers (6 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic neck pain) a microdialysis system was implanted subcutaneously on both sides (left and right) above the trapezius muscle. After baseline measures cupping was performed at one randomly selected side (left or right), the other side served as control. Every 20 min during baseline measures and for 280 min after cupping, microdialysis probes for detection of lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerin were taken. In addition, pain thresholds were measured before and after cupping with algometry. Cupping resulted in a strong increase of lactate (beginning 160 min after cupping until the end of the measurements) and the lactate/pyruvate ratio, indicating an anaerobe metabolism in the surrounding tissue. Baseline pain thresholds were non-significantly lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls and slightly increased immediately after cupping (pcupping in healthy subjects and on the foot in neck pain patients). After 280 min no more significant changes of pain thresholds were detected. Cupping induces >280 min lasting anaerobe metabolism in the subcutaneous tissue and increases immediate pressure pain thresholds in some areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship of body mass index, ankle dorsiflexion, and foot pronation on plantar fascia thickness in healthy, asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier; García, Juan Maria Alarcón; Matamoros, Eva Cosin; Matamoros, Julia Cosin; Martínez, Teresa Díaz

    2008-01-01

    We sought to investigate the thickness of plantar fascia, measured by means of ultrasonographic evaluation in healthy, asymptomatic subjects, and its relationship to body mass index, ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and foot pronation in static stance. One hundred two feet of 51 healthy volunteers were examined. Sonographic evaluation with a 10-MHz linear array transducer was performed 1 and 2 cm distal to its insertion. Physical examination was also performed to assess body mass index, ankle joint dorsiflexion, and degree of foot pronation in static stance. Both examinations were performed in a blinded manner. Body mass index showed moderate correlation with plantar fascia thickness at the 1- and 2-cm locations. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion showed no correlation at either location. Foot pronation showed an inverse correlation with plantar fascia thickness at the 2-cm location and no correlation at the 1-cm location. Body mass index and foot supination at the subtalar joint are related to increased thickness at the plantar fascia in healthy, asymptomatic subjects. Although the changes in thickness were small compared with those in patients with symptomatic plantar fasciitis, they could play a role in the mechanical properties of plantar fascia and in the development of plantar fasciitis.

  14. Recapitulation of Clinical Individual Susceptibility to Drug-Induced QT Prolongation in Healthy Subjects Using iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Shinozawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66 in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known target-binding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.

  15. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is not linked to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2000-01-01

    An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic subjects without renal or cardiovascular disease has been shown to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified and the D allele...... control group (n = 46). Elevated UAE in clinically healthy subjects is not linked to the ACE gene polymorphism....... aged 40-65 years with elevated UAE in a dipstick negative urinary sample (n = 27) from The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Neither the ACE genotype distribution (p = 0.12) nor the D and I allele frequencies (p = 0.69) differed significantly between subjects with elevated UAE and a matched normoalbuminuric...

  16. Microheterogeneity of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in healthy elderly subjects: patterns obtained by crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawerk, N; Succari-Aderschlag, M; Foglietti, M J

    1991-10-14

    Total serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration and concanavalin A-dependent microheterogeneity were studied in 31 healthy elderly subjects (18 men, 13 women, 71 to 76 yr old). Crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis (CAIE) revealed three microheterogeneity variants of AGP: non-reactive, weakly reactive and strongly reactive with ConA. Two patterns were found in both elderly men and women, i.e. a normal pattern and one with an increase in the non-reactive form. Mean serum AGP levels in the elderly subjects with slightly higher than in a reference group of younger subjects. The Con A non-reactive form of AGP was increased in 42% of the elderly population. An increase in the non-reactive form of AGP in CAIE should be considered as general expression of chronic inflammation which is of no clinical relevance.

  17. Twenty-Four-Hour Central Pulse Pressure for Cardiovascular Events Prediction in a Low-Cardiovascular-Risk Population: Results From the Bordeaux Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Antoine; Boulestreau, Romain; Gaillard, Prune; Lainé, Marion; Papaioannou, Georgios; Gosse, Philippe

    2018-02-23

    Central blood pressure (BP) is a promising marker to identify subjects with higher cardiovascular risk than expected by traditional risk factors. Significant results have been obtained in populations with high cardiovascular risk, but little is known about low-cardiovascular-risk patients, although the differences between central and peripheral BP (amplification) are usually greater in this population. The study aim was to evaluate central BP over 24 hours for cardiovascular event prediction in hypertensive subjects with low cardiovascular risk. Peripheral and central BPs were recorded during clinical visits and over 24 hours in hypertensive patients with low cardiovascular risk (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation ≤5%). Our primary end point is the occurrence of a cardiovascular event during follow-up. To assess the potential interest in central pulse pressure over 24 hours, we performed Cox proportional hazard models analysis and comparison of area under the curves using the contrast test for peripheral and central BP. A cohort of 703 hypertensive subjects from Bordeaux were included. After the first 24 hours of BP measurement, the subjects were then followed up for an average of 112.5±70 months. We recorded 65 cardiovascular events during follow-up. Amplification was found to be significantly associated with cardiovascular events when added to peripheral 24-hour pulse pressure ( P =0.0259). The area under the curve of 24-hour central pulse pressure is significantly more important than area under the curve of office BP ( P =0.0296), and there is a trend of superiority with the area under the curve of peripheral 24-hour pulse pressure. Central pulse pressure over 24 hours improves the prediction of cardiovascular events for hypertensive patients with low cardiovascular risk compared to peripheral pulse pressure. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bair, Brandi R; Swarbrick, Michael M; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

  19. Does an onion-enriched diet beneficially affect the microbiotal composition in healthy human subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Borg, Birgitte; Marin, Eduvigis Roldán

    enriched diet and one non-enriched supplemented diet in a double-blinded crossover design with a 25 days wash-out period in between. Six of the subjects delivered fecal samples on the last two days before starting on the diet and on the two last days of the 14 day diet. Total DNA was isolated from...

  20. The tongue microbiome in healthy subjects and patients with intraoral halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seerangaiyan, Kavitha; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Winkel, Edwin G.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-oral halitosis (IOH) is an unpleasant odor emanating from the oral cavity. It is thought that the microbiota of the dorsal tongue coating plays a crucial role in this condition. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of the tongue microbiome in subjects with and without IOH. A

  1. Cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release in the fasted and fed state in elderly healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The effect of food on the cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release (MR) capsules 0.4 mg in elderly subjects was assessed both after single and multiple dosing. Methods: Thirty-six elderly (age greater than or equal to 60 years) male volunteers were recruited and after a

  2. Interactions of DNA repair gene variants modulate chromosomal aberrations in healthy subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Musak, L.; Frank, Ch.; Kazimirová, A.; Vymetálková, Veronika; Barančoková, M.; Smolková, B.; Dzupinková, Z.; Jirásková, Kateřina; Vodenková, Soňa; Kroupa, Michal; Osina, O.; Naccarati, Alessio; Palitti, F.; Forsti,, A.; Dusinska, M.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Hemminki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 11 (2015), s. 1299-1306 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14789S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : individual susceptibility * colorectal - cancer * oxidative damage Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.874, year: 2015

  3. Antidopaminergic medication in healthy subjects provokes subjective and objective mental impairments tightly correlated with perturbation of biogenic monoamine metabolism and prolactin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović T

