WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-five novice participants

  1. Novice Teachers Learning through Participation in a Teacher Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Using Lave and Wenger's framework of legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, this case study explores the experiences of three novice teachers engaged with more experienced teachers in a teacher study group during their first year of teaching. The study illustrates how, over time, the novices moved from more peripheral to…

  2. Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony novice participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichter, Stephen; Klimo, Jon; Krippner, Stanley

    2009-06-01

    Ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic plant brew from the Amazon basin used as part of healing ceremonies by the local indigenous people of the region for centuries, is now being consumed by growing numbers of people throughout the world. Anecdotal evidence and previous research suggest that there are spiritual effects experienced among participants who take part in ayahuasca ceremonies. The current study examined whether novice participants' spirituality was affected through participation in an ayahuasca ceremony, and if so, how. A mixed-design method was used, comparing those participating in an ayahuasca ceremony to those who did not participate. This investigation used the Peak Experience Profile, the Spiritual Well-being Scale, and the Mysticism Scale as quantitative measures. Participant interviews and written accounts of ceremony experiences were analyzed. Results showed that neither the SWB score nor the M-Scale score increased significantly after participating in an ayahuasca ceremony. However, it was found that the higher the PEP score, the greater the positive change in SWB and M-Scale scores. Qualitative data revealed common spiritual themes in many of the participants' interviews and written accounts. Experiential differences were displayed within the ayahuasca ceremony group, warranting continued investigation into, and identification of, various confounding variables that prompt reported changes in spirituality within some participants while not in others.

  3. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  4. Application of pre-participation cardiovascular screening guidelines to novice older runners and endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Abbatemarco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Despite robust growth in participation in marathons and endurance sports among older individuals, guidance regarding pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation of these athletes is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of currently available pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation guidelines as applied to a cohort of older novice endurance athletes. Methods: We applied data from 1457 novice runners and endurance athletes aged 35 years and older to two pre-participation screening tools, the American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire and the 2001 Working Group recommendations for pre-participation screening of masters athletes (2001 Masters. Results: Application of the American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire identified 42.1% for which pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation was indicated. Of those who met criteria, 51.5% reported completion of a healthcare evaluation. Application of the 2001 Masters guidelines identified 75.2% who qualified for pre-participation electrocardiogram and 34.0% for pre-participation stress testing. Of those who met 2001 Masters criteria for pre-participation testing, 43.7% and 24.6% underwent recommended electrocardiogram and stress testing, respectively. While there was modest concordance with recommendations for pre-participation evaluations based on both American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire and 2001 Masters, only athlete age was independently associated with completion of a pre-participation healthcare evaluation and only athlete age and athlete’s participation in marathons were independently associated with pre-participation stress testing. Conclusion: Among older novice endurance athletes, application of the American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire

  5. Application of pre-participation cardiovascular screening guidelines to novice older runners and endurance athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatemarco, Justin R; Bennett, Courtney; Bell, Adrian J; Dunne, Laura; Matsumura, Martin E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite robust growth in participation in marathons and endurance sports among older individuals, guidance regarding pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation of these athletes is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of currently available pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation guidelines as applied to a cohort of older novice endurance athletes. Methods: We applied data from 1457 novice runners and endurance athletes aged 35 years and older to two pre-participation screening tools, the American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire and the 2001 Working Group recommendations for pre-participation screening of masters athletes (2001 Masters). Results: Application of the American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire identified 42.1% for which pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation was indicated. Of those who met criteria, 51.5% reported completion of a healthcare evaluation. Application of the 2001 Masters guidelines identified 75.2% who qualified for pre-participation electrocardiogram and 34.0% for pre-participation stress testing. Of those who met 2001 Masters criteria for pre-participation testing, 43.7% and 24.6% underwent recommended electrocardiogram and stress testing, respectively. While there was modest concordance with recommendations for pre-participation evaluations based on both American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire and 2001 Masters, only athlete age was independently associated with completion of a pre-participation healthcare evaluation and only athlete age and athlete’s participation in marathons were independently associated with pre-participation stress testing. Conclusion: Among older novice endurance athletes, application of the American Heart Association/American College of Sports Medicine Pre-Participation Questionnaire and 2001 Masters

  6. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  7. Familiarization Protocol Influences Reproducibility of 20-km Cycling Time-Trial Performance in Novice Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Hibbert

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise performance is reproducible in experienced athletes; however, less trained participants exhibit greater variability in performance and pacing. To reduce variability, it is common practice to complete a familiarization prior to experimental testing. However, there are no clear guidelines for familiarizing novice participants to a cycling time-trial (TT, and research findings from novice populations may still be influenced by learning effects. Accordingly, the aims of this study were to establish the variability between TTs after administering differing familiarization protocols (duration or type and to establish the number of familiarization trials required to limit variability over multiple trials.Methods: Thirty recreationally active participants, with no prior experience of a TT, performed a 20-km cycling TT on five separate occasions, after completing either a full (FF, 20-km TT, n = 10, a half (HF, 10-km TT, n = 10 or an equipment familiarization (EF, 5-min cycling, n = 10.Results: Variability of TT duration across five TTs was the lowest after completing FF (P = 0.69, ηp2 = 0.05 compared to HF (P = 0.08, ηp2 = 0.26 and EF (P = 0.07, ηp2 = 0.21. In the FF group after TT2, the effect size for changes in TT duration was small (d < 0.49. There were large differences between later TTs in HF (d = 1.02, TT3-TT4 and EF (d = 1.12, TT4-TT5. The variability in mean power output profiles between trials was lowest within FF, with a similar pacing profile reproduced between TT3-TT5.Discussion: Familiarization of the exercise protocol influenced reproducibility of pacing and performance over multiple, maximal TTs, with best results obtained after a full experience of the exercise compared to HF and EF. The difference of TT1 to later TTs indicates that one familiarization is not adequate in reducing the variability of performance for novice participants. After the FF and an additional TT, performance changes between TTs were small

  8. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  9. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior during Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Roeter, Stephanie; Smith, Annelise; Jacobson, Sue; Erdman, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated…

  10. Acquiring and Participating in the Use of Academic Spanish: Four Novice Latina Bilingual Education Teachers' Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with four U.S.-born, Latina, novice bilingual teachers revealed their lack of real opportunities to acquire the academic Spanish so crucial to their development as bilingual teachers. Educational policy governing Spanish-English bilingualism and biliteracy for the bilingual teacher education "pipeline" is at best incidental…

  11. Twenty five years of antismoking movement started by medical students: some further goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizic-Borjanovic, S; Jerinic, M; Igic, R

    2007-01-01

    Twenty five years ago, medical students of the former Yugoslavia accepted an idea that emerged from the Medical School in Tuzla to carry out a national preventive campaign "January 31st, a Day without Cigarette". This campaign was soon recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of "the most successful preventive achievement of medical students in Europe". The only contribution that the government made was printing and releasing a postal stamp on January 31st, 1990. During the war in Bosnia, the UN sanctions imposed to Serbia, and the NATO bombing campaign of the F.R. Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) weakened this antismoking campaign. At the time of the civil war in several Yugoslav republics, more citizens, including children and youth, started to smoke than in previous years. In 2002, January 31st was proclaimed as the National Antismoking Day in Serbia and the "Republic of Srpska" in Bosnia & Herzegovina; the Republic of Slovenia, and to a smaller extent the rest of the "Bosnian Federation", continued to observe this antismoking campaign. In the future, the medical professionals have to look for new ways to help smokers quit smoking and to maintain abstinence. In addition to education and professional advice, they may use smoking cessation interventions, especially to smokers that require elective surgery. Medical students should continue to participate in the national antismoking campaigns, and they could be included in the comprehensive smoking intervention programs to improve their smoking cessation counseling skills. However, the governments should plan and rigorously realize needed measures to control smoking at public places, offices, and other closed working places. Such measures are especially needed in poor and developing countries where many people die unnecessarily.

  12. Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease (1995-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S F; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Robertson, I D; Malik, R

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease were identified retrospectively. The criteria for inclusion were consistent clinical signs or histopathology and no other identifiable aetiology. Patient records were analysed to determine historical, clinical, clinicopathologic and radiographic features. The main presenting complaints were coughing and dyspnoea. The most common physical finding was dyspnoea. The majority of radiographs had a bronchial pattern either as the sole change or as a component of a mixed pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytology was neutrophilic or eosinophilic in the majority of cats. There was no association between age, breed, sex, clinical signs, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology or radiographic severity and disease severity.

  13. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  14. Classification of Groups with Strong Symmetric Genus up to Twenty-Five

    CERN Document Server

    Fieldsteel, Nathan; London, Tyler; Tran, Holden; Xu, Haokun

    2011-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group is the minimum genus of a compact Riemann surface on which the group acts as a group of automorphisms preserving orientation. A characterization of the infinite number of groups with strong symmetric genus zero and one is well-known and the problem is finite for each strong symmetric genus greater than or equal to two. May and Zimmerman have published papers detailing the classification of all groups with strong symmetric genus two through four. Using the computer algebra system GAP, we extend these classifications to all groups of strong symmetric genus up to twenty-five. This paper outlines the approach used for the extension.

  15. Screening of twenty five plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of twenty five plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus at 1 000 ppm concentration. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 and 48 h. Results: The hexane extracts of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Murraya koeingii (M. koeingii) plants showed 100 percent mortality at 24 h bioassay followed by diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of C. collinus, Leucas aspera (L. aspera), Hydrocotyle javanica (H. javanica), M. koeingii, Sphaeranthus indicus (S. indicus) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Z. limonella) after 48 h exposure. Conclusions: The results indicate larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus and further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  16. Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons: twenty-five years of doing MATH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mel

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-five years ago this past autumn, we published a short article entitled 'Adherence of bacteria to hydrocarbons: a simple method for measuring cell-surface hydrophobicity' in Volume 9 of FEMS Microbiology Letters. Together with my Ph.D. supervisors, Eugene Rosenberg and David Gutnick, we proposed a method of measuring bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity based on bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon ('BATH', later known as 'MATH', for microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon). The method became popular soon after it was published, and the paper was, for at least the following decade, the Journal's most cited article. It became an ISI 'citation classic' in 1991. This minireview is a rather personal look at the development of the method and its various modifications and other scientific offspring, with the perspective of a quarter-century.

  17. Twenty-five Years of PTHrP Progress from Cancer Hormone to Multifunctional Cytokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Laurie K.; Martin, T. John

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago a ‘new’ protein was identified from cancers that caused hypercalcemia. It was credited for its ability to mimic parathyroid hormone, and hence was termed parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Today it is recognized for its widespread distribution, its endocrine, paracrine, and intracrine modes of action driving numerous physiologic and pathologic conditions with a central role in organogenesis. The multiple biological activities within a complex molecule with paracrine modulation of adjacent target cells present boundless possibilities. The protein structure of PTHrP has been traced, dissected and deleted comprehensively and conditionally, yet numerous questions lurk in its past that will carry into the future. Issues of the variable segments of the protein including the enigmatic nuclear localization sequence are only recently being clarified. Aspects of PTHrP production and action in the menacing condition of cancer are emerging as dichotomies that may represent intended temporal actions of PTHrP. Relative to PTH, the hormone regulating calcium homeostasis, PTHrP ‘controls the show’ locally at the PTH/PTHrP receptor throughout the body. Great strides have been made in our understanding of PTHrP actions, yet years of exciting investigation and discovery are imminent. PMID:22549910

  18. Twenty-five astronomical observations that changed the world and how to make them yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Marett-Crosby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human history is also the record of our fascination with the sky, and to look upwards is to follow in the steps of such greats as Galileo and Newton. What they and others once saw in the heavens for the first time, amateur astronomers can discover anew using this guide to twenty-five of the greatest journeys through space.   Starting with our most visible companion the Moon, each chapter offers a step-by-step walk-through of famous astronomical observations from the history of science. Beginning with the easiest targets, sometimes even accessible with the naked eye, the challenges become progressively more difficult. Beginner astronomers and more experienced hobbyists alike can reacquaint themselves with the wonders of our fellow planets and even reach far beyond our own solar system to touch on such incredible phenomena as the birth of new stars in nebula systems and the deceptive nothingness of black holes. The would-be astronaut can spy the International Space Station in orbit with binoculars or the dooms...

  19. The Twenty-five Maiden Ladies’ Tomb and Predicaments of the Feminist Movement in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anru Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Twenty-five Maiden Ladies’ Tomb” is the collective burial site of the female workers who died in a ferry accident on their way to work in 1973. The fact that of the more than 70 passengers on board all 25 who died were unmarried young women, and the taboo in Taiwanese culture that shuns unmarried female ghosts, made the Tomb a fearsome place. Feminists in Gaoxiong (高雄 had for some years wanted the city government to change the tomb’s public image. Their calls were not answered until the Gaoxiong mayor’s office finally allocated money to clean up the gravesite and, as part of the city’s plans to develop urban tourism, to remake it into the tourist-friendly “Memorial Park for Women Labourers”. Consequently, even though the tomb renovation seemed to indicate a triumph of the feminist endeavour, it was more a result of the Gaoxiong city government’s efforts towards culture-led urban revitalization.

  20. Twenty-five winters of unexpected Eurasian cooling unlikely due to Arctic sea-ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Kelly E.; Fyfe, John C.; Sigmond, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Surface air temperature over central Eurasia decreased over the past twenty-five winters at a time of strongly increasing anthropogenic forcing and Arctic amplification. It has been suggested that this cooling was related to an increase in cold winters due to sea-ice loss in the Barents-Kara Sea. Here we use over 600 years of atmosphere-only global climate model simulations to isolate the effect of Arctic sea-ice loss, complemented with a 50-member ensemble of atmosphere-ocean global climate model simulations allowing for external forcing changes (anthropogenic and natural) and internal variability. In our atmosphere-only simulations, we find no evidence of Arctic sea-ice loss having impacted Eurasian surface temperature. In our atmosphere-ocean simulations, we find just one simulation with Eurasian cooling of the observed magnitude but Arctic sea-ice loss was not involved, either directly or indirectly. Rather, in this simulation the cooling is due to a persistent circulation pattern combining high pressure over the Barents-Kara Sea and a downstream trough. We conclude that the observed cooling over central Eurasia was probably due to a sea-ice-independent internally generated circulation pattern ensconced over, and nearby, the Barents-Kara Sea since the 1980s. These results improve our knowledge of high-latitude climate variability and change, with implications for our understanding of impacts in high-northern-latitude systems.

  1. Looking backwards, looking forward: hopes for bioethics' next twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Susan

    2011-02-01

    I reflect on the past, present, and future of the field of bioethics. In so doing, I offer a very situated overview of where bioethics has been, where it now is, where it seems to be going, where I think we could do better, and where I dearly hope the field will be heading. I also propose three ways of re-orienting our theoretic tools to guide us in a new direction: (1) adopt an ethics of responsibility; (2) explore the responsibilities of various kinds of actors and relationships among them; (3) expand the types of participants engaged in bioethics.

  2. Cumulative Index to Twenty Five Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The first twenty five semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through January 1959. In addition to the semiannual summaries, a series of special reports on important atomic energy programs were included in many of the semiannual reports. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports. Beginning in 1960, the Commission will be issuing annual reports, each separately indexed, ceasing the semiannual reporting.

  3. Pediatric urolithiasis in the central coast of Tunisia: Epidemiologic changes over the past twenty-five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najjar M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Pediatric urolithiasis has been constantly decreasing during the past twenty-four years (1982-2007 in Tunisia as well as in other Mediterranean countries. This study was undertaken to observe the incidence of stone disease and its composition in children. Our study shows a downward trend of incidence of urolithiasis in pediatric patients over the last 25 years. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has constantly increased with decrease in the stones related to infections Whewellite (calcium oxalate was more frequent in children of school age. In conclusion, the decrease in struvite frequency in children patients during the past twenty-five years and the stabilization of calcium phosphate stones are the result of a significant im-provement of diagnostics and the treatment of urinary tract infections in the young children in our country.

  4. Autologous Vascularized Dural Wrapping for Temporalis Muscle Preservation and Reconstruction After Decompressive Craniectomy: Report of Twenty-five Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Colasanti, Roberto; Nocchi, Niccolo; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Scerrati, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Temporalis muscle reconstruction is a necessary step during frontotemporal cranioplasty ensuing decompressive craniectomy (DC). During this procedure, scarring between the temporalis muscle and the dural layer may lead to complicated muscle dissection, which carries an increased risk of dura and muscle damage. At time of DC, temporalis muscle wrapping by an autologous vascularized dural flap can later on facilitate dissection and rebuilding during the subsequent cranioplasty. In a span of 2 years, we performed 57 DCs for different etiologies. In 30 cases, the temporalis muscle was isolated by wrapping its inner surface using the autologous dura. At cranioplasty, the muscle could easily be dissected from the duraplasty. The inner surface was easily freed from the autologous dural envelope, and reconstruction achieved in an almost physiological position. Follow-up examinations were held at regular intervals to disclose signs of temporalis muscle depletion. Twenty-five patients survived to undergo cranioplasty. Muscle dissection could always be performed with no injury to the dural layer. No complications related to temporalis muscle wrapping were recorded. Face asymmetry developed in four cases but it was always with bone resorption. None of the patients with a good neurological recovery reported functional or aesthetic complaints. In our experience, temporalis muscle wrapping by vascularized autologous dura proved to be effective in preserving its bulk and reducing its adhesion to duraplasty, thereby improving muscle dissection and reconstruction during cranioplasty. Functional and aesthetic results were satisfying, except in cases of bone resorption. PMID:24067769

  5. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Learning the art: Introduction of novice chemists into the community of practice through participation in undergraduate research in a liberal arts setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowmaster, Nancy Elise

    This study examines the nature of the undergraduate research experience in a liberal arts setting, specifically considering the degree to which undergraduate student researchers come to understand and participate in the community of practicing chemists, the ways the faculty research advisor facilitates the entry of these novice chemists into the community of practice, and the degree to which undergraduate researchers begin to develop identities as chemists. The study is a multimethodological case study of senior students performing undergraduate research at a small liberal arts college and the faculty who supervise them. The study focuses in particular on three undergraduate chemistry students, under the direction of the same faculty advisor, during their yearlong research projects. Data, which included qualitative surveys, semi-structured interviews, group meeting observations, and laboratory artifacts, were analyzed using constant comparative analysis and thematic methods. The study found that questions play several important roles in introducing students to the community of practice of chemistry and that the formation of an initial research question by the undergraduate researcher is a first step in the development of ownership of the project. The questions that the research supervisor uses to guide the undergraduates enable the students to be more productive and also demonstrate the nature of science, the nature of research, and the practice of the chemistry community. The student's research committee serves as a link to and a model of the community of practice as well as a check on the validity of the research experience. The study also found that the research advisor plays a number of roles, all of which are "bundled" into a single individual who balances these roles based on the needs of the particular student. Research advisors were found to use stories to communicate important lessons about the practice of chemistry. The study asserts that as

  7. Twenty Five Years in Cheminformatics - A Career Path Through a Diverse Series of Roles and Responsibilities (INVITED TALK) (ACS Spring meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Williams is a Computational Chemist at the US Environmental Protection Agency in the National Center for Computational Toxicology. He has been involved in cheminformatics and the dissemination of chemical information for over twenty-five years. He has worked for a Fortune ...

  8. Twenty-Five Years after Early Intervention: A Follow-Up of Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marci J.

    2003-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome and their families who participated in an early intervention program between 1974 and 1977 were interviewed 25 years later. Parents reported challenges such as medical complications, teasing or ostracism, and lack of adequate services and supports as children reached adulthood. Parents also described joys and…

  9. "What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been...": Twenty-Five Years of Qualitative and New Paradigm Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking the history of qualitative research is to some extent a personal journey, reflective of the individual's own experience in the field. Many scholars participated in the ongoing dialogue around the shift from a solely positivist model of research to a multiple-models context. There still remain some philosophical and practical problems,…

  10. Differences in the Educational Software Evaluation Process for Experts and Novice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmak, Hatice Sancar; Incikabi, Lutfi; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

    2012-01-01

    This comparative case study investigated the educational software evaluation processes of both experts and novices in conjunction with a software evaluation checklist. Twenty novice elementary education students, divided into groups of five, and three experts participated. Each novice group and the three experts evaluated educational software…

  11. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  12. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  13. Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okas, Anne; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Krull, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers’ practical knowledge and beliefs of their profession based on reflective writings of twenty Estonian teachers.Ten novice and ten experienced teachers participated in the study. They put together their professional portfolios, which among other documents included refle

  14. The Affective Experience of Novice Computer Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Novice students (N = 99) participated in a lab study in which they learned the fundamentals of computer programming in Python using a self-paced computerized learning environment involving a 25-min scaffolded learning phase and a 10-min unscaffolded fadeout phase. Students provided affect judgments at approximately 100 points (every 15 s) over the…

  15. The Affective Experience of Novice Computer Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Novice students (N = 99) participated in a lab study in which they learned the fundamentals of computer programming in Python using a self-paced computerized learning environment involving a 25-min scaffolded learning phase and a 10-min unscaffolded fadeout phase. Students provided affect judgments at approximately 100 points (every 15 s) over the…

  16. Novice teachers’ classroom management self efficacy beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Nuri Tok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine novice teachers’ classrom management self efficacy beliefs as well as the extent to which these beliefs change according to independent variables. This research which aims to determine novice teachers’ classroom management self efficacy beliefs is a survey type research. The participants of the study are 85 novice teachers on duty in their first year in Hatay Province in Turkey. Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Convictions Scale that is internally consistent and valid in measuring classroom management self-efficacy beliefs of prospective teachers devised by Çetin (2013 was used in the study. There is not any statistically significant difference in terms of school of graduation and classroom management efficacy belief and result expectation sub-dimension. There is not any statistically significant difference in classroom management efficacy belief and result expectation sub-dimension. In terms of gender, there is not any statistically significant difference in the result expectation sub-dimension but there is a statistically significant difference in classroom management efficacy belief. Male novice teachers have higher level of classroom management efficacy beliefs than female novice teachers.

  17. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of ado

  18. The novice and the expert: How gender and experience influence student participation, interest and learning in an Internet-based science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistler-Jackson, Megan Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study is to examine how gender issues influence middle school students' participation, interest and learning in an Internet-based science curriculum project. One central question is whether using the Internet for communication and collaboration might serve as an entree into science and computer technology for those who are otherwise disinterested. Five students and their teacher were observed for five weeks and interviewed at the end of their participation in the Journey North Internet-based science project. Other methods of data collection included field notes, journal writing, and document review. Data were analyzed using ethnographic and case study methodology. Results revealed that boys were viewed as science and computer experts by themselves and by their peers more often than girls, both when they were and were not more knowledgeable. Data also showed that the teacher's inexperience with computers and the Journey North project was a more significant factor in student learning than gender. Findings with two students support the notion that using the Internet for communication and collaboration may encourage participation in computer technology by students like them. These results add to literatures that document the gender gap in science and computing and complement research on the incorporation of the Internet in the classroom. This study examines participation and interest from students' points of view, confirms the central role teachers play in enacting network science projects effectively and identifies several challenges this teacher faced in learning to utilize new technologies.

  19. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia, Samir, E-mail: samir.dalia@mercy.net [Mercy Clinic Oncology and Hematology-Joplin, 3001 MC Clelland Park Blvd, Joplin, MO 64804 (United States); Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States); Cualing, Hernani [IHCFLOW Histopathology Laboratory, University of South Florida, 18804 Chaville Rd., Lutz, FL 33558 (United States); Sokol, Lubomir [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  20. Comparison expert and novice scan behavior for using e-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita Sari, Felisia; Insap Santosa, Paulus; Wibirama, Sunu

    2017-06-01

    E-Learning is an important media that an educational institution must have. Successful information design for e-learning depends on its user's characteristics. This study explores differences between novice and expert users' eye movement data. This differences between expert and novice users were compared and identified based on gaze features. Each participant must do three main tasks of e-learning. This paper gives the result that there are differences between gaze features of experts and novices.

  1. Novice supervisors' tasks and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    2012-01-01

    were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...... parallel to, the first supervisor tasks, preparing the novice supervisors for the often complicated tasks they are meeting....

  2. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...

  3. Novice Teachers’ Infusion into Pedagogical Activity at American Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chychuk Antonina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with innovations used in the USA to assist novice teachers with adaptation to professional activity. It has been found out that the experience in implementing support programs for novice teachers and introducing the position of a mentor at schools is an extremely innovative system of novice teachers’ adaptation in the USA. The analysis of pedagogical scientific works proves that novice teachers participate in different support programs: they attend seminars and conferences; they are offered to apply optimal approaches to student learning, attend lessons conducted by highly qualified teachers and analyze such lessons; a mentor is appointed for each novice teacher for the period of 2-5 years who assists him/her with writing personal professional development plan, lesson planning, teaches how to solve complicated pedagogical problems, analyze and define strong and weak sides of pedagogical activity that should be improved. Various support programs for novice teachers, organization and content of the educational process are different in American states, districts and schools, assist with improving knowledge obtained at university and serve as an intermediate stage between study programs and professional development during the whole period of teaching. We consider the abovementioned achievements to be worth further investigation. Moreover, positive aspects of such experience can be effectively implemented into the practice of secondary and high schools in Ukraine.

  4. Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... there is still little theorising about those on the other side of the policy equation. ... The concept of participation designates human beings – their priorities, knowledge .... Thus, a person's mode of participation in the enterprise.

  5. 25国基本药物目录循证评价%Evidence-Based Evaluation of National Essential Medicine Lists in Twenty-five Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 周帮旻; 宋佳佳; 彭静; 袁强; 许晓波; 李幼平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide the evidence on the selection and related policies of essential medicine for policy-makers through systematic review of the National Essential Medicine List(NEML) around the world. Method We systematically searched the official websites of the health authorities, like the departments of health and pharmaceutical administrations. We selected the published NEML. Two reviewers independently selected literature and extracted data. We analyzed the time of NEML published and updated, NEML committees, selection criteria, medicine category, number of medicines, and medicine information in NEML and standard treatment guidelines (STGs) as well. Results Thirty-six NEMLs from 25 countries were included with 34 in English and 2 in Chinese. From 1982 to 2009, Twenty-five countries developed their NEMLs respectively. They were updated from four months to eight years. The NEML committee members came from central government, ministry of health, pharmaceutical administrations, ministry of public health, ministry of education, essential medicine division, etc. The committees were composed of clinical specialists, health officials, pharmacists (pharmacologists), medicine educators, economist, statisticians, epidemiologist and experts from WHO/ UNICEF, etc. Most of the countries took the WHO's concept of essential medicine and selection criteria as standard. The applications of essential medicine were reviewed by considering the following aspects: safety, effectiveness, economic characteristics, the main disease burden, rational use of drug and supply. The medicines in NEMLs of 25 countries varied from 103 to 2 033, and the median is 447. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification was used to classify the medicines in NEMLs of 12 countries. The drug information was provided, including generic name, dosage,form of medication and administration route as well. The STGs or formularies covered from 73 to 167 common diseases, including the diagnosis

  6. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...... on autoethnography and PSMs combined with reflections on the author’s experience as a PSM novice and young academic. Autoethnography is presented as a means to enable access to real-world interventions, enhance novices’ confidence, and identify research and publishing opportunities. The author outlines strengths...

  7. Experts and novices use the same factors--but differently--to evaluate pearl quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tani

    Full Text Available Well-trained experts in pearl grading have been thought to evaluate pearls according to their glossiness, interference color, and shape. However, the characteristics of their evaluations are not fully understood. Using pearl grading experiments, we investigate the consistency of novice (i.e., without knowledge of pearl grading and expert participants' pearl grading skill and then compare the novices' grading with that of experts; furthermore, we discuss the relationship between grading, interference color, and glossiness. We found that novices' grading was significantly less concordant with experts average grading than was experts' grading; more than half of novices graded pearls the opposite of how experts graded those same pearls. However, while experts graded pearls more consistently than novices did, novices' consistency was relatively high. We also found differences between the groups in regression analyses that used interference color and glossiness as explanatory variables and were conducted for each trial. Although the regression coefficient was significant in 60% of novices' trials, there were fewer significant trials for the experts (20%. This indicates that novices can also make use of these two factors, but that their usage is simpler than that of the experts. These results suggest that experts and novices share some values about pearls but that the evaluation method is elaborated for experts.

  8. Twenty-Five Years After--Rebuilding the Lifelong Learning System in the Czech and Slovak Republic: Progress, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from a Narrative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprlak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The lifelong learning system in the Czech Republic and Slovakia share some common traits: traditional model with the dominant role of the initial education, low participation rates, lack of incentives and fragmentation. The results of the narrative research on 15 low-skilled persons demonstrated that negative attitudes towards education are often…

  9. Twenty-five years of the international Bled course for teachers of family medicine in Europe: Glancing back and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Svab, Igor; Petek-Ster, Marija; Bulc, Mateja; Buchanan, Josephine; Finnegan, Henry; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Yaphe, John

    2016-12-01

    The international Bled course for teacher training has played a central role in faculty development in family medicine for the past 25 years. The course was originally designed to promote faculty development for family medicine teachers in the new academic discipline of family medicine in Slovenia in 1990 and to introduce new topics into the family medicine curriculum. In this background paper, we perform a SCOT analysis (strengths, challenges, opportunities, and threats) of the current course, evaluating participant feedback and reviewing past topics and their impact on local and international teaching programmes. We also review the place of the course in the context of other teacher-training programmes in family medicine in Europe. We found that the structure and learning aims of the Bled course have remained stable over 25 years. It provides a safe, well-structured learning environment for the participants even though the course topic is different every year. The course has had a significant impact on curriculum development and teacher training in Slovenia as well as in many other countries in Europe and beyond. Because of the positive impact of the course and the high degree of satisfaction of the participants and course directors, it seems worthwhile to continue this endeavour. New directions for the course will depend on the learning needs of the participants and the evolving medical curricula in the countries they represent.

  10. The Evolution of the Personal Networks of Novice Librarian Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Marie R.; Kennedy, David P.; Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes for the first time the composition and structure of the personal networks of novice librarian researchers. We used social network analysis to observe if participating in the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL) affected the development of the librarians' personal networks and how the networks changed over…

  11. How Do Novice Art Teachers Define and Implement Meaningful Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Christina; Newton, Connie; Kuster, Deborah; Milbrandt, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Four researchers collaborated on this qualitative case study that examined 11 first-year novice art teachers' understanding and implementation of meaningful curriculum. Participants were selected through a criterion method sampling strategy; the subjects were employed in rural, urban, and suburban public school districts. In order to conduct a…

  12. The Evolution of the Personal Networks of Novice Librarian Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Marie R.; Kennedy, David P.; Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes for the first time the composition and structure of the personal networks of novice librarian researchers. We used social network analysis to observe if participating in the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL) affected the development of the librarians' personal networks and how the networks changed over…

  13. How Novice EFL Teachers Regulate Their Negative Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arizmendi Tejeda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report shares the findings that emerged from a qualitative study in which the main objective was to discover whether or not novice English as a foreign language teachers regulate their negative emotions during their initial teaching practice, and if so, how they do this. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews and observations, and analyzed by microanalysis and constant comparative analysis. The participants were five novice teachers who study English at the same university, and who were giving classes as part of their internship. The results from this research revealed that these particular novice English as a foreign language teachers use different emotional strategies to regulate their negative emotions.

  14. Moving beyond the "perpetual novice": understanding the experiences of novice hemodialysis nurses and cannulation of the arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara; Harwood, Lori; Oudshoorn, Abe

    2013-01-01

    Cannulation of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an essential skill for hemodialysis (HD) nurses. With declining rates of AVFs, opportunities to develop expert cannulation skills have become limited. This study explored the concept of perpetual novice and AVF cannulation from the perspective of the novice cannulator. Nine hemodialysis nurses were interviewed using ethnographic methodology. The study identified the interplay between personal and environmental/contextual factors that hindered skill acquisition. Personal attributes identified by participants included HD nurses' approach to learning and previous experience, emotional reaction to stress, and interpersonal relationships with colleagues. Environmental/contextual factors identified as impediments to cannulation skill development included limited learning opportunities, attitudes and demands from patients, unit flow and time pressures, and limitations imposed by the current model of nursing care. This study will be helpful in directing future educational, operational, and supportive interventions for novice HD nurses around cannulation skill development.

  15. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  16. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female

  17. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

  18. Twenty-five questions for string theorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetruy, Pierre; /Orsay, LPT; Kane, G.L.; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Nelson, Brent D.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-09-01

    In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology.

  19. Twenty-five gauge vitrectomy in uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Roberto Wada Kamei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate anatomical and functional results of 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy in patients with uveitis. METHODS: Vitrectomy was performed on 20 eyes with residual vitritis secondary to infectious and noninfectious uveitis. Patients were evaluated 1 week before surgery and after surgery at day 1, week 1, week 4 and week 12. Visual acuity (VA, intraocular pressure, anterior chamber cells and flare and vitreous haze were measured. RESULTS: Mean VA improved from 2.06 ± 0.94 logMAR before surgery to 0.58 ± 0.46 logMAR at week 12 (p<0.05. No case required conversion to standard 20-gauge instrumentation or suture placement, no intraoperative complications were noted. Transient postoperative hypotony was seen in three eyes. One patient with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis had a relapse during follow-up. CONCLUSION: 25-gauge vitrectomy has proven its efficacy on cleansing vitreous opacities and improving visual acuity on patients with residual vitritis secondary to uveitis with minimal postoperative inflammation and complications.

  20. Neutrino masses twenty-five years later

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mass marks a turning point in elementary particle physics, with important implications for nuclear and astroparticle physics. Here I give a brief update, where I summarize the current status of three-neutrino oscillation parameters from current solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino data, discuss the case for sterile neutrinos and LSND, and also the importance of tritium and double beta decay experiments probing the absolute scale of neutrino mass. In this opininated look at the present of neutrino physics, I keep an eye in the future, and a perspective of the past, taking the oportunity to highlight Joe Schechter's pioneering contribution, which I have had the fortune to share, as his PhD student back in the early eighties.

  1. Language familiarity, expectation, and novice musical rhythm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhoff, John G; Lidji, Pascale

    2014-12-01

    The music of expert musicians reflects the speech rhythm of their native language. Here, we examine this effect in amateur and novice musicians. English- and French-speaking participants were both instructed to produce simple "English" and "French" tunes using only two keys on a keyboard. All participants later rated the rhythmic variability of English and French speech samples. The rhythmic variability of the "English" and "French" tunes that were produced reflected the perceived rhythmic variability in English and French speech samples. Yet, the pattern was different for English and French participants and did not correspond to the actual measured speech rhythm variability of the speech samples. Surprise recognition tests two weeks later confirmed that the music-speech relationship remained over time. The results show that the relationship between music and speech rhythm is more widespread than previously thought and that musical rhythm production by amateurs and novices is concordant with their rhythmic expectations in the perception of speech.

  2. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.

  3. Novice and expert teachers' conceptions of learners' prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Helen

    2004-11-01

    This study presents comparative case studies of preservice and first-year teachers' and expert teachers' conceptions of the concept of prior knowledge. Kelly's (The Psychology of Personal Construct, New York: W.W. Norton, 1955) theory of personal constructs as discussed by Akerson, Flick, and Lederman (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2000, 37, 363-385) in relationship to prior knowledge underpins the study. Six teachers were selected to participate in the case studies based upon their level experience teaching science and their willingness to take part. The comparative case studies of the novice and expert teachers provide insights into (a) how novice and expert teachers understand the concept of prior knowledge and (b) how they use this knowledge to make instructional decisions. Data collection consisted of interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis. Findings suggest that novice teachers hold insufficient conceptions of prior knowledge and its role in instruction to effectively implement constructivist teaching practices. While expert teachers hold a complex conception of prior knowledge and make use of their students' prior knowledge in significant ways during instruction. A second finding was an apparent mismatch between the novice teachers' beliefs about their urban students' life experiences and prior knowledge and the wealth of knowledge the expert teachers found to draw upon.

