WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-first session sinaia

  1. Report of the twenty-first session, London, 18-22 February 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) held its twenty-first session at the Headquarters of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), London, from 18 to 22 February 1991. Marine pollution is primarily linked to coastal development. The most serious problems are those associated with inadequately controlled coastal development and intensive human settlement of the coastal zone. GESAMP emphasizes the importance of the following problems and issues: State of the marine environment; comprehensive framework for the assessment and regulation of waste disposal in the marine environment; information on preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; review of potentially harmful substances: 1. Carcinogenic substances. 2. Mutagenic substances. 3. Teratogenic substances. 4. Organochlorine compounds. 5. Oil, and other hydrocarbons including used lubricating oils, oil spill dispersants and chemicals used in offshore oil exploration and exploitation; environmental impacts of coastal aquaculture; global change and the air/sea exchange of chemicals; future work programme

  2. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  3. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  4. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  5. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors

  6. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  7. Twenty-First Water Reaction Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 2, presents papers on severe accident research

  8. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  9. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  10. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  11. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  12. SEAPOWER: A GUIDE FOR THE TWENTY- FIRST CENTURY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    $154,37 (amazon.com hardback). With the publication of Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. Geoffrey Till has set the standard for publications on all things maritime. The updated and expanded new edition of the book is an essential guide for students of naval history and maritime strategy and provides ...

  13. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities

  14. Why the American public supports twenty-first century learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Aware that constituent support is essential to any educational endeavor, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation), in conjunction with two respected national research firms, measured Americans' attitudes toward the implementation of twenty-first century skills. The foundation's national research survey was intended to explore public perceptions of the need for changes in the educational system, in school and after school, with respect to the teaching of twenty-first century skills. The author summarizes the findings of the survey, which were released by the foundation in June 2003. One thousand adults were surveyed by telephone, including African Americans, Latinos, teachers, and business executives. In general, the survey found that Americans believe today's students need a "basics-plus" education, meaning communication, technology, and critical thinking skills in addition to the traditional basics of reading, writing, and math. In fact, 92 percent of respondents stated that students today need different skills from those of ten to twenty years ago. Also, after-school programs were found to be an appropriate vehicle to teach these skills. Furthermore, the survey explored how well the public perceives schools to be preparing youth for the workforce and postsecondary education, which twenty-first century skills are seen as being taught effectively, and the level of need for after-school and summer programs. The survey results provide conclusive evidence of national support for basics-plus education. Thus, a clear opportunity exists to build momentum for a new model of education for the twenty-first century.

  15. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  16. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...5d. PROJECT NUMBER Colonel John K. Jones 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  17. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    OpenAIRE

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2014-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the h...

  18. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  19. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  20. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  1. Increasing precipitation volatility in twenty-first-century California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Daniel L.; Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David; Hall, Alex

    2018-05-01

    Mediterranean climate regimes are particularly susceptible to rapid shifts between drought and flood—of which, California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012 and 2016 to extreme wetness during the 2016-2017 winter provides a dramatic example. Projected future changes in such dry-to-wet events, however, remain inadequately quantified, which we investigate here using the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble of climate model simulations. Anthropogenic forcing is found to yield large twenty-first-century increases in the frequency of wet extremes, including a more than threefold increase in sub-seasonal events comparable to California's `Great Flood of 1862'. Smaller but statistically robust increases in dry extremes are also apparent. As a consequence, a 25% to 100% increase in extreme dry-to-wet precipitation events is projected, despite only modest changes in mean precipitation. Such hydrological cycle intensification would seriously challenge California's existing water storage, conveyance and flood control infrastructure.

  2. The Turn to Precarity in Twenty-First Century Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Jago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen several attempts by writers and critics to understand the changed sensibility in post-9/11 fiction through a variety of new -isms. This essay explores this cultural shift in a different way, finding a ‘turn to precarity’ in twenty-first century fiction characterised by a renewal of interest in the flow and foreclosure of affect, the resurgence of questions about vulnerability and our relationships to the other, and a heightened awareness of the social dynamics of seeing. The essay draws these tendencies together via the work of Judith Butler in Frames of War, in an analysis of Trezza Azzopardi’s quasi-biographical study of precarious life, Remember Me.

  3. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  4. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  5. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK)

  6. The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

    2014-04-01

    Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process.

  7. The International Symposium on Space Climate (2nd), Long-Term Changes in the Sun and their Effects in the Heliosphere and Plant Earth, held in Sinaia, Romania, on 13-16 September 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and statistics for the Second International Symposium of Space Climate organized by Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy in Sinaia, Romania, on 13-16...

  8. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs on the bill project adopted by the Senate, after initiation of the accelerated procedure, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto protocol about the twenty first session of the Conference Of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the eleventh session of the Conference Of the Parties acting as a gathering of parties to the Kyoto protocol and organ sessions. National Assembly Nr 2943, 3062, Senate Nr 587, 512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgn', Pierre-Yves; Larcher, Gerard; Grand, Jean-Pierre; Valls, Manuel; Fabius, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    As France is about to host the twenty first Conference of Parties (COP 21), this report presents this conference on climate changes as an historical step. It describes the context by recalling the content of international negotiations on climate since 1992, and by commenting the preparation of the Paris conference. It addresses the various and important organisational aspects: means, non-budgetary means, security aspects. The second part discusses the content of the agreement between the French government and the Secretary of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): provisions related to the material organisation of the conference, provisions related to privileges and immunities, and other arrangements (related to security, financial, responsibility and conflict resolution). The text of the bill project and the discussion of the commission are reported

  9. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  10. Guidelines to Design Engineering Education in the Twenty-First Century for Supporting Innovative Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Maria Grazia; Vezzetti, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, meeting our technological challenges demands educational excellence, a skilled populace that is ready for the critical challenges society faces. There is widespread consensus, however, that education systems are failing to adequately prepare all students with the essential twenty-first century knowledge and skills…

  11. Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

  12. Guidelines to design engineering education in the twenty-first century for supporting innovative product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Maria Grazia; Vezzetti, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    In the twenty-first century, meeting our technological challenges demands educational excellence, a skilled populace that is ready for the critical challenges society faces. There is widespread consensus, however, that education systems are failing to adequately prepare all students with the essential twenty-first century knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in life, career, and citizenship. The purpose of this paper is to understand how twenty-first century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in engineering education finalised to innovative product development by using additive manufacturing (AM). The study designs a learning model by which to achieve effective AM education to address the requirements of twenty-first century and to offer students the occasion to experiment with STEM (Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) concepts. The study is conducted using the quality function deployment (QFD) methodology.

  13. Book Review: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century. Author: Osita C. Eze and Amadu Sesay. Publisher: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 2010, xvi + 397pp, Tables, Index. ISBN: 978-002-102-7 ...

  14. China's iGeneration - Cinema and Moving Image Culture for the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Wagner, Keith B.; Yu, Tianqui; Vulpiani, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture. This innovative collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture features contributions from an international community of scholars, critics, and practitioners. Taken together, their perspectives make a compelling case that the past decade has witnessed a radical transformation of conventional notions of cinema. Following China's accession to the WTO in 2001, personal ...

  15. Nuclear power in the twenty-first century - An assessment (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    von Hirschhausen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power was one of the most important discoveries of the twentieth century, and it continues to play an important role in twenty-first century discussions about the future energy mix, climate change, innovation, proliferation, geopolitics, and many other crucial policy topics. This paper addresses some key issues around the emergence of nuclear power in the twentieth century and perspectives going forward in the twenty-first, including questions of economics and competitiveness, the str...

  16. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  17. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  18. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  19. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... equipment distribution program for people who are deaf-blind. In addition, the law will fill accessibility... Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town Hall Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... The Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act (the Act or CVAA...

  20. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  1. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  2. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  3. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  4. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  5. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  6. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  7. TPACK Updated to Measure Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko; Kukkonen, Jari; Kontkanen, Sini; Lambert, Matthew C.; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills have attracted significant attention in recent years. Students of today and the future are expected to have the skills necessary for collaborating, problem solving, creative and innovative thinking, and the ability to take advantage of information and communication technology (ICT) applications. Teachers must be…

  8. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  9. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  10. Leadership for Twenty-First-Century Schools and Student Achievement: Lessons Learned from Three Exemplary Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand ways exemplary award winning secondary school leaders have transformed their schools for twenty-first-century education and student achievement. This article presents three diverse case studies and identifies ways that each school's leader and leadership team reconfigured its culture and expectations,…

  11. Synthesis of Carbon Nano tubes: A Revolution in Material Science for the Twenty-First Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, Abd. W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explain the preparation procedures of single walled carbon nano tubes using arc discharge technique. The optimum conditions of carbon nano tubes synthesis are given. It should be pointed out that this sort of materials would be the twenty-first century materials

  12. Twenty First Century Education: Transformative Education for Sustainability and Responsible Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many ministries of education focus on twenty-first century education but unless they are looking at this topic through a sustainability lens, they will be missing some of its most important elements. The usual emphasis on developing skills for employability in the current global economy begs the question whether the global economy is itself…

  13. The conundrum of religious schools in twenty-first-century Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Merry examines in detail the continued - and curious - popularity of religious schools in an otherwise ‘secular’ twenty-first century Europe. To do this he considers a number of motivations underwriting the decision to place one's child in a religious school and delineates what are

  14. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  15. Teachers' Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-First Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, learning and teaching at school must prepare young people for engaging in a complex and dynamic world deeply influenced by globalisation and the revolution in digital technology. In addition to the use of digital technologies, is the development of flexible learning spaces. It is claimed that these developments demand,…

  16. Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Chris

    2012-01-01

    As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

  17. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first…

  18. Twenty-first century learning for teachers: helping educators bring new skills into the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John I

    2006-01-01

    The motivation behind every educator's dedication and hard work in the classroom is the knowledge that his or her teaching will result in students' success in life. Educators are committed to implementing twenty-first century skills; they have no question that students need such skills to be equipped for life beyond school. Members of the National Education Association are enthusiastic about the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework, yet express frustration that many schools do not have adequate resources to make the necessary changes. Teaching these skills poses significant new responsibilities for schools and educators. To make it possible for teachers to build twenty-first century skills into the curriculum, physical and policy infrastructures must exist, professional development and curriculum materials must be offered, and meaningful assessments must be available. With an established understanding of what skills need to be infused into the classroom-problem solving, analysis, and com- munications-and educators' commitment to the new skill set, this chapter explores how to make such a dramatic reform happen. The author discusses existing strategies that will guide educators in infusing twenty-first century skills into traditional content areas such as math, English, geography, and science. Ultimately, public policy regarding educational standards, professional development, assessments, and physical school structures must exist to enable educators to employ twenty-first century skills, leading to student success in contemporary life. Any concern about the cost of bringing this nation's educational system up to par internationally should be offset by the price that not making twenty-first century skills a priority in the classroom will have on future economic well-being.

  19. Autonomous Robotic Weapons: US Army Innovation for Ground Combat in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    1 Introduction Today the robot is an accepted fact, but the principle has not been pushed far enough. In the twenty-first century the...2013, accessed March 29, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21576376?print=true. 113 Steven Kotler , “Say Hello to Comrade Terminator: Russia’s...of autonomous robotic weapons, black- marketed directed energy weapons, and or commercially available software, potential adversaries may find

  20. Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.

  1. Why American business demands twenty-first century skills: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Public education is the key to individual and business prosperity. With a vested stake in education, educators, employers, parents, policymakers, and the public should question how this nation's public education system is faring. Knowing that recent international assessments have shown little or no gains in American students' achievement, the author asserts the clear need for change. As both a large American corporate employer and a provider of technology for schools, Dell is concerned with ensuring that youth will thrive in their adult lives. Changing workplace expectations lead to a new list of skills students will need to acquire before completing their schooling. Through technology, Dell supports schools in meeting educational goals, striving to supply students with the necessary skills, referred to as twenty-first century skills. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, of which Dell is a member, has led an initiative to define what twenty-first century learning should entail. Through extensive research, the partnership has built a framework outlining twenty-first century skills: analytical thinking, communication, collaboration, global awareness, and technological and economic literacy. Dell and the partnership are working state by state to promote the integration of these skills into curricula, professional development for teachers, and classroom environments. The authors describe two current initiatives, one in Virginia, the other in Texas, which both use technology to help student learning. All stakeholders can take part in preparing young people to compete in the global economy. Educators and administrators, legislators, parents, and employers must play their role in helping students be ready for what the workforce and the world has in store for them.

  2. A history of meniscal surgery: from ancient times to the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R

    2016-05-01

    The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.

  3. Neurogenetics in Child Neurology: Redefining a Discipline in the Twenty-first Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Walter E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing knowledge on genetic etiology of pediatric neurologic disorders is affecting the practice of the specialty. I reviewed here the history of pediatric neurologic disorder classification and the role of genetics in the process. I also discussed the concept of clinical neurogenetics, with its role in clinical practice, education, and research. Finally, I propose a flexible model for clinical neurogenetics in child neurology in the twenty-first century. In combination with disorder-specific clinical programs, clinical neurogenetics can become a home for complex clinical issues, repository of genetic diagnostic advances, educational resource, and research engine in child neurology.

  4. Managing the twenty-first century reference department challenges and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Learn the skills needed to update and manage a reference department that efficiently meets the needs of clients today?and tomorrow! Managing the Twenty-First Century Reference Department: Challenges and Prospects provides librarians with the knowledge and skills they need to manage an effective reference service. Full of useful and practical ideas, this book presents successful methods for recruiting and retaining capable reference department staff and management, training new employees and adapting current services to an evolving field. Expert practitioners address the changing role of the r

  5. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  6. A Farewell to Innocence? African Youth and Violence in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ugochukwu Ukeje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a broad examination of the issue of youth violence in twenty-first-century Africa, looking at the context within which a youth culture of violence has evolved and attempting to understand the underlining discourses of hegemony and power that drive it. The article focuses specifically on youth violence as apolitical response to the dynamics of (disempowerment, exclusion, and economic crisis and uses (postconflict states like Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeriato explain not just the overall challenge of youth violence but also the nature of responses that it has elicited from established structures of authority. Youth violence is in many ways an expression of youth agency in the context of a social and economic system that provides little opportunity.

  7. Ecological restoration should be redefined for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David M

    2017-09-24

    Forty years ago, ecological restoration was conceptualized through a natural science lens. Today, ecological restoration has evolved into a social and scientific concept. The duality of ecological restoration is acknowledged in guidance documents on the subject but is not apparent in its definition. Current definitions reflect our views about what ecological restoration does but not why we do it. This viewpoint does not give appropriate credit to contributions from social sciences, nor does it provide compelling goals for people with different motivating rationales to engage in or support restoration. In this study, I give a concise history of the conceptualization and definition of ecological restoration, and I propose an alternative definition and corresponding viewpoint on restoration goal-setting to meet twenty-first century scientific and public inquiry.

  8. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  9. Niels Bohr and the philosophy of physics twenty-first century perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Folse, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Niels Bohr and Philosophy of Physics: Twenty-First Century Perspectives examines the philosophical views, influences and legacy of the Nobel Prize physicist and philosophical spokesman of the quantum revolution, Niels Bohr. The sixteen contributions in this collection by some of the best contemporary philosophers and physicists writing on Bohr's philosophy today all carefully distinguish his subtle and unique interpretation of quantum mechanics from views often imputed to him under the banner of the “Copenhagen Interpretation.” With respect to philosophical influences on Bohr's outlook, the contributors analyse prominent similarities between his viewpoint and Kantian ways of thinking, the views of the Danish philosopher Harald Høffding, and themes characteristic of American pragmatism. In recognizing the importance of Bohr's epistemological naturalism they examine his defence of the indispensability of classical concepts from a variety of different perspectives. This collection shows us that Bohr's int...

  10. Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrally, M R; Cochran, A J; Crews, D J; Hurdzan, M J; Price, R J; Snow, J T; Thomas, P R

    2003-09-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11 golf science disciplines recognized by the World Scientific Congress of Golf have reported 311 papers at four world congresses since 1990. Additionally, scientific papers have been published in discipline-specific peer-reviewed journals, research has been sponsored by the two governing bodies of golf, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association, and confidential research is undertaken by commercial companies, especially equipment manufacturers. This paper reviews much of this human endeavour and points the way forward for future research into golf.

  11. Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara

    2016-01-01

    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health.