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Veselinović,1,2 Ingo Vernaleken,1,2 Paul Cumming,3,4 Uwe Henning,5 Lina Winkler,1,2 Peter Kaleta,1,2 Michael Paulzen,1,2 Christian Luckhaus,6 Gerhard Gründer1,2,7 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, 2Translational Brain Medicine, Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA, Jülich, Germany; 3IHBI, School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, 4QIMR Berghofer Institute, Brisbane, Australia; 5Neurobiochemical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, 6LWL University Hospital Bochum, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Cognitive Neuropsychiatry and Psychiatric Preventive Medicine, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, 7Department of Molecular Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany Objectives: Off-label prescription of antipsychotics to patients without psychotic symptoms has become a routine matter for many psychiatrists and also some general practitioners. Nonetheless, little is known about the possibly detrimental effects of antidopaminergic medications on general psychopathology, subjective mental state, or a possible association with physiological parameters in nonpsychotic individuals.Methods: In this randomized, single-blinded study, groups of healthy volunteers (n=18 received low doses of reserpine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, or placebo on 7 successive days. Relevant physiological parameters (plasma prolactin, concentrations of catecholamine metabolites in plasma, and 24-hour urine and each subject’s mental state (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, visual analogue scale, Beck Depression Inventory II were assessed at the start and end of the trial.Results: Of the three active treatments, only reserpine caused a significant increase in some plasma- and urine-catecholamine metabolites, but all three medications evoked objective

  4. Evaluation of reproducibility of solid-phase gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, J.; Dobbeleir, A.; Vandevivere, J.; Ham, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide gastric emptying studies are performed as a matter of clinical routine. Our aim was to evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability and the reproducibility of gastric emptying studies in healthy young male volunteers using a single solid-phase, standard meal. The meal consisted of a pancake (500 KJ) tagged with 99m Tc-labeled sulfur colloid and no additional liquid. Continuous acquisitions of gastric activity in anterior projection were taken during 90 min, starting from the onset of the meal. Gastric emptying was evaluated three times in a 3-week period. Five different parameters were evaluated. Our results show that there is important inter- and intra-individual variability in normal volunteers. In spite of this variability, no significant difference between the different series of gastric emptying studies was observed. (orig.)

  5. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  6. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  7. Isolation and Identification of The Causative Organisms of Conjunctivitis in Healthy Subject and Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation concerning the isolation of bacterial flora from healthy and patient eyes was carried out. Micrococcus lylae and Moraxella lacunata represent the normal strains while Acinetobacter baumanni, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella cuniculi, M. ovis, Neisseria lactamica and Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated from infected eyes only. NaCl of concentration 7.5% (w/v) can inhibit the growth of all isolated strains. The action of UV on population of bacteria was varied according to the species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to rifampcin, erythromycin, fucidin and bacitracin. Some bacterial strains have a capsule containing carbohydrate and many have carbohydrate and amino acids containing capsules. The detected predominant chemical subunits in capsule structure were glucose in Moraxella ovis, and fructose and mannose in M. cuniculi.

  8. Approximate entropy and point correlation dimension of heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storella, R J; Wood, H W; Mills, K M

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to heart rate variability in healthy humans was examined using surrogate data analysis. Several measures of heart rate variability were used and compared. Heart rates were recorded for three hours and original data sets of 8192 R-R intervals created. For each...... original data set (n = 34), three surrogate data sets were made by shuffling the order of the R-R intervals while retaining their linear correlations. The difference in heart rate variability between the original and surrogate data sets reflects the amount of nonlinear structure in the original data set....... Heart rate variability was analyzed by two different nonlinear methods, point correlation dimension and approximate entropy. Nonlinearity, though under 10 percent, could be detected with both types of heart rate variability measures. More importantly, not only were the correlations between...

  9. Intra-cortical excitability in healthy human subjects after tongue training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Blicher, Jakob; Lapitskaya, Natallia

    2009-01-01

    Training of specific muscles causes plastic changes in corticomotor pathways which may underlie the effect of various clinical rehabilitation procedures. The paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) technique can be used to assess short interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI...... tongue muscles. In tongue motor cortex, bilateral SICI (P training. There were no significant effects of training on single MEPs or SICI/ICF (P > 0.063). The success rate improved during training (P ...) and intra-cortical facilitatory (ICF) networks. This study examined changes in SICI and ICF in tongue motor cortex after tongue training in 11 healthy volunteers using ppTMS. Paired pulse TMS was applied to the 'hot-spot' for the tongue motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from...

  10. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  11. Increased exhalation of hydrogen peroxide in healthy subjects following cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Baltazar Guatura

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Increased hydrogen peroxide has been described in the expired breath condensate (H2O2-E of several lung conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. This technique has been advocated as being a simple method for documenting airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate H2O2-E in healthy cigarette smokers, and to determine the acute effects of the consumption of one cigarette on H2O2-E levels. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective, controlled trial. SETTING: A pulmonary function laboratory in a University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two groups of healthy volunteers: individuals who had never smoked (NS; n=10; 4 men; age = 30.6 ± 6.2 years and current cigarette smokers (S; n=12; 7 men; age = 38.7 ± 9.8. None of the volunteers had respiratory symptoms and all showed normal spirometric tests. INTERVENTION: Expired air was collected from all volunteers through a face mask and a plastic collecting system leading into a flask with dry ice and pure ethanol. Samples from the group S were collected twice, before and half an hour after the combustion of one cigarette. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Expired hydrogen peroxide using the Gallati and Pracht method. RESULTS: The S and NS groups showed comparable levels of H2O2-E at basal conditions [NS = 0.74 muM (DP 0.24 vs. S = 0.75 muM (DP 0.31]. The smokers showed a significant increase in H2O2-E levels half an hour after the consumption of only one cigarette [0.75 muM (DP 0.31 vs. 0.95 muM (DP 0.22]. CONCLUSION: The present results are consistent with the concept that smokers increase oxidative stress with elevated production of reactive oxygen species, contributing to the development of smoking-related disorders.

  12. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  13. Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2008-01-01

    Background: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain...... regions of relevance for affective disorders. Methods: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [F-18]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding...... remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (r = .35, p = .009). Conclusions: In healthy subjects the personality dimension neuroticism and particularly its constituent trait, vulnerability, are positively associated with frontolimbic serotonin 2A binding. Our findings point...

  14. Clinical applications of functional MRI at 1.0 T: motor and language studies in healthy subjects and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papke, K.; Hellmann, T.; Renger, B.; Schuierer, G.; Reimer, P.; Morgenroth, C.; Knecht, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we describe clinical applications of functional MRI (fMRI) at 1.0 T. All experiments were performed on a commercially available 1.0-T system (Magnetom Impact Expert, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD)-sensitive multi-slice EPI technique (TE 66 ms, 4 mm slice thickness, 210 mm field of view, 64 x 64 acquisition matrix). Different paradigms for localization of the motor cortex and for language lateralization were tested in healthy subjects and patients. Methodological considerations concerning the development of the paradigms are also described. In all healthy subjects, motor activation elicited BOLD signal changes in the sensorimotor cortex, permitting identification of primary motor and sensory cortical areas. Furthermore, focal activation of different cortical areas by a language task was possible in 6 of 10 subjects. Nineteen motor studies were performed in 18 patients with supratentorial lesions, in most cases prior to neurosurgical procedures. In 14 studies, fMRI results demonstrated the localization of the motor hand areas relative to the lesion. The results proved valuable for preoperative planning and contributed to therapeutical decisions. We conclude that functional MRI for clinically relevant applications, such as localization of motor and language function, is feasible even at a field strength of 1.0 T without dedicated equipment. (orig.)