  4. Emotions and emotion regulation among novice military parachutists.

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andrew; Bucknall, Gordon; Davis, Paul; Beedie, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Novice soldiers (N = 95) reported their emotions and their use of emotion regulation strategies across a range of domains. Results indicate significant differences between emotions and emotion regulation strategies across situations. Prior to parachuting, participants reported feeling intense anxiety and happiness whilst also feeling energetic, a profile similar to that which they experienced in sport. This was however different to those experienced in work and in life in general. In terms of...

  5. Iranian Novice Nursing Faculty Experiences on Their New Roles in Relation to IT Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed-Masoud; Heydari, Abbas; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast spread of using new technologies and software in health management areas. Nursing education should be accommodated with this change to provide qualified nurses. There are little studies on novice nursing faculty challenges to perform their new roles in relation to IT literacy, specifically in Iran. Qualitative approach may provide first hand data to understand novice nursing faculty perceptions on their new roles that can be used to develop an actual empowerment program. A qualitative design was applied to explore novice nursing faculty experiences to perform their new roles in Mashhad nursing school (Iran). Data were gathered by in depth unstructured interviews from nine eligible participants. Two main themes related to IT competencies emerged from data as: "Efficiency concern" and "Importance of support". Findings support that novice faculty should be familiarized with new systems and software in health management.

  6. Clinical Decision Making of Rural Novice Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seright, Teresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop substantive theory regarding decision making by the novice nurse in a rural hospital setting. Interviews were guided by the following research questions: What cues were used by novice rural registered nurses in order to make clinical decisions? What were the sources of feedback which influenced subsequent…

  7. Mentoring in Novice Teacher Training Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Hualing

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1.INTRODUCTION Teacher mentoring plays an important role in teacher education. The use of mentoring is strongly advocated for improving novice teachers performance in some countries, such as UK and the USA. In China, mentoring has been employed for in-service novice teachers development in a number of middle schools for the following reasons:

  8. Novice Teachers Perceptions of Prior Mentoring Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Gloria Freels

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of novice educators leave the profession in the first 5 years of service. Novice educators were defined as educators with 5 or fewer years of teaching experience. The State of Tennessee has estimated the cost for that decision to around $28,000.00 per teacher for each local educational authority. Many researchers believe mentoring…

  9. Competence of novice nurses: role of clinical work during studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoochehri, H; Imani, E; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, F; Alavi-Majd, A

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Clinical competence is to carry out the tasks with excellent results in a different of adjustments. According to various studies, one of the factors influencing clinical competence is work experience. This experience affects the integrity of students' learning experience and their practical skills. Many nursing students practice clinical work during their full-time studying. The aim of this qualitative research was to clarify the role of clinical work during studying in novice nurses' clinical competence. Methods: This qualitative content analysis performed with the conventional approach. All teaching hospitals of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences selected as the research environment. To collect data, deep and semi-structured interviews, presence in the scene and manuscripts used. To provide feedback for the next release and the capacity of the data, interviews were transcribed verbatim immediately. Results: 45 newly-graduated nurses and head nurses between 23 and 40 with 1 to 18 years of experience participated in the study. After coding all interviews, 1250 original codes were derived. The themes extracted included: task rearing, personality rearing, knowledge rearing, and profession rearing roles of clinical work during studying. Conclusion: Working during studying can affect performance, personality, knowledge, and professional perspectives of novice nurses. Given the differences that may exist in clinical competencies of novice nurses with and without clinical work experience, it is important to pay more attention to this issue and emphasize on their learning in this period.

  10. Foot pronation is not associated with increased injury risk in novice runners wearing a neutral shoe : a 1-year prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Buist, Ida; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sorensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate if running distance to first running-related injury varies between foot postures in novice runners wearing neutral shoes. Design A 1-year epidemiological observational prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants A total of 927 novice runners equivalent to 1854 fe

  11. Depth Echolocation Learnt by Novice Sighted People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Tonelli

    Full Text Available Some blind people have developed a unique technique, called echolocation, to orient themselves in unknown environments. More specifically, by self-generating a clicking noise with the tongue, echolocators gain knowledge about the external environment by perceiving more detailed object features. It is not clear to date whether sighted individuals can also develop such an extremely useful technique. To investigate this, here we test the ability of novice sighted participants to perform a depth echolocation task. Moreover, in order to evaluate whether the type of room (anechoic or reverberant and the type of clicking sound (with the tongue or with the hands influences the learning of this technique, we divided the entire sample into four groups. Half of the participants produced the clicking sound with their tongue, the other half with their hands. Half of the participants performed the task in an anechoic chamber, the other half in a reverberant room. Subjects stood in front of five bars, each of a different size, and at five different distances from the subject. The dimension of the bars ensured a constant subtended angle for the five distances considered. The task was to identify the correct distance of the bar. We found that, even by the second session, the participants were able to judge the correct depth of the bar at a rate greater than chance. Improvements in both precision and accuracy were observed in all experimental sessions. More interestingly, we found significantly better performance in the reverberant room than in the anechoic chamber. The type of clicking did not modulate our results. This suggests that the echolocation technique can also be learned by sighted individuals and that room reverberation can influence this learning process. More generally, this study shows that total loss of sight is not a prerequisite for echolocation skills this suggests important potential implications on rehabilitation settings for persons with

  12. Distance-mediated mentoring: A telecommunication-supported model for novice rural mathematics and science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebeck, Jennifer Lyn

    Rural educators face unique professional challenges and limitations. This study investigated the effectiveness of an innovative distance-mediated mentoring program for rural novice mathematics and science teachers. Four purposes were pursued: (1) characterize and document the nature and development of the mentor-novice relationship; (2) describe how discourse influenced the novice teachers' perceptions about mathematics and science teaching; (3) determine whether telecommunication effectively supported a distance-mediated mentoring relationship for novice rural teachers; and (4) investigate program effects on novice teachers' attitudes, concerns, and professional growth. A qualitative research design was implemented during academic years 1996-98. Primary data collection focused on nine rural novice teachers and their mentors and included three sets of interviews spanning three semesters, field observation of classrooms, schools, and communities, and analysis of electronic mail messages over a four-month period. Supporting data were collected during observation of workshops and training sessions, and through surveys administered to all program participants in early 1997 and 1998. Categories of mentor-novice communication were identified: curriculum and content, validation of teaching practice, classroom and school issues, moral support, and social talk. Impact on mathematics and science teaching was accomplished by: sharing materials and activities; planning units and projects; locating resources; classroom and student concerns; long-range curriculum design, and improvement of teaching practices. Professional growth (for both novices and mentors) occurred through individual contact with partners and interaction within the larger mentoring community in both face-to-face and on-line venues. Telecommunication was highly valued by successful users. Technical difficulty curtailed access for a significant number of teachers, but they maintained successful relationships

  13. Clinical decision-making of rural novice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seright, T J

    2011-01-01

    Nurses in rural settings are often the first to assess and interpret the patient's clinical presentations. Therefore, an understanding of how nurses experience decision-making is important in terms of educational preparation, resource allocation to rural areas, institutional cultures, and patient outcomes. Theory development was based on the in-depth investigation of 12 novice nurses practicing in rural critical access hospitals in a north central state. This grounded theory study consisted of face-to-face interviews with 12 registered nurses, nine of whom were observed during their work day. The participants were interviewed a second time, as a method of member checking, and during this interview they reviewed their transcripts, the emerging themes and categories. Directors of nursing from both the research sites and rural hospitals not involved in the study, experienced researchers, and nurse educators facilitated triangulation of the findings. 'Sociocentric rationalizing' emerged as the central phenomenon and referred to the sense of belonging and agency which impacted the decision-making in this small group of novice nurses in rural critical access hospitals. The observed consequences, which were conceptualized during the axial coding process and were derived from observations and interviews of the 12 novice nurses in this study include: (1) gathering information before making a decision included assessment of: the credibility of co-workers, patients' subjective and objective data, and one's own past and current experiences; (2) conferring with co-workers as a direct method of confirming/denying decisions being made was considered more realistic and expedient than policy books and decision trees; (3) rural practicum clinical experiences, along with support after orientation, provide for transition to the rural nurse role; (4) involved directors of nursing served as both models and protectors of novice nurses placed in high accountability positions early in

  14. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience.

  15. Novices Encounter a Novice Literature: Introducing Digital Literature in a First-Year College Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemmrich, Ingrid G.

    2007-01-01

    Introducing Web-based literary hypertexts in an introductory writing course motivates students to ponder both the changing techniques of writing and reading and their own attitudes toward these two interrelated activities in a wholly new way. Evaluating a novice literature launches novice readers and writers on a journey to becoming "experts" at…

  16. Improving the Supervisory Working Alliance: A Pilot Study of Personality Differences between Novice and Experienced Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Kristin K.; Mulvenon, Sean W.; Balkin, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a framework for identifying personality differences between novice and experienced counselors utilizing the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992a). Two groups of counselors (N = 69) were compared in terms of their personality profile. One group, consisting of 48% of the participants,…

  17. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  18. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  19. Identifying psychophysiological indices of expert versus novice performance in deadly force judgment and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R Johnson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify psychophysiological indices of deadly force decision making in experts versus novices during simulator training.Background: Modern training techniques focus on improving decision-making skills with participative assessment between trainees and subject matter experts primarily through subjective observation. Objective metrics need to be developed. The current study explored the potential for psychophysiological metrics of decision making in deadly force judgment contexts. Method: Twenty-four participants (novice, expert were recruited. All wore a wireless EEG device to collect psychophysiological data during high-fidelity simulated deadly force judgment and decision-making simulations using a modified Glock firearm. Participants were exposed to 27 video scenarios, one-third of which would have justified use of deadly force. Pass/fail was determined by whether the participant used deadly force appropriately. Results: Experts had a significantly higher pass rate compared to novices (p Conclusion: Results suggest that expert performance is more tightly coupled with psychophysiology, compared with a weaker relationship in novices. Discriminant function measures may have the potential to objectively identify when expertise is obtained. Application: Psychophysiological metrics may create a performance model with the potential to optimize simulator-based DFJDM training. These performance models could be used for trainee feedback, and/or by the instructor to assess performance objectively.

  20. Latina Bilingual Novice Teachers' First Year: Negotiating Relationships, Roles and Responsibilities within and beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arcelia L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes self reported transition experiences of five Latina bilingual novice teachers' into the classroom and documents how they participate in their own socialization as bilingual teachers. Informed by a sociocultural perspective of teaching and learning as socially constructed and mediated and by a critical perspective of education,…

  1. Novice Teacher Leadership: Determining the Impact of a Leadership Licensure Requirement after One Year of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Roya Q.; Rogers, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    This study of teacher leadership in first-year teachers included the following data sources: survey, follow-up telephone interviews, and teacher leader essays. Fifteen novice teachers responded to the survey, while three participated in follow-up interviews. Results suggest ideas of teacher leadership change from pre-service years to the end of…

  2. "Novice Teachers" Views of an Introductory Workshop about Teaching in the Biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Kevan M. A.; Perkins, Joy; Shearer, Morven C.; Tierney, Anne M.; Wilson, Jackie J.

    2013-01-01

    Seven regional networking events, aimed at supporting and developing "early stage" novice university bioscience teachers were held across the UK. These workshops allowed 230 participants to reflect on teaching styles, learn about Higher Education Academy resources and discuss strategies to deal with a range of teaching situations.…

  3. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Novices' Rehearsal Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.; Montemayor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal and external focus of attention on novices' rehearsal evaluations. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to these rehearsals, participants were led in score study and…

  4. Novice Mathematics Teachers' Use of Technology to Enhance Student Engagement, Questioning, Generalization, and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Virginia; Garofalo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how and why novice mathematics teachers incorporated technology-generated representations in their instruction. The participants in the study were graduates of a technology-rich mathematics teacher educator program. The teachers were interviewed at the beginning and end of the study concerning their…

  5. The Right to Write: Novice English Teachers Write to Explore Their Identities in a Writing Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary G.

    2012-01-01

    This research studies the effects of a writing community on three novice, middle school, Title I language arts teachers' perceptions of themselves as educators and as writers. The participants wrote on topics of their selection, on a bi-monthly basis, for one semester, to explore their teaching and learning. The teachers are in their first…

  6. Creative Teaching and Learning Strategies for Novice Users of Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses perspectives of creative teaching and learning strategies in the new learning context of mobile technology, particularly for novice learners. The discussion presented here is framed by two case studies and uses an ethnographical approach, informed by participant observation to consider the experiences of users of mobile…

  7. Creative Teaching and Learning Strategies for Novice Users of Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses perspectives of creative teaching and learning strategies in the new learning context of mobile technology, particularly for novice learners. The discussion presented here is framed by two case studies and uses an ethnographical approach, informed by participant observation to consider the experiences of users of mobile…

  8. Expert-novice knowledge of computer programming at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, N; Salvendy, G

    1996-03-01

    Computer programming knowledge can be classified into five levels of abstraction: objective, conceptual, functional, logical, and physical. An experiment was carried out to determine whether the mastering of knowledge at different levels of abstraction changed with the level of skill. Ten experts and ten novices in C computer programming participated in the experiment. The subjects' knowledge at the five levels of abstraction was tested through 20 multiple-choice questions. The experimental results indicated that knowledge differences between experts and novices at an abstract level or a concrete level depended on what abstract or concrete knowledge was implied. Experts had better abstract knowledge than novices at the conceptual and functional levels but not at the objective level. Experts had better concrete knowledge than novices at the physical level but not at the logical level. The classification of computer programming knowledge in levels of abstraction and the experimental results helped in clarifying a general finding from previous studies that experts had better abstract knowledge than novices.

  9. Novice Teachers' Experience of Teaching: A Dynamic Aspect of Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Bella; Friedman, Isaac A.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how novice teachers perceive their work environment and how their perceptions affect burnout. Data were obtained from a questionnaire administered to novice teachers at the beginning and at the end of the school year. It was found that (1) novice teachers experienced high levels of burnout as early as the…

  10. Preliminary Experience Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Differentiate Novice and Expert Image Interpretation for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Lindsay K; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Mariano, Edward R; Udani, Ankeet D; Kim, T Edward; Shum, Cynthia; Howard, Steven K

    2017-08-04

    Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded. The answer to each question was a location on the sonogram, defined as the area of interest (AOI). The primary outcome was the total gaze time in the AOI (seconds). Secondary outcomes were the total gaze time outside the AOI (seconds), total time to answer (seconds), and time to first fixation on the AOI (seconds). Five novices and 5 experts completed the study. Although the gaze time (mean ± SD) in the AOI was not different between groups (7 ± 4 seconds for novices and 7 ± 3 seconds for experts; P = .150), the gaze time outside the AOI was greater for novices (75 ± 18 versus 44 ± 4 seconds for experts; P = .005). The total time to answer and total time to first fixation in the AOI were both shorter for experts. Experts in US-guided regional anesthesia take less time to identify sonoanatomy and spend less unfocused time away from a target compared to novices. Eye tracking is a potentially useful tool to differentiate novices from experts in the domain of US image interpretation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Covariation Neglect among Novice Investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedesstrom, Ted Martin; Svedsater, Henrik; Garling, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    In 4 experiments, undergraduates made hypothetical investment choices. In Experiment 1, participants paid more attention to the volatility of individual assets than to the volatility of aggregated portfolios. The results of Experiment 2 show that most participants diversified even when this increased risk because of covariation between the returns…

  12. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  13. The Plight of the Novice Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    Once hired, beginning teachers face the daunting and demanding task of setting up a classroom and becoming a teacher that influences student achievement in positive ways. This article addresses some of these challenges and provides meaningful suggestions for principals and administrators hoping to support, sustain, and retain their novice teachers.

  14. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the…

  15. Novice Career Changers Weather the Classroom Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, James; Snyder, Mary Grace; Cuddapah, Jennifer Locraft

    2013-01-01

    A close look at one professional's career change into teaching illustrates unique challenges and qualities, showing in stark relief what makes the induction smoother and the experience more successful. This article presents the story of a novice career changer teacher that illustrates their unique problems and dispositions, as well as…

  16. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  17. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Nicole; Sharp, Helen; Woodroffe, Mark; Blyth, Richard; Rajah, Dino; Ranganai, Turugare

    2015-01-01

    Framing design problems and solutions has been recognised in design studies as a central designerly activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate framing practices to problem-solution co-evolution and analogy use, two further widely recognised design strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design novices also use…

  18. Determining differences in user performance between expert and novice primary care doctors when using an electronic health record (EHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Martina A; Belden, Jeffery L; Kim, Min Soon

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to determine usability gaps between expert and novice primary care doctors when using an electronic health record (EHR). Usability tests using video analyses with triangular method approach were conducted to analyse usability gaps between 10 novice and seven expert doctors. Doctors completed 19 tasks, using think-aloud strategy, based on an artificial but typical patient visit note. The usability session lasted approximately 20 minutes. The testing room consisted of the participant and the facilitator. Mixed methods approach including four sets of performance measures, system usability scale (SUS), and debriefing session with participants was used. While most expert doctors completed tasks more efficiently, and provided a higher SUS score than novice doctors (novice 68, expert 70 out of 100 being perfect score), the result of 'percent task success rate' were comparable (74% for expert group, 78% for novice group, P = 0.98) on all 19 tasks. This study found a lack of expertise among doctors with more experience using the system demonstrating that although expert doctors have been using the system longer, their proficiency did not increase with EHR experience. These results may potentially improve the EHR training programme, which may increase doctors' performance when using an EHR. These results may also assist EHR vendors in improving the user interface, which may aid in reducing errors caused from poor usability of the system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. String formatting considered harmful for novice programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-09-01

    In Java, System.out.printf and String.format consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the compilation errors and 100% of the exceptional, run-time behaviour they encountered were due to the improper construction of format strings. Format strings are a language unto themselves embedded within Java, and they are difficult for novice programmers to master when learning to program. In this article, we present exemplars of students' problematic interactions with the Java compiler and run-time environment when dealing with format strings, discuss these interactions, and recommend possible instructional interventions based on our observations.

  20. Investigating novice doctors' reflections in debriefings after simulation scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kihlgren, Per; Spanager, Lene; Dieckmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Debriefing is pivotal to the simulation learning process, and the reflection that it aims to foster is fundamental in experiential learning. Despite its importance, essential aspects of debriefing remain unclear. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate reflection in debriefings by assessing p...... be appropriated to the given context. The rating of reflection levels is a promising approach to analyze reflection in conversation in experience-based learning situations.......BACKGROUND: Debriefing is pivotal to the simulation learning process, and the reflection that it aims to foster is fundamental in experiential learning. Despite its importance, essential aspects of debriefing remain unclear. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate reflection in debriefings by assessing...... was the highest reached. No salient differences were found in debriefers' utterances across occurrences of higher and lower reflection. CONCLUSION: Participants' reflection levels were low in this cohort of novice doctors training leadership skills in acute situations. However, the desired reflection should...

  1. Using game scenarios for teaching novice programmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Hu

    Full Text Available As programming educators we need to find ways to engage our students. The students we see today have been called the Nintendo generation. Such students are continually exposed to fast-paced sound, graphics, animation and games. It can be argued that these are the kinds of things that Nintendo generation students want to develop when learning computer science. As a result, computer programming educators have started to use games to engage and motivate students who are learning programming. However, there are difficulties in teaching novices to program using games. In many cases, it is too complicated for novices to begin programming with the extensive packages, libraries, and available object oriented languages when they are required to develop games. Moreover, the games development may seem trivial to the Nintendo generation if we do not include artificial intelligence (AI. Unfortunately, AI algorithm development is not appropriate for novices who are still trying to grasp the simple syntax and semantics of programming. This paper reports on research that explores how educators can motivate students to learn programming by using simple game scenarios. A revised version of Bloom\\'s taxonomy is employed as a framework to aid in the creation of teaching resources that utilise game scenarios as exemplars, exercises and assessments. Finally, some recommendations are made on how the teaching of programming might be improved through a game approach to teaching and learning.

  2. Predictors of Running-Related Injuries in Novice Runners Enrolled in a Systematic Training Program A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Ida; Bredeweg, Steef W.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; van Mechelen, Willem; Diercks, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The popularity of running is still growing. As participation increases, running-related injuries also increase. Until now, little is known about the predictors for injuries in novice runners. Hypothesis: Predictors for running-related injuries (RRIs) will differ between male and female n

  3. Supporting Creativity in Craft Brewing: A Case Study of iPhone Use in the Transition from Novice towards Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steve; Short, Ben; Parchoma, Gale

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case-study of an individual engaged in the practice of craft brewing and the ways in which his use of a mobile device has supported the informal learning underpinning his transition from novice towards mastery. Through participant observation, online ethnographic methods and interview data the authors present a description of…

  4. Investigating Peer Review as a Systemic Pedagogy for Developing the Design Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions of Novice Instructional Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated peer review as a contemporary instructional pedagogy for fostering the design knowledge, skills, and dispositions of novice Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) professionals. Participants were graduate students enrolled in an introductory instructional design (ID) course. Survey, artifact, and observation data were…

  5. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  6. Expert versus novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: Evidence from eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eSheridan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  7. Celestial Navigation for the Novice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    What kinds of astronomical lab activities can introductory astronomy students carry out easily in daytime? The most impressive is the determination of their latitude and longitude from observations of the sun. The "shooting of a noon sight” and its "reduction to a position” is a technique still practiced by navigators in this age of GPS. Indeed, the U.S. Coast Guard exams for ocean-going licenses and include celestial navigation. These techniques continue to be used by the military and by private sailors as a backup to electronic navigation systems. We present a method to establish one's latitude and longitude to better than 30 miles from measurements of the sun's altitude that is easily within the capability non-science majors. This is a practical application of astronomy in use the world over. The streamlined method used is based on an easy-to-build protractor and string quadrant. Participants will leave with all materials to conduct this activity in their own classroom.

  8. MODELING PARADOXES IN NOVICE AND EXPERT DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorst, Kees; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2011-01-01

    In their ICED09 paper ‘Problem formulation as a discursive activity’, the authors have used an extensive educational case study to explore a framework for describing design as a discursive activity, centered around the paradoxical nature of the problem situation. The ‘working definition’ for para...... at play in a design situation, and extract themes that can lead to reformulation of the problem as well as the creation of innovative solutions. This behaviour is compared to the ways of working of novice designers (students) in the original case study....

  9. Beginning Python from novice to professional

    CERN Document Server

    Hetland, Magnus Lie

    2005-01-01

    ""Beginning Python: From Novice to Professional"" is the most comprehensive book on the Python ever written. Based on ""Practical Python,"" this newly revised book is both an introduction and practical reference for a swath of Python-related programming topics, including addressing language internals, database integration, network programming, and web services. Advanced topics, such as extending Python and packaging/distributing Python applications, are also covered. Ten different projects illustrate the concepts introduced in the book. You will learn how to create a P2P file-sharing applicati

  10. Novice supervisors' tasks and training - a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus H.; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    , i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least parallel to, the first supervisor tasks, preparing the novice supervisors for the often complicated tasks they are meeting....

  11. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  12. Novice ESOL Teachers' Perceptions of Social Support Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Debi; Bleistein, Tasha

    2012-01-01

    As new teachers navigate the challenging first years of work, they need positive support providers (Villani, 2002). The impact of support providers on novice educators' beliefs about teaching efficacy previously went unexplored. This study examined novice English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) teachers' perceptions of social support and…

  13. Working with Novice Teachers: Challenges for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey; Jones, Graham; Mooney, Edward; Thornton, Carol; Cady, JoAnn; Guinee, Patricia; Olson, Jo

    2002-01-01

    Examines the classroom practice and beliefs of two novice elementary teachers during their first year of teaching and the first year of their involvement in a district-wide professional development project. Analyzes the challenges faced by the novice teachers and the professional developer who worked with them. Discusses the effects of teachers'…

  14. Reader Response Journals: Novice Teachers Reflect on Their Implementation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    Do novice teachers effectively use teaching strategies they learn in a preservice course? This study examines how five novice intermediate (Grades 7-10) English language arts teachers implemented reader response journals, an instructional activity they learned about in their preservice English methods course. During interviews, they shared the…

  15. Lived Experience: Perceptions of Competency of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Yusuf, Qismullah; Wong, Kung Teck

    2017-01-01

    This study bridges the gap of an outsider-insider perspective of competency and captures the essence of what constitutes competency among 18 novice teachers in their own actions performed in real classrooms. In this study, relevant aspects of the novice teachers' "lived-experience" in their schools make up their conceptions of…

  16. The Twenty-Five Year Lick Planet Search

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Spronck, Julien F P

    2013-01-01

    The Lick planet search program began in 1987 when the first spectrum of $\\tau$ Ceti was taken with an iodine cell and the Hamilton Spectrograph. Upgrades to the instrument improved the Doppler precision from about 10 m/s in 1992 to about 3 m/s in 1995. The project detected dozens of exoplanets with orbital periods ranging from a few days to several years. The Lick survey identified the first planet in an eccentric orbit (70 Virginis) and the first multi-planet system around a normal main sequence star (Upsilon Andromedae). These discoveries advanced our understanding of planet formation and orbital migration. Data from this project helped to quantify a correlation between host star metallicity and the occurrence rate of gas giant planets. The program also served as a test bed for innovation with testing of a tip-tilt system at the coud{\\'e} focus and fiber scrambler designs to stabilize illumination of the spectrometer optics. The Lick planet search with the Hamilton spectrograph effectively ended when a heat...

  17. Technology Education: Twenty-five years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    De Miranda, Michael A.; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi

    2005-01-01

    The past 25 years has brought significant changes in the field of technology education. Contributing to these changes has been the evolution of a curriculum from the early days of industrial arts that addressed human productive practice to an emerging contemporary technological curriculum shaped by the exponential growth of technology and its impact on the extension of human capabilities, society, and the environment. The recent literature that focuses on the exponential growth of technology ...

  18. TWENTY-FIVE SUBARCSECOND BINARIES DISCOVERED BY LUNAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Moerchen, M., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2013-09-15

    We report on 25 subarcsecond binaries, detected for the first time by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared (near-IR) as part of a long-term program using the ISAAC instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 3.8-10.4, and the companions in the range K = 6.4-12.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.8, with the largest being 5.4. The projected separations are in the range 6-748 mas and with a median of 18 mas, or about three times less than the diffraction limit of the telescope. Among our binary detections are a pre-main-sequence star and an enigmatic Mira-like variable previously suspected to have a companion. Additionally, we quote an accurate first-time near-IR detection of a previously known wider binary. We discuss our findings on an individual basis as far as made possible by the available literature, and we examine them from a statistical point of view. We derive a typical frequency of binarity among field stars of Almost-Equal-To 10%, in the resolution and sensitivity range afforded by the technique ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''003 to Almost-Equal-To 0.''5, and K Almost-Equal-To 12 mag, respectively). This is in line with previous results using the same technique but we point out interesting differences that we can trace up to sensitivity, time sampling, and average distance of the targets. Finally, we discuss the prospects for further follow-up studies.

  19. Twenty-five years of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Lledó, José; Granero Castro, Pablo; Gomez I Gavara, Inmaculada; Ibañez Cirión, Jose L; López Andújar, Rafael; García Granero, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    It is accepted by the surgical community that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the technique of choice in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, more controversial is the standardization of system implementation in Ambulatory Surgery because of its different different connotations. This article aims to update the factors that influence the performance of LC in day surgery, analyzing the 25 years since its implementation, focusing on the quality and acceptance by the patient. Individualization is essential: patient selection criteria and the implementation by experienced teams in LC, are factors that ensure high guarantee of success.

  20. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972 within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations. The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statutory objectives of PTIE are realized through experts activity and paper publication. In terms of content PTIE activity focuses on popularizing rational use and conservation of natural environment and earth’s natural resources. With the current rapid advances in science, technique, dynamic economic development and overexploitation of natural resources, environmental engineering and its activities in line with the state of environmental policy it contributes to the so-called sustainable development, protection, adapts and creates the conditions necessary for human life, plants and animals. The Society currently has a well-established position in the world of science by issuing two scientific magazines in Polish and English. It cooperates with various research and educational centers, industries and as well as with local government, administration and state in solving local environmental economic problems. This paper presents the rise and activity of PTIE and major Society achievements in the years 1990–2015.

  1. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE) was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972) within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations). The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statu...

  2. Twenty-five years after the first TIPS in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao Jaureguízar, J I

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation, 25 years ago, of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting, better known by the acronym TIPS, represents an indisputable improvement in the treatment and management of patients with symptoms due to portal hypertension. This article discusses the origins of the technique and the technical innovations that have been progressively added through the years. The implantation of coated stents, which protect the stent from processes in the parenchymal track that can lead to stenosis, have helped ensure long-term patency, thus reducing the need for reintervention. Solid evidence from valuable publications has situated TIPS at the forefront of the treatment options in a wide variety of clinical situations associated with portal hypertension.

  3. [Twenty five years of residency training in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, W

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 25 years in the Netherlands the residency training programme for psychiatry has been concerned primarily with teaching students to use practice guidelines, providing science education, promoting internationalisation and satisfying society's requirement for transparency. This has led to the transformation of the classical training programme with its paternalistic 'master-apprentice' relationship to a programme in which the required professional competencies are taught and assessed by supervisors who in the future will need to be explicitly qualified in particular areas. The dramatic increase in the number of women wanting to become psychiatrists has made it clear that the classical training programme puts a heavy burden on students who are struggling to combine private life with a heavy work-load and enthusiasm for their chosen subject. The compulsory personal therapy in the curriculum may be helpful in solving this problem.

  4. Increasing Medical Practice Team Commitment: Twenty-Five Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Employee commitment is one of the most important principles of practice man- agement. Yet commitment is delicate; it must be carefully earned, and it can easily deteriorate. This article explores practical strategies the medical practice manager can use to assess, foster, and increase employee commitment. It de- fines commitment and how commitment is manifested in employee attitudes and behavior. It provides a 10-question guide medical practice managers can use to assess employee commitment, and a four-part roadmap that will inspire commitment through leadership. This article also offers 25 hands-on strate- gies to increase employee commitment, and more than a dozen questions to guide difficult conversations with employees when their commitment level to the medical practice is low or unclear. Finally, this article suggest four drivers of employee commitment and a five-part strategy medical practice managers can use to model commitment through their own leadership.

  5. Twenty five years of organic chemistry with diiodosamarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Henri B. [Laboratoire de Synthese Asymetrique (UMR 8075), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: kagan@icmo.u-psud.fr

    2006-02-09

    An historical account of the introduction of samarium diiodide in organic chemistry is presented in the first section, with the main initial results obtained. The basic organic transformations published in the author laboratory and by other groups during the initial period (1977-1987) are detailed. Some of the progresses subsequently obtained will be selected such as various transformations in synthesis, including asymmetric synthesis and total synthesis of natural products. The possible use of SmI{sub 2} in catalytic amount together with a terminal reducing agent is discussed. In the conclusion is summarized the wide scope of the chemistry induced by SmI{sub 2} with some comments on the future of this chemistry.

  6. [Rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas: twenty five case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Margarita; Solé, Juan Javier; Luna, Paula Carolina; Mosquera, Tomás; Abad, María Eugenia

    2014-04-01

    Rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas are very rare vascular tumours, that are characterized for being completely developed at birth and for involuting in a short period of time after birth. We describe a case series of 25 patients with rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas. Twelve patients were male and 13 female; they were all born at term. Lesions were small in 17 cases and big in 8. No patient needed active intervention and all lesions showed a rapid initial involution.

  7. Twenty-five years of Social Science in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, John; Walker, Laurens

    2011-02-01

    In this essay, we take the publication of the seventh edition of the casebook Social Science in Law (2010) as an opportunity to reflect on continuities and changes that have occurred in the application of social science research to American law over the past quarter-century. We structure these reflections by comparing and contrasting the original edition of the book with the current one. When the first edition appeared, courts' reliance on social science was often confused and always contested. Now, courts' reliance on social science is so common as to be unremarkable. What has changed--sometimes radically--are the substantive legal questions on which social science has been brought to bear.

  8. Twenty five years National Astronomical Observatory: Publications and dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Ilian

    The idea to estimate the merits and to measure the impact of the National Astronomical Observatory of Bulgaria by creating the list with all publications and dissertations based fully or in part on the data collected during last 25 years with its telescopes is presented. The process of compiling the list is described. Its last version contains complete bibliographical data about more than 1000 publications with total volume of about 5500 journal pages. All of them are printed out in 1980--2005. The accumulated impact-factor exceeds 1000, the number of citations is expected to be between 3000 and 5000. The number of successful dissertations is close to 40, while the bachelor and master theses are near 100.

  9. TESOL at Twenty-Five: What Are the Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    A survey of current trends in teaching English to speakers of other languages identifies four themes involving: learner motivation and empowerment; an expanding international range of language policy issues; content-centered and task-based curricula and emphasis on peace and environmental education; and cooperative, learner-centered teaching. (42…

  10. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  11. FIS, University of Economics in Prague: Twenty Five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Pecáková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available FIS (Faculty of Informatics and Statistics of the University of Economics in Prague, was founded in 1991. Since 2001, so for 15 years, master’s degree survey is performed at the graduation ceremonies of all the faculties of University of Economics in Prague. Its aim is to explore some of the circumstances of their studies, their jobs during the study, but especially their likely future labor involvement, their salary expectations and their satisfaction with studies at the university. Paper presents some data about students and graduates of the faculty from this survey, but also the information about the students and graduates from the project Reflex 2013. This survey was conducted in 2013 for the third time in a row by SVP PedF of Charles University in Prague with the aim to map out the exercise of university graduates in the labor market shortly after obtaining a diploma. Therein respondents rated their university studies, characterized his professional history, and expressed their professional competencies in relation to the requirements of their employment.

  12. Congenital choledochal cysts in adults: twenty-five-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-bin; CAO Li-ping; PENG Shu-you; WANG Jian-wei; Khagendra Raj Devkota; JI Zhen-ling; LI Jiang-tao; WANG Xu-an; MA Xiao-ming; CAI Wei-long; KONG Ying

    2007-01-01

    Background Choledochal cyst is rare in western countries. The relatively high incidence of coexistent hepatobiliary disease increases the difficulty of the surgical management of choledochal cyst. Here we analyze the diagnosis and treatment of congenital bile duct cyst in 122 Chinese adults.Methods The clinical data of 122 patients with congenital choledochal cysts admitted from 1981 to 2006 were analyzed.Results Clinical symptoms in most cases were nonspecific, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Sixty-one patients (50%) had coexistent pancreatobiliary disease. Among the 122 patients, 119 patients underwent ultrasonic examination;ERCP/MRCP was performed in 63 cases and CT in 102 cases. Abnormal pancreatobiliary duct junction was found in 48 patients. Sixteen patients had malignant lesions in the bile duct, arising in 11 of them from incomplete choledochal cyst that underwent various operations including cystenterostomy or cystojejunostomy. There was significant difference between the patients who underwent incomplete cyst resection and complete cyst resection in malignancy rate of bile duct (Chi square test, P= 0.000; odds ratio, 7.800; 95 % confidence interval, 2.450 to 24.836).Conclusions ERCP, CT and MRCP had proved their great values in the classification of the disease. Cyst excision with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is recommended as the treatment of choice for patients with type Ⅰ or type Ⅳ cysts. For type Ⅴ cyst (Caroli's disease) with recurrent cholangitis, liver transplantation should be considered.