  12. Uncertainty in Twenty-First-Century CMIP5 Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Horton, Radley M.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yip, Stan

    2015-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) simulations included in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) quantify the response of the climate system to different natural and anthropogenic forcing scenarios. These simulations differ because of 1) forcing, 2) the representation of the climate system in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), and 3) the presence of unforced (internal) variability. Global and local sea level rise projections derived from these simulations, and the emergence of distinct responses to the four RCPs depend on the relative magnitude of these sources of uncertainty at different lead times. Here, the uncertainty in CMIP5 projections of sea level is partitioned at global and local scales, using a 164-member ensemble of twenty-first-century simulations. Local projections at New York City (NYSL) are highlighted. The partition between model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty, and internal variability in global mean sea level (GMSL) is qualitatively consistent with that of surface air temperature, with model uncertainty dominant for most of the twenty-first century. Locally, model uncertainty is dominant through 2100, with maxima in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The model spread is driven largely by 4 of the 16 AOGCMs in the ensemble; these models exhibit outlying behavior in all RCPs and in both GMSL and NYSL. The magnitude of internal variability varies widely by location and across models, leading to differences of several decades in the local emergence of RCPs. The AOGCM spread, and its sensitivity to model exclusion and/or weighting, has important implications for sea level assessments, especially if a local risk management approach is utilized.

  13. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of Junior Achievement Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, John M

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to increase after-school programming indicate the nation's concern about how youth are engaged during out-of-school time. There are clear benefits to extending the learning that goes on during the school day. Research from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice shows that after-school participants do better in school and have stronger expectations for the future than youth who are not occupied after school. And the need is evident: 14.3 million students return to an empty house after school, yet only 6.5 million children are currently enrolled in after-school programs. If an after-school program were available, parents of 15.3 million would enroll their child. JA Worldwide began in 1919 and has been rooted in the afterschool arena from its origins. Its after-school programs teach students about the free enterprise system through curriculum focusing on business, citizenship, economics, entrepreneurship, ethics and character, financial literacy, and career development. At the same time, JA Worldwide incorporates hands-on learning and engagement with adults as role models, both key elements to a successful after-school program. Now focused on developing curriculum emphasizing skills needed for the twenty-first century, JA adopted the key elements laid out for after-school programs by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. To ensure that the next generation of students enters the workforce prepared, America's education system must provide the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Programs such as JA Worldwide serve as models of how to provide the twenty-first century skills that all students need to succeed.

  14. Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David P

    2006-01-01

    A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century.

  15. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

  16. New and newer[The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. [Electron and Optical Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, MD (United States)]. E-mail: clark@mail.nist.gov

    2006-09-15

    Stephen Hawking's inaugural lecture as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in 1980 caused quite a stir. Its title - 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics?' - raised the prospect of a unified 'theory of everything'. Hawking suggested that there was a good chance of resolving the remaining inconsistencies between the two big 'theories of something' - quantum mechanics and general relativity - before the turn of the century. My first impression on reading The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century, a collection of essays edited by science journalist Gordon Fraser, is that a theory of everything may still be attainable by the turn of the century. However, there is now 20 times more of everything in the universe than there was in the past century, 95% of which no-one has ever actually seen, or had even heard of until a few years ago - as summarized in articles by Wendy Freedman, Edward Kolb and Ronald Adler. Despite this, Michael Green describes amazing developments in string theory that could tie everything together, if one could just figure out which, if any, of the apparently infinite varieties of string theory applies to our world, and why. (U.K.)

  17. Indication to Open Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Maria Bove

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Advances in endourology have greatly reduced indications to open surgery in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones. Nevertheless in our experience, open surgery still represents the treatment of choice in rare cases. Case Report. A 71-year-old morbidly obese female patient complaining about occasional left flank pain, and recurrent cystitis for many years, presented bilateral staghorn kidney stones. Comorbidities were obesity (BMI 36.2, hypertension, type II diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmunary disease (COPD hyperlipidemia. Due to these comorbidities, endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches were not indicated. We offered the patient staged open anatrophic nephrolithotomy. Results. Operative time was 180 minutes. Blood loss was 500 cc. requiring one unit of packed red blood cells. Hospital stay was 7 days. The renal function was unaffected based on preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels. Stone-free status of the left kidney was confirmed after surgery with CT scan. Conclusions. Open surgery can represent a valid alterative in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones of very selected cases. A discussion of the current indications in the twenty-first century is presented.

  18. Diverging seasonal extremes for ocean acidification during the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Orr, James C.

    2018-01-01

    How ocean acidification will affect marine organisms depends on changes in both the long-term mean and the short-term temporal variability of carbonate chemistry1-8. Although the decadal-to-centennial response to atmospheric CO2 and climate change is constrained by observations and models1, 9, little is known about corresponding changes in seasonality10-12, particularly for pH. Here we assess the latter by analysing nine earth system models (ESMs) forced with a business-as-usual emissions scenario13. During the twenty-first century, the seasonal cycle of surface-ocean pH was attenuated by 16 ± 7%, on average, whereas that for hydrogen ion concentration [H+] was amplified by 81 ± 16%. Simultaneously, the seasonal amplitude of the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) was attenuated except in the subtropics, where it was amplified. These contrasting changes derive from regionally varying sensitivities of these variables to atmospheric CO2 and climate change and to diverging trends in seasonal extremes in the primary controlling variables (temperature, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity). Projected seasonality changes will tend to exacerbate the impacts of increasing [H+] on marine organisms during the summer and ameliorate the impacts during the winter, although the opposite holds in the high latitudes. Similarly, over most of the ocean, impacts from declining Ωarag are likely to be intensified during the summer and dampened during the winter.

  19. Between vanguard and exclusion- young people of the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been narrowed down to reveal a paradox. Here the vanguard of culture and civilization - which is regarded as young people of the twenty-first century – is embroiled in a discourse of exclusion: economic, political and cultural life. In secondary school programs and high schools we do not find specific references and studies, primarily based on the needs of students, about the theory of popular culture and cultural education in the area of pop culture. The paradox of exclusion of mainstream culture from educational discourse is schizophrenic. The political exclusion of young people of the XXI century I consider all the disparaging scientific discourse, which skips the actual media and communication competence of young people. Prosumers, cognitarchy, digital natives, C-generation – they are for the modern economy “Silicon Valley” - their market power to exclude is already unstoppable. In other areas it remains to be considered whether excluding young people from the cultural discourse will not deprive our future teachers and translators of the next civilization revolution of social reality...

  20. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Seco, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.···); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted.

  1. Challenges and Opportunities for Occupational Epidemiology in the Twenty-first Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Collins, J J; Guo, Y L; Heederik, D; Kogevinas, M; Steenland, K; Wesseling, C; Demers, P A

    2017-09-01

    There are many opportunities and challenges for conducting occupational epidemiologic studies today. In this paper, we summarize the discussion of a symposium held at the Epidemiology in Occupational Health (EPICOH) conference, Chicago 2014, on challenges for occupational epidemiology in the twenty-first century. The increasing number of publications and attendance at our conferences suggests that worldwide interest in occupational epidemiology has been growing. There are clearly abundant opportunities for new research in occupational epidemiology. Areas ripe for further work include developing improved methods for exposure assessment, statistical analysis, studying migrant workers and other vulnerable populations, the use of biomarkers, and new hazards. Several major challenges are also discussed such as the rapidly changing nature and location of work, lack of funding, and political/legal conflicts. As long as work exists there will be occupational diseases that demand our attention, and a need for epidemiologic studies designed to characterize these risks and to support the development of preventive strategies. Despite the challenges and given the important past contribution in this field, we are optimistic about the importance and continued vitality of the research field of occupational epidemiology.

  2. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO 4 ) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs

  3. Space power technology for the twenty-first century (SPT21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borger, W.U.; Massie, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    During the spring and summer months of 1987, the Aero Propulsion Laboratory of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio in cooperation with the Air Force Space Technology Center at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, undertook an initiative to develop a Strategic Plan for Space Power Technology Development. The initiative was called SPT21, Space Power Technology for the Twenty-First Century. The planning process involved the participation of other Government organizations (U.S. Army, Navy, DOE and NASA) along with major aerospace companies and universities. Following an SPT21 kickoff meeting on 28 May 1987, detailed strategic planning was accomplished through seven (7) Space Power Technology Discipline Workshops commencing in June 1987 and concluding in August 1987. Technology Discipline Workshops were conducted in the following areas: (1) Solar Thermal Dynamic Power Systems (2) Solar Photovoltaic Cells and Arrays (3) Thermal Management Technology (4) Energy Storage Technology (5) Nuclear Power Systems Technology (6) Power Conditioning, Distribution and Control and (7) Systems Technology/Advanced Concepts. This technical paper summarizes the planning process and describes the salient findings and conclusions of the workshops

  4. Developing twenty-first century skills: insights from an intensive interdisciplinary workshop Mosaic of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milosevic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest semi-enclosed seas, which, with its very low salinity and quasi-isolation from the big oceans cannot decide whether it is a sea or a large lake. This geologically-unique environment supports an even more surprising and delicate marine ecosystem, where a complex community of fishes, marine mammals and important microscopic organisms creates a magical mosaic of life. Humans have enjoyed the abundance of life in the Baltic Sea for thousands of years, and major Scandinavian and Baltic cities have oriented themselves towards this geo-ecosystem in order to develop and seek ecological, economical and cultural inspiration and wealth. The ‘Mosaic of Life’ workshop aimed at going beyond the obvious in examining the meaning of the Baltic Sea by gathering together a selection of young, creative minds from different backgrounds ranging from the arts and economics to geology and life sciences. This intensive workshop was designed as a unique training opportunity to develop essential twenty-first century skills – to introduce and develop creative, critical and interdisciplinary thinking and collaborative teamwork, as well as to foster a visual and scientific literacy, using project-based learning and hands-on activities. Our final goal has been to be inspired by the resulting connections, differences and unifying concepts, creating innovative, interdisciplinary projects which would look further than the sea – further than the eye can see and further into the future.

  5. Twenty-first century learning in schools: A case study of New Technology High School in Napa, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The most pertinent question concerning teaching and learning in the twenty-first century is not what knowledge and skills students need--that laundry list was identified over a decade ago--but rather how to foster twenty-first century learning. What curricula, experiences, assessments, environments, and technology best support twenty-first century learning? New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, is one example of a successful twenty-first century school. In this chapter, the author describes the components of this exemplary high school, illustrating an environment that will cultivate twenty-first century student learning. New Technology High School began by defining eight learning outcomes, aligned with the standards of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills; to graduate, students demonstrate mastery of these outcomes through an online portfolio. To help students achieve the outcomes, NTHS employs project- and problem-based learning. Whereas in traditional classrooms students work alone on short-term assignments that do not lend themselves to deep understanding, the project-based learning approach has students working in teams on long-term, in-depth, rigorous projects. Students' work is supported by the school's workplace-like environment and effectiv use of technology. Meaningful assessment is essential to project-based learning; students receive continuous feedback, helping them become self-directed learners. In fact, NTHS uses outcome-based grading through which students constantly know how they are performing on the twenty-first century outcomes. Research has shown that NTHS graduates are better prepared for postsecondary education, careers, and citizenship than their peers from other schools. To facilitate twenty-first century learning, all schools need to rethink their approach to teaching and learning. New Technology High School is one way to do so.

  6. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest "strong inference in mathematical modeling" as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century.

  7. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Cameron, E.N.; Santarius, J.F.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow inherently safe reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth

  8. Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrons, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  9. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  10. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest “strong inference in mathematical modeling” as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century. PMID:27499750

  11. A Tale within a Tale: Mise en Abyme Adaptations of the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Flegar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In accord with the promise made by Henry Jenkins that “old and new media will interact in ever more complex ways” (Convergence Culture 6, this research observes metamodern fairy tale adaptations of the twenty-first century in light of Christina Bacchilega’s construct of the fairy-tale web and Henry Jenkins’ theory of convergence culture and transmedia storytelling. The research will address the growing trend of embedding “wonder tale” collections within the context of a larger narrative as an artefact of significance, power, and material value. Although original tales with known authorship, these fairy tale adaptations are appended to the mythology and culture of the fantastic secondary worlds. Such texts tend to be parodic, subversive, and even carnivalesque (Bakhtin; Stephens, providing a commentary on the culture of their origin, as well as our own. By blending cultures, styles, and formats, mise en abyme wonder tales also result in the empowerment of specifically marginalised groups. Generally defined as spin-offs that are otherwise a part of a complex inter- and hypertextual web, these fairy tale collections constitute a metafictional body of knowledge and wisdom. In the digital era much focus is placed on multimodal, hypertextual, and transmedia narratives with a significant influence of fandom on the production of such literary works. The study will focus on the popular examples of such practice, J.K. Rowling’s Tales of Beedle the Bard (2007/2008 and Ransom Riggs’ Tales of the Peculiar (2016, in order to define mise en abyme fairy tale adaptations, as well as to discuss their cultural significance and function.

  12. 77 FR 25781 - Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    .../Administrative Remarks Approval of Twentieth Plenary Summary Chairperson/Leadership Updates Designated Federal... Workgroup Back Briefs Other Business Closing Plenary Session Other Business Date, Place, and Time for... the committee at any time. Issued in Washington, DC, on April 24, 2012. John Raper, Manager, Business...

  13. New electricity 21. Designing a sustainable electric system for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The five main sessions of the conference are opportunities to increase electricity use for sustainable development; electric system expansion and integration to meet growing competition; power producers and global climate change issues; technology for supplying electricity in developing and transitional economies; power industry structure, regulatory policies and technological innovation. All contributions have been indexed and abstracted for the INIS and Energy database. (R.P.)

  14. Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-07-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty-first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high productivity, and effective communication techniques of the students exposed to a MEGA. Three factors, as they pertained to these skills, emerged from classroom observations. Interaction with the teacher, discussion with peers, and engagement/time-on-task while playing the MEGA suggested that students playing an educational video game exhibited all of the projected twenty-first century skills while being engrossed in the embedded science content.

  15. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. A Dialogue Worth Having: Vocational Competence, Career Identity and a Learning Environment for Twenty-First Century Success at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Frans; Lengelle, Reinekke; Winters, Annemie; Kuijpers, Marinka

    2018-01-01

    The cultivation of intrinsic motivation is key in the twenty first century, but most students in Dutch vocational education lack this quality. To foster intrinsic motivation, a strong career-learning environment is needed that enables students to develop career competencies and a career identity.

  17. Greenland Surface Mass Balance as Simulated by the Community Earth System Model. Part II: Twenty-First-Century Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.; Sacks, W.J.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first twenty-first-century projections of surface mass balance (SMB) changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which includes a new ice sheet component. For glaciated surfaces, CESM includes a sophisticated calculation of energy

  18. Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulhrir, Taoufik

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading…

  19. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri

    2017-04-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  20. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  1. Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Díez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2014-01-01

    The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests

  2. Rethinking Teaching and Learning Pedagogy for Education in the Twenty-First Century: Blended Learning in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2017-01-01

    In an increasingly technologically driven world, there is proliferate discussion among education and government authorities about the necessity to rethink education in the twenty-first century. The evolution of technology and its pervasive influence on the needs and requirements of society is central to this mindset. Innovations in online…

  3. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly,…

  4. Index to the Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. July 1956 - December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject indext for the twenty-first semiannual report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from July 1956 through December 1956.

  5. Nonlinear Pedagogy and Its Role in Encouraging Twenty-First Century Competencies through Physical Education: A Singapore Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Button, Chris; Tan, Clara Wee Keat

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear Pedagogy is an exploratory approach to teaching and learning Physical Education that can be potentially effective to help children acquire relevant twenty-first century competencies. Underpinned by Ecological Dynamics, the focus of Nonlinear Pedagogy is on the learner and includes the provision of less prescriptive instructions and…

  6. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  7. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  8. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  9. Transactions of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1993-10-01

    This report contains summaries of papers on reactor safety research to be presented at the 21st Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 25--27, 1993. The summaries briefly describe the programs and results of nuclear safety research sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, US NRC. Summaries of invited papers concerning nuclear safety issues from US government laboratories, the electric utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the nuclear industry, and from foreign governments and industry are also included. The summaries have been compiled in one report to provide a basis for meaningful discussion and information exchange during the course of the meeting and are given in the order of their presentation in each session

  10. Transactions of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.

    1993-10-01

    This report contains summaries of papers on reactor safety research to be presented at the 21st Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 25--27, 1993. The summaries briefly describe the programs and results of nuclear safety research sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, US NRC. Summaries of invited papers concerning nuclear safety issues from US government laboratories, the electric utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the nuclear industry, and from foreign governments and industry are also included. The summaries have been compiled in one report to provide a basis for meaningful discussion and information exchange during the course of the meeting and are given in the order of their presentation in each session.