  15. Quantitative performance of E-Scribe warehouse in detecting quality issues with digital annotated ECG data from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapa, Nenad; Mortara, Justin L; Brown, Barry D; Isola, Lamberto; Badilini, Fabio

    2008-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends submission of digital electrocardiograms in the standard HL7 XML format into the electrocardiogram warehouse to support preapproval review of new drug applications. The Food and Drug Administration scrutinizes electrocardiogram quality by viewing the annotated waveforms and scoring electrocardiogram quality by the warehouse algorithms. Part of the Food and Drug Administration warehouse is commercially available to sponsors as the E-Scribe Warehouse. The authors tested the performance of E-Scribe Warehouse algorithms by quantifying electrocardiogram acquisition quality, adherence to QT annotation protocol, and T-wave signal strength in 2 data sets: "reference" (104 digital electrocardiograms from a phase I study with sotalol in 26 healthy subjects with QT annotations by computer-assisted manual adjustment) and "test" (the same electrocardiograms with an intentionally introduced predefined number of quality issues). The E-Scribe Warehouse correctly detected differences between the 2 sets expected from the number and pattern of errors in the "test" set (except for 1 subject with QT misannotated in different leads of serial electrocardiograms) and confirmed the absence of differences where none was expected. E-Scribe Warehouse scores below the threshold value identified individual electrocardiograms with questionable T-wave signal strength. The E-Scribe Warehouse showed satisfactory performance in detecting electrocardiogram quality issues that may impair reliability of QTc assessment in clinical trials in healthy subjects.

  16. Effects of befloxatone, a reversible selective monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor, on psychomotor function and memory in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D; Berlin, I; Patat, A; Durrieu, G; Zieleniuk, I; Puech, A J

    1996-10-01

    Befloxatone is a new reversible and selective monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) inhibitor that has been shown to have antidepressant activity in various animal models. To assess the effects of single oral doses of befloxatone (5, 10, and 20 mg) on psychomotor performance and memory, a randomized, double-blind, five-way, crossover study with both placebo and amitriptyline (50 mg) was carried out in 15 healthy male volunteers. Psychomotor and cognitive functions were evaluated using both objective measures, including Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF), Choice Reaction Time (CRT), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and a picture memory test and subjective measures, including Visual Analog Scales (VAS) and Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI), before and 2, 4, and 8 hours after administration. Pupil diameter was recorded by videopupillography. Single doses of befloxatone from 5 to 20 mg did not result in any detrimental effects on skilled performance and memory. In contrast, amitriptyline significantly impaired arousal (CFF), speed of reaction (CRT), information processing (DSST) and long-term memory (delayed free recall of pictures) and produced subjective sedation from 2 to 8 hours after administration. At the doses studied amitriptyline induced miosis but befloxatone did not modify pupil diameter. There was no evidence in this study to suggest that befloxatone, at the doses studied, has any sedative or amnesic effects in healthy subjects.

  17. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Chatterjee, Elashri; Rajesh, K S; Kumar, M S Arun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and correlate salivary thiocyanate (SCN) levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. The study population consisted of 40 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years that was further divided into four groups: Control, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) (Loe and Silness-1963), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss was assessed. Estimation of SCN was performed by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 447 nm wavelength. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVAs Welch test and Pearson's correlation test using SPSS version 17 software. Results showed statistically significant increase in SCN levels in smokers as compared to gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis, control, and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis subjects. Significantly higher PD and loss of attachment were seen in smokers group compared with other groups. A negative correlation observed between the GI and thiocyanate levels. The present study revealed a significant increase in SCN levels in smokers with periodontitis as compared to nonsmokers.

  18. Step-to-step reproducibility and asymmetry to study gait auto-optimization in healthy and cerebral palsied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatoire, A; Femery, V; Potdevin, F; Moretto, P

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare plantar pressure asymmetry and step-to-step reproducibility in both able-bodied persons and two groups of hemiplegics. The relevance of the research was to determine the efficiency of asymmetry and reproducibility as indexes for diagnosis and rehabilitation processes. This study comprised 31 healthy young subjects and 20 young subjects suffering from cerebral palsy hemiplegia assigned to two groups of 10 subjects according to the severity of their musculoskeletal disorders. The peaks of plantar pressure and the time to peak pressure were recorded with an in-shoe measurement system. The intra-individual coefficient of variability was calculated to indicate the consistency of plantar pressure during walking and to define gait stability. The effect size was computed to quantify the asymmetry and measurements were conducted at eight footprint locations. Results indicated few differences in step-to-step reproducibility between the healthy group and the less spastic group while the most affected group showed a more asymmetrical and unstable gait. From the concept of self-optimisation and depending on the neuromotor disorders the organism could make priorities based on pain, mobility, stability or energy expenditure to develop the best gait auto-optimisation.

  19. Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbregt, H J; Keeser, D; van Eijk, L; Suiker, E M; Eichhorn, D; Karch, S; Deijen, J B; Pogarell, O

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance. 25 healthy subjects were included and randomly assigned to active or sham E-NFT. On average the subjects underwent 15 E-NFT training sessions with a training duration of 45 min. Resting-state EEG was recorded prior to E-NFT training (t1) and in a 3-year follow-up (t3). Compared to sham E-NFT, which was used for the control group, real E-NFT increased beta activity in a predictable way. This increase was maintained over a period of three years post training. However, E-NFT did not result in significantly improved cognitive performance. Based on our results, we conclude that EEG-NFT can selectively modify EEG beta activity both in short and long-term. This is a sham controlled EEG neurofeedback study demonstrating long-term effects in resting state EEG. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GH signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Poul Frølund; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Pedersen, Steen Bønnelykke

    2014-01-01

    in women when compared with men (P=0.01). IGF1, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, and CISH mRNA expression increased significantly in muscle after 120 min in all subjects with no impact of age and gender. GH-induced pSTAT5b correlated inversely with lean body mass (LBM; r=-0.56, P=0.01) and positively with the CISH m...

  1. Association of DNA repair polymorphisms with DNA repair functional outcomes in healthy human subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Štětina, R.; Poláková, Veronika; Tulupová, Elena; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodičková, Ludmila; Kumar, R.; Hánová, Monika; Pardini, Barbara; Slyšková, Jana; Musak, L.; De Palma, G.; Souček, P.; Hemminki, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2007), s. 657-664 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8563; GA ČR GA310/05/2626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Base excision DNA * Single-strand breaks * Peripheral blood lymphocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.406, year: 2007

  2. Constituting the healthy employee? : Governing gendered subjects in workplace health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Erika

    2008-01-01

    With a post-structural approach and an analytical focus on processes of governmentality and biopower, this study is concerned with how discourses of health are contextualized in educational practice and interaction between educators and participants in workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions. Of concern are issues of the discursive production, regulation and representation of power, knowledge and subjects as gendered beings in workplace health promotion interventions. The methods for g...