  13. The effect of virtual endoscopy simulator training on novices: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguang Qiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in virtual endoscopy simulators have paralleled an interest in medical simulation for gastrointestinal endoscopy training. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine whether the virtual endoscopy simulator training could improve the performance of novices. DESIGN: A systematic review. SETTING: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared virtual endoscopy simulator training with bedside teaching or any other intervention for novices were collected. PATIENTS: Novice endoscopists. INTERVENTIONS: The PRISMA statement was followed during the course of the research. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched (up to July 2013. Data extraction and assessment were independently performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Independent procedure completion, total procedure time and required assistance. RESULTS: Fifteen studies (n = 354 were eligible for inclusion: 9 studies designed for colonoscopy training, 6 for gastroscopy training. For gastroscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 87.7% of participants in simulator training group compared to 70.0% of participants in control group (1 study; 22 participants; RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.13-1.39; P<0.0001. For colonoscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 89.3% of participants in simulator training group compared to 88.9% of participants in control group (7 study; 163 participants; RR 1.10; 95% CI 0.88-1.37; P = 0.41; I(2 = 85%. LIMITATIONS: The included studies are quite in-homogeneous with respect to training schedule and procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual endoscopy simulator training might be effective for gastroscopy, but so far no data is available to support this for colonoscopy.

  14. Effect of Virtual Reality Exposure and Aural Stimuli on Eye Contact, Directional Focus, and Focus of Attention of Novice Wind Band Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of virtual reality immersion with audio on eye contact, directional focus and focus of attention for novice wind band conductors. Participants (N = 34) included a control group (n = 12) and two virtual reality groups with (n = 10) and without (n = 12) head tracking. Participants completed conducting/score study…

  15. A cognitive approach to game usability and design: mental model development in novice real-time strategy gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John; Zheng, Liya; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2006-06-01

    We developed a technique to observe and characterize a novice real-time-strategy (RTS) player's mental model as it shifts with experience. We then tested this technique using an off-the-shelf RTS game, EA Games Generals. Norman defined mental models as, "an internal representation of a target system that provides predictive and explanatory power to the operator." In the case of RTS games, the operator is the player and the target system is expressed by the relationships within the game. We studied five novice participants in laboratory-controlled conditions playing a RTS game. They played Command and Conquer Generals for 2 h per day over the course of 5 days. A mental model analysis was generated using player dissimilarity-ratings of the game's artificial intelligence (AI) agents analyzed using multidimensional scaling (MDS) statistical methods. We hypothesized that novices would begin with an impoverished model based on the visible physical characteristics of the game system. As they gained experience and insight, their mental models would shift and accommodate the functional characteristics of the AI agents. We found that all five of the novice participants began with the predicted physical-based mental model. However, while their models did qualitatively shift with experience, they did not necessarily change to the predicted functional-based model. This research presents an opportunity for the design of games that are guided by shifts in a player's mental model as opposed to the typical progression through successive performance levels.

  16. Brain correlates underlying creative thinking: EEG alpha activity in professional vs. novice dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Graif, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientific research on creativity has revealed valuable insights into possible brain correlates underlying this complex mental ability domain. However, most of the studies investigated brain activity during the performance of comparatively simple (verbal) type of tasks and the majority of studies focused on samples of the normal population. In this study we investigate EEG activity in professional dancers (n=15) who have attained a high level of expertise in this domain. This group was compared with a group of novices (n=17) who have only basic experience in dancing and completed no comprehensive training in this field. The EEG was recorded during performance of two different dancing imagery tasks which differed with respect to creative demands. In the first task participants were instructed to mentally perform a dance which should be as unique and original as possible (improvisation dance). In the waltz task they were asked to imagine dancing the waltz, a standard dance which involves a sequence of monotonous steps (lower creative demands). In addition, brain activity was also measured during performance of the Alternative Uses test. We observed evidence that during the generation of alternative uses professional dancers show stronger alpha synchronization in posterior parietal brain regions than novice dancers. During improvisation dance, professional dancers exhibited more right-hemispheric alpha synchronization than the group of novices did, while during imagining dancing the waltz no significant group differences emerged. The findings complement and extend existing findings on the relationship between EEG alpha activity and creative thinking.

  17. Accuracy and efficiency of novice nurse practitioners using personal digital assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Patricia Biller; Farrell, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    To determine if using personal digital assistants (PDAs) increased accuracy and efficiency of clinical decisions made by novice nurse practitioners (NPs). Experimental with a repeated measures design. The study sample included 40 novice NPs. Data were collected from December 2003 to March 2004 following a stratified random assignment of the subjects to a textbook or PDA group. Participants identified appropriate laboratory value assessments, diagnosis, and medication decisions using the assigned resources when given two randomly administered clinical scenarios. Accuracy was determined by the correct response score to each clinical question. The completion of the scenario was timed by the investigator. Length of time necessary to answer each part of the scenario determined efficiency. Data analysis included mixed design repeated measures analysis of variance. There was a significant interaction and difference in accuracy in the laboratory analysis section of the case scenarios (F(1,38) = 21.256, p ≤ .001) in the PDA group when compared with the textbook group. There were no differences in accuracy by section. In three of six efficiency variables measured, the PDA users were significantly more efficient. In both laboratory values and one of the treatment sections, the PDA users were more efficient in determining an answer to the clinical questions. Accuracy of PDA users was equal to textbook users. The findings lend support to benefits for novice practitioners using PDAs when evaluating clinical situations, both in accessing certain correct information and doing this in a timely manner. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. A cohort of novice Danish science teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections...... on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified:There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being student centered, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus...... on students' activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers' own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching...

  19. Experienced and novice officers' generalized communication suspicion and veracity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masip, Jaume; Alonso, Hernán; Herrero, Carmen; Garrido, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample. However, novice officers aligned with experienced officers in terms of judgments: both police groups were lie-biased, whereas nonofficers were truth-biased. These findings suggest that unlike experienced officers, who have embraced the police culture to a greater degree, novice officers are not dispositionally suspicious (generalized communicative suspicion); however, they are able to mirror the prototypical police behavior (deception judgments) in police-related contexts. Experiment 2 supported these notions.

  20. Novice to Expert Cognition During Geologic Bedrock Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcovic, H. L.; Libarkin, J.; Hambrick, D. Z.; Baker, K. M.; Elkins, J. T.; Callahan, C. N.; Turner, S.; Rench, T. A.; LaDue, N.

    2011-12-01

    Bedrock geologic mapping is a complex and cognitively demanding task. Successful mapping requires domain-specific content knowledge, visuospatial ability, navigation through the field area, creating a mental model of the geology that is consistent with field data, and metacognition. Most post-secondary geology students in the United States receive training in geologic mapping, however, not much is known about the cognitive processes that underlie successful bedrock mapping, or about how these processes change with education and experience. To better understand cognition during geologic mapping, we conducted a 2-year research study in which 67 volunteers representing a range from undergraduate sophomore to 20+ years professional experience completed a suite of cognitive measures plus a 1-day bedrock mapping task in the Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA. In addition to participants' geologic maps and field notes, the cognitive suite included tests and questionnaires designed to measure: (1) prior geologic experience, via a self-report survey; (2) geologic content knowledge, via a modified version of the Geoscience Concept Inventory; (3) visuospatial ability, working memory capacity, and perceptual speed, via paper-and-pencil and computerized tests; (4) use of space and time during mapping via GPS tracking; and (5) problem-solving in the field via think-aloud audio logs during mapping and post-mapping semi-structured interviews. Data were examined for correlations between performance on the mapping task and other measures. We found that both geological knowledge and spatial visualization ability correlated positively with accuracy in the field mapping task. More importantly, we found a Visuospatial Ability × Geological Knowledge interaction, such that visuospatial ability positively predicted mapping performance at low, but not high, levels of geological knowledge. In other words, we found evidence to suggest that visuospatial ability mattered for bedrock mapping for the

  1. Characterization of Pedagogical Knowledge: A Study of Novice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Almonacid-Fierro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical knowledge, understood as a specific display of paradigmatic and ideological narratives and configurations about the character and sense of the educational action, is ultimately what each teacher defines as the learning environment. Therefore, its characterization and categorization become a central concept of scientific and pedagogical knowledge. The main objective of this article was to investigate, describe and interpret the relationship between the practice shown in the classroom and the pedagogical knowledge from the teacher-learner relationship in novice teachers graduated from the School of Education of Universidad Autónoma de Chile. A qualitative research approach was used, based on the epistemological perspective of an interpretative paradigm, utilizing the subjective comprehension of the process. Participants emphasized the importance of practical experience as fundamental in their teacher training. In addition, they see positively the emphasis given by Universidad Autónoma de Chile on forming reflective, critical and autonomous teachers through a teaching practice focused on the co-construction of knowledge.

  2. Hazard prediction discriminates between novice and experienced drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Crundall, D

    2016-01-01

    Typical hazard perception tests often confound multiple processes in their responses. The current study tested hazard prediction in isolation to assess whether this component can discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. A variant of the hazard perception test, based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique, found experienced drivers to outperform novices across three experiments suggesting that the act of predicting an imminent hazard is a crucial part of the hazard-...

  3. Reliability of Maximal Strength Testing in Novice Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is a criterion measure of muscle strength. However, the reliability of 1RM testing in novice subjects has received little attention. Understanding this information is crucial to accurately interpret changes in muscle strength. To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) 1RM in novice subjects. Twenty healthy males (31 plus or minus 5 y, 179.1 plus or minus 6.1 cm, 81.4 plus or minus 10.6 kg) with no weight training experience in the previous six months participated in four 1RM testing sessions, with each session separated by 5-7 days. SQ and HR 1RM were conducted using a smith machine; DL 1RM was assessed using free weights. Session 1 was considered a familiarization and was not included in the statistical analyses. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Tukey fs post-hoc tests were used to detect between-session differences in 1RM (p.0.05). Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). During Session 2, the SQ and DL 1RM (SQ: 90.2 }4.3, DL: 75.9 }3.3 kg) were less than Session 3 (SQ: 95.3 }4.1, DL: 81.5 plus or minus 3.5 kg) and Session 4 (SQ: 96.6 }4.0, DL: 82.4 }3.9 kg), but there were no differences between Session 3 and Session 4. HR 1RM measured during Session 2 (150.1 }3.7 kg) and Session 3 (152.5 }3.9 kg) were not different from one another, but both were less than Session 4 (157.5 }3.8 kg). The reliability (ICC) of 1RM measures for Sessions 2-4 were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.87, for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. When considering only Sessions 3 and 4, the reliability was 0.93, 0.91, and 0.86 for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. One familiarization session and 2 test sessions (for SQ and DL) were required to obtain excellent reliability (ICC greater than or equal to 0.90) in 1RM values with novice subjects. We were unable to attain this level of reliability following 3 HR testing sessions therefore additional sessions may be required to obtain an

  4. Lived Experience: Perceptions of Competency of Novice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Swee Choo Goh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study bridges the gap of an outsider-insider perspective of competency and captures the essence of what constitutes competency among 18 novice teachers in their own actions performed in real classrooms. In this study, relevant aspects of the novice teachers’ ‘lived-experience’ in their schools make up their conceptions of competency. Novice teachers’ talk about achieving their aims of competency in strategically different ways and in each of these ways, the novice teachers’ strategies are critical to their understanding of the novice teacher-student roles. Five identified conceptions are: controls in the classroom and behaviour of students, methodical preparation, uses of sound in pedagogical knowledge and skills, understanding and empowering their students to take charge of their own learning, and an awareness of themselves as teachers. The conceptions of competency are represented diagrammatically and are discussed with respect to levels of complexity. Variation exists in the way novice teachers conceive of their competency. Teacher educators should be cognizant of the diversity in practices of teachers and not limit that to say that there is just one acceptable conception of competency.

  5. DETECTION OF ROAD HAZARDS BY NOVICE TEEN AND EXPERIENCED ADULT DRIVERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Sheila G; Olsen, Erik C B; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Dingus, Thomas A; Ramsey, David J; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2008-01-01

    Previous laboratory and simulator research has indicated that hazard detection skills and abilities are less developed among novice drivers compared with experienced adult drivers. Novices tend to miss some relevant cues and may be less able to process important elements in the environment while driving. As was found with other research methods, it was hypothesized that novices would have lower hazard detection skills and will react less appropriately to hazards than older and more experienced drivers.Three hazard perception scenarios were simulated on a test track and data were collected on newly licensed teen drivers (within 2 weeks of licensure) and a comparison group of adults. The scenarios included a hidden stop sign, hidden pedestrian, and hidden pedestrian with lane closure (this last included a text-messaging task). Discrete quantitative performance metrics were evaluated for this analysis, including: 1) Did the participant glance at the potential hazard (e.g., stop sign, pedestrian)? 2) Did the participant stop (for the stop sign scenario)? 3) Did the participant show signs of indecision, caution, or awareness (for all hazards)?Significant differences between teen drivers and more experienced adult drivers were found in a combined hazard detection analysis. Results indicate that the adult drivers observed hazards and demonstrated overt recognition of hazards more frequently than the teen drivers. Results indicated that a large portion of teen drivers failed to disengage from peripheral task engagement in the presence of hazards. The results will later be compared to naturalistic data for the same set of drivers to see whether these test track results are predictive of real-world behavior.

  6. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; pvolleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  7. Data from a fingerprint matching task with experts, trained students and untrained novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Pitfield, Christy

    2016-12-01

    The data described here provide standard performance measures following administration of a fingerprint matching task to expert analysts, trained students and novice control participants. Measures include accuracy on 'same' and 'different' trials, and the associated measures of sensitivity of discrimination (d') and response bias (C). In addition, speed of correct response is provided. The provision of these data will enable the interested reader to conduct meta-analyses relating to questions of fingerprint expertise and fingerprint training (see "Fact or friction: examination of the transparency, reliability and sufficiency of the ACE-V method of fingerprint analysis" (Stevenage and Pitfield, in press) [1]).

  8. Efeitos da prática mental na aquisição de habilidades motoras em sujeitos novatos Efectos de la práctica mental en la adquisición de habilidades motoras en novatos Effects of mental practice in motor skills acquisition in novice subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes

    2012-09-01

    muestra utilizada fue pequeña, los resultados sugieren que la práctica mental en sujetos novatos depende de la práctica física para ser efectiva, independiente de su posicionamiento (antes o después.Studies of mental practice with novices pointed out its superiority when compared to no practice at all. However, pre-test as well as familiarization using physical practice can influence the effect from mental practice. This study investigated the effects of mental practice in novice in the practiced task, as well as the location of physical practice in relation to mental practice. Twenty five undergraduate volunteers performed a serial positioning task and they were distributed in five groups in accordance to the type of practice: Physical (GPF, mental (GPM, physical-mental (GPFM, mental-physical (GPMF, and control group (GC which took part only in tests. A non parametrical Anova applied in tests showed superiority of groups with physical practice (GPF, GPFM, and GPMF to control and mental practice groups. In considering the small sample, the results suggest that mental practice in novice subjects depends on physical practice to be effective, regardless its location (before or after.

  9. Administrative support of novice science teachers: A multiple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacuone, Leann

    Novice science teachers leave the confines of colleges and universities to embark on a new adventure in education where they aim to influence young minds, make a difference in the world, and share their love for their content. They have learned their pedagogical skills with the support and assistance of fellow classmates, a supporting professor, and a cooperating teacher. These teachers enter their new place of employment and are met with many unexpected challenges, such as a lack of resources, no one to ask questions of, and a busy staff with already established relationships, causing them to feel an overall lack of support and resulting in many new teachers rethinking their career choice and leaving the field of education within 5 years of entering. This multiple-case study investigated the administrative support 4 novice science teachers received during an academic year and the novice teachers' perceptions of the support they received to answer the following research question: How do novice science teachers who have consistent interactions with administrators develop during their first year? To answer this question, semistructured interviews, reflection journals, observations, resumes, long-range plans, and student discipline referrals were collected. The findings from this study show novice science teachers who had incidents occur in the classroom requiring administrative assistance and guidance felt more confident in enforcing their classroom management policies and procedures as the year progressed to change student behavior. The novice science teachers perceived administrators who provided resources including technology, office supplies, science supplies, and the guidance of a mentor as supportive. Novice science teachers who engaged in dialogue after administrative observations, were provided the opportunity to attend professional development outside the district, and had a mentor who taught the same discipline made more changes to their instructional

  10. Image interpretation performance: A longitudinal study from novice to professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C; Reeves, P

    2017-02-01

    Universities need to deliver educational programmes that create radiography graduates who are ready and able to participate in abnormality detection schemes, ultimately delivering safe and reliable performance because junior doctors are exposed to the risk of misdiagnosis if unsupported by other healthcare professionals. Radiographers are ideally suited to this role having the responsibility for conducting the actual X-ray examination. The image interpretation performance of one cohort of student radiographers was measured upon enrolment from UCAS in the first week of university education and then again prior to graduation using RadBench (n = 23). The results identified that novices have a range of natural image interpretation skills; accuracy 35-85%, sensitivity 45-100%, specificity 15-85%, mean ROC 0.691. Graduates presented a narrower range; accuracy 60-90%, sensitivity 40-100%, specificity 60-90%, mean ROC 0.841. The positive shift in graduate mean accuracy (+16%) was driven by increases in specificity (+27%) rather than sensitivity (+5%). No statistically significant differences (ANOVA) could be found between age group, gender and previous education however trends were identified. 56.5% of the population (n = 13) met a benchmark accurate standard of 80%, including one graduate who met 90%. Image interpretation testing at the point of UCAS entry is a useful indicator of future performance and is a recommended factor for consideration as part of the selection process. Whilst image interpretation now forms an integral part of undergraduate radiography programmes, new graduates may not necessary possess the reliability in decision making to justify participation in abnormality detection schemes, highlighting the need for continuous professional development. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Investigation into Novice English Teachers’ Beliefs about Method and Post-method Pedagogy in Turkish EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tekin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study which has a qualitative research design, reports on the views and beliefs of eleven novice English as a foreign language (EFL teachers about the English language teaching (ELT methods for the purpose of examining their knowledge about and attitudes towards popular methods and post-method as well as towards current discussions in ELT and the effects of them on their reported classroom practices. In this respect, the novice teachers were interviewed by means of the video conferencing feature of the Windows Live Messenger (currently SKYPE about their views and beliefs related to method vs. post-method discussions as well as their current teaching practices. The results revealed a discrepancy between the participants’ views and their classroom practices. In fact, the majority of the participants reported a negative change in their attitudes towards teaching after they started teaching. The majority of the eleven participants were totally unaware of the postmethod discussions. In the final section of the paper, the reasons for these findings are discussed in detail, and further suggestions are made in an attempt to find solutions to some of the problems reported by the participant novice teachers

  12. Naturalistic study of the risky situations faced by novice riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupetit, Samuel; Gallier, Virginie; Riff, Jacques; Espié, Stéphane; Delgehier, Flavien

    2016-08-01

    This article sets out to identify the typical risky situations experienced by novice motorcyclists in the real world just after licensing. The procedure consists of a follow-up of six novices during their first two months of riding with their own motorbike instrumented with cameras. The novices completed logbooks on a daily basis in order to identify the risky situations they encountered, and were given face-to-face interviews to identify the context and their shortcomings during the reported events. Data show a large number of road configurations considered as risky by the riders (248 occurrences), especially during the first two weeks. The results revealed that a lack of hazard perception skills contributed to the majority of these incidents. These situations were grouped together to form clusters of typical incident scenarios on the basis of their similarities. The most frequent scenario corresponds to a lane change in dense traffic (15% of all incidents). The discussion shows how this has enhanced our understanding of novice riders' behaviour and how the findings can improve training and licensing. Lastly, the main methodological limitations of the study and some guidelines for improving future naturalistic riding studies are presented. Practitioner Summary: This article aims to identify the risky situations of novice motorcyclists in real roads. Two hundred forty-eight events were recorded and 13 incident scenarios identified. Results revealed that a lack of hazard perception contributed to the majority of these events. The most frequent scenario corresponds to a lane change in dense traffic.

  13. Participating in patient education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Antoft, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The paper builds on previous ethnographic research in Denmark focusing on the significance of participating in a locally developed patient education programme for everyday life (Kristiansen et.al. 2015). It presents a secondary analysis. Group based patient education can be understood as a health...... point is applied in order to illustrate two central status passages taking place at the locally developed patient education programme: 1) The status passage from novice to an experienced person with chronic illness, and 2) The transformation from adolescence to adulthood living with a chronic illness....... Related to both status passages we analyse how the central properties of status passage are at play and how they are shaped by the social interactions among the different agents: participants, lay experts and health professionals. We discuss how the theory of status passage might further enrich empirical...

  14. The Novice-Expert Continuum in Astronomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2012-03-01

    The nature of expertise in astronomy was investigated across a broad spectrum of ages and experience in China and New Zealand. Five hypotheses (capable of quantification and statistical analysis) were used to probe types of expertise identified by previous researchers: (a) domain-specific knowledge-skill in the use of scientific vocabulary and language and recognising relationships between concepts in linguistic and schematic forms; (b) higher-order theory in terms of conceptual structure and enriched scientific knowledge and reasoning; with an expectation of cultural similarity. There were 993 participants in all, age 3-80 years, including 68 junior school pupils; 68 pre-school pupils; 112 middle-school students; 109 high-school students; 79 physics undergraduates; 60 parents; 136 pre-service primary teachers; 131 pre-service secondary teachers; 72 primary teachers; 78 secondary teachers; 50 amateur astronomers and astronomy educators; and 30 astronomers and physicists; with approximately equal numbers of each group in both cultures; and of boys and girls in the case of children. For them, the methodology utilised Piagetian interviews with three media (verbal language, drawing, play-dough modelling), and for adults a questionnaire inviting responses in writing and drawing was used. The data from each group were categorised into ordinal scales and then analysed by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests. The findings supported the hypotheses with evidence of all forms of expertise increasing with experience in both cultures (α level 0.05). The relative gains, overlaps and deficits in expertise across the novice-expert continuum are explored in detail.

  15. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K

    2014-01-01

    .354) Nm/kg. CONCLUSION: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...... normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...

  16. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace...... industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  17. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace...... industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  18. Novice and experienced science teachers' understanding and uses of practical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    purpose of examining the differences in teachers' understanding and uses of practical activities in school science. Emphasis was placed on exploring the different knowledge sources used by experienced high school and novice elementary level science educators. Each of the participating teachers stated a different 'main purpose' for their uses of practical work. And while there were no mismatches among novice teachers' rhetoric and practice, classroom observations suggest incongruity between the more experienced teacher's stated and observed uses of lab activities. In addition, only the more experienced teacher holds a 'positivist' view toward the nature of science. There were also differences (between novice and experienced teachers) with respect to the type of knowledge sources teachers used in the classroom. Furthermore, whereas all teachers preferred to use their own method of 'talking their way out of it' when practical activities did not go as planned, only the more experienced teacher admits to 'conjuring' her school science lab activities. The typical response by all participating teachers, however, was to have students repeat their practical activities. Lastly, results indicate that differences between teachers' understanding and uses of practical work may be linked to the their professional experiences acquired prior to embarking on a teaching career.

  19. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaser, Janet I; Edwards, Christopher J; Morris, Nichole L; Donath, Max

    2015-09-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that also blocked phone usage. The second condition included 90 teens who ran the same application with phone blocking but which also reported back to parents about monitored risky behaviors (e.g., speeding). A third control group consisting of 92 novice teen drivers had the application and phone-based software installed on the phones to record cellular phone (but not block it) use while driving. The two treatment groups made significantly fewer calls and texts per mile driven compared to the control group. The control group data also demonstrated a higher propensity to text while driving rather than making calls. Software that blocks cellular phone use (except 911) while driving can be effective at mitigating calling and texting for novice teen drivers. However, subjective data indicates that some teens were motivated to find ways around the software, as well as to use another teen's phone while driving when they were unable to use theirs. Cellular phone bans for calling and texting are the first step to changing behaviors associated with texting and driving, particularly among novice teen drivers. Blocking software has the additional potential to reduce impulsive calling and texting while driving among novice teen drivers who might logically know the risks, but for whom it is difficult to ignore calling or texting while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  20. Novice performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement: standard 38-mm transducer vs 25-mm hockey stick transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T; Townsley, P; Jlala, H; Dowling, M; Bedforth, N; Hardman, J G; McCahon, R A

    2012-08-01

    The optimal method to develop expertise in ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is unknown. Studies of laryngoscopic expertise in novices demonstrate that the choice of laryngoscope affects performance. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of two different linear array transducers (38-mm standard vs 25-mm hockey stick) on novice performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement. Following randomisation, participants watched a video model of expert performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement. Recruits performed the modelled task on a turkey breast model. The median (IQR [range]) composite error score was statistically significantly larger for participants in the hockey stick transducer group compared with the standard transducer group; 10.0 (7.3-14.3 [2.5-29.0]) vs 7.5 (4.5-10.0 [2.0-28.0]) respectively, (p = 0.01). This study has demonstrated that performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement by novice operators after simple video instruction is better (as assessed using a composite error score) with a standard 38-mm transducer than with a 25-mm hockey stick transducer. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. The Role and Practice of the Principal in Developing Novice First-Year Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Sam; Roberson, Reba

    2009-01-01

    Novice teachers are added to campuses every year. The principals' challenge is to work with novice teachers to promote high levels of classroom practice, ensure the academic success of all students, and encourage new ways of being in schools for novice and veteran teachers alike. Principals can address these demands by understanding the issues…

  2. The First Five Years: Novice Teacher Beliefs, Experiences, and Commitment to the Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Heather Ann

    2013-01-01

    Novice teacher attrition is a valid concern for public education. Some studies have found that 40-50% of novice teachers will leave the profession before they reach their fifth year of teaching. Previous literature states that novice teachers leave because of job dissatisfaction, school conditions and feeling ineffective with their students. This…

  3. Understanding the Lived Experiences of Novice Teachers in an Urban Texas School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepisto-Wood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    In an urban Texas Independent School District (TXISD), novice teachers leave the field of education for different careers within the first 3 years of employment at a rate that is nearly twice the Texas average and near the top of the national novice teacher attrition rate range. This study examined the lived experiences of 23 TXISD novice teachers…

  4. Exploring Novice Teachers' Cognitive Processes Using Digital Video Technology: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Ongerth, Yuelu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a qualitative case study that investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflection on their own teaching. To date, most studies that have investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflective practice have focused on examining novice teachers' levels of reflective writing rather than the cognitive…

  5. Exploring Novice Teachers' Cognitive Processes Using Digital Video Technology: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Ongerth, Yuelu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes a qualitative case study that investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflection on their own teaching. To date, most studies that have investigated novice teachers' video-aided reflective practice have focused on examining novice teachers' levels of reflective writing rather than the cognitive…

  6. Novice Teachers' Perspectives on Learning in Lesson Rehearsals in Second Language Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, Francis John; Peercy, Megan Madigan

    2016-01-01

    Although scholars working in core practices have put forth lesson rehearsals as central to novice teachers' learning and development, there is little work on how novice teachers experience rehearsals. This qualitative research investigated learning opportunities for novice teachers of language learners during rehearsals. The analysis examines two…

  7. A Content Analysis of Images of Novice Teacher Induction: First-Semester Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Webb, Angela W.; Latham, Samantha J.

    2016-01-01

    The powerful nature of novice teachers' experiences in their first years of teaching has been well documented. However, the variance in novices' initial immersion in the school environment is largely dependent on perceived personal and professional support as well as the environmental inducements that lend to novice teachers' success in the…

  8. Limited intervention improves technical skill in focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography among novice examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies addressing teaching and learning in point-of-care ultrasound have primarily focussed on image interpretation and not on the technical quality of the images. We hypothesized that a limited intervention of 10 supervised examinations would improve the technical skills in Focus Assessed Transthoracic Echocardiography (FATE and that physicians with no experience in FATE would quickly adopt technical skills allowing for image quality suitable for interpretation. Methods Twenty-one physicians with no previous training in FATE or echocardiography (Novices participated in the study and a reference group of three examiners with more than 10 years of experience in echocardiography (Experts was included. Novices received an initial theoretical and practical introduction (2 hours, after which baseline examinations were performed on two healthy volunteers. Subsequently all physicians were scheduled to a separate intervention day comprising ten supervised FATE examinations. For effect measurement a second examination (evaluation of the same two healthy volunteers from the baseline examination was performed. Results At baseline 86% of images obtained by novices were suitable for interpretation, on evaluation this was 93% (p = 0.005. 100% of images obtained by experts were suitable for interpretation. Mean global image rating on baseline examinations was 70.2 (CI 68.0-72.4 and mean global image rating after intervention was 75.0 (CI 72.9-77.0, p = 0.0002. In comparison, mean global image rating in the expert group was 89.8 (CI 88.8-90.9. Conclusions Improvement of technical skills in FATE can be achieved with a limited intervention and upon completion of intervention 93% of images achieved are suitable for clinical interpretation.

  9. Performance in chemistry problem solving: A study of expert/novice strategies and specific cognitive factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engemann, Joseph Francis

    The purpose of this study was (a) to determine whether any relationships exist between chemistry problem-solving performance and field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, age, gender, and/or academic level, and (b) to compare the problem-solving strategies employed by novices, advanced novices, and experts in chemistry. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), and the Figural Intersection Test (FIT) were administered to 29 freshman and junior university chemistry students and 19 Regents and Advanced Placement high school chemistry students. In addition, six mole concept problems were given to these participants, as well as to another 25 participants classified as advanced novices or experts in chemistry. All six solutions for each participant were evaluated in order to obtain a problem-solving performance score. Participants were audiotaped as they "talked aloud" during the problem-solving session. Tapes were transcribed into protocols, 37 of which were selected and analyzed for choice of problem-solving strategy and time to solution. Analyses of variance were conducted to look for significant effects of gender or academic level on field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, and problem-solving performance. These analyses provided evidence of a significant relationship between the conservation subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), between the proportional reasoning subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), and between mental capacity and academic level (p < .01). A multiple regression analysis reported that problem-solving performance is related to an interaction between logical reasoning ability and mental capacity. A relationship between academic level and chemistry problem-solving performance was also reported. From an analysis of verbal protocols of successful problem solvers at all three levels of experience, the

  10. How can novice teachers learn from expert teachers in the Chinese tertiary context: a literature based one%How can novice teachers learn from expert teachers in the Chinese tertiary context:a literature based one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晨晨

    2016-01-01

    The previous researchers have done in great details of expertise teaching and the novice teacher. But few article have discussed how novice teacher can learn from the experienced one. The purpose of this article is to figure out two questions: does it help novice teachers learn from their more experienced colleagues?If there is, how can novice teachers be improved.

  11. The Effects of Traditional Neuromuscular Training and Rider Specific Training on Novice Horse-Rider Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleanor Boden[1; Hayley Randle[2

    2015-01-01

    programs are most effective in advancing performance is less understood. Personal participation was identified as a major contributing factor in improving novice rider position and therefore assists in our understanding the role of exercise. These findings suggest a role for additional team exercises in oromoting fitness and improvement of mounted rider position in novice equine athletes.

  12. Ensuring Competency of Novice Laparoscopic Surgeons-Exploring Standard Setting Methods and their Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Simulation-based assessment tools have been developed to allow for proficiency-based simulator training in laparoscopy. However, few studies have examined the consequences of different standard setting methods or examined what level of proficiency is considered adequate for trainees....... The objectives of the present study were to explore the consequences of different standard setting methods and to examine the proficiency level that surgical trainees are expected to reach, before performing supervised surgery on patients. DESIGN: Study participants undertook the Training and Assessment of Basic...... Laparoscopic Techniques test. The tests were video-recorded and rated using a simple scoring system based on number of errors and time. Participants were then asked to assess how high a score a novice should reach before performing supervised surgery on a patient. We then compared 3 methods of standard setting...

  13. Using Video Editing to Cultivate Novice Teachers' Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Brendan; Brantley-Dias, Laurie; Lee, John K.; Fox, Dana L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports research concerning the effective use of video editing to help cultivate novice teachers' reflective practice. The study reported here is part of a larger body of research on video-enhanced teacher reflection. For this study, we used a qualitative research design to examine two guided reflection activities for two groups of…

  14. Novice-Expert Design Consultations: Findings from a Field Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deken, F.; Aurisicchio, M.; Kleinsmann, M.; Lauche, K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the process of novice-expert consultation meetings in an organizational context by identifying phases of the discourse and analysing the nature of these phases. An empirical study was performed at Rolls-Royce Aerospace Engineering by capturing 7 audio-records of

  15. Research Matters/Novice Teachers Benefit from Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the support that novice teachers may need when preparing lesson plans. Showing that support makes a difference, three groups of teachers (one with access to lessons plans along with assistance from an online learning community; one with model plans but just online access; and one writing their own lesson…

  16. Novice Teachers' Case Dilemmas: Surprising Perspectives Related to Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrilli, Thomas; Sardo-Brown, Deborah; Hinson, Stephanie

    This study described novice teachers' case dilemmas, analyzing them for assumptions made by teachers about teaching and learning as well as for solutions to the dilemmas. Twenty-one of the thirty-six dilemmas emphasized either minority students, students of low socioeconomic status, or students from single-parent households. Among the issues…

  17. A Model for Teaching Experiential Counseling Interventions to Novice Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes model for teaching experiential interventions to novice counselors. Includes two experiential interventions that are focus for new model: two-chair approach based on Gestalt therapy principles and resolution of problematic reaction points. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral concepts of model are related to transfer of learning with the…

  18. Moral Authorship of Novice Teachers in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsen, Rob; Schaap, Harmen; Bakker, Cok

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on moral authorship as an element of the professional development of novice teachers in the Netherlands. Moral authorship refers to the ability of teachers to observe, identify, verbalize and reflect on the moral aspects of their work in a proactive and dialogical manner. We elaborate on moral authorship by theoretically…

  19. Supporting Novice Special Education Teachers through Quality Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The special education teaching environment is a teaching environment with unique duties that often challenge novice special education teachers. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain clarity of the work environment of special education teachers to uncover professional development practices that would work to support them. Research…

  20. The Development of Novice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patish, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…

  1. The Metamorphosis of Industrial Designers from Novices to Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ju-Joan; Chen, Po-Yu; Chen, Chun-Di

    2016-01-01

    Professional training for designers is crucial in the field of design studies. The characteristics of novices versus those of expert designers have been identified in the literature; however, studies exploring the issue of professional training processes in the actual workplace are not well developed. Our study addresses the topic by using…

  2. Novice Teachers' Conceptions of Fairness in Inclusion Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe Berry, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of "fairness" troubles some general education teachers, who may be reluctant to teach students with disabilities. Journals written by 47 general education preservice and novice teachers were data sources for examining teachers' concerns about fairness. Five areas of concern emerged: general responses, definitions of fairness, dealing…

  3. The Development of Novice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patish, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…

  4. How Novice EFL Teachers Regulate Their Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi Tejeda, Silvia; Gillings de González, Barbara Scholes; López Martínez, Cecilio Luis de Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This research report shares the findings that emerged from a qualitative study in which the main objective was to discover whether or not novice English as a foreign language teachers regulate their negative emotions during their initial teaching practice, and if so, how they do this. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews and…

  5. Expert and Novice Solutions of Genetic Pedigree Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark W.; Lawrence, Jeanette A.

    1988-01-01

    Compares experts', advanced students', and novice students' use of genetics knowledge to generate and test hypotheses while solving genetic pedigree problems. Reports that experts identified more critical cues, tested more hypotheses, were more rigorous in the falsification of alternative hypotheses, and were more flexible to their solving…

  6. Participating in patient education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Antoft, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The paper builds on previous ethnographic research in Denmark focusing on the significance of participating in a locally developed patient education programme for everyday life (Kristiansen et.al. 2015). It presents a secondary analysis. Group based patient education can be understood as a health...... promoting initiative. It is set up to regularize and help people manage the status passage from being a normal person to becoming a person living with chronic illness and to support them in accepting and learning to live with this identity transition. The theory of status passage and the concept of turning...... point is applied in order to illustrate two central status passages taking place at the locally developed patient education programme: 1) The status passage from novice to an experienced person with chronic illness, and 2) The transformation from adolescence to adulthood living with a chronic illness...