  11. Into the Twenty-First Century: Harmonizing energy policy, environment, and sustainable economic growth. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Economic trade liberalization and the restructuring of the energy industries to promote competition, two trends well underway, have not eliminated the need for thoughtful policy action, although they have significantly transformed the policymaking environment. New policy initiatives must be compatible with the growing competition within energy industries. And while governments are beginning to remove themselves from the natural gas and electricity markets, their policy choices for organizing these industries will shape energy balances and prices in these and other energy markets. The 18th Annual International Conference of the IAEE addresses these and other major policy issues and how energy industries can operate successfully in an era of acute economic, political, and scientific uncertainty. An overarching objective has been to provide the interface between new frontiers in economic and energy analysis and the application of these techniques toward further understanding of policy and industry options. The papers included in this Proceedings volume have not been peer reviewed but were selected by the conference program chairman and committee on the basis of their contribution to the overall conference themes. The conference program committee (see page iii) organized a number of the key sessions on a wide range of important issues. David L. Williams, Jr. was particularly effective in supporting the committee in organizing the program and publishing this volume

  12. Proceedings of the twenty-first DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Solar Photochemistry Research Conference brings together grantees and contractors of the Division of Chemical Sciences who are engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. The annual conference provides a focus for the program by allowing for the exchange of new information and ideas, identification of needs and opportunities, and fostering of collaborations among investigators of disparate chemistry backgrounds. The synergy that has been achieved is a major strength of the program. The research provides the foundations for future solar technologies, in which light-induced charge separation processes will be applied to conversion of light energy to chemical energy, e.g., production of alcohols from carbon dioxide, hydrogen from water, ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen, or other needed chemicals at lower cost of by using sunlight as the energy source. The program includes topical sessions on semiconductor nanoparticles, nanocrystalline films, and photoinduced charge separation at the semiconductor/liquid interface; photochemistry and photophysics of transition metal complexes; photoinduced charge separation in zeolites and lamellar assemblies; intramolecular charge separation and electron transfer; dynamics of solvation and solution interfaces; and photoconversion via porphyrins and biomimetic constructs. The special guest plenary lecturer is Professor Moungi Bawendi of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who spoke on semiconductor nanocrystallites (quantum dots). As an added feature, Tom Surek, the Photovoltaics Technology program manager at NREL, presented a status report on one of the most promising and heavily supported programs in solar energy conversion technology, solid state photovoltaics. This volume contains the agenda for the meeting, abstracts of the 31 formal presentations and 55 posters, as well as an address list for the 111 participants.

  13. Proceedings of the twenty-first symposium of atomic energy research on WWER physics and reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.

    2011-10-01

    The present volume contains 61 papers, presented on the twenty-first symposium of atomic energy research, held in Dresden, Germany, 19-23 September 2011. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Improvement, extension and validation of parameterized few-group libraries for WWER-440 and WWER-1000.

  14. The Return of "Patrimonial Capitalism": A Review of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Milanovic

    2014-01-01

    Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty provides a unified theory of the functioning of the capitalist economy by linking theories of economic growth and functional and personal income distributions. It argues, based on the long-run historical data series, that the forces of economic divergence (including rising income inequality) tend to dominate in capitalism. It regards the twentieth century as an exception to this rule and proposes policies that would make capitalism sustain...

  15. A Vision for ARES in the Twenty-First Century: The Virtual Community of Real Estate Thought Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen E. Roulac

    1996-01-01

    In the twenty-first century the American Real Estate Society (ARES) is a virtual community of real estate thought leaders, electronically interconnected and linked through the International Real Estate Society to counterpart organizations on all major continents as well as numerous country-specific societies. ARES growth is attributable to its emphasis on rigorous applied microeconomic decisionmaking and an inclusive, open style. The initiatives of the Strategic Planning Task Force, whose rep...

  16. Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, W.; Goosse, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Using the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), the projected regional distribution of sea ice for the twenty-first century has been investigated. Averaged over all those model simulations, the current climate is reasonably well reproduced. However, this averaging procedure hides the errors from individual models. Over the twentieth century, the multimodel average simulates a larger sea-ice concentration decrease around the Antarctic Peninsula compared to other regions, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. This is likely related to the positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index over the twentieth century, in both observations and in the multimodel average. Despite the simulated positive future trend in SAM, such a regional feature around the Antarctic Peninsula is absent in the projected sea-ice change for the end of the twenty-first century. The maximum decrease is indeed located over the central Weddell Sea and the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas. In most models, changes in the oceanic currents could play a role in the regional distribution of the sea ice, especially in the Ross Sea, where stronger southward currents could be responsible for a smaller sea-ice decrease during the twenty-first century. Finally, changes in the mixed layer depth can be found in some models, inducing locally strong changes in the sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  17. The renaissance of word-of-mouth marketing: A new standard in twenty-first century marketing management?!

    OpenAIRE

    Meiners, Norbert H.; Schwarting, Ulf; Seeberger, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the importance of word of mouth for marketing management in the twenty-first century will be discussed. After a short introduction, there will be a focus on the demarcations and problems of traditional marketing. Then, in the third section, word of mouth (WOM) and word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM) as a 'new' standard in modern marketing are described. The fourth section broaches the importance of word of mouth and word-of-mouth marketing from the point of view of business and consu...

  18. The restructuring of the Argentina Navy between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Soprano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a policy of national defense and internal security in democracy, created conditions to advance in the process of restructuring of the Argentina Navy, introducing changes in its organization and functions. In this article we will focus this process analyzing, on the one hand, the relationship between the definitions of defense policy and the configuration of naval military instrument between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; and, on the other hand, understanding their development in the case of two components of the force: the marine corps and the division of maritime patrol.

  19. Public Heath in Colonial and Post-Colonial Ghana: Lesson-Drawing for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health in twenty-first century Ghana is mired with several issues ranging from the inadequacy of public health facilities, improper settlement planning, insanitary conditions, and the inadequacy of laws and their implementation. This situation compared to the colonial era is a direct contradiction. Development in the pre-colonial era to the colonial era sought to make the prevention of diseases a priority in the colonial administration. This was begun with the establishment of the health branch in 1909 as a response to the bubonic plague that was fast spreading in the colony. From here public health policies and strategies were enacted to help the diseases prevention cause. Various public health boards, the medical research institute or the laboratory branch, the waste management department, the use of preventive medicine and maintenance of good settlement planning and sanitation were public health measures in the colonial era. This research seeks to analyse the public health system in the colonial era so as to draw basic lessons for twenty-first century Ghana. Archival data and other secondary sources are reviewed and analysed to help draw these lessons. Richard Rose’s lesson-drawing approach was used to draw the lessons.

  20. A needs assessment for DOE's packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE's mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE's transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically

  1. Preparing Teacher-Students for Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the twenty-first-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the twenty-first-century learning practices in…

  2. Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Boulhrir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.

  3. Us, them, and others: reflections on Canadian multiculturalism and national identity at the turn of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Elke

    2014-05-01

    The John Porter Lecture at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria 2013 draws upon my book Us, Them, and Others: Pluralism and National Identity in Diverse Societies. Incorporating the findings from an analysis of Canadian English-language newspaper discourses during the 1990s into a theoretical framework inspired by Weberian sociology, the book argues that pluralism is best understood as a dynamic set of triangular relations where the compromise between unequal groups--"us" and "others"--is rendered meaningful through the confrontation with real or imagined outsiders ("them"). The lecture summarizes the theoretical contribution and explains how multiculturalism became consolidated in dominant Canadian discourses in the late 1990s. The lecture then discusses changes to Canadian multicultural identity at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

  4. The horror of stigma: psychosis and mental health care environments in twenty-first-century horror film (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights the specific manner in which twenty-first-century horror films stigmatize psychosis and mental health care environments (MHCEs) A search on various film forums using the terms "mental/psychiatric patient," "psychosis/psychoses," and "mental/psychiatric hospital" (limited from 2000 to 2012) revealed 55 films. A literature review revealed criteria for a checklist. Subsequent to viewings, salient recurring criteria were added to the checklist. Films were systematically analyzed under these criteria. Homicidal maniacs are the most common stereotypes. Misinformation is often communicated. Familiar horror tropes are used to stigmatize MHCEs. Practitioners should be aware of the specific manner in which clients are being stigmatized by the media. This paper highlights specific ways in which psychosis and MHCEs are stigmatized, and encourages practitioners to challenge these depictions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Towards a Rational Kingdom in Africa: Knowledge, Critical Rationality and Development in a Twenty-First Century African Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to locate the kind of knowledge that is relevant for African development in the twenty-first century African cultural context and to propose the paradigm for achieving such knowledge. To do this, it advances the view that the concept of twenty-first century in an African context must be located with the colonial and post-colonial challenges of the African world and applied to serve the African demand. Anchored on this position, the paper outlines and critiques the wrong assumption on which modern state project was anchored in post-colonial Africa and its development dividend to suggest that this is an outcome of a wrong knowledge design that is foundational to the state project and which the project did not address. It proposes a shift in the knowledge paradigm in Africa and suggests critical self-consciousness as a more desirable knowledge design for Africa. It applies the term ‘rational kingdom’ (defined as a community of reason marked by critical conceptual self-awareness driven by innovation and constructivism to suggest this paradigm. ‘Innovation’ is meant as the application of reason with an enlarged capacity to anticipate and address problems with fresh options and ‘constructivism’ is meant as the disposition to sustain innovation by advancing an alternative but more reliable worldview that can meet the exigencies of modernity in an African cultural context. The paper then proceeds to outline the nature of the rational kingdom and its anticipated gains and outcomes. It applies the method of inductive reasoning to advance its position. To do this it invokes selected but crucial areas of African life to locate how the developmental demands of these aspects of life suggest a critical turn in African rationality.

  6. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean

  7. Projected Changes on the Global Surface Wave Drift Climate towards the END of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ana; Semedo, Alvaro; Behrens, Arno; Weisse, Ralf; Breivik, Øyvind; Saetra, Øyvind; Håkon Christensen, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The global wave-induced current (the Stokes Drift - SD) is an important feature of the ocean surface, with mean values close to 10 cm/s along the extra-tropical storm tracks in both hemispheres. Besides the horizontal displacement of large volumes of water the SD also plays an important role in the ocean mix-layer turbulence structure, particularly in stormy or high wind speed areas. The role of the wave-induced currents in the ocean mix-layer and in the sea surface temperature (SST) is currently a hot topic of air-sea interaction research, from forecast to climate ranges. The SD is mostly driven by wind sea waves and highly sensitive to changes in the overlaying wind speed and direction. The impact of climate change in the global wave-induced current climate will be presented. The wave model WAM has been forced by the global climate model (GCM) ECHAM5 wind speed (at 10 m height) and ice, for present-day and potential future climate conditions towards the end of the end of the twenty-first century, represented by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) CMIP3 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 3) A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (usually referred to as a ''medium-high emissions'' scenario). Several wave parameters were stored as output in the WAM model simulations, including the wave spectra. The 6 hourly and 0.5°×0.5°, temporal and space resolution, wave spectra were used to compute the SD global climate of two 32-yr periods, representative of the end of the twentieth (1959-1990) and twenty-first (1969-2100) centuries. Comparisons of the present climate run with the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-40 reanalysis are used to assess the capability of the WAM-ECHAM5 runs to produce realistic SD results. This study is part of the WRCP-JCOMM COWCLIP (Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project) effort.

  8. Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial maximum through the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, Carlos D.; Webster, Peter J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Twentieth century observations show that during the last 50 years the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the tropical oceans has increased by {proportional_to}0.5 C and the area of SST >26.5 and 28 C (arbitrarily referred to as the oceanic warm pool: OWP) by 15 and 50% respectively in association with an increase in green house gas concentrations, with non-understood natural variability or a combination of both. Based on CMIP3 projections the OWP is projected to double during twenty-first century in a moderate CO{sub 2} forcing scenario (IPCC A1B scenario). However, during the observational period the area of positive atmospheric heating (referred to as the dynamic warm pool, DWP), has remained constant. The threshold SST (T{sub H}), which demarks the region of net heating and cooling, has increased from 26.6 C in the 1950s to 27.1 C in the last decade and it is projected to increase to {proportional_to}28.5 C by 2100. Based on climate model simulations, the area of the DWP is projected to remain constant during the twenty-first century. Analysis of the paleoclimate model intercomparison project (PMIP I and II) simulations for the Last Glacial maximum and the Mid-Holocene periods show a very similar behaviour, with a larger OWP in periods of elevated tropical SST, and an almost constant DWP associated with a varying T{sub H}. The constancy of the DWP area, despite shifts in the background SST, is shown to be the result of a near exact matching between increases in the integrated convective heating within the DWP and the integrated radiative cooling outside the DWP as SST changes. Although the area of the DWP remains constant, the total tropical atmospheric heating is a strong function of the SST. For example the net heating has increased by about 10% from 1950 to 2000 and it is projected to increase by a further 20% by 2100. Such changes must be compensated by a more vigorous atmospheric circulation, with growth in convective heating within the warm pool, and an

  9. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law

  10. Watershed-scale response to climate change through the twenty-first century for selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven; Ward-Garrison, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic response of different climate-change emission scenarios for the twenty-first century were evaluated in 14 basins from different hydroclimatic regions across the United States using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a process-based, distributed-parameter watershed model. This study involves four major steps: 1) setup and calibration of the PRMS model in 14 basins across the United States by local U.S. Geological Survey personnel; 2) statistical downscaling of the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 climate-change emission scenarios to create PRMS input files that reflect these emission scenarios; 3) run PRMS for the climate-change emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and 4) evaluation of the PRMS output.This paper presents an overview of this project, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be very different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the climate emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations. This paper concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and potential for future work.

  11. The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity eCallard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs. To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003–2012 (i to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term mind wandering, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering, specifically, into cognitive neuroscience. If this is, indeed, the ‘era of the wandering mind’, our paper calls for more explicit reflection to be given by mind wandering researchers to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focused on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore as not relevant.

  12. Growth of Global Publishing Output of Health Economics in the Twenty-First Century: A Bibliographic Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Pejcic, Ana V

    2017-01-01

    Strong growth of interdisciplinary sciences might find exceptional example in academic health economics. We decided to observe the quantitative output in this science since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Electronic search of the published literature was conducted in four different databases: one medical database-MEDLINE/PubMed, two general databases-Scopus/Elsevier and Web of Science (WoS), and one specialized health economic database-NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED). The applied combination of key words was carefully chosen to cover the most commonly used terms in titles of publications dealing with conceptual areas of health economics. All bibliographic units were taken into account. Within the time horizon from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2016, without language or limitations on bibliographic unit types, we identified an output ranging approximately from 60,345 to 88,246 records with applied search strategy in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus/Elsevier, and WoS. In NHS EED, we detected 14,761 records of economic evaluations of health interventions during the period in which database was maintained and regularly updated. With slightly more than one-third of the identified records, USA clearly dominates in this field. United Kingdom takes a strong second place with about 12% of identified records. Consistently, USA and UK universities are the most frequent among the top 15 affiliations/organizations of the authors of the identified records. Authors from Harvard University contributed to the largest number of the identified records. There is a clear evidence of both the upward stream of blossoming in health economics publications and its acceleration. Based on this bibliographic data set, it is difficult to distinguish the actual impact growth of this output provided dominantly by academia with modest contribution by pharmaceutical/medicinal device industry and diverse national government-based agencies. Further insight into the citation track record of

  13. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  14. The traditional commons of England and Wales in the twenty-first century: meeting new and old challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Short

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The commons literature makes much of the changes within the traditional land use sectors of developed countries. This largely focuses on the decline of the economic function of commons that threaten their existence, the emergence of multiple use patterns, and the resilience and policy adaptation needed to continue. The situation in England and Wales is used to illustrate that commons are increasingly important to a number of ‘new’ rural functions and that the associated policy developments may hold an important message for progress towards sustainable multifunctional land management more generally. This article reviews and updates what is meant by the term common land within England and Wales, while outlining its current importance and threats. The commons literature is investigated to see if the approach is useful in revealing the current issues associated with the incorporation of new stakeholders and functions within a traditional structure. Recent changes and developments surrounding the Commons Act 2006 are assessed to see if they are likely to assist in sustaining these commons through the twenty-first century. The article argues that any new approach requires long term planning and a commitment to support local participation among commoners and others who are involved in the governance and management of these areas of land. In order for these challenges to be met there needs to be an understanding of the functions and cultural traditions of common land as well as of the changes in society associated with the decline in traditional agrarian management in developed countries. Such challenges can rarely if ever be achieved through legislation and policy developments, requiring an investment in developing locally based solutions.