  3. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  4. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespón, Jesús; Rodella, Claudia; Rossini, Paolo M; Miniussi, Carlo; Pellicciari, Maria C

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task ( n -back task) during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials). A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  5. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials. A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  6. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  7. Comparative Study on the Pulse Wave Variables and Sasang Constitution in Cerebral Infarction Patients and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko KiDuk

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine whether a pulse analyzer was useful 1 to characterize the variables of pulse wave of cerebral infarction patieno (CI, compared with those of healthy subjects, as well as 2 to determine Sasang Constitution in CI and healthy subjects. 1. Calibrated in Gwan, the amount of energy(Energy, height of main peak(H1, height of aorticvalley(H2, height of aortic peak(H3, total area of pulse wave(At, and area of main peak width(Aw of the CI group were higher than those of the healthy group. 2. Calibrated in Cheek, Energy, H1, H2, H3, height of valve valley(H4, At, Aw, and main peak angle(MPA of the CI group were higher than those of the healthy group. 3. Among the healthy (subjects group, Taeumin showed the highest contact pressure(CP and height of valve peak(H5 calibrated in Chon. The main peak width divided by whole time of pulse wave(MPW/T calibrated in Gwan and Cheok, was highest in Soyangin and was lowest in Taeumin. The H3 divided by H1(H3/H1 and the time to valve valley minus the time to main peak and divided by T[(T4-T1/T] calibrated in Cheek were highest in Soyangin. The time to main peak(T1 was longest in Soumin. 4. Among the CI group, At calibrated in Chon was widest in Taeumin and was narrowest in Soumin The time to aortic peak(T3 calibrated in Cheek was longest in Soumin and was shortest in Soyangin. The time to valve peak(T5 was shortest in Soyangin. 5. There were main effects of cerebral infarction in the area of systolic period(As and area of diastolic period(Ad calibrated in Chon, Energy calibrated in Cwan, and Energy, H1, H2, H3, (H4+H5/Hl, and MPA calibrated in Cheek. 6. There were main effects of Sasang Constitution in (T4-T1/T, area of systolic period(As, and Ad calibrated in Chon. 7. The interactions between the cerebral infarction and Sasang Constitution were observed in H5/H1 , T, At, As, Ad, and MPA calibrated in Chon, H4, T4, (T4-T1/T, As, and Ad calibrated in Cwan, and 74,75, and MPW calibrated

  8. Ibrutinib does not prolong the corrected QT interval in healthy subjects: results from a thorough QT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jan; Hellemans, Peter; Jiao, James Juhui; Huang, Yuhan; Mesens, Sofie; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Ouellet, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    Ibrutinib is an orally administered, irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of B-cell malignancy. This study evaluated the effects of single-dose ibrutinib at therapeutic and supratherapeutic exposures on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects. Part 1 used an open-label, two-period sequential design to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of single doses of ibrutinib 840 and 1680 mg in eight subjects. Part 2 was a randomized, placebo- and positive (moxifloxacin)-controlled, double-blind, single dose, four-way cross-over study to assess the effect of ibrutinib (840 and 1680 mg) on QT/QTc interval. 64 healthy subjects were planned to be enrolled. Baseline-adjusted QT (QTc) intervals for ibrutinib and moxifloxacin (assay sensitivity) were compared to placebo using linear mixed-effect model. A concentration-QTc analysis was also conducted. No clinically relevant safety observations were noted in Part 1. During Part 2, one subject experienced Grade 4 ALT/AST elevations with ibrutinib 1680 mg, leading to study termination and limiting the enrollment to 20 subjects. Ibrutinib demonstrated dose-dependent increases in exposure. The upper bounds of the 90% CIs for the mean difference in change from baseline in QTc between ibrutinib and placebo were Ibrutinib caused a concentration-dependent mild shortening of QTc and mild PR prolongation, but these effects were not considered clinically meaningful. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic concentrations of ibrutinib do not prolong the QTc interval. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02271438.

  9. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of newly discovered aromatase inhibitors by a cassette microdosing approach in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Takashima, Tadayuki; Fujii, Hisako; Takashima, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tazawa, Shusaku; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kayo; Tokai, Hidekichi; Yano, Tsuneo; Kataoka, Makoto; Inano, Akihiro; Yoshida, Suguru; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinji; Hojo, Taisuke; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics of our newly developed aromatase inhibitors (cetrozole and TMD-322) in healthy subjects by a cassette microdose strategy. A cocktail of cetrozole and TMD-322 was administered intravenously or orally (1.98 μg for each drug) to six healthy volunteers in a crossover fashion. Anastrozole (1.98 μg) was also included in the oral cocktail. Total body clearance and bioavailability were 12.1 ± 7.1 mL/min/kg and 34.9 ± 32.3% for cetrozole, and 16.8 ± 3.5 mL/min/kg and 18.4 ± 12.2% for TMD-322, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves of cetrozole and TMD-322 after oral administration was markedly lower than that of anastrozole because of their high hepatic clearance. Two subjects out of six exhibited 4- and 17-fold larger exposure of cetrozole than the others following intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Such variation was not observed for TMD-322 and anastrozole. Extensive metabolism of cetrozole and TMD-322 was observed in the CYP2C19 expression system among the test CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4). We report the first clinical investigation of our aromatase inhibitors by a cassette microdose strategy in healthy Japanese subjects. This strategy offers an optional approach for candidate selection as a phase zero study in drug development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696) After Single-Dose Administration in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Pan, Wei; Yang, Fan; Yuan, Yaozong; Langenickel, Thomas; Hinder, Markus; Kalluri, Sampath; Pal, Parasar; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2017-02-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) and has been recently approved in several countries for the treatment of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. This was the first study conducted to characterise the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes (pro-drug sacubitril, active neprilysin inhibitor LBQ657 and valsartan) after single-dose administration of LCZ696 in healthy Chinese subjects. In this open-label, randomised, parallel-group study, following screening and baseline evaluation, eligible healthy subjects received single oral doses of LCZ696 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. The pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of LCZ696 were assessed up to 72 h after dosing. A total of 40 healthy male subjects were enrolled, and all completed the study. Following oral administration, LCZ696 delivered systemic exposure to sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan with a median time to reach maximum plasma concentration (T max ) ranging from 0.50 to 1.25, 2.00 to 3.00 and 1.50 to 2.50 h, respectively, over the investigated dose range. The mean terminal elimination half-life (T 1/2 ) ranged from 0.89 to 1.35, 8.57 to 9.24 and 5.33 to 7.91 h for sacubitril, LBQ657 and valsartan, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-last ), and maximum plasma concentration (C max ) for LBQ657 increased dose proportionally over the entire dose range. Dose linear increase in the exposure was observed across the dose range for sacubitril and valsartan. LCZ696 was safe and well tolerated at all doses in this study. Adverse events of only mild intensity, which required no treatment, were reported in 6 (15 %) subjects. The pharmacokinetic profiles of LCZ696 analytes in Chinese subjects are similar to those reported previously in Caucasian subjects.