  7. Comparison of blind intubation through supraglottic devices and direct laryngoscopy by novices: a simulation manikin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Yong; Kang, Gu Hyun; Kim, Won Hee; Choi, Hyun Young; Jang, Yong Soo; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Jae Guk; Kim, Hyeongtae; Kim, Gyoung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare intubation performance between blind intubation through supraglottic airway devices and direct laryngoscopy by novices under manikin simulation. We hypothesized that the intubation time by novices using supraglottic airway devices was superior to that with the Macintosh laryngoscope (MCL). Methods A prospective, randomized crossover study was conducted with 95 participants, to evaluate i-gel, air-Q, LMA Fastrach, and MCL devices. Primary outcomes were the intubation time and the success rate for intubation. Results The i-gel showed the shortest insertion and tube passing time among the four devices; the i-gel and air-Q also showed the shortest total intubation time (all P<0.0083; i-gel vs. air-Q, P=0.03). The i-gel and MCL showed the highest cumulative success rate (all P<0.0083; i-gel vs. MCL, P=0.12). Conclusion Blind intubation through the i-gel showed almost equal intubation performance compared to direct laryngoscopy.

  8. Retention of tracheal intubation skills by novice personnel: a comparison of the Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, C H

    2007-03-01

    Direct laryngoscopic tracheal intubation is a potentially lifesaving manoeuvre, but it is a difficult skill to acquire and to maintain. These difficulties are exacerbated if the opportunities to utilise this skill are infrequent, and by the fact that the consequences of poorly performed intubation attempts may be severe. Novice users find the Airtraq laryngoscope easier to use than the conventional Macintosh laryngoscope. We therefore wished to determine whether novice users would have greater retention of intubation skills with the Airtraq rather than the Macintosh laryngoscope. Twenty medical students who had no prior airway management experience participated in this study. Following brief didactic instruction, each took turns performing laryngoscopy and intubation using the Macintosh and Airtraq devices in easy and simulated difficult laryngoscopy scenarios. The degree of success with each device, the time taken to perform intubation and the assistance required, and the potential for complications were then assessed. Six months later, the assessment process was repeated. No didactic instruction or practice attempts were provided on this latter occasion. Tracheal intubation skills declined markedly with both devices. However, the Airtraq continued to provide better intubating conditions, resulting in greater success of intubation, with fewer optimisation manoeuvres required, and reduced potential for dental trauma, particularly in the difficult laryngoscopy scenarios. The substantial decline in direct laryngoscopy skills over time emphasise the need for continued reinforcement of this complex skill.

  9. Listening to music primes space: pianists, but not novices, simulate heard actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K

    2015-03-01

    Musicians sometimes report twitching in their fingers or hands while listening to music. This anecdote could be indicative of a tendency for auditory-motor co-representation in musicians. Here, we describe two studies showing that pianists (Experiment 1), but not novices (Experiment 2) automatically generate spatial representations that correspond to learned musical actions while listening to music. Participants made one-handed movements to the left or right from a central location in response to visual stimuli while listening to task-irrelevant auditory stimuli, which were scales played on a piano. These task-irrelevant scales were either ascending (compatible with rightward movements) or descending (compatible with leftward movements). Pianists were faster to respond when the scale direction was compatible with the direction of response movement, whereas novices' movements were unaffected by the scale. These results are in agreement with existing research on action-effect coupling in musicians, which draw heavily on common coding theory. In addition, these results show how intricate auditory stimuli (ascending or descending scales) evoke coarse, domain-general spatial representations.

  10. Evaluating the ability of novices to identify and quantify physical demand elements following an introductory education session: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Brendan; VanderGriendt, Curtis; Fischer, Steven L

    2016-05-01

    A Physical Demands Description (PDD) is a resource that describes the physical demands of a job in a systematic way. PDD data are commonly used to make legal, medical, and monetary decisions related to work. Despite the fundamental importance of a PDD, data are often gathered by novice or early career ergonomists, where we have limited knowledge regarding their proficiency in performing PDDs. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate novices' proficiency in identifying and quantifying physical demands elements embedded within three job simulations, following a formal PDD education session. The education session was based on the revised Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers (OHCOW, 2014) PDD Handbook. Participants were able to identify physical demands elements with an average success rate of 80%, but were often unable to accurately quantify measures related to each element within a prescribed error threshold of 10%. These data suggest that practitioners should exercise caution when sending novice ergonomists out on their own to complete PDDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenging Transitions and Crossing Borders: Preparing Novice Mathematics Teacher Educators to Support Novice K-12 Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, Jan A.; Eli, Jennifer A.; Beisiegel, Mary; McCloskey, Andrea; Welder, Rachael M.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-nine recently graduated doctoral students in mathematics education completed a survey to determine their perceptions of transitioning from a doctoral program into an academic position at an institution of higher education. Research literature for novice mathematics school teachers was also reviewed to document their experiences transitioning…

  12. The Effects of Practicing with a Virtual Ultrasound Trainer on FAST Window Identification, Acquisition, and Diagnosis. CRESST Report 787

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Gyllenhammer, Ruth G.; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of simulator-based virtual ultrasound scanning practice to classroom-based hands-on ultrasound scanning practice on participants' knowledge of FAST window quadrants and interpretation, and on participants' performance on live patient FAST exams. Twenty-five novice participants were randomly assigned to the…

  13. Using EMGs and kinematics data to study the take-off technique of experts and novices for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassement, Maud; Garnier, Cyril; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Watelain, Eric; Lepoutre, François-Xavier

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to characterise the electromyographic activity and kinematics exhibited during the performance of take-off for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise, for different expertise levels. Two groups (experts and novices) participated in this study. Both groups were asked to execute their take-off technique for that specific exercise. Among the kinematics variables studied, the knee, hip and ankle angles and the hip and knee angular velocities were significantly different. There were also significant differences in the EMG variables, especially in terms of (i) biceps femoris and gastrocnemius lateralis activity at touchdown and (ii) vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis activity during take-off. During touchdown, the experts tended to increase the stiffness of the take-off leg to decrease braking. Novices exhibited less stiffness in the take-off leg due to their tendency to maintain a tighter knee angle. Novices also transferred less energy forward during take-off due to lack of contraction in the vastus lateralis, which is known to contribute to forward energy transfers. This study highlights the differences in both groups in terms of muscular and angular control according to the studied variables. Such studies of pole vaulting could be useful to help novices to learn expert's technique.

  14. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Pedersen, Mette Broen; Kastrup, Kristrian

    2014-01-01

    normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...... associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. RESULTS: A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN MAXIMAL...

  15. Some anthropologic factors of performance in rhythmic gymnastics novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Durdica; Katić, Ratko; Males, Boris

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine motor and morphological factors, and to assess their impact on specific motor skill performance in rhythmic gymnastics (RG). Experimental training process aimed at learning and improving basic movement structures of rhythmic gymnastics was performed for nine months in a sample of 50 female rhythmic gymnastics novices (mean age 7.1 +/- 0.3 years). Seven dimensions in total were isolated by factorial analysis of 13 motor, 11 morphological, and 20 specific rhythmic gymnastics tests. The factors of flexibility (Beta = 0.26; p gymnastics novices should be programmed, with preset objectives for the development of flexibility and explosive strength, speed and peripheral joint strength and adipose tissue reduction.

  16. Physiology knowledge plays a role when novices learn technical echocardiography skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gøtzsche, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    and interpretation skills of intermediately trained echocardiographers. This study investigates the role of physiology knowledge in the development of echocardiographic technical expertise. Methods: Forty-five physicians (15 novices, 15 intermediates and 15 experts) were evaluated on technical skills. Participants...... scanned a standardized patient and recorded pre-defined TTE images based on Danish Cardiology Society guidelines. Loops of 2D images and colour Doppler images were recorded as well as PW and CW curves. A structured checklist for evaluation of technical skills was developed. Two experts then graded each...... image recorded on the checklist from very poor (1) to very good (5). An average quality of images was calculated with 3 as the cut off for images suitable for interpretation. The echocardiography technical skills scores of the 45 physicians were then correlated with their scores on a MCQ test...

  17. Rigour in phenomenological research: reflections of a novice nurse researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Helder Rocha

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to explore conflicts and doubts that novice researchers face when using phenomenological research methods, especially with regard to methodological rigour. There is an increasing interest in different qualitative approaches. The best way to evaluate the quality of qualitative studies has been debated intensively. The great theoretical and methodological diversity of qualitative approaches suggests that a single set of criteria may not be appropriate for all types of research. This is a methodological paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing rigour in a phenomenological study, supported by literature on the topic. Generic qualitative criteria may not be the most adequate to ensure rigour in phenomenological research. The different poles of discussion about the best way to ensure validity of phenomenological research puzzle novice nurse researchers. Focusing on integrative validity that addresses experiential and methodological concerns ensures that researchers will respect the philosophical assumptions underlying a method and allows them to recognise study soundness in the findings and the research process. Phenomenological research must demonstrate methodological congruence and provide meaningful results about lived experiences in a balanced way. Novice researchers need support to understand the articulation between philosophical and methodological foundations that guide the methods they use.

  18. LMA Supreme insertion by novices in manikins and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, B W; Wharton, N M; Gibbison, B; Cook, T M

    2010-04-01

    The LMA Supreme has been suggested for use in emergency situations by medical personnel with no experience in endotracheal intubation. We evaluated the LMA Supreme when inserted by non-anaesthetists, firstly in a manikin and then in patients. Fifty airway novices inserted a LMA Supreme in a manikin without any complications so we proceeded to the patient phase. Fifty airway novices inserted the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients undergoing elective surgery. First time insertion success rate was 86% and overall insertion success rate was 100%. Mechanical ventilation was successful in all cases. Median (IQR [range]) time to establish an airway was 34 s (26-40 [18-145] s). Median (IQR [range]) pharyngeal seal pressure was 23 cmH(2)O (19-28 [13-40] cmH(2)O). There were no important complications. Results are consistent with previous studies of use of the LMA Supreme by airway experts. We conclude that the LMA supreme is suitable for use by airway novices. Further research is needed before it may be recommended for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency airway use.

  19. Kinematic changes during running-induced fatigue and relations with core endurance in novice runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblbauer, Ian F; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Verhagen, Evert A; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate kinematic changes experienced during running-induced fatigue. Further, the study examined relations between kinematic changes and core endurance. Repeated measures and correlation. Seventeen novice runners participated in a running-induced fatigue protocol and underwent core endurance assessment. Participants ran at a steady state corresponding to an intensity of 13 on the Borg scale and continued until 2min after a Borg score of 17 or 90% of maximum heart rate was reached. Kinematic data were analyzed for the lower extremities and trunk throughout a running protocol and, on separate days, core endurance measures were recorded. Changes in pre- and post-fatigue running kinematics and their relations with core endurance measures were analyzed. Analysis of peak joint angles revealed significant increases in trunk flexion (4°), decreases in trunk extension (3°), and increases in non-dominant ankle eversion (1.6°) as a result of running-induced fatigue. Post-fatigue increased trunk flexion changes displayed a strong to moderate positive relation with trunk extensor core endurance measures, in contrast to expected negative relations. Novice runners displayed an overall increase in trunk inclination and increased ankle eversion peak angles when fatigued utilizing a running-induced fatigue protocol. As most pronounced changes were found for the trunk, trunk kinematics appear to be significantly affected during fatigued running and should not be overlooked. Core endurance measures displayed unexpected relations with running kinematics and require further investigation to determine the significance of these relations. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Videorecording to Enhance the Development of Novice Researchers' Interviewing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Little has been written about how to teach novice researchers about qualitative research interviewing. In this article, the authors recognize qualitative research interviewing as a practice that one develops through reflexivity. They propose that novices can develop a reflexive interviewing practice by using a guided framework to review videorecords of the interviews they conduct. The authors discuss the framework and illustrate its use with an exemplar derived from the experience of a novice researcher. They conclude with a discussion of the need for further research about how best to enhance the development of novice researchers as qualitative research interviewers.

  1. Objective ergonomic risk assessment of wrist and spine with motion analysis technique during simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy in experienced and novice surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Twinkle Yogesh; Yardi, Sujata Sudhir; Oak, Sanjay Narahari; Ramchandani, Sneha

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a rise in prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in surgeons performing laparoscopic surgeries due to lack of ergonomic considerations to the minimal access surgical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the physical ergonomics in experienced and novice surgeons during a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-two surgeons participated in this study and were distributed in two groups (experienced and novices) based on the inclusion criteria. Both groups were screened for the spinal and wrist movements on the orientation sensor-based, motion analysis device while performing a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Simultaneous video recording was used to estimate the other joint positions. The RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) ergonomic risk scores were estimated with the acquired data. RESULTS: We found that surgeons in both novice and experienced groups scored a high on the RULA. Limited awareness of the influence of monitor position on the postural risk caused surgeons to adopt non-neutral range cervical postures. The thoracolumbar spine is subjected to static postural demand. Awkward wrist postures were adopted during the surgery by both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the RULA scores between the novice and experienced, but some differences in maximum joint excursions between them as detected on the motion analysis system. CONCLUSION: Both experienced and novice surgeons adopted poor spinal and wrist ergonomics during simulated cholecystectomy. We concluded that the physical ergonomic risk is medium as estimated by the RULA scoring method, during this minimally invasive surgical procedure, demanding implementation of change in the ergonomic practices. PMID:28281476

  2. Teaching and learning: Novice teachers' descriptions of their confidence to teach science content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Barbara Ann

    Statement of the problem. The problem being studied in this research is the relationship between a specific series of integrated science courses in a science teacher preparation program and the actual needs of the science teacher during the first years of teaching practice. Teachers often report that there is a disconnect between the coursework they have taken in college as pre-service teachers and the reality of their classroom practice during their first years of teaching. The intent of this study was to record the descriptions of three teachers who were members of a cohort and took a series of integrated science courses (NSCI series) during their teacher preparation program as it related to the influence of these courses on their teaching practice. The focus of inquiry is guided by a single question: How do former participants in the series of science courses who are currently novice teachers describe their confidence in their ability to teach science content to their middle school students? The theoretical framework was based on Shulman's (1987) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). PCK involves the teacher understanding the content of science so thoroughly that ways are identified of representing and formulating the subject matter to make it understandable to others. The teacher who has a strong PCK uses powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations and demonstrations that promote personally meaningful student understandings. Novice teachers' reflections on their confidence to teach science content to their middle school students were observed through the lens of PCK. All three novice teachers reported a high confidence level to teach middle school science and attributed their confidence level to a great degree to the integrated science series of courses (NSCI). Method. A qualitative design, specifically a case study, was used for this study. Multiple forms of data collection were employed including a semi structured interview and a focus group

  3. The effect of family climate on risky driving of young novices: the moderating role of attitude and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Aline; Brijs, Kris; Declercq, Katrien; Brijs, Tom; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relative importance of young novice drivers' family climate on their driving behavior. A sample of young novice drivers (N=171) between the age of 17 and 24, who held their permanent (or temporary) driver's license for no longer than one year, participated. The questionnaire included items related to the participants' family climate, 3 socio-cognitive determinants (i.e., attitude, locus of control and social norm), and risky driving behaviors. We expected both family climate and the socio-cognitive determinants to exert a direct effect on risky driving. Furthermore we hypothesized that the socio-cognitive determinants would moderate the impact of family climate on risky driving. The results showed that the effect of family climate on risky driving only originated from one single factor (i.e., noncommitment). Besides that, the results confirmed the importance of the three socio-cognitive determinants to the degree that attitude, locus of control, and social norm significantly predicted the self-reported risky driving. In line of what we hypothesized, attitude moderated the relationship between noncommitment and risky driving. Lastly, we found an unexpected three-way interaction which indicated that locus of control moderated the relation between noncommitment and risky driving only when young drivers' attitude was risk-supportive. We recommend scholars and practitioners to take into account the interaction between external sources of influence (such as an individual's family climate) and more personally oriented dispositions (such as an individual's attitude, social norm and locus of control) when trying to explain and change young novices' risky driving.

  4. Domain-Specific and Unspecific Reaction Times in Experienced Team Handball Goalkeepers and Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Fabian; Reiser, Mathias; Munzert, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In our everyday environments, we are constantly having to adapt our behavior to changing conditions. Hence, processing information is a fundamental cognitive activity, especially the linking together of perceptual and action processes. In this context, expertise research in the sport domain has concentrated on arguing that superior processing performance is driven by an advantage to be found in anticipatory processes (see Williams et al., 2011, for a review). This has resulted in less attention being paid to the benefits coming from basic internal perceptual-motor processing. In general, research on reaction time (RT) indicates that practicing a RT task leads to an increase in processing speed (Mowbray and Rhoades, 1959; Rabbitt and Banerji, 1989). Against this background, the present study examined whether the speed of internal processing is dependent on or independent from domain-specific motor expertise in unpredictable stimulus-response tasks and in a double stimulus-response paradigm. Thirty male participants (15 team handball goalkeepers and 15 novices) performed domain-unspecific simple or choice stimulus-response (CSR) tasks as well as CSR tasks that were domain-specific only for goalkeepers. As expected, results showed significantly faster RTs for goalkeepers on domain-specific tasks, whereas novices' RTs were more frequently excessively long. However, differences between groups in the double stimulus-response paradigm were not significant. It is concluded that the reported expertise advantage might be due to recalling stored perceptual-motor representations for the domain-specific tasks, implying that experience with (practice of) a motor task explicitly enhances the internal processing of other related domain-specific tasks.

  5. Coping with Stress: An Investigation of Novice Teachers' Stressors in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Sue A.; Paquette, Kelli R.; Chen, Yijie

    2007-01-01

    Research supports teacher preparation programs to recognize stress factors and to assist students and new teachers with effective coping mechanisms. Twenty-five to fifty percent of beginning teachers resign during their first three years of teaching (Fleener, 2001; Roulston, Legette, & Womack, 2005). Among all the causes, stress from teaching is…

  6. A novice's process of object-oriented programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2006-01-01

    a programming problem. Two examples are used to demonstrate the application of process and techniques.The process is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it, we hope to achieve two things......Exposing students to the process of programming is merely implied but not explicitly addressed in texts on programming which appear to deal with 'program' as a noun rather than as a verb.We present a set of principles and techniques as well as an informal but systematic process of decomposing...

  7. Classifying BCI signals from novice users with extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Germán; Bueno-Crespo, Andrés; José Martinez-Albaladejo, F.

    2017-07-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) allows to control external devices only with the electrical activity of the brain. In order to improve the system, several approaches have been proposed. However it is usual to test algorithms with standard BCI signals from experts users or from repositories available on Internet. In this work, extreme learning machine (ELM) has been tested with signals from 5 novel users to compare with standard classification algorithms. Experimental results show that ELM is a suitable method to classify electroencephalogram signals from novice users.

  8. Classifying BCI signals from novice users with extreme learning machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Bermúdez Germán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface (BCI allows to control external devices only with the electrical activity of the brain. In order to improve the system, several approaches have been proposed. However it is usual to test algorithms with standard BCI signals from experts users or from repositories available on Internet. In this work, extreme learning machine (ELM has been tested with signals from 5 novel users to compare with standard classification algorithms. Experimental results show that ELM is a suitable method to classify electroencephalogram signals from novice users.

  9. Randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of music on the virtual reality laparoscopic learning performance of novice surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, D; Rosenthal, R; Zingg, U; Oertli, D; Metzger, U; Jancke, L

    2008-11-01

    Findings have shown that music affects cognitive performance, but little is known about its influence on surgical performance. The hypothesis of this randomized controlled trial was that arousing (activating) music has a beneficial effect on the surgical performance of novice surgeons in the setting of a laparoscopic virtual reality task. For this study, 45 junior surgeons with no previous laparoscopic experience were randomly assigned to three equal groups. Group 1 listened to activating music; group 2 listened to deactivating music; and group 3 had no music (control) while each participant solved a surgical task five times on a virtual laparoscopic simulator. The assessed global task score, the total task time, the instrument travel distances, and the surgeons' heart rate were assessed. All surgical performance parameters improved significantly with experience (task repetition). The global score showed a trend for a between-groups difference, suggesting that the group listening to activating music had the worst performance. This observation was supported by a significant between-groups difference for the first trial but not subsequent trials (activating music, 35 points; deactivating music, 66 points; no music, 91 points; p = 0.002). The global score (p = 0.056) and total task time (p = 0.065) showed a trend toward improvement when participants considered the music pleasant rather than unpleasant. Music in the operating theater may have a distracting effect on novice surgeons performing new tasks. Surgical trainers should consider categorically switching off music during teaching procedures.

  10. Senior Vipassana Meditation practitioners exhibit distinct REM sleep organization from that of novice meditators and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthai, Nirmala; Nagendra, Ravindra P; Sasidharan, Arun; Srikumar, Sulekha; Datta, Karuna; Uchida, Sunao; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-06-01

    Abstract/Summary The present study is aimed to ascertain whether differences in meditation proficiency alter rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) as well as the overall sleep-organization. Whole-night polysomnography was carried out using 32-channel digital EEG system. 20 senior Vipassana meditators, 16 novice Vipassana meditators and 19 non-meditating control subjects participated in the study. The REM sleep characteristics were analyzed from the sleep-architecture of participants with a sleep efficiency index >85%. Senior meditators showed distinct changes in sleep-organization due to enhanced slow wave sleep and REM sleep, reduced number of intermittent awakenings and reduced duration of non-REM stage 2 sleep. The REM sleep-organization was significantly different in senior meditators with more number of REM episodes and increased duration of each episode, distinct changes in rapid eye movement activity (REMA) dynamics due to increased phasic and tonic activity and enhanced burst events (sharp and slow bursts) during the second and fourth REM episodes. No significant differences in REM sleep organization was observed between novice and control groups. Changes in REM sleep-organization among the senior practitioners of meditation could be attributed to the intense brain plasticity events associated with intense meditative practices on brain functions.

  11. Examining the Changes in Novice and Experienced Mathematics Teachers' Questioning Techniques through the Lesson Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ewe Gnoh; Lim, Chap Sam; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in novice and experienced mathematics teachers' questioning techniques. This study was conducted in Sarawak where ten (experienced and novice) teachers from two schools underwent the lesson study process for fifteen months. Four data collection methods namely, observation, interview, lesson…

  12. Collective Responsibility for Learning: Effects on Interactions between Novice Teachers and Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses theory from sociology of education to explore associations between mentors' and senior colleagues' perceptions of schoolwide collective responsibility and the frequency of their interactions with novice teachers. Survey data was collected from novice teachers, their mentors, and their school-based colleagues in 6 Michigan…

  13. Using videorecording to enhance the development of novice researchers´ interviewing skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Paterson, Barbara; Hall, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Little has been written about how to teach novice researchers about qualitative research interviewing. In this article, the authors recognize qualitative research interviewing as a practice that one develops through reflexivity. They propose that novices can develop a reflexive intervie...

  14. Listening to the Voices of Novice Lecturers in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Martínez, Marcos J.; Lozano-Cabezas, Inés; Martinez-Ruiz, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The professional development of novice staff at the university still requires considerable improvement. In this research paper, and in an attempt to define a development model in higher education, attention is paid to the perspectives and judgments of novice university staff. The research focuses specifically on the expression of their problems,…

  15. Collegial Support and Novice Teachers' Perceptions of Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data gathered from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, this study examined variation in perceptions of working conditions related to workload and access to resources and further identified the association between these perceptions and the quality of support the novices received from their…

  16. The Socialization of a Novice Teacher of English: Becoming an Agent of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Villa, Claudia Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the analysis of the induction as a socialization process of a Colombian novice teacher of English. Since critical approaches to socialization highlight the role of novice teachers in critical school transformation during their induction stage, this study aims to disclose the teacher's possibilities of becoming an agent of…

  17. Visual Analysis among Novices: Training and Trend Lines as Graphic Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated the degree to which novice visual analysts could discern trends in simulated time-series data across differing levels of variability and extreme values. Forty-five novice visual analysts were trained in general principles of visual analysis. One group received brief training on how to identify and omit extreme values.…

  18. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  19. A Program Complexity Metric Based on Variable Usage for Algorithmic Thinking Education of Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuwa, Minori; Kayama, Mizue; Kunimune, Hisayoshi; Hashimoto, Masami; Asano, David K.

    2015-01-01

    We have explored educational methods for algorithmic thinking for novices and implemented a block programming editor and a simple learning management system. In this paper, we propose a program/algorithm complexity metric specified for novice learners. This metric is based on the variable usage in arithmetic and relational formulas in learner's…

  20. Debugging: Finding, Fixing and Flailing, a Multi-Institutional Study of Novice Debuggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sue; Lewandowski, Gary; McCauley, Renee; Murphy, Laurie; Simon, Beth; Thomas, Lynda; Zander, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Debugging is often difficult and frustrating for novices. Yet because students typically debug outside the classroom and often in isolation, instructors rarely have the opportunity to closely observe students while they debug. This paper describes the details of an exploratory study of the debugging skills and behaviors of contemporary novice Java…

  1. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  2. When Procedures Discourage Insight: Epistemological Consequences of Prompting Novice Physics Students to Construct Force Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Hallinen, Nicole R.; Conlin, Luke D.

    2017-01-01

    One aim of school science instruction is to help students become adaptive problem solvers. Though successful at structuring novice problem solving, step-by-step problem-solving frameworks may also constrain students' thinking. This study utilises a paradigm established by Heckler [(2010). Some consequences of prompting novice physics students to…

  3. "Beyond" the Joys of Teaching: Stories from Four Novice Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jewell E.; He, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document four novice secondary teachers' experiences as they progressed from the last year in their teacher education program through their first three years of teaching. Autobiographies, interviews, and focus groups were conducted to record their stories as novice teachers. In addition to the development of their…

  4. A Novice Teacher's Beliefs about Socially Just Teaching: Dialogue of Many Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubbuck, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    This case study explores the reality shock experienced by a White novice teacher, committed to socially just teaching, in her first year in an urban context. The apparently successful novice held three beliefs about her practice and herself: that socially just teaching was a holistic practice; that it could and should be done "right"; and that,…

  5. Being a Mentor: Novice Teachers' Mentors' Conceptions of Mentoring Prior to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz-Oppenheimer, Orna

    2017-01-01

    This study deals with novice teachers' mentors' conceptions of mentoring prior to their mentoring training. In Israel, all novice teachers have to be supported and assessed by a mentor during their first year of teaching. The aim of this study was to elicit from prospective mentors their own conception of professional mentoring, as a basis for…

  6. Adapting Mentoring to Individual Differences in Novice Teacher Learning: The Mentor's Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Gisbert; Oolbekkink, Helma; Meijer, Paulien C.; Verloop, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Being adaptive to the individual novice teacher is considered a condition for effective teacher mentoring. The aims of this study are therefore to explore (1) mentoring activities through which mentors intend to adapt to the individual novice teacher and (2) characteristics of adaptive mentors. Information was collected through on-site,…

  7. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier

    2016-01-01

    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....

  8. Novice facilitators and the use of scripts for managing facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...

  9. Comparing Novices & Experts in Their Exploration of Data in Line Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bruce H.; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    This research compared undergraduate Novices and PhD Experts in psychology and business in their exploration of psychology and business domain graphs. An overall expertise effect in graph explanation was found. Results indicated that Novices paused longer than Experts before beginning their explanations. Qualitative analyses showed that Experts…

  10. The Micropolitics of Educational Change Experienced by Novice Public Middle School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Louis F.

    2013-01-01

    Novice public middle school principals currently face the challenge of navigating internal micropolitical structures while negotiating educational change during a period of decline. This year-long qualitative study detailed the lived experiences of two suburban novice middle school principals as they found themselves leading within a…

  11. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  12. Using Simulation to Support Novice Teachers' Classroom Management Skills: Comparing Traditional and Alternative Certification Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowski, Jennifer; Walker, Joan T.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from research on situated cognition and the development of expertise and simulations in professional education, we designed two simulation tasks that provided novice teachers with repeated opportunities to deliberately practice managing a classroom under no-fault conditions. The simulations immersed novices in two perennial classroom…

  13. Experience of Adjunct Novice Clinical Nursing Faculty: An Interpretive Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive case study was to describe the experience of adjunct novice clinical nursing faculty who has less than three years teaching experience or feels novice in this setting. The nursing shortage in the United States is well documented and is forecasted to have significant impacts on the health care delivery…

  14. Examining the Changes in Novice and Experienced Mathematics Teachers' Questioning Techniques through the Lesson Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ewe Gnoh; Lim, Chap Sam; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in novice and experienced mathematics teachers' questioning techniques. This study was conducted in Sarawak where ten (experienced and novice) teachers from two schools underwent the lesson study process for fifteen months. Four data collection methods namely, observation, interview, lesson…

  15. Hemispheric activation differences in novice and expert clinicians during clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Pam; Hecker, Kent G; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin; Cortese, Filomeno; Doig, Christopher; Beran, Tanya; Wright, Bruce; Krigolson, Olav

    2016-12-01

    Clinical decision making requires knowledge, experience and analytical/non-analytical types of decision processes. As clinicians progress from novice to expert, research indicates decision-making becomes less reliant on foundational biomedical knowledge and more on previous experience. In this study, we investigated how knowledge and experience were reflected in terms of differences in neural areas of activation. Novice and expert clinicians diagnosed simple or complex (easy, hard) cases while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected. Our results highlight key differences in the neural areas activated in novices and experts during the clinical decision-making process. fMRI data were collected from ten second year medical students (novices) and ten practicing gastroenterologists (experts) while they diagnosed sixteen (eight easy and eight hard) clinical cases via multiple-choice questions. Behavioral data were collected for diagnostic accuracy (correct/incorrect diagnosis) and time taken to assign a clinical diagnosis. Two analyses were performed with the fMRI data. First, data from easy and hard cases were compared within respective groups (easy > hard, hard > easy). Second, neural differences between novices and experts (novice > expert, expert > novice) were assessed. Experts correctly diagnosed more cases than novices and made their diagnoses faster than novices on both easy and hard cases (all p's differences between novice and expert clinicians when diagnosing hard clinical cases. Specifically, novice clinicians had greater activations in the left anterior temporal cortex and left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex whereas expert clinicians had greater activations in the right dorsal lateral, right ventral lateral, and right parietal cortex. Hemispheric differences in activation were not observed between novices and experts while diagnosing easy clinical cases. While clinical decision-making engaged the prefrontal cortex (PFC

  16. Limited clinical reasoning skills used by novice physiotherapists when involved in the assessment and management of patients with shoulder problems: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Stephen; Withers, Sarah; Reeve, Sarah; Greasley, Alison

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the clinical reasoning process used by novice physical therapists in specific patient problems. Nine physical therapists in the UK with limited experience of managing musculoskeletal problems were included. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on how novice physical therapists would assess and manage a patient with a shoulder problem; interviews were transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis. To be included as a final theme at least 50% of participants had to mention that theme. A large number of items (n = 93) were excluded as fewer than 50% of participants referred to each item. Included items related to seven main themes: history (16), physical exam (13), investigations (1), diagnostic reasoning (1), clinical reasoning process (diagnostic pathway) (3), clinical reasoning process (management pathway) (5) and treatment options (1). Items mostly related to information gathering, although there was some use of hypothetico-deductive clinical reasoning there appeared to be limited understanding of the clinical implications of data gathered, and clinical reasoning through use of pattern recognition was minimal. Major weaknesses were apparent in the clinical reasoning skills of these novice therapists compared to previous reports of expert clinical reasoning, indicating areas for development in the education of student and junior physical therapists.

  17. Comparison of expert modeling versus voice-over PowerPoint lecture and presimulation readings on novice nurses' competence of providing care to multiple patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley E; Sideras, Stephanie; Gubrud-Howe, Paula; Lee, Christopher S

    2014-11-01

    Due to today's complex needs of hospitalized patients, nurses' competence and strategies to improve competence are of growing importance. Simulation is commonly used to influence competence, but little evidence exists for comparing how presimulation assignments influence competence. A randomized control trial was used to compare the efficacy of three simulation preparation methods (expert modeling/intervention, voice-over PowerPoint/active control, and reading assignments/passive control) on improving competence for providing care to multiple patients among senior undergraduate novice nurses. Competence was measured at two time points (baseline and following a 5-week intervention) by two blinded raters using the Creighton Simulation Evaluation Instrument. Twenty novice nurses participated in the trial. No significant differences were noted in raw improvements in competence among the three groups, but the expert modeling (Cohen's d=0.413) and voice-over PowerPoint methods (Cohen's d=0.226) resulted in greater improvements in competence, compared with the passive control.

  18. A comparison of free-hand vs laser-guided long-axis ultrasound techniques in novice users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G B; Fanou, E-M; Young, J; Bhogal, P

    2013-09-01

    The increasing use of point-of-care ultrasonography for targeted procedures justifies a device that helps both novices in training and experts perform the long-axis needle approach. The initial success of traditional needle guidance devices in reducing the time of target procedures is not universal and they can be cumbersome. We aim to investigate whether the less bulky and previously untested laser guide can succeed in reducing procedure time in novice ultrasonographers. 82 medical students with no ultrasound experience volunteered. Random allocation determined whether, during a targeted procedure in a turkey breast and olive phantom, participants were assisted by the laser guide or not. The time taken to pierce the target was recorded at 1-cm depth. The mean procedure time in the laser-assisted (LA) group was 25.1 s (14.0 s; 18.0-25.0 s). The mean procedure time in the free-hand group was 45.5 s (23.0 s; 7.0-55.0 s). The procedure time in the LA group was significantly reduced (plaser guide significantly improved procedure times. It is felt that the cheaper, smaller, easy to integrate, sterile and more user-friendly laser guidance unit may be a better alternative to the needle guide in improving procedure times for the novice ultrasonographer or to assist the expert, during training for, or performance of, ultrasound-guided targeted procedures. Following from the prototype paper, this is the first study to investigate the effectiveness of attaching a laser-guidance device to an ultrasound probe. The device succeeded in reducing the procedure times of targeted procedures.

  19. The GRONORUN 2 study: effectiveness of a preconditioning program on preventing running related injuries in novice runners. The design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredeweg Steef W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distance running is a popular recreational exercise. It is a beneficial activity for health and well being. However, running may also cause injuries, especially of the lower extremities. In literature there is no agreement what intrinsic and extrinsic factors cause running related injuries (RRIs. In theory, most RRIs are elicited by training errors, this too much, too soon. In a preconditioning program runners can adapt more gradually to the high mechanical loads of running and will be less susceptible to RRIs. In this study the effectiveness of a 4-week preconditioning program on the incidence of RRIs in novice runners prior to a training program will be studied. Methods/Design The GRONORUN 2 (Groningen Novice Running study is a two arm randomized controlled trial studying the effect of a 4-week preconditioning (PRECON program in a group of novice runners. All participants wanted to train for the recreational Groningen 4-Mile running event. The PRECON group started a 4-week preconditioning program with walking and hopping exercises 4 weeks before the start of the training program. The control (CON and PRECON group started a frequently used 9-week training program in preparation for the Groningen 4-Mile running event. During the follow up period participants registered their running exposure, other sporting activities and running related injuries in an Internet based running log. The primary outcome measure was the number of RRIs. RRI was defined as a musculoskeletal ailment or complaint of the lower extremities or back causing a restriction on running for at least three training sessions. Discussion The GRONORUN 2 study will add important information to the existing running science. The concept of preconditioning is easy to implement in existing training programs and will hopefully prevent RRIs especially in novice runners. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1906. The NTR is part of the WHO Primary

  20. Teaching physics novices at university: A case for stronger scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrøm, Christine; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2011-06-01

    In 2006 a new type of tutorial, called Map Meeting, was successfully trialled with novice first year physics students at the University of Sydney, Australia. Subsequently, in first semester 2007 a large-scale experiment was carried out with 262 students who were allocated either to the strongly scaffolding Map Meetings or to the less scaffolding Workshop Tutorials, which have been run at the University of Sydney since 1995. In this paper we describe what makes Map Meetings more scaffolding than Workshop Tutorials—where the level of scaffolding represents the main difference between the two tutorial types. Using a mixed methods approach to triangulate results, we compare the success of the two with respect to both student tutorial preference and examination performance. In summary, Map Meetings had a higher retention rate and received more positive feedback from students—students liked the strongly scaffolding environment and felt that it better helped them understand physics. A comparison of final examination performances of students who had attended at least 10 out of 12 tutorials revealed that only 11% of Map Meeting students received less than 30 out of 90 marks compared to 21% of Workshop Tutorial students, whereas there were no differences amongst high-achieving students. Map Meetings was therefore particularly successful in helping low-achieving novices learn physics.