  15. Traditional knowledge hiding in plain sight - twenty-first century ethnobotany of the Chácobo in Beni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua Zambrana, Narel Y; Bussmann, Rainer W; Hart, Robbie E; Moya Huanca, Araceli L; Ortiz Soria, Gere; Ortiz Vaca, Milton; Ortiz Álvarez, David; Soria Morán, Jorge; Soria Morán, María; Chávez, Saúl; Chávez Moreno, Bertha; Chávez Moreno, Gualberto; Roca, Oscar; Siripi, Erlin

    2017-10-10

    The Chácobo are a Panoan speaking tribe of about 1000 members (300+ adults) in Beni, Bolivia. Originally nomadic, the Chácabo were relocated to their current main location in the 1960s. Researchers have visited the Chácabo since 1911. A first more detailed anthropological report exists from the late 1960s, and ecological-ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. The presented work represents a complete ethnobotanical inventory of the entire adult Chácobo population, with interviews and plant collection conducted directly by Chácobo counterparts. Based on previous reports and our preliminary studies, we hypothesized that twenty-first century Chácobo plant use centered on income generation, and that traditional plant use related to household utensils, medicine and traditional crop varieties had almost disappeared. To test this hypothesis, we started the "Chácobo Ethnobotany Project," training 10 indigenous Chácobo participants in ethnobotanical interview and plant collection techniques, in order to more fully document Chácobo knowledge and avoid the influence of foreign interviewers. Our study found 331 useful plant species in 241genera of 95 plant families, with leaves, roots and bark being the most commonly used plant parts The comprehensive documentation that these methods enabled completely nullified our initial hypothesis of knowledge loss. Traditional crop varieties are still widely grown and traditional knowledge is alive. Moreover, it is being actively recuperated in certain domains by the younger generation. Most Chácobo know, and can name, traditional utensils and tools, although only the older generation has still the skills to manufacture them. While many Chácobo still know the names and uses of medicinal species, the younger generation is however often unsure how to identify them. In this paper we illustrate the complexity of perspectives on knowledge at different ages, and the persistence of knowledge over almost a century

  16. Proliferation and Nonproliferation in the Early Twenty-First Century. The Permanent Five Hold the Key to Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, David

    2012-01-01

    are. Its core finding is that much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role played by the permanent members of the Security Council, the so-called Permanent Five or P-5 (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). It is unclear, however, whether the Five will be able and willing to play this role adequately. The developments of the first decade of the twenty-first century have not been comforting for nonproliferation. Proliferation challenges have risen and grown more complex. In response, policy tools have been developed, but their effectiveness has suffered from divisions among the P-5 and between them and the NAM states. Half a century since Ikle's article and a decade since Roberts' review, the major powers have remained at a loss to address the threat of proliferation. Winning is still possible, but it will require more than wishful thinking. In the years ahead, the challenge will be to reconcile policy effectiveness with policy legitimacy, be it to restore compliance altogether or to prevent proliferation, counter it, detect and expose noncompliance, and manage nonproliferation failures. Meeting this challenge places the P-5 at the center-stage. Much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role that the Five choose to play. But given current shifts in international power structures (what Joseph Nye calls 'the rise of the rest') the prospects appear uncertain.68 It is important, therefore, that further research focuses on how the P-5 role can be strengthened to address proliferation, and how this role can be better aligned with today's evolving international trends

  17. Closing session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This part makes a summary of the different sessions and discussions of the workshop in a series of slide presentations: Summary of Opening Session; Summary of Session 1: Analysis of External Hazard Potential; Summary of session 2: Specific features of analysis and modeling of particular natural external hazards; Summary of session-3: Practices and research efforts on natural external events PSA; Summary of session 4: Modeling of NPP response to natural external events in PSA; Summary of session 5: Seismic Risk Analysis; Summary of session 6: Use of external events PSA with the focus on regulatory body role; Facilitated discussion 1 summary: Where do we stand in the analysis of external events?; Summary Facilitated Discussion 2: Findings and Good Practices for External Events Analysis

  18. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

  19. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  20. Formatively Assessing Teamwork in Technology-Enabled Twenty-First Century Classrooms: Exploratory Findings of a Teamwork Awareness Programme in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Elizabeth; Hong, Helen; Tan, Jennifer Pei-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Teamwork, one of the core competencies for the twenty-first century learner, is a critical skill for work and learning. However, assessing teamwork is complex, in particular, developing a measure of teamwork that is domain-generic and applicable across a wide range of learners. This paper documents one such study that leverages technology to help…

  1. Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a ‘beyond 4°C world’ in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, R.; Marinova, N.A.; Lowe, J.; Brown, S.; Vellinga, P.

    2011-01-01

    The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis,

  2. Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…

  3. Use of Comics to Enhance Students' Learning for the Development of the Twenty-First Century Competencies in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tin Lam; Cheng, Lu Pien; Ho, Siew Yin; Jiang, Heng; Lim, Kam Ming

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of comics in teaching mathematics in the secondary mathematics classroom. We explicate how the use of comics in teaching mathematics can prepare students for the twenty-first century competencies. We developed an alternative teaching package using comics for two lower secondary mathematics topics. This alternative…

  4. Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon

    2016-02-01

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  5. Historical Approach to the Role of Women in the Legislation of Iran: A Case Study on the Twenty-First Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sheibani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ten years ago, men and women took constitutionalism to achieve justice in Iran. National Council was the result of the Iranian people's struggle for justice, both women and men. Men policies from the beginning of legislation put women as minors and lunatics and bankrupted and banned them from vote. However, the Constitutional Revolution as a turning point and a national revolution played a key role in changing attitudes to women and structural context of their participation provided. In this paper, with the use of descriptive-analytical as well as quantitative methods, we sought to answer the question that what was the position of women in the twenty-first Parliament. The results of this study suggest that when Iranian women were allowed to participate politics, they have achieved to show their ability in politics as we saw examples in the twenty-first Parliament in which women had twenty-two percent participation.

  6. Proceedings of the Fifth Seminar of High Temperature Reactor: The Role and Challenge with HTR Opportunity in the Twenty-first Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As-Natio-Lasman; Zaki-Su'ud; Bambang-Sugiono

    2000-11-01

    The Seminar in HTR Reactor has become routine activities held in BATAN since 1994. This Seminar is a continuation of the Seminar on Technology and HTR Application held by Centre for Development of Advanced Reactor System. The theme of the seminar is Role, Challenge, Opportunity of HTR in the Twenty-first Century. Thirteen papers presented in the seminar were collected into proceedings. The aims of the proceedings is to provide information and references on nuclear technology, mainly on HTR technology. (DII)

  7. Change and Continuity in Librarianship: Approaching the Twenty-First Century. Proceedings of the 40th Military Librarians Workshop, 20-22 November 1996, Annapolis, Maryland,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Novembecr 1996 Arinarolis, Maryland1 rDIO QUALMTY DZEOTN I VIBYKUTON UrtAIK=yg A Change and Continuity in Librarianship : Approaching the Twenty-first...speakers Walt Crawford (Keynote), speaking on "Millennial Librarianship ;" Dr. Keith Swigger, Dean of the Graduate School of Library and Information...1 --Richard Hume Werking Millennial Librarianship : Maintaining the Mix and Avoiding the Hype .................. 2 --Walt Crawford

  8. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  9. Twenty-First-Century Kids, Twenty-First-Century Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by a new generation of librarians and children, Walter reconsiders the legacy passed on by the matriarchs of children's services and examines more recent trends and challenges growing out of changes in educational philosophy and information technology. This thoroughly researched book includes the current issues and trends of: (1)…

  10. Book review of Capital in the Twenty-First Century, by Thomas Piketty. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard Press, 2014, 605 pages

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Dobrescu; Mălina Ciocea

    2015-01-01

    “Every now and then, the field of economics produces an important book; this is one of them” (Cowen, 2014). These are the opening words of Tyler Cowen’s presentation of Thomas Piketty’s work, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” (Piketty, 2014), in Foreign Affairs. This is a book that is visibly placed in all important bookstores around the world, widely debated, acclaimed, sold (over 1 million copies have been sold so far). It has been favorably reviewed or quoted in all major journals. The...

  11. Causes and impacts of changes in the Arctic freshwater budget during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in an AOGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzel, Olivier [University of New South Wales, Climate and Environmental Dynamics Laboratory, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Fichefet, Thierry; Goosse, Hugues [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dufresne, Jean-Louis [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)

    2008-01-15

    The fourth version of the atmosphere-ocean general circulation (AOGCM) model developed at the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL-CM4) is used to investigate the mechanisms influencing the Arctic freshwater balance in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. The freshwater influence on the interannual variability of deep winter oceanic convection in the Nordic Seas is also studied on the basis of correlation and regression analyses of detrended variables. The model shows that the Fram Strait outflow, which is an important source of freshwater for the northern North Atlantic, experiences a rapid and strong transition from a weak state toward a relatively strong state during 1990-2010. The authors propose that this climate shift is triggered by the retreat of sea ice in the Barents Sea during the late twentieth century. This sea ice reduction initiates a positive feedback in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system that alters both the atmospheric and oceanic circulations in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN)-Barents Seas sector. Around year 2080, the model predicts a second transition threshold beyond which the Fram Strait outflow is restored toward its original weak value. The long-term freshening of the GIN Seas is invoked to explain this rapid transition. It is further found that the mechanism of interannual changes in deep mixing differ fundamentally between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This difference is caused by the dominant influence of freshwater over the twenty-first century. In the GIN Seas, the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater export out of the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait combined with the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater import from the North Atlantic are shown to have a major influence in driving the interannual variability of the deep convection during the twenty-first century. South of Iceland, the other region of deep water renewal in the model, changes in freshwater import from the North Atlantic

  12. Does the Common Agricultural Policy still make sense in the twenty-first century? CAP after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Daszkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU CAP has developed immensely since the 1960’s. However, its current determinants are completely different from those which formed the CAP foundations. This results mainly from the fact that the UE CAP must meet present-day challenges and threats. Moreover, further EU enlargements also significantly influenced performance of this sector of economy. It is important to determine whether the existence of the CAP in the twenty-first century still makes sense and to specify in more detail the CAP reform directions after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary.

  13. A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the Twenty-First Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ikin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the twenty-first century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia’s faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia’s institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed “conservation ethic” in a twenty-first century Australian setting.

  14. Book review of Capital in the Twenty-First Century, by Thomas Piketty. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard Press, 2014, 605 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dobrescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Every now and then, the field of economics produces an important book; this is one of them” (Cowen, 2014. These are the opening words of Tyler Cowen’s presentation of Thomas Piketty’s work, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” (Piketty, 2014, in Foreign Affairs. This is a book that is visibly placed in all important bookstores around the world, widely debated, acclaimed, sold (over 1 million copies have been sold so far. It has been favorably reviewed or quoted in all major journals. The assessment of “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” by Paul Krugman, Nobel Economics Prize Laureate as a “magnificent, sweeping meditation on inequality”, is highly relevant: “This is a book that will change both the way we think about society and the way we do economics” (Krugman, 2014. Finally, Piketty’s book is included in the list of the year’s best books by prestigious journals, such as The Economist, Financial Times, The Washington Post, Observer, The Independent, Daily Telegraph; Financial Times and McKinsey have hailed it as the best book of 2014.

  15. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  16. How Has Elderly Migration Changed in the Twenty-First Century? What the Data Can-and Cannot-Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Karen Smith; Rork, Jonathan C

    2016-08-01

    Interstate elderly migration has strong implications for state tax policies and health care systems, yet little is known about how it has changed in the twenty-first century. Its relative rarity requires a large data set with which to construct reliable measures, and the replacement of the U.S. Census long form (CLF) with the American Community Survey (ACS) has made such updates difficult. Two commonly used alternative migration data sources-the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Statistics of Income (SOI) program of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-suffer serious limitations in studying the migration of any subpopulation, including the elderly. Our study informs migration research in the post-2000 era by identifying methodological differences between data sources and devising strategies for reconciling the CLF and ACS. Our investigation focusing on the elderly suggests that the ACS can generate comparable migration data that reveal a continuation of previously identified geographic patterns as well as changes unique to the 2000s. However, its changed definition of residence and survey timing leaves us unable to construct a comparable national migration rate, suggesting that one must use national trends in the smaller CPS to investigate whether elderly migration has increased or decreased in the twenty-first century.

  17. Wicked Female Characters in Roddy Doyle’s “The Pram”: Revisiting Celtic and Polish Myths in the Context of Twenty-First Century Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gülüm Tekin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available “The Pram” is the only horror story in Roddy Doyle’s collection The Deportees and Other Stories (2007. It is also unique in terms of its approach to Ireland’s multicultural scene in the twenty-first century. Doyle turns the other side of the coin and introduces a migrant caretaker (Alina, who loses her mind due to her employees’ (the O’Reilly family ill-treatment. As a reaction to their scornful attitude, Alina becomes a murderer. Set in the context of twenty-first century Dublin, “The Pram” contains various references to Celtic and Polish mythological female figures (in particular, the Old Hag of Beara and Boginka, which strengthen the thrilling, mythical elements in the plot. This paper aims to examine the characters’ negative attitude towards migrants in Ireland in the light of the racist discourse present in the story. Also, I will focus on the story’s female characters and discuss the handicaps of being a female migrant in Ireland. The parallels between the mythical female figures and the protagonist Alina will be another point to be analyzed. The argument of this paper is that Doyle does not always portray the positive outcomes of a multicultural society. On the contrary, he conveys the perspective of the incoming migrant. “The Pram” stages the obstacles that a female outsider may experience in Ireland and her subsequent transformation as a result of the racism she encounters there.

  18. Breakout Sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Participants are split into small groups for detailed discussion on their chosen topic. To register please click on 'See details' link from the agenda and then on the link to send an email to the session for which you would like to book. Please don't change the subject line of the email.

  19. Consideration of land-use and land-cover changes in the projection of climate extremes over North America by the end of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Adelina

    2018-03-01

    Changes in the essential climate extremes indices and surface variables for the end of the twenty-first century are assessed in this study based on two transient climate change simulations, with and without land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), but identical atmospheric forcing. The two simulations are performed with the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by the Canadian Earth System Model for the (2006-2100)-Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario. For the simulation with LULCC, land-cover data sets are taken from the global change assessment model (GCAM) representing the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2006-2100. LULCC in RCP4.5 scenario suggest significant reduction in cultivated land (e.g. Canadian Prairies and Mississippi basin) due to afforestation. CRCM5 climate projections imply a general warming by the end of the twenty-first century, especially over the northern regions in winter. CRCM5 projects more warm spell-days per year over most areas of the continent, and implicitly more summer days and tropical nights at the expense of cold-spell, frost and ice days whose number is projected to decrease by up to 40% by the end of the twenty-first century with respect to the baseline period 1971-2000. Most land areas north of 45°N, in all seasons, as well as the southeastern United States in summer, exhibit increases in mean precipitation under the RCP4.5 scenario. In contrast, central parts of the continent in summer and much of Mexico in all seasons show reduced precipitation. In addition, large areas of North America exhibit changes of 10 to 40% (depending on the season and geographical location) in the number of heavy precipitation days. Results also suggest that the biogeophysical effects of LULCC on climate, assessed through differences between the two simulations, lead to warmer regional climates, especially in winter. The investigation of processes leading to this response shows high sensitivity of the

  20. Projected impact of climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the Lake of Guiers for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, Moustapha; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Diallo, Ismaïla; Pal, Jeremy S.; Faye, Aïssatou; Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzes the impact of anthropogenic climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the lake of Guiers basin for the middle (2041-2060) and late twenty-first century (2080-2099). To this end, high-resolution multimodel ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate that an elevated warming, leading to substantial increase of atmospheric water demand, is projected over the whole of Senegal. In the Lake basin, these increases in potential evapotranspiration (PE) range between 10 and 25 % in the near future and for RCP4.5 while for the far future and RCP8.5, they exceed 50 %. In addition, mean precipitation unveils contrasting changes with wetter (10 to 25 % more) conditions by the middle of the century and drier conditions (more than 50 %) during the late twenty-first century. Such changes cause more/less evapotranspiration and soil moisture respectively during the two future periods. Furthermore, surface runoff shows a tendency to increase in most areas amid few locations including the Lake basin with substantial reduction. Finally, it is found that while semi-arid climates develop in the RCP4.5 scenario, generalized arid conditions prevail over the whole Senegal for RCP8.5. It is thus evident that these future climate conditions substantially threaten freshwater availability for the country and irrigated cropping over the Lake basin. Therefore, strong governmental politics are needed to help design response options to cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the country.