  12. Short-Term Reproducibility of Twenty-Four-Hour Intraocular Pressure Curves in Untreated Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Xu

    Full Text Available To assess the short-term day-to-day reproducibility of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP curves in various respects in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT patients.47 subjects with POAG and 34 subjects with OHT underwent IOP measurements every 2 hours in both eyes for consecutive 48 hours by a non-contact tonometer (NCT. IOP values at each time point were recorded. Mean IOP, peak IOP, time difference of peak IOP between two days and IOP fluctuation were also calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate reproducibility.ICCs of the entire IOP values for a complete 24-hour curve were 0.577 and 0.561 in POAG and OHT patients, respectively. ICCs of IOP values at different time points ranged from 0.384 (10am to 0.686 (4am in POAG patients and from 0.347 (6am to 0.760 (4am in OHT patients. ICCs of mean IOP, peak IOP and IOP fluctuation were respectively 0.832, 0.704, 0.367 in POAG patients and 0.867, 0.816 0.633 in OHT patients. Only 37.23% and 35.29% of the peak IOP time points appeared within the time difference of 2 hours in POAG and OHT patients, respectively, while 53.19% and 48.53% appeared within 4 hours in POAG and OHT patients, respectively.A 24-hour IOP curve in a single day is not highly reproducible in short-term and has limited use for evaluating individual IOP condition. Mean IOP and peak IOP for a 24-hour IOP curve are useful parameters in clinical follow-up, while IOP value at a certain time point, IOP fluctuation and peak IOP time point should be interpreted with caution.

  13. Final gastric emptying of solid food in healthy subjects: Determined by X-ray examination and radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolving, L.; Noer, I.; Soegaard, P.; Christensen, T.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Kommunehospital, Aarhus

    1990-01-01

    In ten healthy subjects final gastric emptying of solid food was measured by a new scintigraphic mehtod, employing 99m Tc labelled pellets, and compared to a radiologic method, employing food with incorporated barium suspension. Final gastric emptying of solid food, measured by the scintigraphic technique, was 5.2 hours and with the radiographic technique 5.5 hours, with no significant difference. It is concluded that significant information concerning gastric emptying of solid food can be obtained by the radiological method. (orig.) [de

  14. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian

    2003-01-01

    During a sustained maximal effort a progressive decline in the ability to drive motoneurones (MNs) develops. We used the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction after fatiguing exercise in healthy subjects. This method employs a collision technique....... This points to increased probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during fatigue even if some MNs in the pool failed to discharge. Silent period duration following cortical stimulation lengthened by an average of 55 ms after the contraction and recovered within a time course similar to that of the TST...

  15. Repeatability, interocular correlation and agreement of quantitative swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography macular metrics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Danqi; Tang, Fang Yao; Huang, Haifan; Cheung, Carol Y; Chen, Haoyu

    2018-05-29

    To investigate the repeatability, interocular correlation and agreement of quantitative swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) metrics in healthy subjects. Thirty-three healthy normal subjects were enrolled. The macula was scanned four times by an SS-OCTA system using the 3 mm×3 mm mode. The superficial capillary map images were analysed using a MATLAB program. A series of parameters were measured: foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ perimeter, FAZ circularity, parafoveal vessel density, fractal dimension and vessel diameter index (VDI). The repeatability of four scans was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Then the averaged results were analysed for intereye difference, correlation and agreement using paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), ICC and Bland-Altman plot. The repeatability assessment of the macular metrics exported high ICC values (ranged from 0.853 to 0.996). There is no statistically significant difference in the OCTA metrics between the two eyes. FAZ area (ICC=0.961, r=0.929) and FAZ perimeter (ICC=0.884, r=0.802) showed excellent binocular correlation. Fractal dimension (ICC=0.732, r=0.578) and VDI (ICC=0.707, r=0.547) showed moderate binocular correlation, while parafoveal vessel density had poor binocular correlation. Bland-Altman plots showed the range of agreement was from -0.0763 to 0.0954 mm 2 for FAZ area and from -0.0491 to 0.1136 for parafoveal vessel density. The macular metrics obtained using SS-OCTA showed excellent repeatability in healthy subjects. We showed high intereye correlation in FAZ area and perimeter, moderate correlation in fractal dimension and VDI, while vessel density had poor correlation in normal healthy subjects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Retinal vessel diameters decrease with macular ganglion cell layer thickness in autosomal dominant optic atrophy and in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Grønskov, Karen; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    diameters (central retinal artery equivalent, CRAE, and central retinal vein equivalent, CRVE). Statistical analysis was corrected for age, gender, spherical equivalent refraction, axial length and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in a mixed model analysis. RESULTS: Retinal arteries and veins were...... ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0057, respectively). CONCLUSION: Narrow retinal arteries and veins were associated not only with the severity of ADOA but with ganglion cell volume in patients with ADOA and in healthy subjects. This suggests that narrow vessels...

  17. Optimizing visualization in enhanced depth imaging OCT in healthy subjects and patients with retinal pigment epithelial detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampik A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Reznicek, Efstathios Vounotrypidis, Florian Seidensticker, Karsten Kortuem, Anselm Kampik, Aljoscha S Neubauer, Armin WolfDepartment of Ophthalmology, Ludwig Maximilians University Muenchen, Munich, GermanyBackground: This study’s objective was to optimize the visualization of three different spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT display modalities and evaluate enhanced depth imaging (EDI by comparing the maximum depth of assessment in conventional versus inverted cross-sectional OCT images in healthy subjects and in patients with retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED.Methods: Cross-sectional SD-OCT conventional and inverted images were obtained with the HRA2 (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph II, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany. Horizontal as well as vertical sections in three different display modes were blinded for evaluation by three independent, experienced graders for maximal imaging depth of the deep ocular fundus layers.Results: The mean imaging depth as measured from the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS to the outer choroid of all 14 healthy subjects was 197 ± 44 µm vs 263 ± 56 µm for conventional vs EDI scans: in black/white mode, it was significantly lower (P < 0.001 than in white/black mode (249 ± 42 µm vs 337 ± 71 µm and color/heat mode (254 ± 48 µm vs 354 ± 73 µm. The mean imaging depth of all 14 study eyes with PED was 240 ± 78 µm vs 345 ± 100 µm for conventional vs EDI scans in black/white mode, and was significantly lower (P < 0.001 than in white/black mode (393 ± 104 µm vs 464 ± 126 µm and in color/heat mode (373 ± 106 µm vs 453 ± 114 µm. In each display modality of healthy subjects and of patients with PED, EDI scans showed a significantly higher imaging depth than the corresponding conventional scans.Conclusion: White/black and color/heat modes allow increased imaging depth, compared to black/white mode using both conventional or EDI OCT scans in healthy subjects or

  18. Serum carotenoids and macular pigment optical density in patients with intestinal resections and healthy subjects: an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard; Prahm, August P; Falk, Mads Krüger

    2018-01-01

    Reduced absorption capacity in patients with intestinal resections (IR) could result in malabsorption of fat-soluble components like carotenoids, which are of clinical interest in relation to visual health. In this case cohort, we investigated the association between IR and serum lutein, zeaxanthin......·0001) in the group with IR. Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and macular pigment optical density were >15 % lower in the patient group compared with healthy controls (P carotenoids. Results suggest...... that for a test of macular carotenoid supplementation, subjects with a potentially clinically significant carotenoid deficit could be recruited among patients with IR....