  1. Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-08-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT), and accuracy of 3 elite and 3 novice fencers were studied under a dual response paradigm requiring a full lunge. Electromyographic activity (EMG) from selected arm and leg muscles was used to compare response profiles of the two groups. Although the elite subjects had slower MTs, their faster RTs resulted in significantly shorter total response times. The EMG analysis showed that in comparison to the novice subjects, onset of muscle activity was significantly faster for the elite group in five of the six muscles studied. In addition, the elite subjects showed more coherent muscle synergies and more consistent patterns of muscle coordination. Although the requirement to change targets (signalled by the arrival of a second stimulus) led to slightly more target misses for the elite group, the overall frequency was low, which indicates that it did not pose difficulty for either group. The present findings show that measures of response timing and neuromuscular coordination differentiate skill level in the fencing lunge and draw attention to practical implications for skill assessment and training.

  2. Mentoring novice researchers in higher education: a 'communities of practice' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the mentoring of novice researchers, in particular of women and black academics, at a South African higher education institution. The model used for mentoring was informed by a “communities of practice” perspective which used situated and constructivist learning theories as a conceptual framework. One mentor and eleven protégés were involved. The protégés were divided into three groups of two, four and five participants each. Each group functioned as a community of practice (CoP and embarked on a research project of its own choice. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the mentoring model, and therefore it explains the participants’ views of their learning and development from a CoP per-spective. Data were collected by means of interviews and observation. The findings indicate how the development of the protégés from legitimate peripheral to more central participation was influenced by the university context, activities and rela-tionships in each CoP, and participants’ individual dispositions. Recommendations to improve the model and for further study are made.

  3. How do People Make Sense of Unfamiliar Visualizations?: A Grounded Model of Novice's Information Visualization Sensemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Sung-Hee; Hung, Ya-Hsin; Lam, Heidi; Kang, Youn-ah; Yi, Ji Soo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we would like to investigate how people make sense of unfamiliar information visualizations. In order to achieve the research goal, we conducted a qualitative study by observing 13 participants when they endeavored to make sense of three unfamiliar visualizations (i.e., a parallel-coordinates plot, a chord diagram, and a treemap) that they encountered for the first time. We collected data including audio/video record of think-aloud sessions and semi-structured interview; and analyzed the data using the grounded theory method. The primary result of this study is a grounded model of NOvice's information Vlsualization Sensemaking (NOVIS model), which consists of the five major cognitive activities: 1 encountering visualization, 2 constructing a frame, 3 exploring visualization, 4 questioning the frame, and 5 floundering on visualization. We introduce the NOVIS model by explaining the five activities with representative quotes from our participants. We also explore the dynamics in the model. Lastly, we compare with other existing models and share further research directions that arose from our observations.

  4. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J

    2016-06-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key pointsIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus.In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorptionIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate.

  5. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing.

  6. Differences of ballet turns (pirouette) performance between experienced and novice ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns (pirouettes). Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination angles of rotation axis with respect to vertical axis were calculated in the early single-leg support phase as well as the initiation sequence of ankle, knee, and hip joints on the supporting leg. Moreover, the anchoring index of the head was computed in the transverse plane during turning. The novice dancers applied a greater push force, an increased inclination angle of rotation axis, and an insufficient proximal-to-distal extension sequence pattern. The novice dancers also had a smaller head-anchoring index compared with experienced dancers, which meant novice dancers were not using a space target as a stability reference. A poorer performance in novice dancers could result from higher push force in propulsion, lack of a "proximal-to-distal extension sequence" pattern, and lack of visual spotting for postural stability. Training on sequential initiation of lower-extremity joints and rehearsal of visual spotting are essential for novice dancers to obtain better performance on ballet turns.

  7. Changes over 12 months in eye glances during secondary task engagement among novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G; Ehsani, Johnathon; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    During their first year of driving, crash rates among novice drivers are very high but decline rapidly. However, it is not clear what skills or knowledge they are acquiring in this period. Secondary task engagement while driving is a contributing factor to many traffic collisions and some of the elevated crash risk among novices could be explained by greater prevalence or longer periods of eyes off the road while engaging in these non-driving tasks. The current study looked at the eye glances of novice teen drivers engaging in secondary tasks on a test track at 0 and 12 months of licensure and compared their performance with their parents. Novices improved from 0 to 12 months on their longest single glance off the forward roadway and total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, but parents remained stable. Compared with their parents, the longest single glance off the forward roadway was longer for novices at 0 months, but by 12 months there was no difference between the groups. However, for total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, novices performed the same as their parents at 0 months and actually had shorter times at 12 months. These findings could reflect the combined development of driving skills over 12 months and the relative experience that modern teenagers have with portable electronic devices. The results suggest that novice drivers are particularly poor at engaging with secondary tasks while driving.

  8. Comparison of learning performance of 2 intubating laryngeal mask airways in novice: A randomized crossover manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Jia; Yi, Jie; Chen, Wei-Yun; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Yu-Guang

    2017-05-01

    Intubating laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) such as i-gel and Aura-i could serve as rescue devices in resuscitation and further ensure the airway by facilitating trachea intubation without ventilation interruption. But data regarding intubating LMAs in novice are limited and skill degeneration without regular training has not been evaluated. So we designed this prospective randomized crossover manikin study to compare the learning performance of 2 intubating LMAs (i-gel and Aura-i). In total, 46 novice doctors participated in this study. After standardized training and finishing 3 consecutive successful intubations with both LMAs on manikin, each participant applied intubation with both LMAs in random order for initial evaluation. To evaluate skill retention, participants were reassessed 90 days later on the same manikin without retraining between times. Primary outcome was time to successful ventilation (TTV). The TTV for i-gel was significantly shorter than Aura-i (initial evaluation 11.8 ± 2.9 seconds vs 22.4 ± 5.2 seconds, 90-days reevaluation 14.9 ± 3.6 seconds vs 28.9 ± 10.0 seconds, initial evaluation, P = .001; second evaluation, P < .001); during re-evaluation, TTV taken for i-gel and Aura-i were both significantly longer (initial evaluation, P = .001; second evaluation, P < .001) and ease score of insertion both increased profoundly (i-gel P = .025; Aura-i P < .001). In both assessments, participants preferred i-gel as easier alternative (initial evaluation, P = .001; second evaluation, P < .001). There was no difference in successful intubation rate, first attempt success rate, bronchoscopy assessment, and insertion score for 2 LMAs. Compared with Aura-i, i-gel showed a faster and easier intubation by novice doctors in this manikin study; the skill retention of intubation performance after 3 months was acceptable for both intubating LMAs, but TTV prolonged significantly.

  9. Learning and performance of tracheal intubation by novice personnel: a comparison of the Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscope.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, C H

    2006-07-01

    Direct laryngoscopic tracheal intubation is taught to many healthcare professionals as it is a potentially lifesaving procedure. However, it is a difficult skill to acquire and maintain, and, of concern, the consequences of poorly performed intubation attempts are potentially serious. The Airtraq Laryngoscope is a novel intubation device which may possess advantages over conventional direct laryngoscopes for use by novice personnel. We conducted a prospective trial with 40 medical students who had no prior airway management experience. Following brief didactic instruction, each participant took turns in performing laryngoscopy and intubation using the Macintosh and Airtraq devices under direct supervision. Each student was allowed up to three attempts to intubate in three laryngoscopy scenarios using a Laerdal Intubation Trainer and one scenario in a Laerdal SimMan Manikin. They then performed tracheal intubation of the normal airway a second time to characterise the learning curve for each device. The Airtraq provided superior intubating conditions, resulting in greater success of intubation, particularly in the difficult laryngoscopy scenarios. In both easy and simulated difficult laryngoscopy scenarios, the Airtraq decreased the duration of intubation attempts, reduced the number of optimisation manoeuvres required, and reduced the potential for dental trauma. The Airtraq device showed a rapid learning curve and the students found it significantly easier to use. The Airtraq appears to be a superior device for novice personnel to acquire the skills of tracheal intubation.

  10. HEADWAY TIME AND CRASHES AMONG NOVICE TEENS AND EXPERIENCED ADULT DRIVERS IN A SIMULATED LEAD TRUCK BRAKING SCENARIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Seacrist, Thomas S; Lee, Yi-Ching; Loeb, Helen; Kandadai, Venk; Winston, Flaura K

    2013-01-01

    Driving simulators can be used to evaluate driving performance under controlled, safe conditions. Teen drivers are at particular risk for motor vehicle crashes and simulated driving can provide important information on performance. We developed a new simulator protocol, the Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), with the goal of providing a new tool for driver assessment and a common outcome measure for evaluation of training programs. As an initial effort to examine the validity of the SDA to differentiate performance according to experience, this analysis compared driving behaviors and crashes between novice teens (n=20) and experienced adults (n=17) on a high fidelity simulator for one common crash scenario, a rear-end crash. We examined headway time and crashes during a lead truck with sudden braking event in our SDA. We found that 35% of the novice teens crashed and none of the experienced adults crashed in this lead truck braking event; 50% of the teens versus 25% of the adults had a headway time headway time, 70% crashed. Among all participants with a headway time of 2-3 seconds, further investigation revealed descriptive differences in throttle position and brake pedal force when comparing teens who crashed, teens who did not crash and adults (none of whom crashed). Even with a relatively small sample, we found statistically significant differences in headway time for adults and teens, providing preliminary construct validation for our new SDA.

  11. A Comparison between Experienced and Novice Teachers in Using Incidental Focus on Form Techniques in EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassamin Pouriran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of an empirical study that explored whether EFL teachers’ use of incidental focus-on-form techniques was influenced by their level of experience. Also, it investigated the distribution of incidental focus on form types at intermediate level and they were coded based on Lyster and Ranta (1997 and Panova and Lyster (2002 models. Incidental focus on form occurs spontaneously, without prior intention during meaning-focused activities and targets a variety of linguistic items. Here specific forms are not intentionally focused on, but are attended to spontaneously by teachers and other learners within meaning-driven contexts. Six teachers (three experienced and three novice participated in this study. The data was drawn from transcripts of oral corrective feedback moves of six intact classes which were audio and video-recorded totaling 9 hours. A descriptive design which employed qualitative and quantitative data collection procedure was adopted. The results revealed that experienced teachers used incidental focus on form techniques more frequently than novice teachers. This study supports the notion that integrative activities which can integrate a focus on form into L2 communicative activities can contribute to learning a foreign language in terms of both accuracy and fluency. Keywords: Corrective feedback- Incidental focus on form- Teacher experience

  12. A narrative inquiry into novice science mentor teachers' mentoring practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Samina

    Many teacher education programs hire new mentors every year to work with their student teacher population. The literature about teacher mentoring suggests the importance of relevant and ongoing professional development (PD) for teacher mentors at all levels. However, it is much more commonly the case that most teacher mentors volunteer and do not have access to PD. Past research about mentoring provides a descriptive sense of the practices of experienced mentors, especially within a PD context, but little is known about how novice mentors, who are mentoring for the first or the second time, with no prior PD related to mentoring articulate their work as mentors. Using the telling form of narrative inquiry, my study documented how four novice science mentors (NSMs) who had no prior mentoring-related PD articulated the work of mentoring through the stories they told about their past experiences as learners and teachers. The term learner included experiences that the NSMs had before school through K-12 and in their teacher education programs. The experiences as a teacher referred to NSMs' in-service experiences -- teaching, coaching, and mentoring (if any). Each NSM was interviewed once a month for a period of five months. The interviews captured experiences of the NSMs since their childhood to present day experiences as teachers to summarize the experiences that informed their current mentoring practices; to document salient mentoring practices they employed; to identify sources and factors that shaped those practices, and to understand mentoring from mentor teachers' perspectives. Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) three commonplaces (temporality- sociality- place ) framework was used for structuring interview questions and analyzing data. The NSMs employed number of practices discussed in the literature. The study found that the most influential life experiences were upbringing, student teaching, teaching, prior mentoring, and coaching. By taking temporality into

  13. Thrive or overload? The effect of task complexity on novices' simulation-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Woods, Nicole; Regehr, Glenn; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Fidelity is widely viewed as an important element of simulation instructional design based on its purported relationship with transfer of learning. However, higher levels of fidelity may increase task complexity to a point at which novices' cognitive resources become overloaded. In this experiment, we investigate the effects of variations in task complexity on novices' cognitive load and learning during simulation-based procedural skills training. Thirty-eight medical students were randomly assigned to simulation training on a simple or complex lumbar puncture (LP) task. Participants completed four practice trials on this task (skill acquisition). After 10 days of rest, all participants completed one additional trial on their assigned task (retention) and one trial on a 'very complex' simulation designed to be similar to the complex task (transfer). We assessed LP performance and cognitive load on each trial using multiple measures. In both groups, LP performance improved significantly during skill acquisition (p ≤ 0.047, f = 0.29-0.96) and was maintained at retention. The simple task group demonstrated superior performance compared with the complex task group throughout these phases (p ≤ 0.002, d = 1.13-2.31). Cognitive load declined significantly in the simple task group (p task group during skill acquisition, and remained lower at retention (p ≤ 0.024, d = 0.78-1.39). Between retention and transfer, LP performance declined and cognitive load increased in the simple task group, whereas both remained stable in the complex task group. At transfer, no group differences were observed in LP performance and cognitive load, except that the simple task group made significantly fewer breaches of sterility (p = 0.023, d = 0.80). Reduced task complexity was associated with superior LP performance and lower cognitive load during skill acquisition and retention, but mixed results on transfer to a more complex task. These results indicate that task

  14. Effect of observation combined with motor imagery of a skilled hand-motor task on motor cortical excitability: difference between novice and expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, Izumi; Uehara, Kazumasa; Morishita, Takuya; Ninomiya, Masato; Funase, Kozo

    2012-06-19

    We examined the effects of observation combined with motor imagery (MI) of a skilled hand-motor task on motor cortex excitability, which was assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Novices and experts at 3-ball cascade juggling (3BCJ) participated in this study. In one trial, the subjects observed a video clip of 3BCJ while imagining performing it. In addition, the subjects also imagined performing 3BCJ without video clip observation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the hand muscles that were activated by the task during each trial. In the novices, the MEP amplitude was significantly increased by video clip observation combined with MI. In contrast, MI without video clip observation significantly increased the MEP amplitude of the experts. These results suggest that action observation of 3BCJ increases the ability of novices to make their MI performing the task. Meanwhile, experts use their own motor program to recall their MI of the task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concept mapping: A supervision strategy for introducing case conceptualization skills to novice therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bruce S; Esterline, Kate M

    2015-06-01

    Case conceptualization, a term synonymous with case formulation, is an essential psychotherapy skill. Novice therapists enter into the practice of psychotherapy with limited case conceptualization skills. Hence, an important goal when supervising novice therapists is to effectively teach these skills. Concept mapping facilitates case conceptualization skills through the process of methodically creating graphic representations of clients' problems and dynamic relationships between these problems. This article introduces a highly structured and practical 4-stage approach to supervision that effectively introduces case formulation skills to novice therapists using concept mapping. It is assumed that concept maps, when shared with clients, function as an intervention to facilitate insight and change.

  16. Exploring Designerly Thinking of Students as Novice Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobbie, Campbell J.; Stein, Sarah J.; Ginns, Ian

    2001-02-01

    Few studies have attempted a detailed analysis of designerly thinking and actions of students as they solve design technology problems. This paper reports on a study that describes in detail, the design processes used by small groups of preservice teacher education students engaged in ill-defined, open-ended, self-selected design technology projects. A notation of symbols and connectors was devised and used to map the decisions, and the material and embodied actions of two groups of students throughout the course of their projects. The detail provided by the maps gives insights into these adult novice designers' design processes and provides information to assist teacher educators in planning courses to support future teachers of design and technology.

  17. Cross-Disciplinary Variations: Japanese Novice Writers’ Socialization into the Undergraduate Thesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamada, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated, by means of an ethnographic approach, what exactly occurs when Japanese novice writers are socialized into the undergraduate thesis genre and how the processes differ among disciplines...

  18. Impact of Expert Teaching Quality on Novice Academic Performance in the Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of expert students' instructional quality on the academic performance of novice students in 12th-grade physics classes organized in an expert model of cooperative learning ('jigsaw classroom'). The instructional quality of 129 expert students was measured by a newly developed rating system. As expected, when aggregating across all four subtopics taught, regression analysis revealed that academic performance of novice students increases with the quality of expert students' instruction. The difficulty of subtopics, however, moderates this effect: higher instructional quality of more difficult subtopics did not lead to better academic performance of novice students. We interpret this finding in the light of Cognitive Load Theory. Demanding tasks cause high intrinsic cognitive load and hindered the novice students' learning.

  19. Using Metaphors To Understand and Solve Arithmetic Problems: Novices and Experts Working with Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming

    2001-01-01

    Novices and experts used the same metaphors to understand and solve problems with negative numbers. Results suggest that the metaphors used by both the children and the adults are central to understanding arithmetic. (Author/MM)

  20. Background music as a risk factor for distraction among young-novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Warren; Slor, Zack

    2013-10-01

    There are countless beliefs about the power of music during driving. The last thing one would think about is: how safe is it to listen or sing to music? Unfortunately, collisions linked to music devices have been known for some time; adjusting the radio controls, swapping tape-cassettes and compact-discs, or searching through MP3 files, are all forms of distraction that can result in a near-crash or crash. While the decrement of vehicular performance can also occur from capacity interference to central attention, whether or not music listening is a contributing factor to distraction is relatively unknown. The current study explored the effects of driver-preferred music on driver behavior. 85 young-novice drivers completed six trips in an instrumented Learners Vehicle. The study found that all participants committed at-least 3 driver deficiencies; 27 needed a verbal warning/command and 17 required a steering or braking intervention to prevent an accident. While there were elevated positive moods and enjoyment for trips with driver-preferred music, this background also produced the most frequent severe driver miscalculations and inaccuracies, violations, and aggressive driving. However, trips with music structurally designed to generate moderate levels of perceptual complexity, improved driver behavior and increased driver safety. The study is the first within-subjects on-road high-dose double-exposure clinical-trial investigation of musical stimuli on driver behavior.

  1. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving.

  2. Differences in decision-making development between expert and novice invasion game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz del Campo, David Gutierrez; Gonzalez Villora, Sixto; Garcia Lopez, Luis M; Mitchell, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the differences between young expert soccer players' (n = 55) and novice players' (n = 74) decision-making ability during performance of invasion games (ages: 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 years). Decision-making ability was assessed in invasion games that were appropriately modified for age and expertise. Games were modified to meet the developmental needs and previous learning of the participants, so interference between motor execution and decision making was minimized. Game performance was videotaped, and measures of cognitive components were developed from observational analysis. Decision making was measured at two levels: (a) decision making restricted to the selection of the technical-tactical skills (passing, moving with the ball, getting free, marking, tackling, double teaming, and interception) and (b) decision making in the adaptation to the tactical context of the game. Expert players remained superior in decision-making ability when variation in skill execution was controlled. Decision-making differences between levels of expertise decreased with age with regard to the first level (skill selection) and increased with age in relation to the second level (tactical-context adaptation). Findings are discussed in terms of implications for instructional focus and task design.

  3. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Elementary Education Preservice and Novice Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness and Teacher Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was threefold. First, the study sought to determine the validity and reliability of an instrument being used to measure teacher efficacy. After psychometric analysis, the Utah Teacher Efficacy Scale (UTES) was deemed as both a valid and reliable instrument for the purpose of measuring preservice and novice elementary school teacher efficacy. Second, this study analyzed teacher self-efficacy of preservice and novice elementary school teachers at two different points...

  5. Non-native novice EFL teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Erkmen, Besime

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the beliefs about teaching and learning English of nine non-native novice teachers at a private university in Northern Cyprus, and the extent to which these beliefs changed in their first year of teaching. Data was collected over an academic year of nine months by means of semi-structured interviews, credos, classroom observations, post-lesson reflection forms, stimulated-recall interviews, diaries and a metaphor-elicitation task. The study found that novice teachers’ ...

  6. Errors and misunderstandings among novice programmers: Assessing the student not the program

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Mathias Johan

    2015-01-01

    Novice programmers make a lot of programming errors as they strive to become experts. This is a known fact to teaching faculty in introductory programming courses. The errors play a major role in both formative and summative assessment of the students. The Computer Science research of today trends towards focusing on automatic assessment of program, becoming more remote from the student who wrote the program. In an attempt to create a better understanding of the novice program- mers and the e...

  7. Listening to the Voices of Novice Lecturers in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Martínez, Marcos Jesús; Lozano Cabezas, Inés; Martínez Ruiz, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The professional development of novice staff at the university still requires considerable improvement. In this research paper, and in an attempt to define a development model in higher education, attention is paid to the perspectives and judgments of novice university staff. The research focuses specifically on the expression of their problems, difficulties, dilemmas, and decisions related to their course plans and classroom contexts. The methodology applied here integrates processes of qual...

  8. Patterns of multiple representation use by experts and novices during physics problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Kohl

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students should use multiple representations in solving certain physics problems, and earlier work in PER has begun to outline how experts and novices differ in their use of multiple representations. In this study, we build on this foundation by interviewing expert and novice physicists as they solve two types of multiple representation problems: those in which multiple representations are provided for them and those in which the students must construct their own representations. We analyze in detail the types of representations subjects use and the order and manner in which they are used. Expert and novice representation use is surprisingly similar in some ways, especially in that both experts and novices make significant use of multiple representations. Some significant differences also emerge. Experts are more flexible in terms of starting point and move between the available representations more quickly, and novices tend to move between more representations in total. In addition, we find that an examination of how often and when multiple representations are used is inadequate to fully characterize a problem-solving episode; one must also consider the purpose behind the use of the available representations. This analysis of how experts and novices use representations sharpens the differences between the two groups, demonstrates analysis techniques that may be useful in future work, and suggests possible paths for instruction.

  9. Effectiveness of Simulation Preparation on Novice Nurses' Competence and Self-Efficacy in a Multiple-Patient Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley E; Gubrud-Howe, Paula; Sideras, Stephanie; Lee, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of three simulation preparation methods (expert modeling/intervention, voice-over PowerPoint/active control, and reading assignments/passive control) on improving novice nurses' competence and self-efficacy for providing care to multiple simulated patients. Both competence and self-efficacy were measured at baseline and following a five-week intervention. Twenty senior pre-licensure nursing students participated in the trial. One-way ANOVAs and parametric/nonparametric correlations were used. Voice-over PowerPoint and expert modeling resulted in greater improvements in self-efficacy compared with traditional reading assignments as simulation preparation. However, there was no relationship between change in competence and self-efficacy over time.

  10. A single session of meditation reduces of physiological indices of anger in both experienced and novice meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Alexander B; Benau, Erik M; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore how anger reduction via a single session of meditation might be measured using psychophysiological methodologies. To achieve this, 15 novice meditators (Experiment 1) and 12 practiced meditators (Experiment 2) completed autobiographical anger inductions prior to, and following, meditation training while respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured. Participants also reported subjective anger via a visual analog scale. At both stages, the experienced meditators' physiological reaction to the anger induction reflected that of relaxation: slowed breathing and heart rate and decreased blood pressure. Naïve meditators exhibited physiological reactions that were consistent with anger during the pre-meditation stage, while after meditation training and a second anger induction they elicited physiological evidence of relaxation. The current results examining meditation training show that the naïve group's physiological measures mimicked those of the experienced group following a single session of meditation training.

  11. Novices and Experts in Geoinformatics: the Cognitive Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, M.

    2012-04-01

    structured in the long-term memory. Expert easily adopt domain-specific information because they (a) understand terminology and consider the information to be important thus passing it through the perceptual filter and (b) have a lot of complex domain-specific chunks that are processed by the working memory as a whole thus avoiding to overload it. Novices (students and general public) have neither understanding and feeling importance nor necessary chunks. The following measures should be taken to bridge experts' and novices' understanding of geoinformatics. Expert community should popularize geoscientific problems developing understandable language and available tools for their solving. This requires close collaboration with educational system (especially second education). If students understand a problem, they can find and apply appropriate tool for it. Geoscientific problems and models are extremely complex. In cognitive terms, they require hierarchy of chunks. This hierarchy should coherently develop beginning from simple ones later joining them to complex. It requires an appropriate sequence of learning tasks. There is no necessity in correct solutions - the students should understand how are they solved and realize limitations of models. We think that tasks of weather forecast, global climate modeling etc are suitable. The first step on bridging experts and novices is the elaboration of a set and a sequence of learning tasks and its sequence as well as tools for their solution. The tools should be easy for everybody who understands the task and as versatile as possible - otherwise students will waste a lot of time mastering it. This development requires close collaboration between geoscientists and educators.

  12. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...... they could not give open accounts about sexual practice. Attempting to overcome these barriers, I participated in excessive nightlife activities, and as a consequence they began viewing me as a more accepting and reliable person. Although breaking down these barriers provided invaluable insight......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....

  13. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  14. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation.......The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies...

  15. Patterns of participation - a coherent approach to understanding the role of the teacher?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe

    , using a patterns-of-participation framework, which was initially developed in relation to beliefs. It is a multiple case study that views instruction as the simultaneous engagement in multiple, possibly conflicting social practices. The data presented are about Anna, a novice, lower secondary teacher...

  16. Interrater reliability of the Tinetti Balance Scores in novice and experienced physical therapy clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriany-Dacko, L M; Innerst, D; Johannsen, J; Rude, V

    1997-10-01

    To examine interrater agreement of scores by physical therapy novices and experienced clinicians on videotaped and live performances of the balance portion of Tinetti's Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (BPOMA). A reliability design was used to assess the interrater agreement and consistency of the BPOMA scores in an elderly population. General community hospital and skilled nursing facility. Twenty-six residents of a skilled nursing home, ranging in age from 66 to 99 yrs (mean = 80.4, SD = 6.8), participated in Phase 1. Twenty-four hospital inpatients and five residents of a skilled nursing home, ranging in age from 60 to 92 yrs (mean = 74.7, SD = 7.9), participated in Phase 2. RATERS: Three student physical therapists scored the patients in Phase 1. One student was designated the administrating rater (AR). The AR instructed, guarded, and scored the subjects. The other two students were the observing raters (ORs), whose role was to observe and score the subject's performances. Nine physical therapy clinicians, ranging from 0 to 6 years of experience, rated subjects in Phase 2. Consistency and agreement of BPOMA scores were compared between clinicians with varying levels of experience. In Phase I, BPOMA was scored on-site by three student physical therapists. In Phase 2, videotaped performances were scored by five physical therapists, one physical therapist assistant, and three student physical therapists. Phase 1 demonstrated fair to excellent kappa coefficients (.40-1.00) in all maneuvers across all raters. The ORs had higher agreement compared with the AR, ranging from good to excellent (.75-1.00). Phase 2 demonstrated fair to good kappa coefficients (.40-.75) in 5 of 8 maneuvers across all nine raters. When comparing proportion of observed agreement to evaluate the years of experience on rater agreement, there was no significant difference between clinician groups. Fair to good reliability of BPOMA scores occurred across many rates of varied experience

  17. Drunk driving among novice drivers, possible prevention with additional psychological module in driving school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver's license attempters during their driving school studies. Subjects were classified as intervention group (n=1083, mean age 23.1 (SD=7.4) years), control group (n=517, mean age 22.8 (SD=7.1) years) and "lost" group (n=289, mean age 23.0 (SD=6.9) years). "Lost" group subjects had been assigned into the intervention group, but they did not participate in the intervention. Subjects of the intervention group participated in a psychological intervention on the dangers of impulsive behavior in traffic. After a three year follow-up period it appeared that in the control group and in the lost group there was a significantly higher proportion of drunk drivers than in the intervention group, 3.3% (n=17), 3.5% (n=10) and 1.5% (n=10) (p=0.026), respectively. Survival analysis confirmed that psychological intervention had a significant impact on drunk driving (p=0.015), and the impact of the intervention was persistent also in the case of higher scores in Mild social deviance. In subjects with higher scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems the impact of short psychological intervention was not sufficient for preventing drunk driving. It can be concluded that psychological intervention used during the driving school studies is an effective primary prevention activity against drunk driving. However, for drivers with high scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems, the short psychological intervention is not sufficient in reducing drunk driving behavior.

  18. Conceptualizing Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne

    Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...... and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...... aims to set the scene for discussing young people's participation in different domains that have an impact on their lives. It outlines the meaning and different interpretations of the concept of "participation" before reviewing why participation is an important issue in relation to young people...

  19. Teachers Veteran and Novice: A Roller Coaster Ride--The Twists and Turns of a Novice Teacher's Relationship with Her Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normore, Anthony H.; Floyd, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    When preservice teachers graduate and obtain their first teaching position, it is hoped that they have taken the first step on a creative path toward becoming professional educators. Naturally, it is expected that these novice educators will get support from both experienced colleagues and administrators, who often serve as their mentors. Such…

  20. Teachers Veteran and Novice: A Roller Coaster Ride--The Twists and Turns of a Novice Teacher's Relationship with Her Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normore, Anthony H.; Floyd, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    When preservice teachers graduate and obtain their first teaching position, it is hoped that they have taken the first step on a creative path toward becoming professional educators. Naturally, it is expected that these novice educators will get support from both experienced colleagues and administrators, who often serve as their mentors. Such…

  1. Bridging Communities: Culturing a Professional Learning Community that Supports Novice Teachers and Transfers Authentic Science and Mathematics to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, B. E.; Miller, H. R.; Loving, C. L.; Pedersen, S.

    2006-12-01

    teachers. These six, on average, demonstrated either the highest gain in knowledge and/or engagement in inquiry-based teaching or the lowest gain among all the novice science teachers through the year of participation in the PLC-MAP program. Certain patterns emerged across all six cases, even when the other variables are acknowledged. The principal external factors were school climate—its culture, its mandates, its degree of teacher autonomy. The internal factors were teacher beliefs about learning through inquiry, about their own need for additional knowledge, and about managing inquiry--all tied to degrees of self-efficacy.

  2. Authoring Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    . By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate...

  3. 3D straight-stick laparoscopy versus 3D robotics for task performance in novice surgeons: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Fevzi; Jan, Haider; Kent, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The advent of three-dimensional passive stereoscopic imaging has led to the development of 3D laparoscopy. In simulation tasks, a reduction in error rate and performance time is seen with 3D compared to two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy with both novice and expert surgeons. Robotics utilises 3D and instrument articulation through a console interface. Robotic trials have demonstrated that tasks performed in 3D produced fewer errors and quicker performance times compared with those in 2D. It was therefore perceived that the main advantage of robotic surgery was in fact 3D. Our aim was to compare 3D straight-stick laparoscopic task performance (3D) with robotic 3D (Robot), to determine whether robotic surgery confers additional benefit over and above 3D visualisation. We randomised 20 novice surgeons to perform four validated surgical tasks, either with straight-stick 3D laparoscopy followed by 3D robotic surgery or in the reverse order. The trial was conducted in two fully functional operating theatres. The primary outcome of the study was the error rate as defined for each task, and the secondary outcome was the time taken to complete each task. The participants were asked to perform the tasks as quickly and as accurately as possible. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. The median error rate for completion of all four tasks with the robot was 2.75 and 5.25 for 3D with a P value robot was 157.1 and 342.5 s for 3D with a P value robotic systems over 3D straight-stick laparoscopy, in terms of reduced error rate and quicker task performance time.

  4. Protocol for the dano-run study: A 1-year observational follow-up study on running related injuries in 1000 novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Ramskov, Daniel; Buist, Ida

    2011-01-01

    exposures might be considered safe. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between the running volume and the development of RRIs. Design Observational prospective follow up study. Setting Clinical setting on novice and recreational athletes. Participants Healthy individuals (N=1000......) who have not been running the past 1 year is included. All participants receive a global positioning system (GPS) watch (Garmin FR 110) and a pair of neutral running shoes (Adidas Glide 2). They are instructed to start running as much as they want, two times a week as a minimum. They must wear...... their GPS watch at each training session and upload data to an internet based database. All participants are followed for 1 year. Assessment of risk factors Running volume measured as absolute number of kilometres and the graduation in kilometres pr. week over a period of 3 weeks. Main outcome measurement...

  5. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan.tomaszewski@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heriot, Alexander [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Vazquez, Melisa [Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lynch, Craig A. [Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mackay, John [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88), 92% (95% CI, 89-96), 73% (95% CI, 68-79), and 82% (95% CI, 77-87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  6. Policy towards the elderly : Twenty-five years of Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the developments in national policy, formulated by the stare and discussed in parliament, towards the elderly in the Netherlands during the last 25 years. A first policy memorandum was published in 1970, based on work of governmental bodies in the sixties. This memorandum serv

  7. From Unity to Diversity: Twenty-Five Years of Language-Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This article was written for the 25th anniversary of "English Teaching Forum" and published in 1987. In this article, the author describes methodological developments in the field of English language teaching over the past 25 years. The author has found it helpful to think of methodology being depicted as a triangle, with each angle of the…

  8. Managing the culturally diverse medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A common misconception is that the phrase workplace diversity means meeting certain quotas in employee race or gender categories. In fact, diversity is much more than that. This article explores the unique benefits and challenges of managing a culturally diverse medical practice team and offers practice managers 25 practical strategies. It describes the two types of diversity training that are beneficial to practice managers and the kinds of policies, practices, and procedures that foster and promote diversity. This article also explores ethnocentrism, racism, ageism, sexism, stereotyping, and other potentially divisive issues among a diverse medical practice team. It provides an assessment instrument practice managers can use to evaluate their own diversity management skills. Finally, this article defines specifically what is meant by the term diversity and explores the top 10 diversity issues in workplaces today.

  9. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  10. 基本药物今昔25年%Twenty - five years of essential medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan D. Quick; Hans V. Hogerzeil; German Velasquez; Lembit Rago

    2003-01-01

    @@ 二十世纪初,广为普及的现代药物只有一个:乙酰水杨酸(阿司匹林).二十世纪四十年代,人类发现第一种抗菌素、第一种批量生产的抗疟药和第一种抗痨药.

  11. Peter L. Berger's "Invitation to Sociology:" Twenty-Five Years of RSVPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiano, Kevin J.

    1990-01-01

    Reconsiders the place of Peter Berger's "Invitation to Sociology," in teaching undergraduate sociology courses. Traces the success and intellectual impact of the work. Describes the image of sociology it presents. Reviews its treatment of human freedom as a sociological issue. Examines its world vision and evaluates its usefulness in teaching. (NL)

  12. Twenty-five years of quantitative PCR for gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGuilder, Heather D; Vrana, Kent E; Freeman, Willard M

    2008-04-01

    Following its invention 25 years ago, PCR has been adapted for numerous molecular biology applications. Gene expression analysis by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been a key enabling technology of the post-genome era. Since the founding of BioTechniques, this journal has been a resource for the improvements in qPCR technology, experimental design, and data analysis. qPCR and, more specifically, real-time qPCR has become a routine and robust approach for measuring the expression of genes of interest, validating microarray experiments, and monitoring biomarkers. The use of real-time qPCR has nearly supplanted other approaches (e.g., Northern blotting, RNase protection assays). This review examines the current state of qPCR for gene expression analysis now that the method has reached a mature stage of development and implementation. Specifically, the different fluorescent reporter technologies of real-time qPCR are discussed as well as the selection of endogenous controls. The conceptual framework for data analysis methods is also presented to demystify these analysis techniques. The future of qPCR remains bright as the technology becomes more rapid, cost-effective, easier to use, and capable of higher throughput.