  1. Session summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In the summary session, possible international activities in the field of basic studies on high-temperature engineering were discussed within the framework of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). It was recommended to include topics relevant to fission-product behaviour and safety issues of HTGR in next meeting, in addition to the topics discussed in this meeting. The chairperson of the last session summarised the recommendations to be presented to the NSC into the following five topics as possible international activities: - Basic studies on behaviour of irradiated graphite/carbon and ceramic materials including their composites under both operation and storage conditions. - Development of in-core material characterisation and instrumentation methods. - Improvement in material properties through high-temperature irradiation. - Basic studies on HTGR fuel fabrication and performance including fission-product release. - Basic studies on safety issues of HTGR. It was also recommended that a further information exchange meeting focused on the organisation of the interactive collaboration activity with regard to the above topics be planned in 2003, tentatively in Oarai, Japan. (author)

  2. Session Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliane Lessner, Co-Chair:

    2009-03-01

    A panel discussion session providing a worldwide assessment of the status and experiences of women in physics, paying attention to the different cultures and environments they work in and to how the age of the physicist affects their perspective. We will hear about women physicists in Korea in particular and Asia in general, in Egypt in particular and Africa in general, and in the Caribbean. Six invited speakers will present analyses of the progress being made in promoting women in physics from their personal experiences and as assessed from their participation in the Third International Conference on Women In Physics (ICWIP2008) convened in Seoul, Korea in October 2008. From Albania to Zimbabwe, with representation of all the continents, ICWIP2008 congregated 283 women and men physicists from 57 countries to share the participants' scientific accomplishments and evaluate international progress in improving the status of women in physics. This three-hour session is organized jointly by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics of the APS (CSWP) and the Forum on International Physics of the APS (FIP). Audience participation in the panel discussion will be strongly encouraged.

  3. Proceedings of the Twenty-First NASA Propagation Experiments Meeting (NAPEX XXI) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Nasser (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) meeting is convened each year to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications industry, academia and government who have an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation are invited to NAPEX meetings for discussions and exchange of information. The reports delivered at this meeting by program managers and investigators present recent activities and future plans. This forum provides an opportunity for peer discussion of work in progress, timely dissemination of propagation results, and close interaction with the satellite communications industry. NAPEX XXI took place in El Segundo, California on June 11-12, 1997 and consisted of three sessions. Session 1, entitled "ACTS Propagation Study Results & Outcome " covered the results of 20 station-years of Ka-band radio-wave propagation experiments. Session 11, 'Ka-band Propagation Studies and Models,' provided the latest developments in modeling, and analysis of experimental results about radio wave propagation phenomena for design of Ka-band satellite communications systems. Session 111, 'Propagation Research Topics,' covered a diverse range of propagation topics of interest to the space community, including overviews of handbooks and databases on radio wave propagation. The ACTS Propagation Studies miniworkshop was held on June 13, 1997 and consisted of a technical session in the morning and a plenary session in the afternoon. The morning session covered updates on the status of the ACTS Project & Propagation Program, engineering support for ACTS Propagation Terminals, and the Data Center. The plenary session made specific recommendations for the future direction of the program.

  4. Retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI Challenges of bioethics in twenty-first century medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para plantear posibles retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI es necesario considerar que existieron algunos retos en el pasado (en el origen de esa nueva disciplina llamada bioética; que los retos se han ido modificando con el avance científico, biomédico y humanístico; considerando que los retos que pueden plantearse para el futuro serán, de diferentes maneras, resultado de este devenir histórico. Se plantean como grandes retos: los problemas no resueltos de justicia, equidad y pobreza; los retos que plantea la introducción de nuevas tecnologías con el paradigma de la nanomedicina y los retos que plantea el avance de las neurociencias con el paradigma de la neuroética.In order to propose possible challenges of bioethics in the twenty-first century medicine, it is necessary to consider that there were some past challenges (at the origin of this new discipline called bioethics, that the challenges have been modified with scientific, biomedical and humanistic breakthroughs, considering at the same time that challenges that may arise in the future will be, in different ways, a result of this historical evolution. The major challenges would be in the future: the unsolved problems of justice, equity and poverty; the challenges posed by the introduction of new technologies with the nanomedicine paradigm; and finally, the challenges driven by breakthroughs in neurosciences with the neuroethics paradigm.

  5. Thomas Piketty: Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Le Capital au XXIe siècle. (Ensk þýðing: Arthur Goldhammer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Ritinu er ekki ætlað að vera lokaorðin um viðfangsefnið heldur miklu frekar grunnur að frekari umræðu og rannsóknum. Það hefur tekist. Capital in the Twenty-First Century er verk sem hefur þegar vakið mikla umræðu og verður vafalaust rætt áfram árum saman. Það er raunar nánast skyldulesning fyrir þá sem ætla sér að fjalla um þjóðhagfræði og hlutverk hins opinbera, hversu sammála eða ósammála sem þeir eru höfundinum.

  6. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Guzović, Zvonimir; Piacentino, Antonio; Schlör, Holger; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more biorefineries. Presenting the contributions of selected conference papers published in the special issues of leading scientific journals (including all the papers from the current Energy special issue), this review demonstrates the capacity of the Conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems for generation of knowledge which could serve as the centrepiece of a pertinent response to those challenges. - Highlights: • Top ten challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century identified. • Selected SDEWES contributions analysed against the identified challenges. • The role of SDEWES as knowledge generator towards addressing the identified challenges credibly demonstrated.

  7. Changes of climate regimes during the last millennium and the twenty-first century simulated by the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Feng, Song; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jie; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the shifts in terrestrial climate regimes using the Köppen-Trewartha (K-T) climate classification by analyzing the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble (CESM-LME) simulations for the period 850-2005 and CESM Medium Ensemble (CESM-ME), CESM Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) and CESM with fixed aerosols Medium Ensemble (CESM-LE_FixA) simulations for the period 1920-2080. We compare K-T climate types from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (950-1250) with the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1550-1850), from present day (PD) (1971-2000) with the last millennium (LM) (850-1850), and from the future (2050-2080) with the LM in order to place anthropogenic changes in the context of changes due to natural forcings occurring during the last millennium. For CESM-LME, we focused on the simulations with all forcings, though the impacts of individual forcings (e.g., solar activities, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, aerosols and land use changes) were also analyzed. We found that the climate types changed slightly between the MCA and the LIA due to weak changes in temperature and precipitation. The climate type changes in PD relative to the last millennium have been largely driven by greenhouse gas-induced warming, but anthropogenic aerosols have also played an important role on regional scales. At the end of the twenty-first century, the anthropogenic forcing has a much greater effect on climate types than the PD. Following the reduction of aerosol emissions, the impact of greenhouse gases will further promote global warming in the future. Compared to precipitation, changes in climate types are dominated by greenhouse gas-induced warming. The large shift in climate types by the end of this century suggests possible wide-spread redistribution of surface vegetation and a significant change in species distributions.

  8. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2016-07-28

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975–2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December–May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  9. Thomas Piketty’s Book “Capital in the Twenty-First Century”, Karl Marx and the Political Economy of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Piketty’s book Capital in the Twenty-First Century has resulted in a sustained political and academic debate about capitalism in the 21st century. This article discusses the relevance of the book in the context of Karl Marx’s works and the political economy of the Internet. It identifies 3 common reactions to Piketty’s book: 1 dignification; 2 denigration of the work’s integrity; 3 the denial of any parallel to Marx. I argue that all three reactions do not help the task of creating a New Left that is urgently needed in the situation of sustained capitalist crisis. Marxists will certainly view Piketty’s analysis of capitalism and political suggestions critically. I argue that they should however not dismiss them, but like Marx and Engels aim to radicalise reform suggestions. In relation to the Internet, this paper discusses especially how insights from Piketty’s book can inform the discussion of tax avoidance by transnational Internet companies such as Google, Facebook and Amazon. For establishing an alternative, non-commercial, non-capitalist Internet one can draw insights about institutional reforms and progressive capital taxation from Piketty that can be radicalised in order to ground radical-reformist Internet politics. “The daily struggle for reforms, for the amelioration of the condition of the workers within the framework of the existing social order, and for democratic institutions, offers to the social democracy the only means of engaging in the proletarian class war and working in the direction of the final goal-the conquest of political power and the suppression of wage labor. Between social reforms and revolution there exists for the social democracy an indissoluble tie. The struggle for reforms is its means; the social revolution, its aim” (Rosa Luxemburg 1899, 41.

  10. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-10-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975-2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December-May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  11. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-first Century Core Curriculum—Part Three: Curriculum Implementation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Corvin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health professionals have been challenged to radically reform public health training to meet evolving demands of twenty-first century public health. Such a transformation requires a systems thinking approach with an interdisciplinary focus on problem solving, leadership, management and teamwork, technology and information, budgeting and finance, and communication. This article presents processes for implementing and evaluating a revised public health curriculum and outlines lessons learned from this initiative. To date, more than 200 students have participated in the initial pilot testing of this program. A rigorous process and outcome evaluation plan was developed and employed. Results from the evaluation were used to enhance the resulting curriculum. Specifically, all instructional materials were evaluated by both the students who received the materials and the faculty who presented the materials. As each successive pilot is delivered, both enrollment and faculty involvement has increased. Through this process, the value of committed faculty, the importance of engaging learners in the evaluation of an education program, and the need to implement curriculum that has been carefully evaluated and evidence-informed in nature has emerged. We credit our successful transformation of the Masters in Public Health core to the challenge provided by the Framing the Future task force, the commitment of our College of Public Health leadership, the engagement of our faculty, and the time we allowed for the process to unfold. Ultimately, we believe this transformed curriculum will result in better trained public health professionals, interdisciplinary practitioners who can see public health challenges in new and different ways.

  12. Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricola, C.M. [Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Texas A and M University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College Station, TX (United States); Cook, K.H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO{sub 2} forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions. (orig.)

  13. Why 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    We can distinguish four positions on the continuing, or maybe even increasing, relevance of the category of class at the beginning of the twenty-first century depending on the extent to which they accord central importance to (1) the reproduction or (2) the transformation of social classes with regard to (3) the distribution of goods without bads or (4) the distribution of goods and bads. One could say that Dean Curran introduces the concept of 'risk-class' to radicalize the class distribution of risk and charts who will able to occupy areas less exposed to risk and who will have little choice but to occupy areas that are exposed to the brunt of the fact of the risk society. As he mentioned it is important to note that this social structuring of the distribution of bads will be affected not only by class, but also by other forms of social structuration of disadvantage, such as gender and race. In order to demonstrate that the distribution of bads is currently exacerbating class differences in life chances, however, Curran concentrates exclusively on phenomena of individual risks. In the process, he overlooks the problem of systemic risks in relation of the state, science, new corporate roles, management the mass media, law, mobile capital and social movements; at the same time, his conceptual frame of reference does not really thematize the interdependence between individual and systemic risks. Those who reduce the problematic of risk to that of the life chances of individuals are unable to grasp the conflicting social and political logics of risk and class conflicts. Or, to put it pointedly: 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality in world risk society. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  14. Summary of twelfth session of the AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel Transmutations' and third meeting of INPRO Project RMI - 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the twenty first century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2010-01-01

    Information about the development in the problems spent fuel transmutation and future nuclear reactors development during the last years 2009-2010. Some critical views on the coming works tendencies are given by the coordinator of works within AER cooperation. (Author)

  15. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  16. Globalização social: desafio do século XXI GLOBALIZATION SOCIAL: CHALLENGE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A crítica de muitos à globalização é conseqüência dos rumos que ela está tomando. Embora a globalização seja um processo dinâmico em andamento, o seu avanço tem ocorrido de forma desequilibrada, gerando instabilidade política, econômica e social em várias regiões do planeta. O presente trabalho procura, de forma teórica, mostrar a falta da globalização social como um dos fatores que tem provocado desequilíbrio na dinâmica do processo de globalização. Pelo lado econômico, observa-se que a globalização ocorre de forma acelerada e já alcança os mais distantes pontos da face da Terra, ao passo que, pelo lado social, observa-se que a globalização está ausente em algumas regiões e, em outro tanto, ela ocorre de forma lenta e sem muito interesse. De nada vale os benefícios da globalização econômica se não existir a globalização social. Esse e o desafio do século XXI.The criticism of many of globalization is a consequence of directions it is taking. While globalization is a dynamic process in progress, its progress has occurred so unbalanced, creating politicalinstability, economic and social development in various regions of the planet. This paper demand, so theoretically, show the lack of social globalisation as one of the factors that have causedimbalance in the dynamics of the globalization process. On the economic side there is that globalization occurs so rapidly and have reached the most distant points of the face of theEarth, while the social side, there is that globalisation is absent in some regions, and in another both, it happens so slowly and without much interest. It is not worth the benefits of economicglobalization if there is the social globalisation. That and the challenge of the twenty-first century.

  17. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it

  18. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of

  19. Twenty-First Century Educational Theory and the Challenges of Modern Education: Appealing to the Heritage of the General Teaching Theory of the Secondary Educational Curriculum and the Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarin, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of educational theory in light of the challenges confronting education in the twenty-first century. The author examines how our ideas about the methods for managing the transmission of culture, the subject of education, and the consequences of these changes for the theory of education have changed. The author…

  20. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    to biofuels (Bindraban et al., 2009), limited water resources for irrigation expansion (Turral et al., 2009), limits on agricultural intensifications, loss of croplands to urbanization (Khan and Hanjra, 2008), increasing meat consumption (and associated demands on land and water) (Vinnari and Tapio, 2009), environmental infeasibility for cropland expansion (Gordon et al., 2009), and changing climate have all put pressure on our continued ability to sustain global food security in the twenty-first century. So, how does the World continue to meet its food and nutrition needs?. Solutions may come from bio-technology and precision farming, however developments in these fields are not currently moving at rates that will ensure global food security over next few decades. Further, there is a need for careful consideration of possible harmful effects of bio-technology. We should not be looking back 30– 50 years from now, like we have been looking back now at many mistakes made during the green revolution. During the green revolution the focus was only on getting more yield per unit area. Little thought was put about serious damage done to our natural environments, water resources, and human health as a result of detrimental factors such as uncontrolled use of herbicides-pesticides-nutrients, drastic groundwater mining, and salinization of fertile soils due to over irrigation. Currently, there is talk of a “second green revolution” or even an “ever green revolution”, but clear ideas on what these terms actually mean are still debated and are evolving. One of the biggest issues that are not given adequate focus is the use of large quantities of water for food production. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion (60-90%) of all human water use in India goes for producing their food (Falkenmark, M., & Rockström, 2006). But such intensive water use for food production is no longer tenable due to increasing pressure for water use alternatives such as increasing urbanization

  1. Post-Session Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session....... In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of authentication is different from session-less authentication (e.g., in RFID) and pre-session authentication (e.g., for access control.) Post......-session authentication, although a new term, is not a new concept; it is the basis of at least a few practical schemes. We, for the first time, systematically study it and present the underlying authentication model. Further, we show that an important class of problems is solvable using post-session authentication...

  2. Performing the comic side of bodily abjection: A study of twenty-first century female stand-up comedy in a multi-cultural and multi-racial Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Blunden, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis is a socio-cultural study of the development of female stand-up comedy in the first decade of the twenty-first century within a multi-racial and multi-cultural Britain. It also engages with the theory and practice of performance and asks the question: ‘In what ways can it be said that female stand-up comics perform the comic side of bodily abjection?’ This question is applied to t...

  3. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    blockade (fig. 3).19 It has two parallel inbound and outbound shipping channels, each 1,200 feet wide with a dredged depth averaging 40 feet. East...Sicily is a large island, Operation Husky required a stagger- ing logistical effort. Even had substantial losses occurred, Allied forces possessed...partially dependent on maritime logistics for trade and support to military operations, the renewed capability to deploy mines while maintaining

  4. Twenty-First Century Pathologists' Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy Craig

    2017-07-01

    Pathologists' advocacy plays a central role in the establishment of continuously improving patient care quality and patient safety, and in the maintenance and progress of pathology as a profession. Pathology advocacy's primary goal is the betterment of patient safety and quality medical care; however, payment is a necessary and appropriate component to both, and has a central role in advocacy. Now is the time to become involved in pathology advocacy; the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA) are 2 of the most consequential pieces of legislation impacting the pathology and laboratory industry in the last 20 years. Another current issue of far-reaching impact for pathologists is balance billing, and yet many pathologists have little or no understanding of balance billing. Pathologists at all stages of their careers, and in every professional setting, need to participate. Academic pathologists have a special obligation to, if not become directly involved in advocacy, at least have a broad and current understanding of those issues, as well as the need and responsibility of pathologists to actively engage in advocacy efforts to address them, in order to teach residents the place of advocacy, and its value, as an inseparable and indispensable component of their professional responsibilities.

  5. Departmentalization and Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Toy Coles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school organizational style and student outcomes. The research questions that guided this study were, "Is there a difference in mathematical performance of fourth graders who receive departmentalized instruction as compared to fourth grade students who receive…

  6. Educating for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaley, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In his first inaugural speech, President Obama declared that "our schools fail too many" and an essential component of laying "a new foundation for growth" will be "to transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age." Concerns about our nation's position in the global education race have led to a focus on…

  7. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-first Century Core Curriculum-Part Two: Translation of MPH Core Competencies into an Integrated Theory-Based Core Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvin, Jaime A; DeBate, Rita; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J

    2017-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the dynamics of health and health care are changing, necessitating a commitment to revising traditional public health curricula to better meet present day challenges. This article describes how the College of Public Health at the University of South Florida utilized the Intervention Mapping framework to translate revised core competencies into an integrated, theory-driven core curriculum to meet the training needs of the twenty-first century public health scholar and practitioner. This process resulted in the development of four sequenced courses: History and Systems of Public Health and Population Assessment I delivered in the first semester and Population Assessment II and Translation to Practice delivered in the second semester. While the transformation process, moving from traditional public health core content to an integrated and innovative curriculum, is a challenging and daunting task, Intervention Mapping provides the ideal framework for guiding this process. Intervention mapping walks the curriculum developers from the broad goals and objectives to the finite details of a lesson plan. Throughout this process, critical lessons were learned, including the importance of being open to new ideologies and frameworks and the critical need to involve key-stakeholders in every step of the decision-making process to ensure the sustainability of the resulting integrated and theory-based curriculum. Ultimately, as a stronger curriculum emerged, the developers and instructors themselves were changed, fostering a stronger public health workforce from within.