  19. Comparative assessment of the diets of healthy individuals, subjects with preclinical coronary heart disease and patients with severe heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, D.M.; Eganyan, R.A.; Kovaleva, O.F.; Zhidko, N.I.; Danielov, G.Eh.; Rozhnov, A.V.; Shcherbakova, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    92 males aged 26 to 55 (28 healthy individuals, 45 persons with preclinical coronary heart disease and 19 patients with functional class 1-2 coronary heart disease) were examined to study the peculiarities and dietary patterns of persons with a high physical working capacity and having no typical clinical signs of the disease. All persons were subjected to a complex examination which included questionnarire, myocardial scintigraphy with 201 Tl at a maximum physical loading, echocardiography, coronaroangiography. Certain dietary peculiarities are established in persons with preclinical coronary heart disease

  20. Impact of age and gender interaction on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alexandra; Ayoubi, Fida; Deveaux, Christel; Charbit, Beny; Delmau, Catherine; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Jaillon, Patrice; Uzan, Georges; Simon, Tabassome

    2010-02-01

    To assess the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPC) in cycling women compared with men and menopausal women. Controlled clinical study. Healthy, nonsmoking volunteers. Twelve women, aged 18-40 years, with regular menstrual cycles, 12 menopausal women, and two groups of 12 age-matched men were recruited. Women did not receive any hormone therapy. Collection of 20 mL of peripheral blood. The number of CEPC, defined as (Lin-/7AAD-/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+) cells per 10(6) mononuclear cells (MNC), was measured by flow cytometry. The number of CEPC was significantly higher in cycling women than in age-matched men and menopausal women (26.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10 per 10(6) MNC, respectively). The number of CEPC was similar in menopausal women, age-matched, and young men. The number of CEPC is influenced by an age-gender interaction. This phenomenon may explain in part the better vascular repair and relative cardiovascular protection in younger women as compared with age-matched men. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive Behavior Evaluation Based on Physiological Parameters among Young Healthy Subjects with Yoga as Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of yoga practice on cognitive skills, autonomic nervous system, and heart rate variability by analyzing physiological parameters. Methods. The study was conducted on 30 normal young healthy engineering students. They were randomly selected into two groups: yoga group and control group. The yoga group practiced yoga one and half hour per day for six days in a week, for a period of five months. Results. The yoga practising group showed increased α, β, and δ EEG band powers and significant reduction in θ and γ band powers. The increased α and β power can represent enhanced cognitive functions such as memory and concentration, and that of δ signifies synchronization of brain activity. The heart rate index θ/α decreased, neural activity β/θ increased, attention resource index β/(α+θ increased, executive load index (δ+θ/α decreased, and the ratio (δ+θ/(α+β decreased. The yoga practice group showed improvement in heart rate variability, increased SDNN/RMSSD, and reduction in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion. Yoga practising group showed significant improvement in various cognitive functions, such as performance enhancement, neural activity, attention, and executive function. It also resulted in increase in the heart rate variability, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and balanced autonomic nervous system reactivity.

  2. SOME ASPECTS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM FUNCTIONING IN HEALTHY DONORS SUBJECTED TO XENOGENOUS EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Obukhova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In present work, we studied some interrelations between tobacco smoking and the processes of immune system stimulation in healthy blood donors. In our opinion, this issue is especially important for the big industrial center, with rather strong antigenic exposure of the organism. The levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC were used as a marker index which reflects specific antigen-antibody interactions during inflammation. According to the results obtained, the majority of persons who have high CIC levels were tobacco smokers (53.76%. Moreover, the percentage of persons with high CIC content, like as the mean values of this index is increased proportionally to the duration of smoking. A mixture of tobacco smoke components seems to exert direct toxic effect upon various compartments of the immune system and causes local irritation of bronchial tree, thus producing local and systemic inflammatory reaction. It is, possibly, an additional factor which determines activation of immune system, with a background of adverse antropogenic exposures typical to industrial centers. The data obtained allow us to affirm a toxic action of tobacco smoke upon the organism of smokers, with development of inflammatory reactions that are displayed as increased CIC levels at preclinical stage.

  3. The effects of a supportive knee brace on leg performance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, J W; Koene, F M; Oostvogel, H J; von Thiel, T P; Verstappen, F T

    1991-12-01

    Eight healthy volunteers were fitted with a supportive knee brace (Push Brace 'Heavy') to one knee for a duration of four weeks wherein they were tested before, during and after the application to establish the effect of bracing on performance. The tests consisted of isokinetic strength measurement of knee flexion and extension, 60 meter dash, vertical jump height and a progressive horizontal treadmill test until exhaustion (Vmax) with determination of oxygen uptake, heart rate and plasma lactate concentration. Wearing the brace for one day, the performance indicators showed a decline compared with the test before application (base values). Sprint time was 4% longer (p less than 0.01) and Vmax 6% slower (p less than 0.01). Peak torque of knee flexion at 60 and 240 deg.sec-1 was 6% (p less than 0.05) respectively 9% (p less than 0.05) less. Peak extension torque at 60 deg.sec-1 was 9% less (p less than 0.05). While wearing the brace for four weeks, the test performances were practically identical to their base values. After removal of the brace, all test parameters were statistically similar to the base values. Heart rate at submaximal exercise levels was even lower (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, performance in sports with test-like exercise patterns is not affected by the brace tested. Bracing does not "weaken the knee" as it is widely believed in sports practice.

  4. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What Limits Cardiac Performance during Exercise in Normal Subjects and in Healthy Fontan Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André La Gerche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is an important determinant of health but is significantly reduced in the patient with a univentricular circulation. Normal exercise physiology mandates an increase in pulmonary artery pressures which places an increased work demand on the right ventricle (RV. In a biventricular circulation with pathological increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and/or reductions in RV function, exercise-induced augmentation of cardiac output is limited. Left ventricular preload reserve is dependent upon flow through the pulmonary circulation and this requires adequate RV performance. In the Fontan patient, the reasons for exercise intolerance are complex. In those patients with myocardial dysfunction or other pathologies of the circulatory components, it is likely that these abnormalities serve as a limitation to cardiac performance during exercise. However, in the healthy Fontan patient, it may be the absence of a sub-pulmonary pump which limits normal increases in pulmonary pressures, trans-pulmonary flow requirements and cardiac output. If so, performance will be exquisitely dependent on pulmonary vascular resistance. This provides a potential explanation as to why pulmonary vasodilators may improve exercise tolerance. As has recently been demonstrated, these agents may offer an important new treatment strategy which directly addresses the physiological limitations in the Fontan patient.

  6. Correlating Corneal Biomechanics and Ocular Biometric Properties with Lamina Cribrosa Measurements in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Bartolomé, Francisco; Martínez de la Casa, Jose María; Camacho Bosca, Irene; Sáenz-Francés, Federico; Aguilar Munoa, Soledad; Martín Juan, Alberto; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian

    2018-01-01

    To examine interrelations between corneal biomechanics, ocular biometric variables and optic disc size (ODS), lamina cribosa depth (LCD) or thickness (LCT) in a healthy population. In a cross-sectional case-control study, the following measurements were made in 81 eyes of 81 participants: axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and central corneal thickness using the optical biometer Lenstar LS900; and corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Serial horizontal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) B-scans of the optic nerve head were obtained in each participant. Mean ODS, mean LCD, and mean LCT were measured in 11 equally spaced horizontal B-scans, excluding the LC insertion area under Bruch's membrane and scleral rim. LCD was measured in 74 of 81 eyes (91.36%); LCT in 60/81 (75.3%); ODS in 81/81 (100%). CRF was poorly, but significantly, correlated with LCT (Pearson's R = 0.264; P = 0.045). IOPcc, IOPg, CH, and ocular biometrics variables were poorly (non-significantly) correlated with LCD, LCT, and ODS. CRF was poorly but directly correlated with LCT. No association was detected between CH or ocular biometric variables and ODS, LCD, or LCT.