  13. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  14. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF SCHOLARSHIP ON SECOND LANGUAGE COMPOSING PROCESSES: 1976-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Reichelt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two sections: (1 an annotated bibliography of full-length, published, (mostly basic research on second language writing and overviews thereof, and (2 an unannotated bibliography of both basic and applied research (mostly unpublished and commentary on second language composing. Both sections have been arranged in chronological order to allow readers to follow the development of scholarship in this area. Entries are listed alphabetically within a given year. While this bibliography is extensive, it is not meant to be exhaustive, and while the focus here is on research, many of the studies included address pedagogical matters in a substantive manner.

  15. Twenty-five years of aerodynamic research with IR imaging: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared imaging used in aerodynamic research evolved during the last 25 years into a rewarding experimental technique for investigation of body-flow viscous interactions, such as heat flux determination and boundary layer transition. The technique of infrared imaging matched well its capability to produce useful results, with the expansion of testing conditions in the entire spectrum of wind tunnels, from hypersonic high-enthalpy facilities to cryogenic transonic wind tunnels. With unique achievements credited to its past, the current trend suggests a change in attitude towards this technique: from the perception as an exotic, project-oriented tool, to the status of a routine experimental procedure.

  16. Twenty-Five Years of Groupthink Theory and Research: Lessons from the Evaluation of a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner; Pratkanis

    1998-02-01

    In this paper, we examine the historical development of the groupthink model and discuss recent responses to the body of empirical evidence amassed on the model. We conclude by articulating general lessons implied by the evolution of research on the groupthink model. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Kreeger, Danielle; Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John

    2015-05-01

    The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

  18. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Background With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm–pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Scope and Conclusions Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm–pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant–pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary implications across the entire family. PMID:21831852

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. India's NHPC celebrates . . .twenty-five years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, I.M.

    2000-12-01

    The paper commemorates the 25th anniversary of India's National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) by reviewing the history and achievements of the organisation. A list of NHPC projects, together with some details, are given. NHPC is finally overcoming the problems of the state government developing sites themselves and then handing them over to the NHPC. Some of the problems faced by NHPC, its current financial position and its future prospects are all discussed.

  1. Twenty-five years of co-management of caribou in northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Dion

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hunting Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee (HFTCC, created at the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement has been meeting regularly since 1977. Early in the process, it became clear that the perception of the role and powers of the Committee were not commonly shared by the native and non-native members of the Committee. Nevertheless, the Committee has been used primarily as a consultative body for wildlife related issues. Of all the files on which the Committee worked, Caribou management, (including the development of outfitting and commercial hunting for this species has been among one of the most discussed subjects during the meetings. An analysis of important decisions taken and of the process that led to them reveal that very rarely was the Committee able to formulate unanimous resolutions to the Governments concerning caribou management. In fact, only a few unanimous resolutions could be traced and many were ignored. This took place during a period of abundance and growth of the caribou herds. As a result, the Committee has gone through the cycle of growth of the George River Herd without a management plan, without a long term outfitting management plan and for the last 8 years, without a population estimate of the herds. This situation did not prevent the Committee from allocating quotas for a commercial hunt, open a winter sport hunt and to give permanent status to outfitting camps that were once established as mobile camps. It was hoped then that increased harvest would help maintain the population at carrying capacity. This short-term reaction however, never evolved into a more elaborate plan. Of course this must be looked at in the context of the HFTCC having a lot more to worry about than the Caribou. Although all members know of the population cycles of caribou, the decision process that must be triggered, should a crisis occur is not in place. This presently results into a polarization of concerned users (fall outfitters vs. winter outfitters, subsistence and sport hunters vs. commercial hunt, Outfitters Associations vs. HFTCC and eventually George River Herd users vs. Leaf River Herd users. The HFTCC may have to make difficult decisions during the coming years but did not gain much constructive experience through its first 25 years of existence. It is unfortunate that the authority of the Committee is binding the governments only in times of crisis when an upper limit of kill needs to be established. Because of the unpredictability of caribou herd numbers, the upper limit of kill should be established on a yearly basis. This would insure that the committee is fed information continuously in order to make informed decisions and would also re-establish the authority of the HFTCC over this resource.

  2. Disturbance frequency and community structure in a twenty-five year intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.

    2005-01-01

    Models of community regulation commonly incorporate gradients of disturbance inversely related to the role of biotic interactions in regulating intermediate trophic levels. Higher trophic-level organisms are predicted to be more strongly limited by intermediate levels of disturbance than are the organisms they consume. We used a manipulation of the frequency of hydrological disturbance in an intervention analysis to examine its effects on small-fish communities in the Everglades, USA. From 1978 to 2002, we monitored fishes at one long-hydroperiod (average 350 days) and at one short-hydroperiod (average 259 days; monitoring started here in 1985) site. At a third site, managers intervened in 1985 to diminish the frequency and duration of marsh drying. By the late 1990s, the successional dynamics of density and relative abundance at the intervention site converged on those of the long-hydroperiod site. Community change was manifested over 3 to 5 years following a dry-down if a site remained inundated; the number of days since the most recent drying event and length of the preceding dry period were useful for predicting population dynamics. Community dissimilarity was positively correlated with the time since last dry. Community dynamics resulted from change in the relative abundance of three groups of species linked by life-history responses to drought. Drought frequency and intensity covaried in response to hydrological manipulation at the landscape scale; community-level successional dynamics converged on a relatively small range of species compositions when drought return-time extended beyond 4 years. The density of small fishes increased with diminution of drought frequency, consistent with disturbance-limited community structure; less-frequent drying than experienced in this study (i.e., longer return times) yields predator-dominated regulation of small-fish communities in some parts of the Everglades. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  3. Regularities, Verification, and Systematization: Twenty-five Years of Research in Political Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, John H.; Ostrom, Charles W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the basis on which the behavioral orientation to political science has been constructed: that there are discoverable uniformities in political behavior that can be expressed in generalizations; that the validity of such generalizations must be testable; and that theory and research are closely intertwined. Discusses both American and…

  4. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical properties.

  5. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold prices down, has added to the confidence in the efficacy of technology fixes to solve energy and environmental problems. Third, it is difficult for government to tamper with energy markets and achieve the desired results.The energy system has shown itself to be a complex adaptive system that adjusts to even the most strenuous burdens in ways that are not easy to predict. Governmental attempts to predict and then prescribe the development of the future energy system are bound to meet with limited, if any, success. Rather, the more appropriate goal seems to be development of a robust and flexible energy system that can evolve and adjust to changing conditions. Given the experiences of the past and the lessons learned from these experiences, what might the future bring? Some predictions can be made with considerable confidence. It is highly likely that the trend of deregulating the energy sector will continue, with electricity deregulation a virtual certainty. It is also highly probable that the demand and consumption of energy from developing countries will soon surpass those of the US, Europe, and Japan, thus making them serious competitors for limited fossil fuel resources. In the environmental arena, some form of emission control of greenhouse gases from the energy sector will be agreed upon soon by the international community. More stringent regulations in the US for the emissions of some air and water pollutants are also likely. Preservation of biological diversity will also likely continue to be an issue of increasing importance.

  6. Twenty-Five-Month-Old Children Do Not Have a Grammatical Category of Verb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Raquel; Tomasello, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A study of two year olds investigated the nature and development of children's early productivity with verb-argument structure and verb morphology. Results indicated that the children showed no signs of productive verb morphology, but they did use newly learned verbs in some creative ways involving nounlike uses and the appending of locatives.…

  7. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references. (ACR)

  8. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  9. Lesson Twenty-five Prevalence and Prognostic significance of Short QT Interval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2008-01-01

    @@ Background-Short-QT syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by a short QT interval and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.The clinical significance of a short OT interval observed in a randomly recorded ECG is not known.Therefore,we assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of a short QT interval in a general population.

  10. Twenty-five years of psychology in the Journal of Sports Sciences: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Mark; Hardy, Lew; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-02-15

    We provide an overview of some of the outstanding papers published in the Journal over the last 25 years within the discipline of psychology. Altogether, almost 300 papers had been published in the Journal under the psychology banner at the start of its silver anniversary year. The greatest contribution of papers has come from the motor control and learning and sport psychology sub-areas, with papers focusing on exercise psychology being a more recent addition. Prominent research themes that have emerged from each of the different sub-areas are reviewed and some notable omissions highlighted. Finally, some issues for sport and exercise psychologists to consider in coming years are briefly highlighted.

  11. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectivene

  12. Twenty-five years of excellence: a retrospective glance of Acta Mechanica Sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Dong Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The first version of Acta Mechanica Sinica (AMS) was launched in June 1985 in Beijing, aimed at delivering the cutting-on-edge progress and achievement in Mechanics in China to the world, allowing world-round colleagues to access the work of Chinese mechanician, and supplying an international forum in the field.

  13. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  14. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  15. Twenty-five years of serving the health care needs of rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The Community Practitioner Program seeks to improve access to quality health care for North Carolina's most vulnerable people by providing educational loan repayment grants to primary care physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners in return for their service in rural and underserved communities.

  16. Managing Pessimistic, Gloomy, and Cynical Employees: Twenty-Five Do's and Don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Every medical practice manager has to deal with a certain amount of employee pessimism at times. But one overly pessimistic employee can spread his or her negativity to the entire medical practice team if the manager doesn't intervene. This article suggests practical strategies managers can use to deal effectively with a pessimistic, defeatist, gloomy, or cynical employee. It describes two kinds of pessimism medical practice managers may encounter and offers 25 specific management do's and don'ts for managing a pessimist. This article also offers managers guidance for firing a pessimistic employee, including sample language they can use. It provides 10 self-care strategies for practice managers so they can keep themselves from succumbing to an employee's negativity. It also suggests eight ways that pessimism can hurt the medical practice team and describes five kinds of negative thinking managers may encounter. Finally, this article explores defensive pessimism theory and the surprising benefits for managers of some pessimistic thinking.

  17. Twenty-five years of monitoring a Townsend's Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) maternity roost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Halstead, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    A Corynorhinus townsendii maternity roost located in an abandoned ranch house in central California was monitored for 25 y. Prior to the discovery of the bats in 1987, the house was broken into regularly and disturbance levels were quite high. Upon discovery of the roost, the house was fortified and vandalism was greatly reduced. The number of females and the number of volant young greatly increased during our study and was directly correlated with the decline in vandalism. Bats emerged from the house 43.6 (± 10.9 SD) min after local sunset. Bats emerged later in the evening during spring and fall, when it was warmer, and when it was windier. We also evaluated duration of emergence (47.11 [45.0–49.7] min), and seasonal patterns of re-entry into the roost. Several factors suggested that potential predation, most likely by owls, influenced both the timing and duration of evening emergences.

  18. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectivene

  19. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    OpenAIRE

    Frencken, Jo E.; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Navarro,Maria Fidela

    2012-01-01

    Background The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. Results Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectiveness of ART sealants using high-viscosity glass ionomers in carious lesion development prevention is not different from that of resin fissure sealants. ART using high-viscosity glass ionomer can safely...

  20. Twenty-Five Years of the Fuzzy Factor: Fuzzy Logic, the Courts, and Student Press Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plopper, Bruce L.; McCool, Lauralee

    A study applied the structure of fuzzy logic, a fairly modern development in mathematical set theory, to judicial opinions concerning non-university, public school student publications, from 1975 to 1999. The study examined case outcomes (19 cases generated 27 opinions) as a function of fuzzy logic, and it evaluated interactions between fuzzy…

  1. The United States Air Force Academy’s First Twenty-Five Years, Some Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    263 (Introduction to Life Science), Life Sci 431-432 ( Microbiology I & II), and Life Sci 461-462 (Developmental Anatomy I & II). II Lt Col John R...The Ecuador -Peru Dispute; and (with Robin Higham) A Short History of Warfare. .-. ? 170 Dean of the Faculty sponsored by the National Archives to

  2. Twenty-five years requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Visser, G.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Peters, L.; Bartelds, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: World-wide there is a great deal of interest in Dutch policy on euthanasia (E) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Apart from appreciation there is also concern that the increasing acceptance of E/PAS might lead to an ever growing number of requests for help to implement E/PAS.

  3. Twenty-five years requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Visser, G.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Peters, L.; Bartelds, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: World-wide there is a great deal of interest in Dutch policy on euthanasia (E) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Apart from appreciation there is also concern that the increasing acceptance of E/PAS might lead to an ever growing number of requests for help to implement E/PAS. Method

  4. [Twenty-five years of the amyloid hypothesis of alzheimer disease: advances, failures and new perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, O S; Vasenina, E E

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been long the primary one. During the 25-year history the concept has been dramatically changed. Accumulation of β-amyloid is associated not only with the disruption of its synthesis (as it seemed after the discovery of genetic mechanisms of some familial cases of AD) but rather with the disruption of its clearance and elimination from the brain tissue via the microcirculatory system. It has been recognized that soluble oligomers of β-amyloid, but not senile plaques that consisted of insoluble conjugates described by A. Alzheimer 100 years ago, play a key pathogenic role in the brain. Interrelation of vascular and degenerative processes is confirmed by common risk factors, clinical, neuroimaging, pathomorphological and experimental data. Insulin-resistance is also one of the links between AD degenerative and vascular processes. Based on the current state of the amyloid hypothesis, perspectives of new multimodal treatment strategies are discussed.

  5. Twenty-five years of RENHIS: a history of histopathological studies within EUVAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, Emma; Ferrario, Franco; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Hagen, E Christiaan; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2015-04-01

    In the early 1990s, an international working group of experienced renal pathologists, the Renal Histology group, set up a scoring system for biopsies with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis. This scoring system subdivided glomerular, interstitial and vascular lesions and served as a tool for the evaluation of all renal biopsies from studies of the European Vasculitis Study Group (EUVAS). Histopathological studies gave new insights into the prediction of renal outcome in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. Percentage of normal glomeruli and a selected number of interstitial parameters were reliable predictors of long-term follow-up glomerular filtration rate in all studies. Out of these results, a histopathological classification distinguishing focal, crescentic, mixed and sclerotic classes of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis was developed. Until today, 13 studies have validated this classification system. Future studies will try to determine if and how renal histology could be helpful in guiding treatment of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.

  6. Mission possible: twenty-five years of university and college collaboration in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaduk, Cheryl; Duncan, Susan; Mahara, M Star; Tate, Betty; Callaghan, Doris; McCullough, Deborah; Chapman, Marilyn; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, nurse educators from five postsecondary institutions in the province of British Columbia established a collaborative nursing education initiative in 1989, with a vision to transform RN college diploma programs to baccalaureate degree programs. The principles, processes, and structures that served to develop and sustain this nursing education initiative are briefly reviewed. Curriculum, scholarship, and education legislation serve as platforms to critically explore a 25-year history (1989-2014) of successes, challenges, and transitions within this unique nursing education collaboration. The importance of curriculum development as faculty development, program evaluation as an adjunct to pedagogical scholarship, diversity of cross-institutional mandates, political interplay in nursing education, collegiality, and courageous leadership are highlighted. Nurse educators seeking to create successful collaborations must draw upon well-defined principles and organizational structures and processes to guide pedagogical practices and inquiry while remaining mindful of and engaged in professional and societal developments.

  7. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered.

  8. Twenty-five years of bicycle helmet promotion for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Diana Stark; Ekman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe some of the results of a long-term bicycle helmet campaign for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden. The hospital discharge data for bicycle-related injuries occurring in children under the age of 15 were reviewed, to assess changes in patterns for head and other body injuries. The study shows that head injuries to children as a result of bicycle injuries were reduced between 94 and 99% in the study areas. The tremendous gains in safety for children who ride bicycles in Skaraborg District were the result of not only national policy changes that occurred in the latter half of this study period but also the result of local collaborations based on the Safe Communities model, which were organised during the first part of the study period.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing: Twenty-Five Years of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Kunz, Chelsea; Brownell, Cynthia; Tollefson, Derrik; Burke, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the unique contribution motivational interviewing (MI) has on counseling outcomes and how MI compares with other interventions. Method: A total of 119 studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. Targeted outcomes included substance use (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, marijuana), health-related behaviors (diet,…

  10. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals--twenty-five years of promoting improved health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, D

    1977-09-01

    A brief history of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH), as well as its structure, purpose and activities, is presented. The procedure for developing JCAH standards for health care facilities is discussed. Also presented are the survey and accreditation processes. It is concluded that as long as the United States values its tradition of voluntarism and believes in positive motivation, the JCAH will be an effective influence on improved health care services.

  11. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The nitrification support the primary productivity and the NO3 levels were below detection limits; the N/P ratio in 2005 was from 10 to 25; and for 2006 was below 5. There is a net enrichment of anthropogenic nutrients at BTS. The heavy metals and pesticides studies started since the early 80's with problems still to solve for Tl, Cd. There is a net Pb enrichment and higher Cr concentrations at the NE of the bay. The EPB is a wetland ~7 Km. long located at the SE part of the BTS. The EPB is a net source of DIP (deltaDIP = +0.13 mmol m-2 day-1), that brings agricultural runoff to the BTS. It is typically a hypersaline system during summer and a net heterotrophic (p-r = -14 mmol m-2 day-1), and a net denitrifying (nfix-denit = -2.1 mmol m-2 day-1) system. Some anomalies were in 2005 the presence of a huge red tide observed inside BTS (about 50% of the bay) that last for more than six months, this HAB's has killed many fishes (anoxia) and marine mammals. The hydrographic conditions during the red tide were, temperature anomalies higher than 2°C above normal; high nutrient concentration above the normal. In 2006 the values were normal again. The Port of Ensenada, increased in size and activities (tourism, transportation, coastguards for national security, cement industry, research) these developments generate some management problems, like the beach and coastline modification. The aground of the APL Panama, activates the management agencies to prevent and control pollution.

  12. The VELA Program. A Twenty-Five Year Review of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    30 Reyes Sacrame’nto Fairfield 4 0 ~Berkee 5 San Francisco 42 Concord a w rd Livermore Stockton Palo Alto 30* Mount HamiltonMoet MontCru 29tro4uction...July 7 60,0 2-0 4-5SAN FERNANDO 34-4N 118,4W 1401 1971 February 9 7520,0 10.0 6-5SAN FERNANDO 34-4 N 118-4W 0517 1971 February 10 18-0 0,8 4-6NTS 36-9 N...2.5%. Figures Sc and 5d cortes - pond to Figs. 5a and 51b after adding on the Q absorption. C.Y. Wang amd R.B. Hetnwann 387 i X, x SH 0 w-- 500 I I I I

  13. [Twenty Five Years of Cuadernos de Bioética (1990-2015): Present and Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Colomer, Modesto; Aranda García, Ana; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this article a brief history of the journal ″Cuadernos de Bioética″ is made, a general analysis of the published works in the diverse journal sections is realized. The last changes in it over recent years are also indicated. The article ends with some considerations on the recent history of the magazine and stating some of the lines of improvement that has raised the current editorial board for the next years.

  14. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  15. Twenty-five years of collecting and taxonomy of wild potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota) are a difficult group taxonomically, complicated by interspecific hybridization, introgression, allopolyploidy, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, and possible recent species divergence. Various workers have interpreted the variation t...

  16. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be co...

  17. Twenty-five years on: still working toward a theory of conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fancelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980s conservation was still based on the scientific experimentation of the 1800s and only became operationally efficient in the 1960s. It has been interpreted and described in several ways, such as pure-conservative, a term which was first used at the beginning of 1971. However, conservation without the adjectival prefixes and resisting any form of retrospection has continued to advance both in laboratories and on archaeological sites, becoming more defined, elaborate and even authoritative in the aftermath of natural disasters. Nevertheless, it has had difficulty in being consid­ered within the traditional theories and practices of restoration; it is only recently that it has become an advantageous association. This is due to the fact that on the one hand, there has been growing awareness regarding the necessity of using conserva­tive intervention in the strict sense of the word and on the other it is evident that this intervention must be carried out in conjunction with other measures of an inhibitory and contrasting nature, using architectural instruments when faced with possibly inevitable deterioration. The result is a fruitful convergence between conservation and critical restoration in terms of a critical-conservative(or vice-versa approach.

  18. Twenty-five years of artificial photosynthesis research at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the research done on artificial photosynthesis by the Calvin Group between 1970 and 1995 when the program was terminated. It contains a compilation of the personnel involved as well as a bibliography of publications supported by the project.

  19. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prättälä Ritva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002 that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the pathways between income, education, living conditions and the increasing BMI.

  20. Twenty-five years of breast-feeding research in Midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Fiona

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores some of the significant changes that have taken place with regard to the protection, promotion and support of breast feeding during the past three decades. The period covered since the first issue of Midwifery in 1985, has been marked by some dramatic reversals of harmful discourses and detrimental practices with regard to infant and young child feeding and more specifically breast feeding. Midwifery has spanned this period with the publication of 80 papers on breast feeding. This collection of papers has both influenced and reflected upon changes in international and national breast-feeding strategies and practices. Six papers have been selected for a special virtual edition of Midwifery to reflect the diversity of breast-feeding research in terms of issues explored, methodology and country of origin (www.midwiferyjournal.com). Considerable progress is reflected in these papers. However, there are still enormous challenges ahead in working towards the optimisation of infant and young child feeding. In addition to continuing to conduct and collate robust scientific and epidemiological research we need further studies that explore the political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological factors influencing women's infant feeding practices. Our professional practice needs to continue to improve in order to provide women and families with appropriate support, encouragement and resources to enable them to breastfeed effectively. Finally, we need to continue to challenge the systems and approaches at organisational and community levels that impede women in their endeavours to feed their infants in optimum ways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of 3-D robot teleoperation interfaces with novice users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Daniel; Boissy, Patrick; Michaud, François

    2010-10-01

    Being able to act remotely in our homes could be very useful in providing various services such as surveillance and remote interventions, which are key features for telehomecare applications. In addition to navigation and environmental challenges that a telepresence robot would face in home settings, the system requires an appropriate teleoperation interface for safe and efficient usage by novice users. This paper describes the design criteria and characterizes visualization and control modalities of user interfaces with a real robot. By considering the user's needs along with the current state of the art in teleoperation interfaces, two novel mixed-reality visualization modalities are compared with standard video-centric and map-centric perspectives. We report teleoperation trials under six different task scenarios with a sample of 37 novice operators in homelike conditions. The results based on three quantitative metrics and one qualitative metric outline under which conditions the novel mixed-reality visualization modalities significantly improve the performance of novice users.

  2. Building competency in the novice allied health professional through peer coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyshewsky, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The development of competence is an ongoing journey, and one that is particularly punctuated in the early part of a health professional's career. These novice practitioners need to recognize that the challenges inherent in building competency might be resolved more readily by engaging with peers. This paper outlines what it means to be a novice practitioner, and how peer coaching can be used to support professional development in the allied health sciences. An overview of the reasoning process and how peer coaching and experiential learning can be used to build competence is described. A structured and formal approach to peer coaching is outlined in this paper. Novices who embrace this professional development strategy will find the model of coaching practice and underlying strategies described in this paper beneficial to their experience. The importance of formalizing the process and the underlying communication skills needed for coaching are described in detail with accompanying examples to illustrate the model in practice.

  3. Comparing Text-based and Graphic User Interfaces for novice and expert users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Wei; Zhang, Jiajie

    2007-10-11

    Graphic User Interface (GUI) is commonly considered to be superior to Text-based User Interface (TUI). This study compares GUI and TUI in an electronic dental record system. Several usability analysis techniques compared the relative effectiveness of a GUI and a TUI. Expert users and novice users were evaluated in time required and steps needed to complete the task. A within-subject design was used to evaluate if the experience with either interface will affect task performance. The results show that the GUI interface was not better than the TUI for expert users. GUI interface was better for novice users. For novice users there was a learning transfer effect from TUI to GUI. This means a user interface is user-friendly or not depending on the mapping between the user interface and tasks. GUI by itself may or may not be better than TUI.

  4. Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning: A Lithuanian Case of Novice Consultants' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkšaitiene, Nijole

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of the investigation into institutional support provided to adults by 12 novice consultants on assessment and recognition of their non-formal and informal learning in four institutions of higher education (HEIs) in Lithuania. Using the general systems perspective and perception theory, novice consultants'…

  5. Imagined Community Falling Apart: A Case Study on the Transformation of Professional Identities of Novice ESOL Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Many novice teachers experience a "reality shock" during the transition from teacher education programs to the first years of teaching, due to the unpredictable and dynamic nature of authentic educational contexts. To better understand novice teachers in transition, research on teaching English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) has…

  6. Using a Complexity-Based Perspective to Better Understand the Relationships among Mentoring, School Conflicts, and Novice Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Sheryn Elaine Spencer

    2011-01-01

    In this study I used complexity-thinking, ecologically-based sustainable capacity-building, narrative methodology, and pragmatism to explore the relationships among mentoring, conflict, and novice retention. In order to explore these relationships, I constructed stories from my interviews with six mentor-novice dyads in a southeastern 9-12 high…

  7. Instructional Challenges: Understanding the Needs of Novice Special Education Teachers. Induction Insights. Supporting Special Education Teachers - Administrators [AII-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Novice special education teachers struggle with many of the same pedagogical challenges as their general education counterparts. They often need help learning the curriculum, acquiring and adapting necessary materials, and addressing challenging student behavior. A complicating factor is that novice special education teachers typically have…

  8. No effect of a graded training program on the number of running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, I.; Bredeweg, S.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Pepping, G.J.; Diercks, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although running has positive effects on health and fitness, the incidence of a running-related injury (RRI) is high. Research on prevention of RRI is scarce; to date, no studies have involved novice runners. Hypothesis: A graded training program for novice runners will lead to a decreas

  9. From expert to novice: The unnerving transition from experienced RN to neophyte APN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Vashti Jude; Jessup, Anna Loomis

    2004-06-01

    Following analysis of a critical incident, we discuss role identity stressors during knowledge acquisition. Specifically, we examine one nurse's supposition that expert knowledge is automatically transferable despite having a different role expectation. We share the unexpectedly powerful and potentially ego-deflating experience of one advanced practice nurse (APN) student preparing for the challenge of transitioning from novice to expert as a new APN. However, the greater lesson learned was failing to appreciate the transition in role identity from expert to novice that one undergoes as a registered nurse (RN) to APN student.

  10. How Do Novice and Expert Learners Represent, Understand, and Discuss Geologic Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layow, Erica Amanda

    This dissertation examined the representations novice and expert learners constructed for the geologic timescale. Learners engaged in a three-part activity. The purpose was to compare novice learners' representations to those of expert learners. This provided insight into the similarities and differences between their strategies for event ordering, assigning values and scale to the geologic timescale model, as well as their language and practices to complete the model. With a qualitative approach to data analysis informed by an expert-novice theoretical framework grounded in phenomenography, learner responses comprised the data analyzed. These data highlighted learners' metacognitive thoughts that might not otherwise be shared through lectures or laboratory activities. Learners' responses were analyzed using a discourse framework that positioned learners as knowers. Novice and expert learners both excelled at ordering and discussing events before the Phanerozoic, but were challenged with events during the Phanerozoic. Novice learners had difficulty assigning values to events and establishing a scale for their models. Expert learners expressed difficulty with determining a scale because of the size of the model, yet eventually used anchor points and unitized the model to establish a scale. Despite challenges constructing their models, novice learners spoke confidently using claims and few hedging phrases indicating their confidence in statements made. Experts used more hedges than novices, however the hedging comments were made about more complex conceptions. Using both phenomenographic and discourse analysis approaches for analysis foregrounded learners' discussions of how they perceived geologic time and their ways of knowing and doing. This research is intended to enhance the geoscience community's understanding of the ways novice and expert learners think and discuss conceptions of geologic time, including the events and values of time, and the strategies used

  11. The Socialization of a Novice Teacher of English: Becoming an Agent of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Mesa Villa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study reports the analysis of the induction as a socialization process of a Colombian novice teacher of English. Since critical approaches to socialization highlight the role of novice teachers in critical school transformation during their induction stage, this study aims to disclose the teacher’s possibilities of becoming an agent of change. The data collection procedures included interviews, class observations and document analysis. The findings revealed that the teacher’s socialization was not a gradual transition and his possibilities to contribute to school transformation differed in accordance with the interplay among his professional interests and school factors.

  12. Novice supervisee's experiences of what is good and bad psychotherapy supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study of novice supervisee’s experiences of good and bad supervisory experiences and on how this change as the supervisees gain more experience. Novice psychotherapists rate supervision as the most important element in their acquisition of professional skills...... thematically focusing on the experience of specific good and bad supervisory experiences. Also included were the importance of peers in the supervision group and the organisational setting of the supervision. After analysing each individuals experience all individual experiences were examined until patterns...

  13. Attentional Demands in the Execution Phase of Curling in Novices and Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Shank

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the attentional demands of a curling delivery using a dual-task procedure. Skilled and novice curlers were asked to perform take outs and draws while attentional demands were measured using reaction time (RT in the different phases of the throw. Results showed attentional demands for the draw and take out were highest at the beginning of the delivery. Compared to the draw, a significant rise of RT was shown at the end of the take out shot. Shot success was significantly higher for the take out condition in expert compared to novice curlers.

  14. Emergent Learning and Interactive Media Artworks: Parameters of Interaction for Novice Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kawka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergent learning describes learning that occurs when participants interact and distribute knowledge, where learning is self-directed, and where the learning destination of the participants is largely unpredictable (Williams, Karousou, & Mackness, 2011. These notions of learning arise from the topologies of social networks and can be applied to the learning that occurs in educational institutions. However, the question remains whether institutional frameworks can accommodate the opposing notion of “cooperative systems” (Shirky, 2005, systems that facilitate the creation of user-generated content, particularly as first-year education cohorts are novice groups in the sense of not yet having developed university-level knowledge.This paper theorizes an emergent learning assessment item (Flickr photo-narratives within a first-year media arts undergraduate education course. It challenges the conventional models of student–lecturer interaction by outlining a methodology of teaching for emergence that will facilitate student-directed and open-ended learning. The paper applies a matrix with four parameters (teacher-directed content/student-directed content; non-interactive learning task/interactive learning framework. This matrix is used as a conceptual space within which to investigate how a learning task might be constructed to afford the best opportunities for emergent learning. It explores the strategies that interactive artists utilize for participant engagement (particularly the relationship between the artist and the audience in the creation of interactive artworks and suggests how these strategies might be applied to emergent generative outcomes with first-year education students.We build upon Williams et al.’s framework of emergent learning, where “content will not be delivered to learners but co-constructed with them” (De Freitas & Conole, as cited in Williams et al., 2011, p. 40, and the notion that in constructing emergent

  15. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  16. Claiming Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...

  17. Educating novice practitioners to detect elder financial abuse: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Priscilla; Davies, Miranda; Gilhooly, Ken; Gilhooly, Mary; Tomlinson, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Health and social care professionals are well positioned to identify and intervene in cases of elder financial abuse. An evidence-based educational intervention was developed to advance practitioners' decision-making in this domain. The objective was to test the effectiveness of a decision-training educational intervention on novices' ability to detect elder financial abuse. The research was funded by an E.S.R.C. grant reference RES-189-25-0334. A parallel-group, randomised controlled trial was conducted using a judgement analysis approach. Each participant used the World Wide Web to judge case sets at pre-test and post-test. The intervention group was provided with training after pre-test testing, whereas the control group were purely given instructions to continue with the task. 154 pre-registration health and social care practitioners were randomly allocated to intervention (n78) or control (n76). The intervention comprised of written and graphical descriptions of an expert consensus standard explaining how case information should be used to identify elder financial abuse. Participants' ratings of certainty of abuse occurring (detection) were correlated with the experts' ratings of the same cases at both stages of testing. At pre-test, no differences were found between control and intervention on rating capacity. Comparison of mean scores for the control and intervention group at pre-test compared to immediate post-test, showed a statistically significant result. The intervention was shown to have had a positive moderate effect; at immediate post-test, the intervention group's ratings had become more similar to those of the experts, whereas the control's capacity did not improve. The results of this study indicate that the decision-training intervention had a positive effect on detection ability. This freely available, web-based decision-training aid is an effective evidence-based educational resource. Health and social care professionals can use the resource to

  18. Initial Evaluation of a Mobile Scaffolding Application That Seeks to Support Novice Learners of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Chao; Blake, Edwin; Suleman, Hussein

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the use of an application that scaffolds the constructions of programs on a mobile device. The application was developed to support novice learners of programming outside the classroom. This paper reports on results of a first experiment conducted to evaluate the mobile application. The main research questions…

  19. Experience matters: comparing novice and expert ratings of non-technical skills using the NOTSS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Steven; Rowley, David; Flin, Rhona; Maran, Nikki; Youngson, George; Duncan, John; Paterson-Brown, Simon

    2009-03-01

    There is growing evidence that non-technical skills (NTS) are related to surgical outcomes and patient safety. The aim of this study was to further evaluate a behaviour rating system (NOTSS: Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons) which can be used for workplace assessment of the cognitive and social skills which are essential components of NTS. A novice group composed of consultant surgeons (n = 44) from five Scottish hospitals attended one of six experimental sessions and were trained to use the NOTSS system. They then used NOTSS to rate surgeons' behaviors in six simulated scenarios filmed in the operating room. The behaviours demonstrated in each scenario were compared to expert ratings to determine accuracy. The mode rating from the novice group (who received a short training session in behaviour assessment) was the same as the expert group in 50% of ratings. Where there was disagreement, novice raters tended to provide lower ratings than the experts. Novice raters require significant training in this emerging area of competence in order to accurately rate non-technical skills.

  20. Developing Novice Teachers as Change Agents: Student Teacher Placements "against the Grain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sheila; Lacefield-Parachini, Nancy; Isken, JoAnn

    2003-01-01

    Efforts at reforming urban schools have often revolved around choosing the "right" formulaic programs or providing sufficient funds to repair schools. However, too little attention has been paid to staffing schools with competent teachers who desire to stay and effect reform. Finding ways to educate student teachers and novice teachers at these…

  1. Written Feedback, Student Writing, and Institutional Policies: Implications for Novice Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerherm, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the methods that teachers employ in written feedback to student writing and how the policies of the program and the teachers' embodied histories influence the strategies used. Data were gathered from 2 novice teachers as they taught their first graduate-level ESL writing course and consist of the teachers' feedback in addition…

  2. Interweaving Teaching and Emotional Support for Novice Special Educators in Alternative Certification Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Leila Ansari; Zetlin, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    As the shortage of special education teachers has led to increasing numbers of teacher candidates enrolled in alternative certification programs, there is a need to provide systematic mentoring and coaching. The relationship between support providers and novice teachers enrolled in an alternative certification program in a diverse, urban…

  3. Extending the Classroom: Digital Micro-Narratives for Novice Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Storytelling offers many advantages for language learning, especially within a project-based framework. In this article, the use of Digital Micro-Narratives is proposed as particularly useful for second language learners at the novice level. As a sub-genre of Digital Storytelling, Digital Micro-Narratives focus more on frequently updated…

  4. Bootstrapping reflection on classroom interactions: discourse contexts of novice teachers' thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Van Dam, J.