  8. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-First Century Core Curriculum-Part 1: Mobilizing the Community to Revise the Masters of Public Health Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita; Corvin, Jaime A; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century health challenges have significantly altered the expanding role and functions of public health professionals. Guided by a call from the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health's (ASPPH) and the Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health report to adopt new and innovative approaches to prepare public health leaders, the University of South Florida College of Public Health aimed to self-assess the current Masters of Public Health (MPH) core curriculum with regard to preparing students to meet twenty-first century public health challenges. This paper describes how Intervention Mapping was employed as a framework to increase readiness and mobilize the COPH community for curricular change. Intervention Mapping provides an ideal framework, allowing organizations to access capacity, specify goals, and guide the change process from curriculum development to implementation and evaluation of competency-driven programs. The steps outlined in this paper resulted in a final set of revised MPH core competencies that are interdisciplinary in nature and fulfill the emergent needs to address changing trends in both public health education and challenges in population health approaches. Ultimately, the competencies developed through this process were agreed upon by the entire College of Public Health faculty, signaling one college's readiness for change, while providing the impetus to revolutionize the delivery of public health education at the University of South Florida.

  9. Post-Session Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed , Naveed; Jensen , Christian ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Full Papers; International audience; Entity authentication provides confidence in the claimed identity of a peer entity, but the manner in which this goal is achieved results in different types of authentication. An important factor in this regard is the order between authentication and the execution of the associated session. In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of a...

  10. The Public Poster Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Rasky, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the use of a student poster session as an innovative approach to student learning. The local context for the assignment is provided, followed by a description of the course for which the poster was prepared, details about the assignment including its evaluation, and practical considerations for planning a poster session. The…

  11. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  12. THE DISPUTE BETWEEN POLITICAL THEOLOGY AND THE POLITICS OF THEOLOGY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY ON THE MEANINGS OF THE POSTMODERN GLOBALIZING AND INDIVIDUALISTIC SOCIETY AND THE CHRISTIAN PERSONALIST GLOBALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian MANOLACHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the dawn of postmodernity, in the twenty-first century, we witness the emergence of a new way of thinking and of new forms of culture and life, under the ideology of globalism, whose dominance is given by the practicality and utility related to civilization, and under globality, which is the cultural aspect of globalization, pertaining to the field of culture. The two dimensions of globalization and globality, civilizational and cultural, will (requestion the principle relationship between Christianity and the new postmodern globalizing utopia, requiring to (reconsider the sense and presence of Christianity within the world, and the appropriate sociological figure of the Church, within the new reality of global and globalized humanity, in the postmodern public space. This paper deals with this ideology - globalism and the cultural manifestation of globality, and with the Orthodox answer to the new challenge of individualism and postmodern globalizing (neocollectivism.

  13. Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types during summer over South Korea in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) projected by the RegCM4.0 based on four RCP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types over South Korea during summer in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) were projected under four RCP scenarios using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.0) with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km. Two boundary conditions, ERA-Interim and HadGEM2-AO, were used to drive the RegCM4.0 (jointly named RG4_ERA and RG4_HG2, respectively). In general, the RegCM4.0 reproduces the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over Northeast Asia for the current climate (1989-2008) reasonably well. The RG4_HG2 shows larger dry biases over South Korea, when compared with observations, than does the RG4_ERA. These strong dry biases result from the underestimation of convective precipitation (CPR) and are particularly noticeable in late afternoons during July and August. It is related to the performance of HadGEM2-AO which simulated southwesterly winds weakly in that time. However, interestingly, the RG4_HG2 simulates similar increases in the contribution of CPR to total precipitation after mid-July, resulting in comparable performance in the reproduction of heavy precipitation. In the late twenty-first century, a significant increase (decrease) in CPR (NCPR) is generally projected over South Korea, and particularly under the RCP8.5. During June, the total precipitation is affected primarily by changes in NCPR under RCP2.6 and RCP6.0. After mid-July, increasing total precipitation is primarily caused by the distinct increases in CPR in the late afternoons; this pattern is particularly noticeable under RCP8.5, which is associated with more destabilized atmospheric conditions during July and August. Light and heavy precipitation are projected to decrease and increase, respectively, under RCP8.5.

  14. Session 8: biofuels; Session 8: Les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botte, J.M.

    2006-01-15

    Here are given the summaries of the speeches of Mr Daniel Le Breton (Total): the transports of the future: the role of biofuels; of Mr Pierre Rouveirolles (Renault): the future expectations and needs; of Mr Frederic Monot (IFP): the developments of new generations of biofuels from biomass; of Mr Willem Jan Laan (Unilever): the use of bio resources for food and fuel: a fair competition? All these speeches have been presented at the AFTP yearly days (12-13 october 2005) on the session 8 concerning the biofuels. (O.M.)

  15. Summary: Hadron dynamics sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Londergan, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Four sessions on Hadron Dynamics were organized at this Workshop. The first topic, QCD Exclusive Reactions and Color Transparency, featured talks by Ralston, Heppelman and Strikman; the second, QCD and Inclusive Reactions had talks by Garvey, Speth and Kisslinger. The third dynamics session, Medium Modification of Elementary Interactions had contributions from Kopeliovich, Alves and Gyulassy; the fourth session Pre-QCD Dynamics and Scattering, had talks by Harris, Myhrer and Brown. An additional joint Spectroscopy/Dynamics session featured talks by Zumbro, Johnson and McClelland. These contributions are reviewed briefly in this summary. Two additional joint sessions between Dynamics and η physics are reviewed by the organizers of the Eta sessions. In such a brief review there is no way the authors can adequately summarize the details of the physics presented here. As a result, they concentrate only on brief impressionistic sketches of the physics topics discussed and their interrelations. They include no bibliography in this summary, but simply refer to the talks given in more detail in the Workshop proceedings. They focus on topics which were common to several presentations in these sessions. First, nuclear and particle descriptions of phenomena are now clearly converging, in both a qualitative and quantitative sense; they show several examples of this convergence. Second, an important issue in hadron dynamics is the extent to which elementary interactions are modified in nuclei at high energies and/or densities, and they illustrate some of these medium effects. Finally, they focus on those dynamical issues where hadron facilities can make an important, or even a unique, contribution to the knowledge of particle and nuclear physics

  16. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  17. Workshop: poster session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Colgan, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster session consisted of a microcosm of projects encompassing the wide range of problems in the radioecology of natural and semi-natural ecosystems. The authors presented a brief resume of the poster at a plenary session during which highlights were pointed out. The range of studies covered microbial transfer, fungi, insects herbicides, lichens, solid speciation of cesium, soil properties, plant cover, transfer factors from soil to plants, uptake by sludge fertilizers, fertilizer remediation and compartmental models for soil-plant uptake. (author)

  18. Session 2: Machine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.W.; Papotti, G.

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the talks and discussion that took place in the second session of the Chamonix 2012 workshop concerning results from machine studies performed in 2011. The session consisted of the following presentations: -) LHC experience with different bunch spacings by G. Rumolo; -) Observations of beam-beam effects in MDs in 2011 by W. Herr; -) Beam-induced heating/ bunch length/RF and lessons for 2012 by E. Metral; -) Lessons in beam diagnostics by R. Jones; -) Quench margins by M. Sapinski; and -) First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS) by S. Fartoukh. (authors)

  19. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  20. Session 2: Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    This session concentrated on the main players affecting the availability of the LHC: the Quench Protection System (QPS), the cryogenics system, the regularly foreseen technical stops and the effect of radiation on equipment failures. A forecast for operation in 2012 was made for all these items.

  1. Summary of Session 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.

    2004-01-01

    In Session 3, the speakers were dealing with the following topics: Automatization of Feynman Diagram Calculations (FDC), Event generators, Analytical approaches to FDC and various Mathematical innovations related to different physical problems. A more general, 'brainstorming', talk was given by J. Vermaseren as first talk

  2. Summary of Session III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  3. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  4. NSSS vendors session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A transcription of a question and answer session at the 1982 Nuclear Commerce Conference was presented. Standardization of nuclear power plant design, and the effects it would have on Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing and regulations, was of particular interest. Forecasts of the demand for nuclear power for the rest of this country were also discussed

  5. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  6. ICALEPS 2005 : opening session

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    ICALEPCS 2005, the tenth International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, will be held in Geneva, Switzerland, 10-14 Oct. 2005 at the International Conference Center Geneva (CICG). ICALEPCS 2005 thus falls in the year that UNESCO has declared the "World Year of Physics". ICALEPCS covers all aspects of control and operation of Experimental Physics facilities such as particle accelerators, particle detectors, optical telescopes, radio telescopes, nuclear fusion facilities like Tokamaks, nuclear reactors, lasers, etc .... Opening session by . A. Daneels (CERN): Introducting ICALEPCS 2005 . C.Lamprecht (Republic & State of Geneva): Welcome speech . J. Lister (EPFL): Welcome speech . J. Engelen (CERN): The machine and experiment challenges of LHC

  7. 98th LHCC meeting Agenda OPEN Session and CLOSED Session

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    OPEN Session on Wednesday, 8 July at 9h00-11h00 in Main Auditorium, Live webcast, followed by CLOSED Session, Conference room 160-1-009 11h20-17h00. CLOSED Session continued on Thursday, 9 July at 9h00-12h30

  8. Session Types at the Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Padovani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We (redefine session types as projections of process behaviors with respect to the communication channels they use. In this setting, we give session types a semantics based on fair testing. The outcome is a unified theory of behavioral types that shares common aspects with conversation types and that encompass features of both dyadic and multi-party session types. The point of view we provide sheds light on the nature of session types and gives us a chance to reason about them in a framework where every notion, from well-typedness to the subtyping relation between session types, is semantically -rather than syntactically- grounded.

  9. Formal description of the OSI session layer: session service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Eijk, P.H.J.; Vissers, C.A.; Diaz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The LOTOS formal description of the OSI session service is presented on basis of specification samples from the full description, giving account of how specification styles and session service architectural elements are reflected in the description. Both information (data types) and process

  10. Review for session K - benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Eight of the papers to be considered in Session K are directly concerned, at least in part, with the Pool Critical Assembly (P.C.A.) benchmark at Oak Ridge. The remaining seven papers in this session, the subject of this review, are concerned with a variety of topics related to the general theme of Benchmarks and will be considered individually

  11. Human Reliability Analysis: session summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to identify and resolve human factors issues has significantly increased over the past two years. Today, utilities, research institutions, consulting firms, and the regulatory agency have found a common application of HRA tools and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The ''1985 IEEE Third Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants'' devoted three sessions to the discussion of these applications and a review of the insights so gained. This paper summarizes the three sessions and presents those common conclusions that were discussed during the meeting. The paper concludes that session participants supported the use of an adequately documented ''living PRA'' to address human factors issues in design and procedural changes, regulatory compliance, and training and that the techniques can produce cost effective qualitative results that are complementary to more classical human factors methods

  12. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom......Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any...

  13. Sun Tzu: Theorist for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    instructing its Senior Leaders in the productiveness of this Strategic Thinking Model and ensure that future leaders are given the appropriate...the following suggestion: (1) Continue to intergrate Sun Tzu’s noteworthy strategic theories in today’s campaign plans to win the conflicts against

  14. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

  15. Restructuring the Foreign Affairs Agencies for the Twenty First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smythe, Ana

    2000-01-01

    This paper underscores the critical need for cultural change and professional development in the Foreign Affairs Agencies of the United States in order to meet the challenge of a dynamically changed...

  16. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2009 ... Two high-level commissions — the Sutherland report in 2004 and the Warwick Commission report in 2007 — addressed the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and made proposals for incremental reform. This book goes further. It explains why institutional reform of the WTO is needed at this ...

  17. Rethinking the humanities in twenty-first century Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Bergson's theory of history and Foucault's concept of knowledge as power, and others, Msiska argues that the field of humanities in Africa should be reconceptualised into African Humanities in order to effect what Deleuze and Guattari have defined as conceptual self-semiotisation. Msiska also identifies the main ...

  18. Twenty-first century metadata operations challenges, opportunities, directions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee Eden, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    It has long been apparent to academic library administrators that the current technical services operations within libraries need to be redirected and refocused in terms of both format priorities and human resources. A number of developments and directions have made this reorganization imperative, many of which have been accelerated by the current economic crisis. All of the chapters detail some aspect of technical services reorganization due to downsizing and/or reallocation of human resources, retooling professional and support staff in higher level duties and/or non-MARC metadata, ""value-a

  19. The twenty-first century commercial space imperative

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Young addresses the impressive expansion across existing and developing commercial space business markets, with multiple private companies competing in the payload launch services sector. The author pinpoints the new markets, technologies, and players in the industry, as well as highlighting the overall reasons why it is important for us to develop space. NASA now relies on commercial partners to supply cargo and crew spacecraft and services to and from the International Space Station. The sizes of satellites are diminishing and their capabilities expanding, while costs to orbit are decreasing. Suborbital space tourism holds the potential of new industries and jobs. Commercial space exploration of the Moon and the planets also holds promise. All this activity is a catalyst for anyone interested in joining the developing space industry, from students and researchers to engineers and entrepreneurs. As more and more satellites and rockets are launched and the business of space is expanding at a signifi...

  20. Preparing for China in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Brian

    1998-01-01

    With China's emergence in the next century as a world economic and military power, it is imperative that the United States continue an engagement approach to assist with China's continued development...

  1. Cosmopolitan cities: the frontier in the twenty-first century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevincer, A Timur; Kitayama, Shinobu; Varnum, Michael E W

    2015-01-01

    People with independent (vs. interdependent) social orientation place greater priority on personal success, autonomy, and novel experiences over maintaining ties to their communities of origin. Accordingly, an independent orientation should be linked to a motivational proclivity to move to places that offer economic opportunities, freedom, and diversity. Such places are cities that can be called "cosmopolitan." In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 found that independently oriented young adults showed a preference to move to cosmopolitan rather than noncosmopolitan cities. Study 2 used a priming manipulation and demonstrated a causal impact of independence on residential preferences for cosmopolitan cities. Study 3 established ecological validity by showing that students who actually moved to a cosmopolitan city were more independent than those who either moved to a noncosmopolitan city or never moved. Taken together, the findings illuminate the role of cosmopolitan settlement in the contemporary cultural change toward independence and have implications for urban development and economic growth.

  2. Cosmopolitan cities: the frontier in the twenty-first century?

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Kitayama, Shinobu; Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2015-01-01

    People with independent (vs. interdependent) social orientation place greater priority on personal success, autonomy, and novel experiences over maintaining ties to their communities of origin. Accordingly, an independent orientation should be linked to a motivational proclivity to move to places that offer economic opportunities, freedom, and diversity. Such places are cities that can be called “cosmopolitan.” In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 found that independently oriented young adu...

  3. Engagement and the Twenty-First Century University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, C. Peter

    1999-01-01

    Argues for redefining the mission of the 21st-century university in order to focus on one overriding objective serving the public. Effective, expanding engagement with communities provides expertise and service to communities in ways in which universities are co-equal partners with other organizations and interests; it also provides rich…

  4. Capital in the twenty-first century: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskice, David

    2014-12-01

    I set out and explain Piketty's model of the dynamics of capitalism based on two equations and the r > g inequality (his central contradiction of capitalism). I then take issue with Piketty's analysis of the rebuilding of inequality from the 1970s to the present on three grounds: First, his model is based on the (neo-classical) assumption that companies are essentially passive actors who invest the amount savers choose to accumulate at equilibrium output - leading to the counterintuitive result that companies respond to the secular fall in growth (and hence their product markets) from the 1970s on by increasing their investment relative to output; this does indeed imply increased inequality on Piketty's β measure, the ratio of capital to output. I suggest a more realistic model in which businesses determine investment growth based on their expectations of output growth, with monetary policy bringing savings into line with business-determined investment; the implication of this model is that β does not change at all. And in fact as other recent empirical work which I reference has noted, β has not changed significantly over these recent decades. Hence Piketty's central analysis of the growth of contemporary inequality requires rethinking. Second, despite many references to the need for political economic analysis, Piketty's analysis of the growth of inequality in the period from the 1970s to the present is almost devoid of it, his explanatory framework being purely mathematical. I sketch what a political economic framework might look like during a period when politics was central to inequality. Third, inequality in fact rose on a variety of dimensions apart from β (including poverty which Piketty virtually makes no reference to in this period), but it is unclear what might explain why inequality rose in these other dimensions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  5. Twenty-First Century Diseases: Commonly Rare and Rarely Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunert, Sylvia; Sittampalam, Gurusingham Sitta; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J

    2017-09-20

    Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers ( www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/2014 ). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity. This editorial is taking into account the uniqueness of each individual and surrounding environment, and stresses the point that a more accurate definition of a "common" disorder could be simply the amalgamation of a myriad of "rare" diseases. These rare diseases are being grouped together because they share a rather constant complement of common features and, indeed, generally respond to empirically developed treatments, leading to a positive outcome consistently. We make the case that it is highly unlikely that such treatments, despite their statistical success measured with large cohorts using standardized clinical research, will be effective on all patients until we increase the depth and fidelity of our understanding of the individual "rare" diseases that are grouped together in the "buckets" of common illnesses. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 511-516.