  7. 5-HTTLPR, anxiety and gender interaction moderates right amygdala volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo; Piras, Fabrizio; Mangone, Graziella; Magariello, Angela; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Muglia, Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-10-01

    Genetic variants within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impact the neurobiology and risk for anxiety-related behaviours. There are also gender differences in the prevalence of anxiety-related behaviours. Although numerous studies have investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the neural systems involved in emotional regulation, none have investigated how these effects are modulated by gender and anxiety. We investigated this issue using two complementary region of interest-based structural neuroimaging approaches (voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer) in 138 healthy individuals categorized into 'no anxiety' and 'subclinical anxiety' groups based on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Preliminarily, using anxiety as a continuous variable, we found a significant interaction effect of genotype by gender on anxiety. Females homozygous for the Short allele showed the highest HAM-A scores and males the lowest. In addition, a three-way significant interaction among genotype, gender and anxiety category was found for the right amygdala volume. Post hoc tests revealed that homozygous females carrying the Short variant with a subclinical anxiety condition had larger volume. The reported interaction effects demonstrate that gender strongly modulates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and subclinical expression of anxiety acting on amygdala, one region of the emotional neural network specifically involved in the anxiety-like behaviours. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Ageing Indices in Relation to Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna H I, Shruthi; Moodithaya, Shailaja; Sharma, Raghava

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon that has tremendous amount of control over normal physiological functions. Diabetes mellitus and ageing share common symptoms like stiffness and loss of functioning of tissues due to cross-liked proteins and free radicals. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) is often used as a stable cumulative index of glycemic control and has shown that even in non-diabetic adults, there is a steady increase in HbA1c levels with age. Aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of association of HbA1c with metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices in subjects between the age group of 40 to 60 yrs. A total of 220 subjects, with (n=110) and without (n=110) diabetes were assessed for the metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices. BMI, waist hip ratio, fat percentage, Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were assessed as metabolic ageing indices. The cardiovascular ageing indices measured were resting heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability. Ageing indices were compared between subjects with and without diabetes using independent' t' test and showed that the T2DM group exhibit significant accelerated ageing as compared to that of the controls. Pearson's and partial correlation coefficient was used to assess the association of HbA1c with the ageing indices without and with controlling for chronological age, indicated that, strength of association of levels of HBA1c with cardiovascular and other metabolic indices of ageing is statistically significant. The study concludes that the tightness of glycemic control has a significant impact on the biological ageing process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Effect of postural changes on ICP in healthy and ill subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lonnie G; Juhler, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    to distinguish normal human physiology from disease entities such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension and normal pressure hydrocephalus, we investigated ICP in different body postures in both normal and ill subjects. METHODS: Thirty-one patients were included: four normal patients following complete removal......: upright standing, sitting in a chair, supine and right lateral lumbar puncture position. RESULTS: Linear regression of median ICP based on patient posture, group, and purpose of monitoring presented a significant model (p ... of differences in median ICP between body postures and supine ICP as the baseline, presented a highly significant model (p posture (p postures enabled...

  10. Erotic stimulus processing under amisulpride and reboxetine: a placebo-controlled fMRI study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Heiko; Wiegers, Maike; Metzger, Coraline D; Walter, Martin; Grön, Georg; Abler, Birgit

    2014-10-31

    Impaired sexual function is increasingly recognized as a side effect of psychopharmacological treatment. However, underlying mechanisms of action of the different drugs on sexual processing are still to be explored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously investigated effects of serotonergic (paroxetine) and dopaminergic (bupropion) antidepressants on sexual functioning (Abler et al., 2011). Here, we studied the impact of noradrenergic and antidopaminergic medication on neural correlates of visual sexual stimulation in a new sample of subjects. Nineteen healthy heterosexual males (mean age 24 years, SD 3.1) under subchronic intake (7 days) of the noradrenergic agent reboxetine (4 mg/d), the antidopaminergic agent amisulpride (200mg/d), and placebo were included and studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging within a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design during an established erotic video-clip task. Subjective sexual functioning was assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Relative to placebo, subjective sexual functioning was attenuated under reboxetine along with diminished neural activations within the caudate nucleus. Altered neural activations correlated with decreased sexual interest. Under amisulpride, neural activations and subjective sexual functioning remained unchanged. In line with previous interpretations of the role of the caudate nucleus in the context of primary reward processing, attenuated caudate activation may reflect detrimental effects on motivational aspects of erotic stimulus processing under noradrenergic agents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  11. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean

  12. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus...... and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain were measured during 4-km/h treadmill walking. RESULTS: The normalized H-reflex amplitude was lower in the swing phase for the middle-aged group, and there was no difference in muscle activity. EMG/H-reflex gain did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: H......-reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing...

  13. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  14. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and the pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic relationship of zolpidem in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S L; Schoemaker, R C; van Gerven, J M A; Hoever, P; Cohen, A F; Dingemanse, J

    2010-11-01

    Zolpidem is one of the most frequently prescribed hypnotics, as it is a very short-acting compound with relatively few side effects. Zolpidem's short duration of action is partly related to its short elimination half-life, but the associations between plasma levels and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects are not precisely known. In this study, the concentration-effect relationships for zolpidem were modelled. Zolpidem (10 mg) was administered in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial to determine PD and pharmacokinetics (PK) in 14 healthy volunteers. Zolpidem was absorbed and eliminated quickly, with a median T(max) of 0.78 h (range: 0.33-2.50) and t(1/2) of 2.2 h. Zolpidem reduced saccadic peak velocity (SPV), adaptive tracking performance, electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power and visual analogue scale (VAS) alertness score and increased body sway, EEG beta power and VAS 'feeling high'. Short- and long-term memory was not affected. Central nervous system effects normalised more rapidly than the decrease of plasma concentrations. For most effects, zolpidem's short duration of action could be adequately described by both a sigmoid E(max) model and a transit tolerance model. For SPV and EEG alpha power, the tolerance model seemed less suitable. These PK/PD models have different implications for the mechanism underlying zolpidem's short duration of action. A sigmoid E(max) model (which is based on ligand binding theory) would imply a threshold value for the drug's effective concentrations. A transit tolerance model (in which a hypothetical factor builds up with time that antagonises the effects of the parent compound) is compatible with a rapid reversible desensitisation of GABAergic subunits.