    2007-01-01

    The powerful role of prior experiences and cultural schemata in guiding novice teachers' conceptions of how to teach is hardly contested. We report on a ‘reflective practicum’ at the very beginning of a pre-service teacher education course that interconnects prior beliefs, reflection-in-action and

  5. Embracing Institutional Authority: The Emerging Identity of a Novice Teacher Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Joseph; Cuenca, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This self-study explores the emerging identity of a first-time teacher educator using a framework that views identity as natural, institutional, discursive, and affinity. This framework provided an opportunity to unpack empirically how these various strands of identity intersected within the classroom of a novice teacher educator. Situated in the…

  6. Balancing Feedback and Inquiry: How Novice Observers (Supervisors) Learn from Inquiry into Their Own Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourn, Brent; Keating, Catherine; Murray, Karen; Ross, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Giving constructive feedback to a teacher is a complex process. This article addresses the difficulty of giving feedback by discussing three different cases, each of which illustrates a dimension of the complexity of learning the process. It argues that an attitude of inquiry increases the likelihood that a novice observer (supervisor) will become…

  7. Bootstrapping reflection on classroom interactions: discourse contexts of novice teachers' thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bannink; J. Van Dam

    2007-01-01

    The powerful role of prior experiences and cultural schemata in guiding novice teachers' conceptions of how to teach is hardly contested. We report on a ‘reflective practicum’ at the very beginning of a pre-service teacher education course that interconnects prior beliefs, reflection-in-action and r

  8. Novice Use of a Dimensional Scale for the Evaluation of the Hypermedia User Interface: Caveat Emptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a dimensional scale for the evaluation of the multimedia user interface. Reports on a study of the use of the scale by novice graduate students at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Discusses hypermedia as a subset of multimedia, and investigates dependent measures including navigation. (LRW)

  9. Forced Choice Recognition of Sign in Novice Learners of British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of the accuracy of novice learners of British Sign Language (BSL) and sign-naive subjects in recognizing possible and impossible BSL signs and in naming signs suggests that rated iconicity and the ability to process potentially meaningful gestures, determined recognition and naming accuracy. (19 references) (Author/CB)

  10. The Stories of Expert and Novice Student Teachers' Supervisors: Perspectives on Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Hayon, Lya

    1991-01-01

    Three expert and three novice student teacher supervisors were interviewed on the ways in which they perceived their professional development, focusing on knowledge and change, reflection and criticism, theory and research, ideology and values, human relations, and difficulties. Results indicated substantial differences in the developmental stages…

  11. Rigging the Deck: Selecting Good Problems for Expert-Novice Card-Sorting Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    A seminal study by Chi "et al." firmly established the paradigm that novices categorize physics problems by "surface features" (e.g., "incline," "pendulum," "projectile motion," etc.), while experts use "deep structure" (e.g., "energy conservation," "Newton 2," etc.). Yet, efforts to replicate the study frequently fail, since the ability to…

  12. Resilience as a Contributor to Novice Teacher Success, Commitment, and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Novice teachers often struggle in their first year. Some succumb to illness, depression, or burnout, and some even decide to abandon teaching as a career option. The classic stressors identified by new teachers have been remarkably consistent over the years, and their challenges have been well chronicled. Less has been written, however, about the…

  13. The Relation between Problem Categorization and Problem Solving among Novices and Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Pamela Thibodeau; And Others

    This investigation examined the relationship between problem solving ability and the criteria used to decide whether two classical mechanics problems could be solved similarly. The investigators began by comparing experts and novices on a similarity judgment task and found that experts predominantly relied on the problems' deep structure in…

  14. Investigating and Improving the Models of Programming Concepts Held by Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Ferguson, J.; Roper, M.; Wood, M.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of introductory computer programming seems far from successful, with many first-year students performing more poorly than expected. One possible reason for this is that novices hold "non-viable" mental models (internal explanations of how something works) of key programming concepts which then cause misconceptions and difficulties. An…

  15. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Hashish, Sachithra D. Samarawickrame, Lucinda Baker, George J. Salem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact.

  16. Archeology, Legos, and Haunted Houses: Novice Teachers' Shifting Understandings of Self and Curricula through Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Ari, Teresa R.; Lynch, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    As teacher educators in an alternative certification and master's programme, we support Teach For America (TFA) teachers who are developing understandings of learning, teaching, and curriculum while they are already working full-time in classrooms. Using critical discourse analysis, we analysed 109 metaphors for curriculum created by 27 novice TFA…

  17. Studying novice and experienced teachers’ visual perception and interpretations of classroom situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Charlotte; Van den Bogert, Niek; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jarodzka, Halszka; Jochems, Wim; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Wolff, C., Van den Bogert, N., Van Bruggen, J., Jochems, W. M. G., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). Studying novice and experienced teachers’ visual perception and interpretations of classroom situations. Poster presented at Open Universiteit Research Day, Heerlen, The Netherland

  18. Keeping an Eye on Learning: Differences between Expert and Novice Teachers' Representations of Classroom Management Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charlotte E.; van den Bogert, Niek; Jarodzka, Halszka; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom management represents an important skill and knowledge set for achieving student learning gains, but poses a considerable challenge for beginning teachers. Understanding how teachers' cognition and conceptualizations differ between experts and novices is useful for enhancing beginning teachers' expertise development. We created a coding…

  19. The Impact of Animation Interactivity on Novices' Learning of Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yu; Vaughn, Brandon K.; Liu, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of animation interactivity on novices' learning of introductory statistics. The interactive animation program used in this study was created with Adobe Flash following Mayer's multimedia design principles as well as Kristof and Satran's interactivity theory. This study was guided by three main questions: 1) Is there…

  20. Modelling diagnosis in physical therapy: a blackboard framework and models of experts and novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, G A

    2007-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore clinical reasoning in physical therapy and to highlight the similarities and differences by modelling the diagnostic phase of clinical reasoning. An experimental design comparing expert and novice physical therapists was utilized. Concurrent verbal protocols detailing the clinical reasoning about standardized case material were elicited. A framework for modelling diagnosis was specified and provided the parameters for analysis. The diagnostic utterances were classified as cues or hypotheses and the knowledge utilized was identified. The experts recruited significantly more knowledge than the novices (p = 0.01) and used more cues (p < 0.01). Their diagnoses were more accurate when compared to the original diagnosis. This difference between the experts and novices was reflected in the differences shown in the models (p < 0.01). The differences between these subjects focused upon the knowledge recruitment, which impacted on the accuracy of the diagnosis. The novices' inaccurate or non-existent diagnoses led to poor quality of treatment prescription. Modelling proved to be a useful way of representing these differences.

  1. Social Class (In)Visibility and the Professional Experiences of Middle-Class Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Jones, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…

  2. The Effect of Mentor Intervention Style in Novice Entrepreneur Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Etienne; Audet, Josee

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether mentor intervention styles influence benefits gained by novice entrepreneurs through their mentoring relationship. An empirical study conducted with 360 mentees who had received mentoring services shows that an intervention style which combines a maieutic approach with mentor involvement produced the…

  3. A Long-Term Investigation of the Comprehension of OOP Concepts by Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonis, Noa; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2005-01-01

    This article describes research on the learning of object-oriented programming (OOP) by novices. During two academic years, we taught OOP to high school students, using Java and BlueJ. Our approach to teaching featured: objects-first, teaching composed classes relatively early, deferring the teaching of main methods, and focusing on class…

  4. Innovations in Teaching: How Novice Teaching Assistants Include LGBTQ Topics in the Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how three novice graduate teaching assistants included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their first-year writing classrooms. Findings suggest that inclusion of these topics can be successfully done through attention to identity in the classroom, including current-day events, and structuring classroom…

  5. Keeping an Eye on Learning: Differences between Expert and Novice Teachers' Representations of Classroom Management Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charlotte E.; van den Bogert, Niek; Jarodzka, Halszka; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom management represents an important skill and knowledge set for achieving student learning gains, but poses a considerable challenge for beginning teachers. Understanding how teachers' cognition and conceptualizations differ between experts and novices is useful for enhancing beginning teachers' expertise development. We created a coding…

  6. Novice Agriculture Teachers' General Self Efficacy and Sense of Community Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, G. Curtis; Martin, Michael; Kitchel, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The attrition rate for novice teachers can range between 20%-50% in the first five years. This problem has concerned researchers in school-based agricultural education because of the shortage of agriculture teachers and high demands of the job. Researchers narrowed down the reasons why teachers leave the profession including the role of…

  7. Investigating Novice Teacher Experiences of the Teaching Dynamics Operating in Selected School Communities in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Seija; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the lived experiences of five novice teachers during their first academic year of teaching. This article analyzes the experiences of new teachers based on long-term data collection throughout a school year as one means of bridging the gap between teacher preparation and actual teaching practice. The findings indicate that…

  8. Novices "In Story": What First-Year Teachers' Narratives Reveal about the Shady Corners of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza

    2011-01-01

    In a national contest of story writing in Israel, first-year teachers from all educational sectors were invited to write a story that mirrors their first year of teaching experience. The narrative analysis of the stories sheds light on the hostile and adverse sides of teaching, surfacing novices' sense of impotence in their capacity to act. The…

  9. Teacher Induction: Exploring the Satisfaction, Struggles, Supports, and Perceptions of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Hilarie Bree

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigates the experiences of four novice English teachers as they transitioned from their first to their second year teaching. Data were obtained through one-on-one interviews, a focus group discussion, observations, and document review. It was found that although these teachers graduated from the same teacher education…

  10. The Role of Mentoring in Supporting Novice English Language Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steve; Tang, Elaine Hau Hing

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on qualitative case study research into the experience and support of four novice English language teachers in Hong Kong (HK). It describes their perceived experience and socialisation, particularly with regard to the induction and mentoring support they receive during the first year of teaching. While the benefits of…

  11. Exploring the Dyad: The Relationship Establishment between a Novice Physical Education Teacher and His Mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evelyn J.

    2017-01-01

    The retention of new teachers is a noteworthy issue among physical education teachers. One way to combat attrition is with the implementation of induction programs that have a strong emphasis on mentoring. Mentoring creates a "growth-in-connection" for the novice physical education teacher as well as the mentor. The relational cultural…

  12. Librarian as Advisor: Information Search Process of Undecided Students and Novice Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Claire; Williams, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Faculty librarians who advise undecided students have found the experiences of novice researcher and advisee comparable: Both groups seek to solve a problem or answer a question by finding new information to add to their current understanding and knowledge base. As a result, librarians familiar with needs and stages of the research process may…

  13. Impact of Expert Teaching Quality on Novice Academic Performance in the Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of expert students' instructional quality on the academic performance of novice students in 12th-grade physics classes organized in an expert model of cooperative learning ("jigsaw classroom"). The instructional quality of 129 expert students was measured by a newly developed rating system. As expected, when…

  14. The X-factor: A longitudinal study of calibration in young novice drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Craen, S.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills and underestimate the risks in traffic; and therefore insufficiently adapt their driving behaviour (e.g. speed or headway) to the specific situation. This balancing of skills and task demands has been called calibration.

  15. Novice Teachers' Perspectives on Mentoring: The Case of the Estonian Induction Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrom, Erika; Eisenschmidt, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study explores Estonian novice teachers' perspectives on relationships with mentors and experiences of mentoring and mentors' tasks during their first year of teaching. The induction year with mentoring as one of the support structures was introduced into Estonian teacher education a few years ago. Experiences indicate that this is a valuable…

  16. The impact of injury definition on injury surveillance in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Verhagen, Evert; Hartgens, Fred; Huisstede, Bionka; Diercks, Ron; van der Worp, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite several consensus statements, different injury definitions are used in the literature. This study aimed to identify the impact of different injury definitions on the nature and incidence of complaints captured during a short-term running program for novice runners. Design: Prospe

  17. Mentor/Protege Interactions and the Role of Mentor Training within a Novice Teacher Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegat, Gilan M.

    2010-01-01

    Many individuals transition into teaching positions without the benefit of effective professional mentoring. This study was conducted to better understand the interactions in which mentors and proteges engage and to inform future design of mentor support for novice teachers. The research examined mentor/protege interactions within a year long…

  18. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an instrume

  19. Induction and Mentoring of Novice Teachers: A Scheme for the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Induction and mentoring of novice teachers have gained considerable worldwide attention. However, in the United Arab Emirates, graduates from teacher education programmes are recruited as teachers without being provided with any formal school-based support. They suffer from stress, overload, and low self-esteem and a high percentage leave…

  20. Challenges for Novice School Leaders: Facing Today's Issues in School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Andrea P.; Claxton, Russell L.; Smith, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges for novice school leaders evolve as information is managed differently and as societal and regulatory expectations change. This study addresses unique challenges faced by practicing school administrators (n = 159) during their first three years in a school leadership position. It focuses on their perceptions, how perceptions of present…

  1. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  2. Calibrating the human instrument: understanding the interviewing experience of novice qualitative researchers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peredaryenko, Margarita S; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2013-01-01

    ... researchers perceived themselves as the research instrument in the process of their first qualitative interviewing experiences. The findings from interviews with four such novices were that their initial calibration gravitated towards one of two states - being "researcher-centered" or "informant-centered." Their proximity to either of these ...

  3. Using Learning Analytics to Understand the Learning Pathways of Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Matthew; Martin, Taylor; Benton, Tom; Smith, Carmen Petrick; Davis, Don

    2013-01-01

    Many have suggested that tinkering plays a critical role in novices learning to program, and recent work in learning analytics (Baker & Yacef, 2009 Blikstein, 2011) allows us to describe new relationships in the process. Using learning analytics, we explore how students progress from exploration, through tinkering, to refinement, a pathway…

  4. Novice Music Teachers Learning to Improvise in an Improvisation Professional Development Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filsinger, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    With the intent of improving music improvisation pedagogy, the purpose of this research was to examine experiences of six novice music teachers and a professional development facilitator in an eight-week Improvisation Professional Development Workshop (IPDW). The research questions were: 1. How do teachers learn to improvise within the context of…

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Professional Beliefs and Practice Choices of Novice Occupational Therapy Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Deborah Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this basic interpretive qualitative study was to explore how novice occupational therapy assistants begin to understand their profession, form practice beliefs, and subsequently select and initiate certain treatment methods and approaches with clients. The primary source of data for this study was obtained via semi-structured…

  6. Keeping It Complex: Using Rehearsals to Support Novice Teacher Learning of Ambitious Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Magdalene; Franke, Megan Loef; Kazemi, Elham; Ghousseini, Hala; Turrou, Angela Chan; Beasley, Heather; Cunard, Adrian; Crowe, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a particular pedagogy for learning to interact productively with students and subject matter, which we call “rehearsal.” Our goal is to specify a way in which teacher educators (TEs) and novice teachers (NTs) can interact around teaching that is both embedded in practice and amenable to analysis. We address two main research questions:…

  7. Examining the Effects of Computer-Based Scaffolds on Novice Teachers' Reflective Journal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guolin; Calandra, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    This study employed an explanatory mixed methods design to examine the effects of two computer-based scaffolds on novice teachers' reflective journal writing. The context for the study was an attempt to refine the reflective writing component of a large scale electronic portfolio system. Quantitative results indicated that the computer-based…

  8. Developing the Teaching Competences of Novice Faculty Members: A Review of International Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffer, Sacha; Tchibozo, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline what could be learned from the international research literature on the issue of developing teaching competences of novice faculty members. The mission of academics has changed in recent years. Academics must now also meet a strong social demand for graduates' access to employment and are increasingly…

  9. The Impact of Animation Interactivity on Novices' Learning of Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yu; Vaughn, Brandon K.; Liu, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of animation interactivity on novices' learning of introductory statistics. The interactive animation program used in this study was created with Adobe Flash following Mayer's multimedia design principles as well as Kristof and Satran's interactivity theory. This study was guided by three main questions: 1) Is there…

  10. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Pamela; Jack, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…

  11. The Influence of the Core Practices Movement on the Teaching and Perspectives of Novice Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMink-Carthew, Jessica; Grove, Rebecca; Peterson, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    This collaborative self-study examines the influence of engagement in the core practices movement on the course designs, instruction, and perspectives of three novice teacher educators at a large mid-Atlantic research university. Through core practices work, we integrated repeated cycles of analysis, practice, and reflection into our courses,…

  12. Archeology, Legos, and Haunted Houses: Novice Teachers' Shifting Understandings of Self and Curricula through Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Ari, Teresa R.; Lynch, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    As teacher educators in an alternative certification and master's programme, we support Teach For America (TFA) teachers who are developing understandings of learning, teaching, and curriculum while they are already working full-time in classrooms. Using critical discourse analysis, we analysed 109 metaphors for curriculum created by 27 novice TFA…

  13. Exploring novice users' training needs in searching information on the World Wide Web.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.

    2000-01-01

    Searching for information on the WWW involves locating a website and locating information on that site. A recent study implied that novice users' training needs exclusively relate to locating websites. The present case study tried to reveal the knowledge and skills that constitute these training

  14. Learning effects of repetitive administration of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure in novice prosthetic users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; Bongers, Raoul M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) evaluates the functionality of normal, injured or prosthetic hands. The aim was to evaluate the learning effects of SHAP tasks and the appropriateness of the time limits applied per task in novice prosthetic users. Methods: Right-handed uni

  15. Equipping Novice Teachers with a Learning Map to Enhance Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Gu, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Using tools to support learning design has been proven feasible in improving the integration of technology into the curriculum. However, novice teachers are faced with two major issues, including their limited experience in learning design and limited ability in using new technologies. Learning map is explored and developed in e-Textbooks to…

  16. Using a visual programming language to bridge the cognitive gap between a novice's mental model and program code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan J.

    Current research suggests that many students do not know how to program very well at the conclusion of their introductory programming course. We believe that a reason novices have such difficulties learning programming is because engineering novices often learn through a lecture format where someone with programming knowledge lectures to novices, the novices attempt to absorb the content, and then reproduce it during exams. By primarily appealing to programming novices who prefer to understand visually, we research whether programming novices understand programming better if computer science concepts are presented using a visual programming language than if these programs are presented using a text-based programming language. This method builds upon previous research that suggests that most engineering students are visual learners, and we propose that using a flow-based visual programming language will address some of the most important and difficult topics to novices of programming. We use an existing flow-model tool, RAPTOR, to test this method, and share the program understanding results using this theory.

  17. An examination of the perceived teaching competencies of novice alternatively licensed and traditionally licensed high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kathleen A.

    In most states, there are two routes to teacher licensure; traditional and alternative. The alternative route provides an accelerated entry into the classroom, often without the individual engaging in education coursework or a practicum. No matter the route, teaching skills continue to be learned by novice teachers while in the classroom with the guidance of a school-based mentor. In this study, the perceptions of mentor teachers of traditionally and alternatively licensed high school science teachers were compared with respect to mentees' science teaching competency. Further, the study explored the novice teachers' self-perception of their teaching competency. A survey, consisting of 56 Likert-type questions, was completed by mentors (N = 79) and novice high school science teachers (N = 83) in six northeastern states. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in the perceptions of the mentors of traditionally and alternatively licensed novice high school science teachers in the areas of general pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional growth, with more favorable perceptions recorded by mentors of traditionally licensed science teachers. There were no differences in the perceptions of the mentors with respect to novice high school teachers' content knowledge. There was no statistical difference in the self-perceptions of competency of the novice teachers. While alternative routes to licensure in science may be a necessity, the results of this study indicate that the lack of professional preparation may need to be addressed at the school level through the agency of the mentor. This study indicates that mentors must be prepared to provide alternatively licensed novice teachers with different assistance to that given to traditionally licensed novice teachers. School districts are urged to develop mentoring programs designed to develop the teaching competency of all novice teachers regardless of the route that led them

  18. Expert vs. Novice: Problem Decomposition/Recomposition in Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Song

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and au...

  19. Formation of Novice Business Students' Mental Models through Simulation Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmunen, Lauri-Matti; Pelto, Elina; Paalumäki, Anni; Lainema, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Studies on students' perceptions of learning in business simulations often suggest that students like simulations and view them more positively than both lectures and case discussions. However, research on the actual learning outcomes deriving from participating in business simulations still needs to be pursued. Consequently, the purpose of this…

  20. Writing peer-reviewed articles with diverse teams: considerations for novice scholars conducting community-engaged research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2016-07-31

    Given the growth of interdisciplinary and community-engaged health promotion research, it has become increasingly common to conduct studies in diverse teams. While there is literature to guide collaborative research proposal development, data collection and analysis, little has been written about writing peer-reviewed publications collaboratively in teams. This gap is particularly important for junior researchers who lead articles involving diverse and community-engaged co-authors. The purpose of this article is to present a series of considerations to guide novice researchers in writing for peer-reviewed publication with diverse teams. The following considerations are addressed: justifying the value of peer-reviewed publication with non-academic partners; establishing co-author roles that respect expertise and interest; clarifying the message and audience; using the article outline as a form of engagement; knowledge translation within and beyond the academy; and multiple strategies for generating and reviewing drafts. Community-engaged research often involves collaboration with communities that have long suffered a history of colonial and extractive research practices. Authentic engagement of these partners can be supported through research practices, including manuscript development, that are transparent and that honour the voices of all team members. Ensuring meaningful participation and diverse perspectives is key to transforming research relationships and sharing new insights into seemingly intractable health problems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Addressing the learning needs of multidisciplinary students at a distance using a virtual learning environment (VLE): A novice teacher reflects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Gillian

    2006-03-01

    This paper analyses the experience of one individual in the development and delivery of an innovative, undergraduate leadership development module. The module is accessed by practising health care professionals in Malaysia as part of a top-up Honours Degree and is delivered solely using a virtual learning environment (VLE), in this case Blackboard. The aim of this analysis is to contribute to the current body of knowledge regarding the use of VLE technology to facilitate learning at a distance. Of particular relevance is the paper's focus on: the drivers for e-learning; widening participation and increasing access; the experience of designing and delivering learning of relevance for this contemporary student population and evaluating the VLE experience/module. The development and delivery of this module is one result of a rapidly growing area of education. As a novice teacher in her first year in the higher education sector, this experience was a significant and stimulating challenge for a number of reasons and these are explored in greater depth. This is achieved by means of personal reflection using the phases of module development and delivery as a focus.

  2. Screening of Novice Adolescent Girls for Anemia studying in Medical and Paramedical Colleges at Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika V Chavada, Jagruti D Prajapati, Dinesh M Rathod, Pooja Chaudhary, Kriti M Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia is major public health problem in adoles-cents in India. This study was conducted to estimate the preva-lence of anemia among novice medical and paramedical adolescent girls students and to study the socio-demographic factors associated with anemia in them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by purposive non random sampling method in March 2011. Data was collected from 357 novice girl students of four medical and paramedical colleges and one nursing sc...

  3. The Different Inhibition of Return (IOR Effects of Emergency Managerial Experts and Novices: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Cao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of return (IOR is an important effect of attention. However, the IOR of emergency managerial experts is unknown. By employing emergency and natural scene pictures in expert-novice paradigm, the present study explored the neural activity underlying the IOR effects for emergency managerial experts and novices. In behavioral results, there were no differences of IOR effects between novices and emergency managerial experts, while the event-related potentials (ERPs results were different between novices and experts. In Experiment 1 (novice group, ERPs results showed no any IOR was robust at both stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA of 200 ms and 400 ms. In Experiment 2 (expert group, ERPs results showed an enhanced N2 at SOA of 200 ms and attenuated P3 at cued location in the right parietal lobe and adjacent brain regions than uncued location at SOA of 200 ms. The findings of the two experiments showed that, relative to the novices, IOR for the emergency managerial experts was robust, and dominated in the right parietal lobe and adjacent brain regions, suggesting more flexible attentional processing and higher visual search efficiency of the emergency managerial experts. The findings indicate that the P3, possible N2, over the right parietal lobe and adjacent brain regions are the biological indicators for IOR elicited by post-cued emergency pictures for emergency managerial experts.

  4. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    training bout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during a shoulder resistance training bout with 15 repetitions maximum (RM) loadings in novice individuals. Twelve healthy sedentary women (age = 27-58 years; weight = 54-85 kg; height = 160-178 cm) were recruited for this study...... to the third set (averaged for all muscles: 38.1 ± 23.6 vs. 47.6 ± 28.8% and 88.4 ± 21.3 vs. 82.1 ± 18.1 Hz, respectively). In conclusion, during a shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals using 15RM loading muscle activity of the upper, medial, and lower trapezius, the medial deltoid...... of exercises, nEMG activity was high (>60% of maximal isometric contractions). From the first to the last repetition of each set nEMG-averaged for all muscles-increased 10. 0 ± 0.4% (p

  5. Causal systems categories: differences in novice and expert categorization of causal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin M; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in the relevant domains. This prediction was borne out: the novice groups sorted primarily by domain and the expert group sorted by causal category. These results suggest that science training facilitates insight about causal structures.

  6. Unfolding case studies as a formative teaching methodology for novice nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Sara K; Strickland, Haley P

    2015-02-01

    Nurse educators are challenged to incorporate evidence-based practice initiatives into content-laden curricula in a manner that supports learner-centered teaching environments. This article describes a technique for using unfolding case studies to include such initiatives in the teaching of novice nursing students, as opposed to summative evaluation of their knowledge. Modeled after Kolb's experiential learning theory, a framework for unfolding case studies is presented, which proposes that instead of faculty selecting scenarios for students, they should instead challenge students to directly and creatively develop their own. Small student groups used creative collaboration to create well-planned, complex case study scenarios that unfolded in surprising, realistic ways. This instructional method was met with positive student feedback; however, the authors suggest several recommendations for educators considering this approach. The authors found this framework to be a successful and effective strategy for undergraduate novice nursing students.

  7. A long-term investigation of the comprehension of OOP concepts by novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonis, Noa; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2005-09-01

    This article describes research on the learning of object-oriented programming (OOP) by novices. During two academic years, we taught OOP to high school students, using Java and BlueJ. Our approach to teaching featured: objects-first, teaching composed classes relatively early, deferring the teaching of main methods, and focusing on class structure before algorithms. The research used a constructivist qualitative research methodology using observations and field notes, audio and video recordings, and an analysis of artifacts such as homework assignments. The findings were divided into four primary categories: class vs. object, instantiation and constructors, simple vs. composed classes, and program flow. In total, 58 conceptions and difficulties were identified. Nevertheless, at the end of the courses, the students understood the basic principles of OOP. The two main contributions of this research are: (i) the breadth and depth of its investigation into the concepts held by novices studying OOP, and (ii) the nature of the constructivist qualitative research methodology.

  8. An In Situ Study of Analogical Reasoning in Novice and Experienced Design Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, B T

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience in an adaptive design domain. Protocol analyses of 12 design engineers have been analyzed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real......-world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the use of analogies by novices and experienced designers and the reasoning from the analogies. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information related to the geometric properties without explicit...... reference to relevant design issues or to the appropriateness of applying the analogy, whereas experienced designers tended to use analogies for problem solving and problem identification. Experienced designers were found to use the analogy to reason about the function of a component and the predicted...

  9. The effectiveness of novice users in usability testing

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo, John Lester Sarmiento

    2007-01-01

    Current research is fine-tuning the usability evaluation methods in order to aid current and future usability practitioners. Some of the main research topics are sample sizes and appropriate statistical methods for analysing usability test data. However, few studies have focused on participants with different experience levels on test samples. This thesis aims to fill this gap and add knowledge to the ongoing research on users with different experience levels in usability testing. Th...

  10. Expert and Novice Approaches to Using Graphs: Evidence from Eye-Track Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K. R.; Lindgren, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Professionals and students in geology use an array of graphs to study the earth, but relatively little detail is known about how users interact with these graphs. Comprehension of graphical information in the earth sciences is further complicated by the common use of non-traditional formats (e.g., inverted axes, logarithmic scales, normalized plots, ternary diagrams). Many educators consider graph-reading skills an important outcome of general education science curricula, so it is critical that we understand both the development of graph-reading skills and the instructional practices that are most efficacious. Eye-tracking instruments provide quantitative information about eye movements and offer important insights into the development of expertise in graph use. We measured the graph reading skills and eye movements of novices (students with a variety of majors and educational attainment) and experts (faculty and staff from a variety of disciplines) while observing traditional and non-traditional graph formats. Individuals in the expert group consistently demonstrated significantly greater accuracy in responding to questions (e.g., retrieval, interpretation, prediction) about graphs. Among novices, only the number of college math and science courses correlated with response accuracy. Interestingly, novices and experts exhibited similar eye-tracks when they first encountered a new graph; they typically scanned through the title, x and y-axes, and data regions in the first 5-15 seconds. However, experts are readily distinguished from novices by a greater number of eye movements (20-35%) between the data and other graph elements (e.g., title, x-axis, y-axis) both during and after the initial orientation phase. We attribute the greater eye movements between the different graph elements an outcome of the generally better-developed self-regulation skills (goal-setting, monitoring, self-evaluation) that likely characterize individuals in our expert group.

  11. South African novice driver behaviour: findings from a naturalistic driving study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available in crashes due to personality aspects, social skills and cognitive functions that are still developing (Mäntyläa et al., 2009; Arnett, 2002). Novice drivers’ elevated risk is a complex function of age, experience and misperception of risk on the road... (Engstrom et al., 2003). Psychosocial and cognitive development issues highlight the fact that younger drivers have a reduced ability to recognise hazards or potential hazardous situations in complex traffic situations. Younger drivers lack the ability...

  12. From novice to tech savvy teachers. A Report of Faculty Members’ Teaching with Technology Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie M. Hwang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores faculty motivations to adopt technologies for their courses, their current uses of technologies and perceptions of teaching with technologies, as well as their suggestions for how their institutions can best support them. In particular, this investigation compares novice and tech savvy teachers by looking at differences in the technologies they use, how they integrate these technologies in their courses, and the challenges they experience in doing so.

  13. Video-assisted instruction improves the success rate for tracheal intubation by novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Quijano, K J; Huang, Y M; Matevosian, R; Kaplan, M B; Steadman, R H

    2008-10-01

    Tracheal intubation via laryngoscopy is a fundamental skill, particularly for anaesthesiologists. However, teaching this skill is difficult since direct laryngoscopy allows only one individual to view the larynx during the procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine if video-assisted laryngoscopy improves the effectiveness of tracheal intubation training. In this prospective, randomized, crossover study, 37 novices with less than six prior intubation attempts were randomized into two groups, video-assisted followed by traditional instruction (Group V/T) and traditional instruction followed by video-assisted instruction (Group T/V). Novices performed intubations on three patients, switched groups, and performed three more intubations. All trainees received feedback during the procedure from an attending anaesthesiologist based on standard cues. Additionally, during the video-assisted part of the study, the supervising anaesthesiologist incorporated feedback based on the video images obtained from the fibreoptic camera located in the laryngoscope. During video-assisted instruction, novices were successful at 69% of their intubation attempts whereas those trained during the non-video-assisted portion were successful in 55% of their attempts (P=0.04). Oesophageal intubations occurred in 3% of video-assisted intubation attempts and in 17% of traditional attempts (Pvideo laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation training.

  14. Long Term Effects of Hazard Anticipation Training on Novice Drivers Measured on the Open Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Thalia G G; Masserang, Kathleen M; Pradhan, Anuj K; Divekar, Gautam; Samuel, Siby; Muttart, Jeffrey W; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald L

    2011-01-01

    (a) The purpose of this study was to determine whether novice drivers that were trained to anticipate hazards did so better than novice drivers who were not so trained immediately after training and up to one year after training occurred. (b) Novice drivers who had held their restricted license for about one month were randomly assigned to a PC-based hazard anticipation training program (RAPT) or a placebo (control) training program. The programs took about one hour to complete. The effects of training were assessed in a field drive by using patterns of eye movements to assess whether drivers anticipated a potential unseen hazard. (c) The effects of training persisted over time. In the field test immediately after training, the RAPT group anticipated the hazards 65.8% of the time whereas; the control group anticipated them only 47.3% of the time. Six or more months later, the groups were brought back for a second field test and the effects of training did not diminish; the RAPT group anticipated the hazards 61.9% of the time compared to 37.7% for the control group.

  15. Evaluating The Impact Of Novice Students Sketches On Their Mental Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Helmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reinterpretation is one of the activities that occur in visualization the role of reinterpretation is restructuring half form idea and it can be performed with applying sketch as a useful tool and creation development evaluation communication and sharing of ideas can be facilitated by sketching. Reinterpretation basically is the outcome of the lateral thinking process. Investigating of the reinterpretation of some designers indicate that externalizing a design may not be the solitary approach of designing visually and for expert architects sketching is not a crucial action in the early stages of conceptual designing. Moreover experts could progress in design by thinking only. However novice students have problem in reinterpreting patterns in their mental image whether tools such as sketch could help in the better performance of the reinterpretation process. This paper raises a fundamental question that if the sketch of novice students can support their mental imagery in order to answer this question this paper uses documentary method to investigate the previous studies in this field. Finally in accordance to the weakness of novices sketches this study concluded that their sketches could not support their mental imagery.

  16. Engaging novice teachers in semiotic inquiry: considering the environmental messages of school learning settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    Katherine Fogelberg's insightful study of the messages of zoo signs describes the complex, sometimes contradictory nature of the messages they communicate. The construction and content of signs are influenced by institutional power. Fogelberg argues that the creation of zoo signage designed to inform the public can, through its messages, silence a perspective of care and compassion for animals. The research presented in the following article extends discussion about the value of critical considerations of cultural and institutional messages created and read in another type of setting designed to educate and inform, the school learning setting. The article reports on a project that engaged novice teachers in explorations of the nature and types of environmental messages found in learning settings. During our inquiry work together, novice teachers suggested areas of particular concern to them, and began to construct ideas about aspects of their work in which they plan to take action or engage in future inquiry. The research also reveals some of the challenges involved when novice educators first begin the process of engaging in semiotic interpretive readings of learning settings.

  17. Autonomic nervous system modulation during an archery competition in novice and experienced adolescent archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Andres E; Christodoulou, Vasilios X; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Flouris, Andreas D

    2011-06-01

    We assessed autonomic nervous system modulation through changes in heart rate variability during an archery competition as well as archery performance by comparing novice and experienced adolescent archers. Seven novice (age 14.0 ± 8.5 years, body mass index 22.9 ± 4.3 kg · m(-2), training experience 0.4 ± 0.3 years) and ten experienced archers (age 16.5 ± 10.3 years, body mass index 22.4 ± 3.1 kg · m(-2), training experience 4.1 ± 0.9 years) volunteered. Using beat-by-beat heart rate monitoring, heart rate variability was measured for 20 s before each arrow shot during two rounds of competition. We found that, compared with novices, experienced adolescent archers: (i) take more time per shot; (ii) have a higher low frequency band, square root of the mean of squared differences between successive R-R intervals (i.e. the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram), and percentage of successive normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 ms; and (iii) demonstrate an increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity compared with pre-competition values. We propose that these characteristics of experienced archers are appropriate for optimal performance during competition.