  6. United States Military Space: Into the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    famous and articulate spokesmen for planetary science; Pale Blue Dot : A Vision of the Human Future in Space (New York: Random House, 1994) was one...and defining human characteristic. Carl Sagan is a primary spokesman for those who view spaceflight in scientific and ecological terms and see it as...Spacefaring Civilization (New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999). Carl Sagan cofounded the Planetary Society in 1980 and was one of the most

  7. American marriage in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor and minority children, are increasingly likely to grow up in single-parent families and to experience family instability. Cherlin describes the economic and cultural forces that have transformed family life. Job market changes have drawn married women into the work force and deprived less-educated men of the blue-collar jobs by which they traditionally supported their families. And effective contraception and legalized abortion have eroded the norm of marriage before childbearing. Cherlin notes that sentiment in favor of marriage appears to be stronger in the United States than in other developed countries. The share of U.S. adults who are likely to marry is higher, but so is the share likely to divorce. U.S. children are also more likely to live in single-parent families at some time in their childhood. Although nearly all Americans, whether poor or well-to-do, hold to marriage as an ideal, today marriage is increasingly optional. To a greater extent than ever before, individuals can choose whether to form a family on their own, in a cohabiting relationship, or in a marriage. Given U.S. patterns of swift transitions into and out of marriage and high rates of single parenthood, American policymakers eager to promote marriage are unlikely to be able to raise U.S. family stability to levels typical of other developed countries. Consequently, a family policy that relies too heavily on marriage will not help the many children destined to live in single-parent and cohabiting families--many of them poor--during their formative years. Assistance must be directed to needy families, regardless of their household structure. Policymakers must craft a careful balance of marriage-based and marriage-neutral programs to provide adequate support to American children.

  8. Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwalwasser, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

  9. What constitutes cerebral palsy in the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Determining inclusion/exclusion criteria for cerebral palsy (CP) surveillance is challenging. The aims of this paper were to (1) define inclusion/exclusion criteria that have been adopted uniformly by surveillance programmes and identify where consensus is still elusive, and (2) provide...... (SCPE; 1976-1998). An expert panel used a consensus building technique, which utilized the SCPE 'decision tree' and the original 'What constitutes cerebral palsy?' paper as frameworks. RESULTS: CP surveillance programmes agree on key clinical criteria pertaining to the type, severity, and origin...

  10. Strategic nutrition: a vision for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that poor nutrition plays a major role in the epidemic of various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. There has also been much research regarding the role of related factors such as advertising and food prices. Many intervention studies have been carried out where attempts have been made to persuade people to modify their behaviour, such as by making dietary changes, in order to enhance health (health promotion). There has also been much debate on the potential of government policy as a tool for achieving these goals. Various proposals have been made, such as a tax on sugary drinks, the redirection of food subsidies and how the salt content of food can be reduced. However, the great majority of previous papers have considered only single aspects of the topics discussed here. The present paper reviews strategies for improving public health, both health promotion interventions and the use of government policy approaches. Topics discussed include providing advice for the general population and the design of food guides and food labels. This leads to the conclusion that we need an overall strategy that integrates this diverse body of information and formulates a comprehensive action plan. I propose the term 'strategic nutrition'. The implementation of this plan opens up a path to a major advance in public health.

  11. The twenty first century informatization and artificial intelligence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Jung Ho

    1999-12-01

    The contents of this book are competition of mental weakness and visually handicapped people, barbarian about the knowledge of commodity, we are living in notion of time of the agricultural age, parade of informatization of fool. Is there a successful case of informatization when it is done as others do?, what is technology of informatization?, there is mistake in traditional information technology from a system of thought, information system, and analysis of improvement of industrial structure case of development for program case of system installation, and a thief free society.

  12. Water and Food in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marsily, Ghislain; Abarca-del-Rio, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    In 2000, the World population was 6.2 billion people; it reached 7 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 9.5 billion (±0.4) in 2050 and 11 billion (±1.5) in 2100, according to the 2012 UN projections (Gerland et al. in Science 346:234-237, 2014). The trend after 2100 is still one of the global demographic growths, but after 2060, Africa is the only continent where the population would still increase. The amount of water consumed annually to produce the food necessary to meet the needs of the populations varies greatly between countries, from about 600 to 2500 m3/year per capita (Zimmer in L'empreinte eau. Les faces cachées d'une ressource vitale. Charles Léopold Meyer, Paris, 2013), depending on their wealth, their food habits, and the percentage of food waste they generate (on average, 30 % of the food produced is wasted). In 2000, the total food production was on the order of 3300 million tons (in cereal equivalents). In 2014, it is estimated that about 0.8 billion inhabitants of the planet suffer from hunger (FAO in World agriculture: towards 2030-2050. FAO, Rome, 2014. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y3557E/y3557e00.HTM) and do not get the nutrition they need to be in good health or, in the case of children, to grow properly (both physically and intellectually). This food deficit was on the order of 40 million tons of cereal equivalents in 2014. The number of inhabitants with a food deficit was about 0.85 billion before the 2008 crisis and was decreasing annually, but it increased abruptly after 2008 up to 1 billion inhabitants and is slowly decreasing now. Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1400 m3/year in 2050, and 1500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100 (Marsily in L'eau, un trésor en partage. Dunod, Paris, 2009). Can bioenergy be added to food production? Will that much water be available on Earth, and where will it come from? Is climate change going to modify the answers to these questions? Can severe droughts occur? Can there be conflicts related to a food deficit? Some preliminary answers and scenarios for food production will be given in this paper from a hydrologist's viewpoint.

  13. NATO: Maintaining Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    proportionality.129 NATO displays Kantian respect toward the peoples of sovereign nation-states that provide legitimate governance for their citizens. The...qualities of Kantian respect. Most recently, NATO deems this function its “responsibility to protect.” Dr. Robert Jackson, professor of international...Relational Sovereignty,” 398. 35 The Kantian ethics of duty illustrate the moral imperative for the Alliance, given contemporary context, the perceived

  14. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMone, D. V.

    2002-02-25

    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours.

  15. Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

    2012-01-01

    What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the…

  16. War and Urban Terrain in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Williamson

    2000-01-01

    .... The spread of urban sprawl throughout the world is only part of the cause; the motivation of adversaries and friends alike to seek refuge in these environments offers a more compelling reason for the U.S...

  17. Italian Foreign Policy: Trends for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    without the love and support of my wife, Dr. Lucia Mariani. While my time at NPS marks only another episode in the unfailing support she has always... della Sinistra). In this transformation, however, the PDS lost support from the hard line Marxists that had supported the PCI. “The split between...Milan, FrancoAngeli, 1998), 95-113. 107 Lucio Caracciolo, Terra Incognita: Le radici geopolitiche della crisi italiana, (Rome, Gius. Laterza and

  18. Rheumatic Heart Disease in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldu, Bethel; Bloomfield, Gerald S

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic valvular disease resulting after severe or repetitive episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), an autoimmune response to group A Streptococcus infection. RHD has been almost eliminated with improved social and health infrastructure in affluent countries while it remains a neglected disease with major cause of morbidity and mortality in many low- and middle-income countries, and resource-limited regions of high-income countries. Despite our evolving understanding of the pathogenesis of RHD, there have not been any significant advances to prevent or halt progression of disease in recent history. Long-term penicillin-based treatment and surgery remain the backbone of a RHD control program in the absence of an effective vaccine. The advent of echocardiographic screening algorithms has improved the accuracy of diagnosing RHD and has shed light on the enormous burden of disease. Encouragingly, this has led to a rekindled commitment from researchers in the most affected countries to advocate and take bold actions to end this disease of social inequality.

  19. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2009 ... Debra P. Steger enseigne le commerce international, le règlement des différends internationaux et le droit international des investissements ... Foundation ont conclu un accord de coopération scientifique et technologique en ...

  20. A Review of Twenty-First Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shirley

    2018-01-01

    This article is predominantly concerned with the global challenges associated with managing an academic workforce in an era characterised by increased demand for higher education. In scrutinising global trends in higher education and academic workforce management, the article will address two research questions. First, what are the global trends…

  1. Gravity's ghost scientific discovery in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2011-01-01

    In theory, at least, gravitational waves do exist. We are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation, which is generated when stars explode or collide and a portion of their mass becomes energy that ripples out like a disturbance on the surface of a serene pond. But unfortunately no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected even though the search has lasted more than forty years. As the leading chronicler of the search for gravitational waves, Harry Collins has been right there with the scientists since the start. The result of his unprecedented access to the front lines of physical

  2. Sun Tzu's War Theory in the Twenty First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuo, Li-sheng A

    2007-01-01

    .... In accordance with "winning without fighting a battle" scenario, I will argue that the battle-prevention theory school is the most suitable, and Sun Tzu's classic The Art of War is the best choice of approach...

  3. Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Carson, M.; Katsman, C.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Köhl, A.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Stammer, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present regional sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates for the end of the 21 (st) century. We show regional projections of sea-level change resulting from changing ocean circulation, increased heat uptake and atmospheric pressure in CMIP5 climate models. These are combined

  4. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Rather than simply analyzing the current functioning of the WTO, its problems and challenges, this volume is also a call to action. It lays out proposals that are likely to become a blueprint for reform of the WTO as an institution. Its contents are abundantly worthy of reflection and subsequent action.

  5. Virtual Reality: Teaching Tool of the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Helene; Vu, Dzung

    1997-01-01

    Virtual reality-based procedural and surgical simulations promise to revolutionize medical training. A wide range of simulations representing diverse content areas and varied implementation strategies are under development or in early use. The new systems will make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels without risks…

  6. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A

    2007-01-01

    ...: interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and technical skills. From these three primary strategic leadership skills, there is a list of twenty-one competencies that a strategic leader should posses...

  7. The pediatrician's role in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-10-01

    The world's children comprise: (i) those in wealthy, industrialized countries; (ii) those from rapidly industrializing countries; (iii) minority groups including recently arrived immigrants in otherwise affluent and healthy societies; (iv) previously traditional people in rapid transition to urbanized, Western lifestyles; and (v) many millions living in grinding poverty in overcrowded, unhygienic conditions where child mortality is high and often due to malnutrition and infections. Industrialization, affluence, better housing, hygiene and nutrition, better clinical care and disease prevention have helped enhance child health in many countries over the past century. However, this is being offset by obesity, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and social disruption, mental disease and high rates of violence including homicide and suicide. These 'new morbidities' are worse among minorities and in populations undergoing rapid social change. Social pressures including unemployment, depression and family dysfunction are important. Pediatricians must become active in decisions about the use of public resources in disease prevention, health education and more rational and equitable use of high technology. They should also be active advocates for children and their rights and advise governments about all issues that affect child health, protection and well-being. This is particularly so in the poorest and developing countries. There is a need for better international collaboration, training and exchange programs involving the International Pediatric Association, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, World Health Organization and other local, national and regional organizations to help overcome these problems as the next century draws near.

  8. A Multicultural Library: Strategies for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance-Mitchell, Veronica E.

    1996-01-01

    Library schools and institutions of higher education must be prepared to meet the demands of an increasingly multicultural population. They must be committed to affirmative action initiatives and the recruitment and retention of minority library students, and to motivating, networking, and providing job opportunities. (AEF)

  9. A Library Communication Audit for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Mardi; Liedtka, Theresa; Bednar, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a case study relating to an internal communication audit conducted in a large academic library that assessed existing information channels during a period of organizational change in order to recommend improvements. A communications task force developed and administered a survey instrument and then analyzed data and reported…

  10. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  11. The twenty first century informatization and artificial intelligence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jung Ho

    1999-12-15

    The contents of this book are competition of mental weakness and visually handicapped people, barbarian about the knowledge of commodity, we are living in notion of time of the agricultural age, parade of informatization of fool. Is there a successful case of informatization when it is done as others do?, what is technology of informatization?, there is mistake in traditional information technology from a system of thought, information system, and analysis of improvement of industrial structure case of development for program case of system installation, and a thief free society.

  12. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D. V.

    2002-01-01

    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours

  13. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  14. Clinical Skills Assessment in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Clinical skills remain fundamental to the practice of medicine and form a core component of the professional identity of the physician. However, evidence exists to suggest that the practice of some clinical skills is declining, particularly in the United States. A decline in practice of any skill can lead to a decline in its teaching and assessment, with further decline in practice as a result. Consequently, assessment not only drives learning of clinical skills, but their practice. This article summarizes contemporary approaches to clinical skills assessment that, if more widely adopted, could support the maintenance and reinvigoration of bedside clinical skills. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A New Moon for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2000-08-01

    Thirty years of lunar sample studies supplemented by spotty remote sensing and geophysical data gave us the broad outline of the nature and geologic history of the Moon. Many cherished beliefs are now being questioned on the basis of global data returned by two bargain-basement missions sent to the Moon in the 1990s, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. These data are being integrated with new and old lunar sample data, to give us new, though still controversial, ideas about the nature of the Moon. Two articles in a special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets) illustrate the point. Brad Jolliff and his colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis, Jeff Gillis, Larry Haskin, Randy Korotev, and Mark Wieczorek (now at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) divide the Moon's crust into distinct geochemical provinces quite different from the traditional highlands (or terra) and maria. In a separate paper, Randy Korotev presents a detailed analysis of a common rock type among the samples returned by the Apollo missions. This rock type, nicknamed enigmatically "LKFM," was thought by many of us to represent the composition of the lower crust everywhere on the Moon. Korotev argues that it is confined to only one of Jolliff's provinces. If correct, this changes our estimates of the composition of the lunar crust, hence of the entire Moon. Although other lunar scientists will scrutinize these new views of the Moon, it is clear that some long-held ideas about the Moon might be modified significantly, if not tossed out completely.

  16. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  17. Virtual reality: teaching tool of the twenty-first century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H; Vu, D

    1997-12-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is gaining recognition for its enormous educational potential. While not yet in the mainstream of academic medical training, many prototype and first-generation VR applications are emerging, with target audiences ranging from first- and second-year medical students to residents in advanced clinical training. Visualization tools that take advantage of VR technologies are being designed to provide engaging and intuitive environments for learning visually and spatially complex topics such as human anatomy, biochemistry, and molecular biology. These applications present dynamic, three-dimensional views of structures and their spatial relationships, enabling users to move beyond "real-world" experiences by interacting with or altering virtual objects in ways that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. VR-based procedural and surgical simulations, often compared with flight simulators in aviation, hold significant promise for revolutionizing medical training. Already a wide range of simulations, representing diverse content areas and utilizing a variety of implementation strategies, are either under development or in their early implementation stages. These new systems promise to make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels, without the risks and ethical concerns typically associated with using animal and human subjects. Medical students could acquire proficiency and gain confidence in the ability to perform a wide variety of techniques long before they need to use them clinically. Surgical residents could rehearse and refine operative procedures, using an unlimited pool of virtual patients manifesting a wide range of anatomic variations, traumatic wounds, and disease states. Those simulated encounters, in combination with existing opportunities to work with real patients, could increase the depth and breadth of learners' exposure to medical problems, ensure uniformity of training experiences, and enhance the acquisition of clinical skills.

  18. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  19. Atomic Energy Board, twenty first annual report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: nuclear materials, nuclear power, application of radioisotopes and radiation, health and safety, and fundamental studies undertaken in the fields of physics, chemistry, metallurgy, medicine and geology during 1977. The supporting activities of the computer services, engineering sevices, waste disposal plant, instrumentation section, research reactor and analytical services are given for 1977. The report contains a bibliography of publications published by staff members and bursars of the Atomic Energy Board during 1977

  20. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A

    2007-01-01

    .... While all these skills and competencies play a role in successful strategic leadership, this paper will advocate that visioning, leading change, and interpersonal skills have the greatest impact on successful strategic leadership in this rapidly changing global environment.