  15. Modulation of attention network activation under antidepressant agents in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Heiko; Abler, Birgit; Hartmann, Antonie; Metzger, Coraline D; Walter, Martin

    2013-07-01

    While antidepressants are supposed to exert similar effects on mood and drive via various mechanisms of action, diverging effects are observed regarding side-effects and accordingly on neural correlates of motivation, emotion, reward and salient stimuli processing as a function of the drugs impact on neurotransmission. In the context of erotic stimulation, a unidirectional modulation of attentional functioning despite opposite effects on sexual arousal has been suggested for the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine and the selective dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake-inhibitor (SDNRI) bupropion. To further elucidate the effects of antidepressant-related alterations of neural attention networks, we investigated 18 healthy males under subchronic administration (7 d) of paroxetine (20 mg), bupropion (150 mg) and placebo within a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design during an established preceding attention task. Neuropsychological effects beyond the fMRI-paradigm were assessed by measuring alertness and divided attention. Comparing preceding attention periods of salient vs. neutral pictures, we revealed congruent effects of both drugs vs. placebo within the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, anterior insula and the thalamus. Relatively decreased activation in this network was paralleled by slower reaction times in the divided attention task in both verum conditions compared to placebo. Our results suggest similar effects of antidepressant treatments on behavioural and neural attentional functioning by diverging neurochemical pathways. Concurrent alterations of brain regions within a fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular attention network for top-down control could point to basic neural mechanisms of antidepressant action irrespective of receptor profiles.

  16. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  17. Characterization of swallow modulation in response to bolus volume in healthy subjects accounting for catheter diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lara; Schar, Mistyka; McCall, Lisa; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2018-06-01

    Characterization of the pharyngeal swallow response to volume challenges is important for swallowing function assessment. The diameter of the pressure-impedance recording catheter may influence these results. In this study, we captured key physiological swallow measures in response to bolus volume utilizing recordings acquired by two catheters of different diameter. Ten healthy adults underwent repeat investigations with 8- and 10-Fr catheters. Liquid bolus swallows of volumes 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mL were recorded. Measures indicative of distension, contractility, and flow timing were assessed. Pressure-impedance recordings with pressure-flow analysis were used to capture key distension, contractility, and pressure-flow timing parameters. Larger bolus volumes increased upper esophageal sphincter distension diameter (P < .001) and distension pressures within the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (P < .05). Bolus flow timing measures were longer, particularly latency of bolus propulsion ahead of the pharyngeal stripping wave (P < .001). Use of a larger-diameter catheter produced higher occlusive pressures, namely upper esophageal sphincter basal pressure (P < .005) and upper esophageal sphincter postdeglutitive pressure peak (P < .001). The bolus volume swallowed changed measurements indicative of distension pressure, luminal diameter, and pressure-flow timing; this is physiologically consistent with swallow modulation to accommodate larger, faster-flowing boluses. Additionally, catheter diameter predominantly affects lumen occlusive pressures. Appropriate physiological interpretation of the pressure-impedance recordings of pharyngeal swallowing requires consideration of the effects of volume and catheter diameter. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:1328-1334, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of potential salivary acetaldehyde production from ethanol in oral cancer patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaelli, H; Apaydin, A; Aydil, B; Ayhan, M; Karadeniz, A; Ozel, S; Yılmaz, E; Akgün, B; Eren, B

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde has been implicated as a major factor in oral carcinogenesis associated with alcohol consumption. In this study, saliva samples from oral cancer patients and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro with ethanol in order to investigate factors which can influence salivary acetaldehyde production. A total of 66 individuals (40 males and 26 females, mean age 52 years) participated in the study. Participants were classified into three groups: Group 1 (oral cancer patients [n = 20]); Group 2 (poor dental health status [n = 25]) and Group 3 (good dental health status [n=21]). Every patient chewed a 1g piece of paraffin chewing gum for 1 minute then saliva samples were collected from all individuals. After in vitro incubation of the samples with ethanol, the levels of salivary acetaldehyde production was measured by head space gas chromatography. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman's Correlations analysis were performed for statistical analyses. The salivary acetaldehyde production was significantly higher (p oral hygiene habits and dental visits, smoking and presence of a dental prosthesis were significant parameters for increased levels of salivary acetaldehyde production from alcohol. The evaluation of salivary acetaldehyde production after in vitro incubation with ethanol may be useful for early detection of oral cancer. According to the results of this study, the significantly higher levels of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cancer patients and individuals with poor dental health status may suggest a possible link between increased salivary acetaldehyde production and oral cancer. Improved oral hygiene can effectively decrease the level of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cavity. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 269-274.

  19. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Methods and Material: Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  20. The effect of lansoprazole, an OCT inhibitor, on metformin pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Jia, YanYan; Song, Ying; Lu, ChengTao; Li, YuWen; Chen, MinChun; Wang, MingMing; Wen, AiDong

    2014-02-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is common in patients with type 2 diabetes. A common treatment is the co-administration of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and metformin. To date, however, the effects of co-administration of PPIs, which inhibit organic cation transporter (OCT) activity, on the action of metformin (a well-known substrate of OCTs) have not been clearly demonstrated. This was a randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Healthy male volunteers (n = 20) received metformin (single dose 1,000 mg on day 1 and single dose 750 mg on day 2, with a 12-h interval) co-administered with placebo or with lansoprazole (30 mg). Plasma concentrations of metformin were measured up to 24 h after the second dose. The glucose-lowering effects of metformin were evaluated by the oral glucose tolerance test before and after each single dose of metformin within the 2-day period. Lansoprazole increased the mean metformin maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 24 h after the second dosing by 15 and 17 %, respectively (P lansoprazole prolonged the metformin elimination half-life from 3.9 to 4.5 h and decreased its renal clearance by 13 % (P lansoprazole had no effect on the maximum glucose level and the area under the serum glucose concentration-time curve of metformin. Collectively, we found a modest pharmacokinetic drug interaction between lansoprazole and metformin, which suggests that the concomitant use of these drugs should be appropriately monitored. Further studies are warranted to assess changes in metformin pharmacokinetics in patients with diabetes receiving long-term lansoprazole therapy.

  1. Estimation of breathing rate in thermal imaging videos: a pilot study on healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pereira, Carina; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    Diverse studies have demonstrated the importance of monitoring breathing rate (BR). Commonly, changes in BR are one of the earliest and major markers of serious complications/illness. However, it is frequently neglected due to limitations of clinically established measurement techniques, which require attachment of sensors. The employment of adhesive pads or thoracic belts in preterm infants as well as in traumatized or burned patients is an additional paramount issue. The present paper proposes a new robust approach, based on data fusion, to remotely monitor BR using infrared thermography (IRT). The algorithm considers not only temperature modulation around mouth and nostrils but also the movements of both shoulders. The data of these four sensors/regions of interest need to be further fused to reach improved accuracy. To investigate the performance of our approach, two different experiments (phase A: normal breathing, phase B: simulation of breathing disorders) on twelve healthy volunteers were performed. Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) was simultaneously acquired to validate our results. Excellent agreements between BR estimated with IRT and gold standard were achieved. While in phase A a mean correlation of 0.98 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.28 bpm was reached, in phase B the mean correlation and the RMSE hovered around 0.95 and 3.45 bpm, respectively. The higher RMSE in phase B results predominantly from delays between IRT and gold standard in BR transitions: eupnea/apnea, apnea/tachypnea etc. Moreover, this study also demonstrates the capability of IRT to capture varied breathing disorders, and consecutively, to assess respiratory function. In summary, IRT might be a promising monitoring alternative to the conventional contact-based techniques regarding its performance and remarkable capabilities.

  2. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The