  18. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. An often posed solution to alleviate distraction while driving is hands-free technology. Interference by distraction can occur however at the sensory input (e.g., visual) level, but also at the cognitive level where hands-free technology induces working memory (WM) load. Active maintenance of goal-directed behavior in the presence of distraction depends on WM capacity (i.e., Lavie's Load theory) which implies that people with higher WM capacity are less susceptible to distractor interference. This study investigated the interaction between verbal WM load and WM capacity on driving performance to determine whether individuals with higher WM capacity were less affected by verbal WM load, leading to a smaller deterioration of driving performance. Driving performance of 46 young novice drivers (17-25 years-old) was measured with the lane change task (LCT). Participants drove without and with verbal WM load of increasing complexity (auditory-verbal response N-back task). Both visuospatial and verbal WM capacity were investigated. Dependent measures were mean deviation in the lane change path (MDEV), lane change initiation (LCI) and percentage of correct lane changes (PCL). Driving experience was included as a covariate. Performance on each dependent measure deteriorated with increasing verbal WM load. Meanwhile, higher WM capacity related to better LCT performance. Finally, for LCI and PCL, participants with higher verbal WM capacity were influenced less by verbal WM load. These findings entail that completely eliminating distraction is necessary to minimize crash risks among young novice drivers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigate-and-redesign tasks as a context for learning and doing science and technology: A study of naive, novice and expert high school and adult designers doing product comparisons and redesign tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismond, David Paul

    This thesis studied high school students and adults with varying degrees of design experience doing two technology investigate-and-redesign (I&R) tasks. Each involved subjects investigating products, designing experiments to compare them fairly, and then redesigning the devices. A total of 25 pairs of subjects participated in this investigation and included naive and novice high school designers, as well as naive, novice, and expert adult designers. Subjects of similar age and design experience worked in same-gender teams and met for two 2-hour sessions. The essential research question of this thesis was: "What process skills and concepts do naive, novice and expert designers use and learn when investigating devices, designing experiments, and redesigning the devices?" Three methodologies were used to gather and analyze the data: clinical interviewing (Piaget, 1929/1960), protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1984) and interaction analysis (Jordan and Henderson, 1995). The thesis provides composite case-studies of 10 of the 50 test sessions, buttressed by descriptions of performance trends for all subjects. Given the small sample sizes involved, the findings are by necessity tentative and not supported by statistical analysis: (1) I&R activities are engaging, less time-intensive complements to design-and-build tasks, which involve simple mechanical devices and carry with them a host of potential "alternative understandings" in science and technology. Much gets learned during these tasks, more involving "device knowledge" and "device inquiry skills" than "big ideas" in science and technology. (2) Redesign tasks scaffold naive and novice designers to improved performance in the multidimensional and context-specific activity of design. The performances of naive and novice designers were more like that of expert designers when redesigning existing devices than when doing start-from-scratch designing. (3) Conceptual redesign involved more analysis- than synthesis

  20. Expert vs. novice: Problem decomposition/recomposition in engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design session, members participated in a group interview. This study used protocol analysis as the methodology. Video and audio data were transcribed, segmented, and coded. Two coding systems including the FBS ontology and "levels of the problem" were used in this study. A series of statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Interview data and participants' design sketches also worked as supplemental data to help answer the research questions. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, it was found that students used less problem decomposition and problem recomposition than engineer experts in engineering design. This result implies that engineering education should place more importance on teaching problem decomposition and problem recomposition. Students were found to spend less cognitive effort when considering the problem as a whole and interactions between subsystems than engineer experts. In addition, students were also found to spend more cognitive effort when considering details of subsystems. These results showed that students tended to use dept-first decomposition and experts tended to use breadth-first decomposition in engineering design. The use of Function (F), Behavior (B), and Structure (S) among engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen was compared on three levels. Level 1 represents designers consider the problem as an integral whole, Level 2 represents designers consider interactions between

  1. Usability Testing Finds Problems for Novice Users of Pediatric Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Maria T.; Jimison, Holly B.; Munafo, Jennifer Knopf; Wissman, Jennifer; Rogers, Michelle L.; Hersh, William

    2009-01-01

    Objective Patient portals may improve pediatric chronic disease outcomes, but few have been rigorously evaluated for usability by parents. Using scenario-based testing with think-aloud protocols, we evaluated the usability of portals for parents of children with cystic fibrosis, diabetes or arthritis. Design Sixteen parents used a prototype and test data to complete 14 tasks followed by a validated satisfaction questionnaire. Three iterations of the prototype were used. Measurements During the usability testing, we measured the time it took participants to complete or give up on each task. Sessions were videotaped and content-analyzed for common themes. Following testing, participants completed the Computer Usability Satisfaction Questionnaire which measured their opinions on the efficiency of the system, its ease of use, and the likability of the system interface. A 7-point Likert scale was used, with seven indicating the highest possible satisfaction. Results Mean task completion times ranged from 73 (± 61) seconds to locate a document to 431 (± 286) seconds to graph laboratory results. Tasks such as graphing, location of data, requesting access, and data interpretation were challenging. Satisfaction was greatest for interface pleasantness (5.9 ± 0.7) and likeability (5.8 ± 0.6) and lowest for error messages (2.3 ± 1.2) and clarity of information (4.2 ± 1.4). Overall mean satisfaction scores improved between iteration one and three. Conclusions Despite parental involvement and prior heuristic testing, scenario-based testing demonstrated difficulties in navigation, medical language complexity, error recovery, and provider-based organizational schema. While such usability testing can be expensive, the current study demonstrates that it can assist in making healthcare system interfaces for laypersons more user-friendly and potentially more functional for patients and their families. PMID:19567793

  2. Staged microvascular anastomosis training program for novices:transplantation of both kidneys from one rat donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shoujun; Li Enchun; He Jun; Weng Guobin; Yuan Hexing; Hou Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Background Rat renal transplantation is an essential experimental model and requires greater microsurgical skills.Thus,training novices to perform quick and reliable microvascular anastomosis is of vital importance for rat renal transplantation.In this study,we developed and evaluated a staged microvascular anastomosis training program for novices,harvesting and transplanting both kidneys from one rat donor.Methods Five trainees without any prior microsurgical experience underwent a training program in which the goals were staged according to difficulty.Each trainee had to achieve satisfactory results as evaluated by a mentor before entering the next stage.Rat renal transplantation was accomplished by end-to-end technique with a bladder patch.In the intensive rat renal transplantation stage,the trainees required an average of 20 independent attempts at isotransplantation as final training assessment.Results After 2 months of intensive practice,all trainees had achieved stable and reproducible rat renal transplantation,with a satisfactory survival rate of 85.9% at postoperative Day 7.The total mean operative time was 78.0 minutes and the mean hot ischemia time was 26.2 minutes.With experience increasing,the operative time for each trainee showed a decreasing trend,from 90-100 minutes to 60-70 minutes.After 20 cases,the mean operative time of the trainees was not statistically significantly different from that of the mentor.Conclusion Harvesting and transplanting both kidneys from one rat donor after a staged microvascular anastomosis training program is feasible for novices without any prior microsurgical skills.

  3. Problem-solving strategies in psychiatry: differences between experts and novices in diagnostic accuracy and reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adel Gabriel,1,2 Claudio Violato21Departments of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary; 2Medical Education, Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary Calgary, CanadaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare diagnostic success and its relationship with the diagnostic reasoning process between novices and experts in psychiatry.Methods: Nine volunteers, comprising five expert psychiatrists and four clinical clerks, completed a think-aloud protocol while attempting to make a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of a selected case with both Axis I and Axis III diagnoses.Results: Expert psychiatrists made significantly more successful diagnoses for both the primary psychiatric and medical diagnoses than clinical clerks. Expert psychiatrists also gave fewer differential options. Analyzing the think-aloud protocols, expert psychiatrists were much more organized, made fewer mistakes, and utilized significantly less time to access their knowledge than clinical clerks. Both novices and experts seemed to use the hypothetic-deductive and scheme-inductive approaches to diagnosis. However, experts utilized hypothetic-deductive approaches significantly more often than novices.Conclusion: The hypothetic-deductive diagnostic strategy was utilized more than the scheme-inductive approach by both expert psychiatrists and clinical clerks. However, a specific relationship between diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic success could not be identified in this small pilot study. The author recommends a larger study that would include a detailed analysis of the think-aloud protocols.Keywords: diagnostic reasoning, knowledge structure, psychiatric diagnosis, hypothetic-deductive, scheme-inductive

  4. Inexperienced but Effectual: the Importance of Conceptualizing Context in Expert Decision-Logic by Novices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle

    Objective/Aim: Focusing on four aspects of context; social, spatial, temporal and institutional the aim of this research is to examine why some students learn to be effectual and others do not. We explore how context impacts novice entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial teams in the application...... period, where motivation and expectations are high and context impacts on the student’s ability to begin the process; ii) a phase of identity construction in teams, where relational aspects are integral to supporting the continuation of the process; and iii) a mastery phase where the five principles...

  5. Novice Teachers’Professional Development--Revelation From A Volunteer Teacher’s Teaching Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋池

    2014-01-01

    With batch after batch of college students heading off to the west, The College Students’Western China Volunteer Teaching Program has been vigorous and spectacular, and the work of volunteer teaching has been solid and steady. But do volunteer teachers achieve their professional development during a year’s teaching as novice teachers? This paper adopts narrative inquiry, a widely valued research method in educational research, to inquire a volunteer teacher and a student, thus explore the changes of the volunteer teacher and the students have made after one-year teaching.

  6. Top tips for PhD thesis examination: nurse clinicians, researchers and novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, there are very few guidelines in the literature to assist novice nurse PhD examiners. In this paper, we aim to provide information to nurses, researchers or early career academics who have little experience in assessing a university thesis. The article provides background information about recent changes in the university sector; overviews some research on experienced examiners views; presents factors that differentiate between high and low quality PhD theses; and outlines some pointers that may be useful when marking at the doctoral level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. RESULTS: Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; P.... CONCLUSIONS: An average running distance of more than 5 km per week in runners who took up running to lose weight combined with a targeted diet change seems effective in reducing fat mass over a one-year period among novice runners. Still, randomized controlled trials are needed to better document the effects...

  8. Novice Non-Native English Teachers’ Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumru Akcan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates novice non-native English teachers’ opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education programme and catalogue the difficulties they faced when they star-ted to teach. The study found significant differences between the content of novice teachers’ academic courses in their teacher education programme and the conditions they experienced in classrooms. The major challenges of their first years of teaching were related to lesson delivery, managing behaviour, unmotivated students, and students with learning disabilities. The article includes suggestions to prepare teachers for the actualities of working in schools.

  9. Co-Teaching and Team Teaching: Promising Opportunities for Supporting Novice Special Education Teachers within the School Culture. Induction Insights. Supporting Special Education Teachers-Administrators [AII-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative school context can support novice special education teachers. Co-teaching and team teaching represent collaborative opportunities that can counteract the historic isolation of special education teachers. Co-teaching and team teaching--the focus of this Brief--also have the potential for supporting novice teacher socialization in…

  10. Parental smoke exposure and the development of nicotine craving in adolescent novice smokers: the roles of DRD2, DRD4, and OPRM1 genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; DiFranza, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among adolescent novice smokers, craving is often the first, and is the most reported, symptom of nicotine dependence. Until now, little has been known about the development of craving symptoms in novice smokers. The aim of this study was to identify specific genetic (i.e., DRD2 Taq1A, D

  11. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Out-of-the-Window Cues on Training Novice Pilots on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; Heath, Bruce; Ali, Syed F.; Ward, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    The effects of out-of-the-window cues on learning a straight-in landing approach and a level 360deg turn by novice pilots on a flight simulator have been investigated. The treatments consisted of training with and without visual cues as well as density of visual cues. The performance of the participants was then evaluated through similar but more challenging tasks. It was observed that the participants in the landing study who trained with visual cues performed poorly than those who trained without the cues. However the performance of those who trained with a faded-cues sequence performed slightly better than those who trained without visual cues. In the level turn study it was observed that those who trained with the visual cues performed better than those who trained without visual cues. The study also showed that those participants who trained with a lower density of cues performed better than those who trained with a higher density of visual cues.

  12. A comparison of patient education practices and perceptions of novice and experienced physiotherapists in Australian physiotherapy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Roma; Mandrusiak, Allison; Smith, Michelle; Russell, Trevor

    2017-04-01

    Patient education is an integral component of physiotherapy practice. Little is known about the differences in reported use and perception of patient education between experienced and novice physiotherapists. Understanding these differences has important implications for training approaches and physiotherapy practice. To compare how experienced and novice physiotherapists report frequency of patient education practices and their perceptions of the importance of these practices. A web-based purpose-designed survey was developed, piloted and administered to practicing physiotherapists through direct email. Of 305 complete responses, two subgroups were explored for comparative analysis: 'novice' (≤5years' experience, n = 52); and 'experienced' (≥11 years' experience, n = 204). The experienced group rated 14 of 15 educational items higher than the novice group in relation to frequency of use and perceived importance. Experienced physiotherapists reported a significantly higher frequency of using one-to-one discussion, personalised handouts and explicitly seeking patient understanding (p education, particularly those related to characteristics of the patient (p higher use of self-management education and education content that is patient-centred. Experienced therapists report a higher frequency of seeking explicit patient understanding to evaluate their teaching than novice physiotherapists and perceive fewer patient-related barriers to their practice. These findings are important when considering teaching and learning of patient education skills. Students or novice physiotherapists may benefit from strategies to facilitate patient-centred education, self-management education, evaluation approaches and strategies to manage barriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organization of the upper limb movement for piano key-depression differs between expert pianists and novice players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    The present study investigated the expert-novice difference in the organization of upper-limb movement for the key-depression on the piano. Kinematic and electromyographic recordings were made while experts (N = 7) and novices (N = 7) of classical-piano players performed a right hand octave keystroke to produce four different sound dynamics. The joint torque generated at the key-bottom moment (key-force torque) was also estimated. At all sound dynamics, the experts showed a larger finger attack angle, more flexed shoulder, wrist, and MP joints, more extended elbow joint, and smaller key-force torque at the MP joint than the novices. The level of co-activation in the finger flexor-extensor muscles during the period prior to the key-bottom moment was also lower for the experts. To attain the large attack angle by the experts, as the fingertip depressed the key to the bottom, their shoulder was actively flexed, the forearm was thrust forward, and the hand was rotated forward. The novices, on the other hand, actively extended their shoulder to move the forearm and hand downward to depress the key. These results confirmed a substantial difference in the key-depression movement organization between the experts and novices. These findings also suggest that experts use a synergistically organized multi-joint limb motion that allows them to minimize the biomechanical load and muscular effort to the distal muscles. The novices, on the other hand, tend to rely on a rudimentary synergy of joint motion developed through daily experience.

  14. Gait adaptations with aging in healthy participants and people with knee-joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, Lynsey D; Jordan, Stevan J; Cobb, Justin P; McGregor, Alison H

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between age and gait characteristics in people with and without medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We aimed to characterize this relationship and to relate biomechanical and structural parameters in a subset of OA patients. Twenty five participants with diagnosed unilateral medial knee OA and 84 healthy participants, with no known knee pathology were recruited. 3D motion capture was used to analyse sagittal and coronal plane gait parameters while participants walked at a comfortable speed. Participants were categorized according to age (18-30, 31-59 and 60+ years), and those with and without OA were compared between and within age groups. In a subset of OA patients, clinically available Computed Tomography images were used to assess joint structure. Differences in coronal plane kinematics at the hip and knee were noted in participants with OA particularly those who were older compared with our healthy controls, as well as increased knee moments. Knee adduction moment correlated with structural parameters in the subset of OA patients. Increased knee moments and altered kinematics were observed in older participants presenting with OA only, which seem to be related to morphological changes in the joint due to OA, as opposed to being related to the initial cause of medial knee OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  16. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  17. Experimental verification of NOVICE transport code predictions of electron distributions from targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kronenberg, S; Jordan, T; Bechtel, E; Gentner, F; Groeber, E

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experiments that were designed to check the validity of the NOVICE Adjoint Monte Carlo Transport code in predicting emission-electron distributions from irradiated targets. Previous work demonstrated that the code accurately calculated total electron yields from irradiated targets. In this investigation, a gold target was irradiated by X-rays with effective quantum energies of 79, 127, 174, 216, and 250 keV. Spectra of electrons from the target were measured for an incident photon angle of 45 deg., an emission-electron polar angle of 45 deg., azimuthal angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg., and in both the forward and backward directions. NOVICE was used to predict those electron-energy-distributions for the same set of experimental conditions. The agreement in shape of the theoretical and experimental distributions was good, whereas the absolute agreement in amplitude was within about a factor of 2 over most of the energy range of the spectra. Previous experimental and theoretical c...

  18. A narrative study of novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Roberta

    It is hoped that, once implemented, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will engage students more deeply in science learning and build science knowledge sequentially beginning in Kindergarten (NRC, 2013). Early instruction is encouraged but must be delivered by qualified elementary teachers who have both the science content knowledge and the necessary instructional skills to teach science effectively to young children (Ejiwale, 2012, Spencer, Vogel, 2009, Walker, 2011). The purpose of this research study is to gain insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction. This research suggests that infusion of constructivist teaching in the elementary classroom is beneficial to the teacher's instruction of science concepts to elementary students. Constructivism is theory that learning is centered on the learner constructing new ideas or concepts built upon their current/past knowledge (Bruner, 1966). Based on this theory, it is recommended that the instructor should try to encourage students to discover principles independently; essentially the instructor presents the problem and lets students go (Good & Brophy, 2004). Discovery learning, hands-on, experimental, collaborative, and project-based learning are all approaches that use constructivist principles. The NGSS are based on constructivist principles. This narrative study provides insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction considered through the lens of Constructivist Theory (Bruner, 1960).

  19. [Problems in career planning for novice medical technologists in Japanese national hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Shu; Tsutaya, Shoji; Akimoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Keiya; Yabaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    Skills and knowledge regarding many different types of test are required for medical technologists (MTs) to provide accurate information to help doctors and other medical specialists. In order to become an efficient MT, specialized training programs are required. Certification in specialized areas of clinical laboratory sciences or a doctoral degree in medical sciences may help MTs to realize career advancement, a higher earning potential, and expand the options in their career. However, most young MTs in national university hospitals are employed as part-time workers on a three-year contract, which is too short to obtain certifications or a doctoral degree. We have to leave the hospital without expanding our future. We need to take control of our own development in order to enhance our employability within the period. As teaching and training hospitals, national university hospitals in Japan are facing a difficult dilemma in nurturing MTs. I hope, as a novice medical technologist, that at least university hospitals in Japan create an appropriate workplace environment for novice MTs.

  20. Supporting Novice Teachers Through Mentoring and Induction in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zembytska Maryna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the U.S. system of novice teacher support. The study highlights the evolution of mentoring from a traditional, isolated, hierarchical one-to-one relationship to multiple interactions which comprise a collaborative developmental network. The findings suggest that mentoring and induction support in the United States are continually progressing to conform to the dynamic trends in education and organizational management, which is evident in the diversification of their forms and types. American educators and policymakers extensively use new forms of mentoring, such as online mentoring, group mentoring, reciprocal mentoring, needs-driven mentoring etc. The analysis of induction and mentoring programs, district professional development plans and other documentation, carried out in the process of research, reveals their core components, goals and the peculiarities of their design and implementation. Special attention is given to mentor training, selection and matching. Novice teacher support is viewed as an effective instrument which allows school districts to reduce teacher turnover, improve student achievement by providing students with quality instruction and promote collaboration within teaching staff and administration.

  1. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schorer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68 in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7 in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  2. Spinal fMRI of Interoceptive Attention/Awareness in Experts and Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Kashkouli Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many disciplines/traditions that promote interoceptive (inner sensation of body parts attention/awareness (IAA train practitioners to both attend to and be aware of interoceptive sensory experiences in body parts. The effect of such practices has been investigated in previous imaging studies but limited to cerebral neural activity. Here, for the first time, we studied the impact of these practices on the spinal neural activity of experts and novices. We also attempted to clarify the effect of constant and deep breathing, a paradigm utilized in concentration practices to avoid mind wandering, on IAA-related spinal neural activity. Subjects performed IAA tasks with and without a deep and constant breathing pattern in two sessions. Results showed that neural activity in the spinal segment innervating the attended-to body area increased in experts (P=0.04 when they performed IAA and that this increase was significantly larger for experts versus novices in each of the sessions (P=0.024. The significant effects of IAA and expertise on spinal neural activity are consistent with and elaborate on previous reports showing similar effects on cerebral neural activity. As the spinal cord directly innervates body parts, the results might indicate that IAA has an instantaneous (possibly beneficial effect on the physical body after extended training.

  3. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen

    Full Text Available Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners.Prospective cohort study on injured runners.This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered.A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87% recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum  = 9 days, maximum  = 617 days.Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

  4. Response timing and muscular coordination in fencing: a comparison of elite and novice fencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-12-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT) and accuracy of elite and novice fencers was studied under three levels of target choice (single-, two- and four-targets) with three variations of movement distance (short, medium and long lunge). In addition, electromyographic activity (EMG) of selected upper and lower limb muscles was used to compare the two groups. The elite subjects were faster for RT and RMT and displayed a higher level of accuracy. The hypothesis that increasing choice would cause increases in RT was not upheld. Except for some differentiation between the short and the two longer distances, the effects of movement distance were not marked. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of EMG revealed the high consistency of response patterns within subjects and highlighted the synergistic roles of selected muscles in distinguishing between elite and novice fencers. These findings confirm that differences in the technical skill of fencers can be distinguished in the laboratory through a combination of response timing measures in association with measures of muscle action. They also draw attention to practical implications for individual skill assessment and training. Analysis of pre-movement muscle activity provided moderate support for the hypothesis that it was part of a single control process and indicates that a dual process can involve both the maintenance of postural stability and the generation of movement. It is suggested that different movement contexts can lead to different levels of coordination between the system controlling posture and that controlling movement.

  5. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  6. Central neuronal motor behaviour in skilled and less skilled novices - Approaching sports-specific movement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Kato, Kouki; Schneider, Stefan; Türk, Stefan; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-14

    Research on motor behavioural processes preceding voluntary movements often refers to analysing the readiness potential (RP). For this, decades of studies used laboratory setups with controlled sports-related actions. Further, recent applied approaches focus on athlete-non-athlete comparisons, omitting possible effects of training history on RP. However, RP preceding real sport-specific movements in accordance to skill acquisition remains to be elucidated. Therefore, after familiarization 16 right-handed males with no experience in archery volunteered to perform repeated sports-specific movements, i.e. 40 arrow-releasing shots at 60s rest on a 15m distant standard target. Continuous, synchronised EEG and right limb EMG recordings during arrow-releasing served to detect movement onsets for RP analyses over distinct cortical motor areas. Based on attained scores on target, archery novices were, a posteriori, subdivided into a skilled and less skilled group. EMG results for mean values revealed no significant changes (all p>0.05), whereas RP amplitudes and onsets differed between groups but not between motor areas. Arrow-releasing preceded larger RP amplitudes (p<0.05) and later RP onsets (p<0.05) in skilled compared to less skilled novices. We suggest this to reflect attentional orienting and greater effort that accompanies central neuronal preparatory states of a sports-specific movement.

  7. Spatial visualization ability and laparoscopic skills in novice learners: evaluating stereoscopic versus monoscopic visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A; Mistry, Manisha R; Wilson, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may confer learning advantages to novices of variant Vz. This study explored laparoscopic skill performance scores in novices with variable spatial ability utilizing stereoscopic and traditional monoscopic visualization paradigms. Utilizing the McGill Inanimate System for Teaching and Evaluating Laparoscopic Skills (MISTELS) scoring protocol it was hypothesized that individuals with high spatial visualization ability (HVz) would achieve higher overall and individual MISTELS task scores as compared to low spatial visualization ability (LVz) counterparts. Further, we also hypothesized that a difference would exist between HVz and LVz individual scores based on the viewing modality employed. No significant difference was observed between HVz and LVz individuals for MISTELS tasks scores, overall or individually under both viewing modalities, despite higher average MISTELS scores for HVz individuals. The lack of difference between scores obtained under the stereo modality suggested that the additional depth that is conferred by the stereoscopic visualization may act to enhance performance for individuals with LVz, potentially equilibrating their performance with their HVz peers. Further experimentation is required to better ascertain the effects of stereo visualization in individuals of high and low Vz, though it appears stereoscopic visualizations could serve as a prosthetic to enhance skill performance.

  8. Effect of Above Real Time Training and Post Flight Feedback in Training of Novice Pilots in a PC-Based Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; Heath, Bruce E.; Ali, Syed firasat; Crane, Peter; Knighten, Tremaine; Culpepper, Christi

    2003-01-01

    The use of Post-Flight Feedback (PFFB) and Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) while training novice pilots to perform a coordinated level turn on a PC-based flight simulator was investigated. One group trained at 1.5 ARTT followed by an equal number of flights at 2.0 ARTT; the second group experienced Real Time Training (RTT). The total number of flights for both groups was equal. Each group was further subdivided into two groups one of which was provided PFFB while the other was not. Then, all participants experienced two challenging evaluation missions in real time. Performance was assessed by comparing root-mean-square error in bank-angle and altitude. Participants in the 1.512.0 ARTT No-PFFB sequence did not show improvement in performance across training sessions. An ANOVA on performance in evaluation flights found that the PFFB groups performed significantly better than those with No-PFFB. Also, the RTT groups performed significantly better than the ARTT groups. Data from two additional groups trained under a 2.011.5 ARTT PFFB and No-PFFB regimes were collected and combined with data from the previously Trainers, Real-time simulation, Personal studied groups and reanalyzed to study the computers, Man-in-the-loop simulation influence of sequence. An ANOVA on test trials found no significant effects between groups. Under training situations involving ARTT we recommend that appropriate PFFB be provided.

  9. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice ePotvin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two (22 scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  10. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  11. Sink or Swim? Throw Us a Life Jacket! Novice Alternatively Certified Bilingual and Special Education Teachers Deserve Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Pat; Dunlap, Karen; Brister, Heather; Davidson, Michele; Starrett, Teresa Martin

    2013-01-01

    Special education and bilingual teachers are in high demand. Many teachers in these specialization areas enter the profession via alternative certification programs, expedited routes to teacher certification. There is little research focusing on the specific support needs of novice special education and bilingual teachers from these widely varying…

  12. Mapping the Ethnographic Journey: A "Road Map" for Novice Researchers Wanting to Engage in Ethnography, Critical Theory and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sham

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the "researcher" narrates the issues faced by novice researchers in choosing the correct lenses to conduct research when searching for the truth via the use of qualitative methodology. It is argued that choosing an appropriate research approach and methodology can be described as an "arduous" journey. For the…

  13. Modelling a Complex System: Using Novice-Expert Analysis for Developing an Effective Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to present the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment (Air Pollution Modeling Environment [APoME]) that was informed by a novice-expert analysis and to discuss high school students' development of modelling practices in the learning environment. APoME was designed to help high school students…

  14. Teacher Learning in the Workplace: A Study of the Relationship between a Novice EFL Teacher's Classroom Practices and Cognition Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yan; Cheng, Xiaotang

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an in-depth case study of a novice middle school EFL teacher's cognition development during the process of learning to teach in the workplace. Data was collected mainly through classroom observations and interviews. Results indicate that the teacher exhibited a considerable amount of change in her classroom practices, which…

  15. Child Development Theory as a Mediator of Novice Teachers' Ethnotheories to Increase Learning and Justice in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Nancy Michele

    2014-01-01

    Many urban public schools use teaching methods that isolate and silence children to compel compliance (Schwebel, 2004; Saltman & Gabbard, 2003; Baumrind, 1991). In these contexts, black and brown children are disciplined more often and harshly than white, sent through the court system 70% of the time (Alexander, 2012). Novice teachers,…

  16. The Influence of Classroom Management, Administrative Support, Parental Involvement, and Economic Factors on the Retention of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Katrina Moody

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of selected factors upon the intent of novice teachers to remain in the classroom. Teachers are leaving the profession in numbers that have prompted significant concern among policymakers and administrators. Many qualified college students are not considering the field of education as a potential…

  17. The Valuation of Knowledge and Normative Reflection in Teacher Qualification: A Comparison of Teacher Educators, Novice and Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    The transition from teacher education to work in schools has been described as an "epistemic clash". Teacher educators', novice teachers' and experienced teachers' valuation of the academic, practical and normative demands of teaching are compared using survey data from teacher education and schools. All groups value academic knowledge and…

  18. Child Development Theory as a Mediator of Novice Teachers' Ethnotheories to Increase Learning and Justice in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Nancy Michele

    2014-01-01

    Many urban public schools use teaching methods that isolate and silence children to compel compliance (Schwebel, 2004; Saltman & Gabbard, 2003; Baumrind, 1991). In these contexts, black and brown children are disciplined more often and harshly than white, sent through the court system 70% of the time (Alexander, 2012). Novice teachers,…

  19. The development of a method to measure speed adaptation to traffic complexity: Identifying novice, unsafe, and overconfident drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    To monitor novice driver performance in the first years of solo driving, a test aimed at assessing speed adaptation to the traffic situation was developed and evaluated. The Adaptation Test consisted of 18 traffic scenes presented in two (almost) identical photographs, which differed in one single d

  20. "Staying on Our Feet": Novice Music Teachers' Sharing of Emotions and Experiences within an Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple forms of support for teachers new to the profession are important and necessary. The use of an online community by 11 novice instrumental music teachers at the middle school and high school levels was investigated in this case study. The teachers exchanged messages and information within the online community during the 2010-2011 school…

  1. Reliability of an Automated High-Resolution Manometry Analysis Program across Expert Users, Novice Users, and Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corinne A.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Geng, Zhixian; Abdelhalim, Suzan M.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intrarater reliability among expert users, novice users, and speech-language pathologists with a semiautomated high-resolution manometry analysis program. We hypothesized that all users would have high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability. Method: Three expert…

  2. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Efficacy and Cultural Efficacy of Novice Science Teachers in High-Needs Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine; Bilica, Kimberly; Wandless, Ana; Gdovin, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to investigate what relationship exists between teaching efficacy and cultural efficacy of novice science teachers in high-needs, high-minority urban schools. One major theme--the importance of establishing positive teacher-student relationships--surrounding teaching efficacy in the context of cultural efficacy…

  4. Video as a Professional Development Tool to Support Novice Teachers as They Learn to Teach English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estapa, Anne; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Chval, Kathryn B.

    2016-01-01

    This two-year study investigated how an innovative video tool enhanced novice-teacher noticing abilities and instructional practice in relation to teaching mathematics to English language learners in third grade classrooms. Specifically, teachers viewed videos of their mathematics lessons that were filmed by Latino English language learners who…

  5. Video as a Professional Development Tool to Support Novice Teachers as They Learn to Teach English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estapa, Anne; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Chval, Kathryn B.

    2016-01-01

    This two-year study investigated how an innovative video tool enhanced novice-teacher noticing abilities and instructional practice in relation to teaching mathematics to English language learners in third grade classrooms. Specifically, teachers viewed videos of their mathematics lessons that were filmed by Latino English language learners who…

  6. A Phenomenological Study Investigating Transformative Learning Strategies Implemented by 10 Title I Elementary Principals That Influence Novice Teacher Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Tara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate transformative learning strategies implemented by 10 Title I elementary principals that influence novice teacher retention. Data were gathered by individual interviews. Data were analyzed using Creswell's (2013) description of qualitative research as a collection of data…

  7. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  8. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  9. A Cognitive Model of How Interactive Multimedia Authoring Facilitates Conceptual Understanding of Object-Oriented Programming in Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Timothy; Liu, Min

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive model of how interactive multimedia authoring (IMA) affect novices' cognition in object-oriented programming. This model was generated through an empirical study of first year computer science students at the university level being engaged in interactive multimedia authoring of a role-playing game. Clinical…

  10. Sink or Swim? Throw Us a Life Jacket! Novice Alternatively Certified Bilingual and Special Education Teachers Deserve Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Pat; Dunlap, Karen; Brister, Heather; Davidson, Michele; Starrett, Teresa Martin

    2013-01-01

    Special education and bilingual teachers are in high demand. Many teachers in these specialization areas enter the profession via alternative certification programs, expedited routes to teacher certification. There is little research focusing on the specific support needs of novice special education and bilingual teachers from these widely varying…

  11. Exploring the Influence of the Attachment Organizations of Novice Therapists on Their Delivery of Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians' own internal resources for understanding relationships--that is, their attachment organizations--have been found to influence the process and outcome of treatment. The current study addressed whether the attachment organizations of novice couple and family therapists were associated with couples' experiences of their therapists,…

  12. "Staying on Our Feet": Novice Music Teachers' Sharing of Emotions and Experiences within an Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple forms of support for teachers new to the profession are important and necessary. The use of an online community by 11 novice instrumental music teachers at the middle school and high school levels was investigated in this case study. The teachers exchanged messages and information within the online community during the 2010-2011 school…

  13. The Effect of Self-Explanation and Prediction on the Development of Principled Understanding of Chess in Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the effect of self-explanation and prediction on the development of principled understanding of novices learning to play chess. First-year psychology students, who had no chess experience, first learned the basic rules of chess and were afterwards divided in three conditions. They either observed (control…

  14. Teacher Learning in the Workplace: A Study of the Relationship between a Novice EFL Teacher's Classroom Practices and Cognition Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yan; Cheng, Xiaotang

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an in-depth case study of a novice middle school EFL teacher's cognition development during the process of learning to teach in the workplace. Data was collected mainly through classroom observations and interviews. Results indicate that the teacher exhibited a considerable amount of change in her classroom practices, which…

  15. Skilled players' and novices' difficulty anticipating left- vs. right-handed opponents' action intentions varies across different points in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    A left-handers' performance advantage in interactive sports is assumed to result from their relative rarity compared to right-handers. Part of this advantage may be explained by athletes facing difficulties anticipating left-handers' action intentions, particularly when anticipation is based on kinematic cues available at an early stage of an opponent's movement. Here we tested whether the type of volleyball attack is predicted better against right- vs. left-handed opponents' movements and whether such handedness effects are evident at earlier time points in skilled players than novices. In a video-based experiment volleyball players and novices predicted the type of shot (i.e., smash vs. lob) of left- and right-handed volleyball attacks occluded at six different time points. Overall, right-handed attacks were better anticipated than left-handed attacks, volleyball players outperformed novices, and performance improved in later occlusion conditions. Moreover, in skilled players the handedness effect was most pronounced when attacks were occluded 480 ms prior to hand-ball-contact, whereas in novices it was most evident 240 ms prior to hand-ball-contact. Our findings provide further evidence of the effect of an opponent's handedness on action outcome anticipation and suggest that its occurrence in the course of an opponent's unfolding action likely depends on an observers' domain-specific skill.

  16. The NLstart2run study : Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors

  17. Novice Explanations of Hurricane Formation Offer Insights into Scientific Literacy and the Development of Expert-Like Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Van Den Broeke, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to explain scientific phenomena is a key feature of scientific literacy, and engaging students' prior knowledge, especially their alternate conceptions, is an effective strategy for enhancing scientific literacy and developing expertise. The gap in knowledge about the alternate conceptions that novices have about many of Earth's…

  18. Success as a Springboard for Novice Physical Education Teachers in Their Efforts to Develop a Professional Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Sima; Stein, Hanan; Nabel-Heller, Noa

    2015-01-01

    This article explored how 45 novice physical education teachers perceived success, and how success affected their motivation to continue teaching. Self-determination theory (SDT) was used to interpret the teachers' written reports, and focus group discussions were held concerning their success. Satisfaction with the competence, relatedness, and…

  19. It's harder than we thought it would be: A comparative case study of expert-novice experimentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Nagarajan, Anandi; Day, Roger S.

    2002-03-01

    Scientific inquiry is a complex skill. Aspiring physicians need to learn these skills so that they can be educated consumers of medical research as well as being collaborators in different kinds of clinical trials. But school science often fails to provide the kind of authentic tasks needed to help students develop appropriate reasoning skills and epistemological beliefs. In this study, we compared a group of expert cancer researchers with four groups of fourth year medical students (the novice groups) engaged in the task of designing a clinical trial to test a new cancer drug using a computer-based modeling tool, the Oncology Thinking Cap. Although the experts and novices reached similar endpoints, their reasoning processes differed considerably. For the experts, this was a task that required learning about the drug they were testing. The novices needed to learn about designing clinical trials, particularly about how variables interacted with each other, as well as learning about the drug. One of the major lessons learned by the novice student groups was just how complex clinical trial design really is.

  20. Teacher Quality Partnership Novice Teacher Study. Technical Report NTS 07-01: Research Brief, 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan-Welsch, Kathryn; Currell, Cindy; Shervey, Beth; Hendricks, Martha S.; Erchick, Diana B.; Stroot, Sandra A.; Smith, Sonja; Franco, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to summarize the research methodology of the Novice Teacher Study (NTS) strand of the Teacher Quality Partnership (TQP) research. The Ohio TQP embarked on a series of research studies to learn more about the characteristics of effective teachers and to identify the patterns of teacher performance in both…