  1. Tailings management for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of tailings management at Saskatchewan uranium mines is traced from the fifties to the nineties. Some of the problems with past systems are discussed. The new tailings systems now being proposed for the new operations currently undergoing environmental assessment in Saskatchewan are examined in detail. These new systems represent a change in tailings management philosophy, from keeping tailings high and dry on the surface, to placement of tailings in a low-energy regime within the water table. There they are removed from the active surface environment, avoiding future erosion problems, with a reduced likelihood of suffering intrusion from future human or animal activities. (author). 16 refs., 5 figs

  2. Accelerators for the twenty-first century - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1990-01-01

    Modern synchrotrons and storage rings are based upon the electrical technology of the 1900s boosted by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration now seems to be approaching its practical limit. It is high time that we seek a new physical acceleration mechanism to provide the higher energies and luminosities needed to continue particle physics beyond the machines now on the stocks. Twenty years is a short time in which to invent, develop, and construct such a device. Without it, high-energy physics may well come to an end. Particle physicists and astrophysicists are invited to join accelerator specialists in the hunt for this new principle. This report analyses the present limitations of colliders and explores some of the directions in which one might look to find a new principle. Chapters cover proton colliders, electron-positron colliders, linear colliders, and two-beam accelerators; transverse fields, wake-field and beat-wave accelerators, ferroelectric crystals, and acceleration in astrophysics. (orig.)

  3. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-07-05

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced.

  4. Twenty-first century pathology sign-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Scott; Robinson, Daniel; Penny, Robert J; Hess, Jay L

    2012-12-01

    It is difficult to imagine a field that is changing as rapidly as pathology. A convergence of factors including not only scientific and technological advances but also changes in business models is transforming the field, particularly in the area of cancer diagnostics. The authors examine 8 themes, or "forces of change," in pathology and speculate on how these will affect pathology sign-out and the future role of pathologists in patient care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

  6. Continuing Professional Development in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of continuing professional development (CPD) in supporting delivery of patient care of the highest quality and safety is receiving significant attention in the current era of monumental change. CPD is essential in efforts to ensure effectiveness of new models of health care delivery, improve outcomes and value in health care, address external regulations, and foster patient engagement. The unique features of CPD; the use of special mastery-based teaching, learning, and assessment methods, and other special interventions to promote excellence; and direct involvement of a variety of key stakeholders differentiate CPD from undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. The needs of procedural specialties relating to CPD are different from those of primary care disciplines and require special attention for the greatest impact. Simulation-based education and training can be very useful in CPD aimed at improving outcomes and promoting patient safety. Preceptoring, proctoring, mentoring, and coaching should be used routinely to address specific needs in CPD. Distinct CPD strategies are necessary for retraining, reentry, and remediation. Participation in CPD programs can be encouraged by leveraging the joy of learning, which should drive physicians and surgeons to strive continually to be the best in their professional work.

  7. Marketing of science in the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelpiece, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author gives a brief review of marketing of science from the 1930's to the present. He discusses the fact that at the present the scientific community is doing a lousy job of marketing and the fact that it is very important that this be reversed because science and technology have become absolutely essential to our future economic health and development. The four steps which he proposes will help with this problem are: (1) government, universities and industry working together to try and insure that there's an adequate basis of curiosity-driven research; (2) scientist making an effort to insure that they have enough political power to be taken seriously; (3) an adjustment to scientist thinking to reflect the fiscal realities of what the next generation of scientific facilities will cost; and (4) a need for public support

  8. Global Mental Health for Twenty First Century Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.

    2016-01-01

    Delivering mental health programs and services in education is not a new idea but it is time to bring mental health into focus. Momentum is gaining in terms of raising awareness, increasing understanding, and articulating strategies for advancing and integrating mental health. We need to know that all over the world everything is unique and…

  9. Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Fritjof

    2013-01-01

    Fritjof Capra's two-part lecture presents the fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability along with the power of an ecologically comprehensive theory to shape education to fit the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Dr. Capra aims for the big picture emphasizing that effective learning is a system embedded in the…

  10. The Neglected Patent Controversies in the Twenty First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na virada do século, assistimos a um reforço do sistema de patentes. No entanto, os gestores de políticas deixam sistematicamente de lado as controvérsias sobre patentes. Este artigo examina criticamente as complexas relações entre, por um lado, as razões para os direitos de patente e, por outro lado, seus efeitos sociais e econômicos. Só quando entendermos essa relação, seremos capazes de projetar regimes adequados de Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual (DPI para o novo paradigma tecnoeconômico de microeletrônica baseada em conhecimento e invenções de amplo alcance implementadas por computador. O foco se concentra nas razões morais, nas razões de incentivo econômico, e nas razões de aumento da concorrência e "proteção do talento empresarial no mercado", e nas razões econômicas para organizar ciência, tecnologia e criatividade. Afirma-se aqui que os sistemas de patentes não são neutros, eles estabelecem as regras do jogo em que indivíduos e organizações são os jogadores.At the turn of the century we have seen a tightening of the patent system. However, policy makers systematically neglect the patent controversies. This article critically reviews the complex relationships between the rationales for patent rights on the one hand, and the social and economic effects of such on the other hand. Only when we understand this relationship, will we be able to design appropriate Intellectual Property Right (IPR regimes for the new technoeconomic paradigm of knowledge-based micro-electronics and computer implemented pervasive inventions. Focus is on moral rationales, economic incentive rationales, increased competition and "market protection of entrepreneurial talent" rationales, and the economic rationales for organizing science, technology and creativity. It is argued that patent systems are not neutral, but set the rules of the game in which individuals and organizations are the players.

  11. Land, ecology, and democracy. A twenty-first century view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Julianne Lutz; Freyfogle, Eric T; Sullivan, William C

    2006-01-01

    Land is necessary for human flourishing, and its use remains a compelling concern for every society, even those wherein industrialization has sharply diminished people's awareness of land. Here, we consider land's influence on political thinking, particularly thinking about democratic governance, and ask if this influence might be made more beneficial by the application of lessons drawn from ecological research. We identify five such lessons and apply them in six ways to the institution of private-property rights in nature--the main legal institution that allocates and perpetuates power over land--and to modern assumptions about liberal individualism and rights to health. We conclude that people can live well on land, promoting both human and land health, only in governmental forms engaging more citizens more deliberatively than now typical even in democracies. Implications for political institutions and human welfare are discussed under conditions of globalizing interdependence.

  12. Biomolecular electronics in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, R S

    2001-01-01

    A relentless decrease in the size of silicon-based microelectronics devices is posing problems. The most important among these are limitations imposed by quantum-size effects and instabilities introduced by the effects of thermal fluctuations. These inherent envisaged problems of present-day systems have prompted scientists to look for alternative options. Advancement in the understanding of natural systems such as photosynthetic apparatuses and genetic engineering has enabled attention to be focused on the use of biomolecules. Biomolecules have the advantages of functionality and specificity. The invention of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy has opened up the possibility of addressing and manipulating individual atoms and molecules. Realization of the power of self-assembly principles has opened a novel approach for designing and assembling molecular structures with desired intricate architecture. The utility of molecules such as DNA as a three-dimensional, high-density memory element and its capability for molecular computing have been fully recognized but not yet realized. More time and effort are necessary before devices that can transcend existing ones will become easily available. An overview of the current trends that are envisaged to give rich dividends in the next millennium are discussed.

  13. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  14. Talent management for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Most firms have no formal programs for anticipating and fulfilling talent needs, relying on an increasingly expensive pool of outside candidates that has been shrinking since it was created from the white-collar layoffs of the 1980s. But the advice these companies are getting to solve the problem--institute large-scale internal development programs--is equally ineffective. Internal development was the norm back in the 1950s, and every management-development practice that seems novel today was routine in those years--from executive coaching to 360-degree feedback to job rotation to high-potential programs. However, the stable business environment and captive talent pipelines in which such practices were born no longer exist. It's time for a fundamentally new approach to talent management. Fortunately, companies already have such a model, one that has been well honed over decades to anticipate and meet demand in uncertain environments: supply chain management. Cappelli, a professor at the Wharton School, focuses on four practices in particular. First, companies should balance make-versus-buy decisions by using internal development programs to produce most--but not all--of the needed talent, filling in with outside hiring. Second, firms can reduce the risks in forecasting the demand for talent by sending smaller batches of candidates through more modularized training systems in much the same way manufacturers now employ components in just-in-time production lines. Third, companies can improve their returns on investment in development efforts by adopting novel cost-sharing programs. Fourth, they should seek to protect their investments by generating internal opportunities to encourage newly trained managers to stick with the firm. Taken together, these principles form the foundation for a new paradigm in talent management: a talent-on-demand system.

  15. Topical Session on Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the management of materials. Presentations during the topical session covered key aspects of the management of materials and meant to provide an exchange of information and experience, including: Experience and lessons learnt from VLLW and non-radioactive material management in Spain and Germany with special attention to recycling (How specific solutions came about? Are there 'generic' examples for wider adoption?); Risk assessment of recycling and non-recycling: a CPD study; Waste acceptance issues within different national contexts (What constraints are there on the waste receiving body and what flexibility can the latter have? What constraints does this impose on D and D implementers? What about wastes are without current solution? What needs to be done? What about large items and 'difficult' waste in general?); Radiological characterisation of materials during decommissioning, particularly difficult situations - large volumes, large items,.. wastes, heterogeneous streams (What examples of established practice? What are the approaches or aspects that set the regulatory requirements? How can the flow rates be large but the answers acceptable? How much is needed to be known for later action, e. g., disposal, release, protection of worker, etc.); Radiological characterisation of buildings as they stand, in order to allow conventional demolition (What are strategies for optimisation of characterisation? How much needs to be known to take action later? e.g. for storage, disposal, release, cost estimation and ALARA? What needs to be done in advance and after decommissioning/dismantling?). At the end of each presentation time was allotted for discussion of the paper. Integral to the Topical Session was a facilitated plenary discussion on the topical

  16. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions

  17. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  18. National Sessions of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion

    2012-01-01

    The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

  19. Scientific conference proceedings. Session 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosek, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Radiochemical Technology session met at UJV Rez on June 7, 1985 to hear 13 papers of which 11 were incorporated in INIS. The papers inform of results attained in the field of processing liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants, processing spent nuclear fuel using the fluoride process, of the separation of fission products by dicarbolide extraction, the chemistry of complex uranium compounds, etc. The cooperation of UJV with VUJE and VUCHZ is also dealt with. (E.S.)

  20. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group's discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article

  1. CIME Session on Pluripotential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patrizio, Giorgio; Berteloot, Francois; Demailly, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotential theory is a very powerful tool in geometry, complex analysis and dynamics. This volume brings together the lectures held at the 2011 CIME session on "pluripotential theory" in Cetraro, Italy. This CIME course focused on complex Monge-Ampére equations, applications of pluripotential theory to Kahler geometry and algebraic geometry and to holomorphic dynamics. The contributions provide an extensive description of the theory and its very recent developments, starting from basic introductory materials and concluding with open questions in current research.

  2. Summary of spin physics sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1988-01-01

    The list of topics in the many talks given during the Spin Physics sessions of this Intersections conference is nearly as long as the one of this conference: P and T Violation NN Interaction πp and πd Elastic Scattering Nuclear Matter Spin Effects Muon (g-2) Polarized Proton Beams Polarized Gas Targets This points to the almost trivial fact that spin is fundamental to our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. I will discuss in some detail only four of these topics. Needless to say this choice is very much personally biased and I apologize to all the speakers whose excellent contributions I did not include

  3. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-01-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to open-quotes develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.close quotes Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym open-quotes MESSclose quotes by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed

  4. Working session 2: Tubing inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Tapping, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This session was attended by delegates from 10 countries, and four papers were presented. A wide range of issues was tabled for discussion. Realizing that there was limited time available for more detailed discussion, three topics were chosen for the more detailed discussion: circumferential cracking, performance demonstration (to focus on POD and sizing), and limits of methods. Two other subsessions were organized: one dealt with some challenges related to the robustness of current inspection methods, especially with respect to leaving cracked tubes in service, and the other with developing a chart of current NDE technology with recommendations for future development. These three areas are summarized in turn, along with conclusions and/or recommendations. During the discussions there were four presentations. There were two (Canada, Japan) on eddy current probe developments, both of which addressed multiarray probes that would detect a range of flaws, one (Spain) on circumferential crack detection, and one (JRC, Petten) on the recent PISC III results

  5. Cinema Sessions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ignacio MORETA-VELAYOS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time films have been used in teaching and at various levels of professional training  and more specifically in the medical area. In this case, through the description of a project developed in a Primary Care Health Center, we intend to justify the use of movies as a tool that could ease, the sometimes difficult task of continued education among Primary Care professionals. We propose different aspects of everyday practice in which cinema can be potentially useful, as well as the way to include it in the Plan of Continued Education of the Centre and its accreditation.Films and issues discussed in each session, and the project evaluation, are detailed.

  6. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  7. Celebrating the tenth conference session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: This number of the Bulletin appears during a month when the tenth regular session of the Agency's General Conference is being held. It is fitting that among the special arrangements made to give added significance to such an historical landmark should be an opening address by Herr Franz Jonas, Federal President of the host country, Austria. The Festsaal of the Kongresszentrum, in the Hofburg, has now been the centre for every annual session held in Austria, except the first. On that occasion, recorded in the photograph on the cover, the Konzerthaus was made available. A commemorative series of talks dealing with topics of particular interest in the international development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, delivered by scientists of world distinction was another idea which will add much profound thought to the records of nuclear energy. Under the chairmanship of Professor L.C. Prado, with Dr. W.B. Lewis as Moderator, the subjects chosen by the participants were : The Impact of Atomic Energy in our Society - Sir John Cockcroft; Nuclear Power Systems and their Technical Potentialities - Prof. Alexandre Leipunski; The Commercial Future of Nuclear Power - Dr. William Webster; Nuclear Science in Life Sciences - Dr. A.R. Gopal-Ayengar; Fundamental Research in Atomic Energy Centres - Prof. Louis Neel. These speeches will be reproduced in full in the Agency's Atomic Energy Review. The pages of this issue of the Bulletin are intended to give indications of the stage which the Agency has now reached in some, but by no means all, of its activities in promoting the techniques of atomic energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  8. Session Report - S. Voinis (Andra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The session addressed key issues related to the industrial feasibility of construction. It covered the implementer and regulator points of view. The conclusions derive from three presentations completed by the outcomes of six WG. At the Morsleben Repository, Germany, the licensing of the closure of the repository has been initiated by BfS. The closure concept is based on extensive backfilling with salt concrete complemented by seals. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing such a seal structure an in-situ experiment is performed in a drift of the repository. In the UK, the framework for implementing geological disposal of the higher activity radioactive waste is described in the White Paper published by the UK Government in June 2008. The process to site a facility will be staged and based on voluntarism and partnership with local communities. This process is in its early stage. The paper outlines the work being undertaken by the NDA. In canada, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has submitted information required for a CNSC licence to prepare the site and construct a DGR for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of their nuclear power reactors. That submission includes an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), as required for a Panel Review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), and the information required for a licence application under the NSCA Regulations. Discussions between the proponent and the regulator in the pre-licensing phase, clarified CNSC expectations for the characterization of the site and for the development of the EIS and application. They also helped to ensure that OPG understood these expectations. Outcomes WG session-1: - Start with construction but during operational phase: Simultaneous construction and operation activities. - Need for technical requirements/criteria: So that it can be judged whether 'products' meet the requirements; LT safety issues to be considered during

  9. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  10. Session II-D. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of the Systems Task in the NWTS Program include: development of program requirements, allocation of the requirements to subsystems or tasks, integration of the task activities towards meeting the overall requirements, and assessment of progress towards achievement of the program mission. The Systems Task also includes a number of ancillary activities which are necessary to the program but which do not logically fall into other work-breakdown structure elements. Activities in the Systems Task, which in the NWTS Program are conducted at both the program and project levels, are generally grouped under the heading systems engineering and include identification of requirements, development of a baseline, integration of the system, baseline control, functional analyses, trade-off studies, and system analyses. The following papers in this session address some of the activities and progress that was achieved in the Systems Task in FY 1981: (1) waste isolation system alternatives: a cost comparison; (2) BWIP technical integration and control; (3) BWIP performance evaluation process: a criteria based method; (4) impacts of waste age; (5) systems studies of subseabed disposal; and (6) systems studies of waste transportation

  11. Secure Execution of Distributed Session Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Alves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the SJ Framework for session-based distributed programming is part of recent and ongoing research into integrating session types and practical, real-world programming languages. SJ programs featuring session types (protocols are statically checked by the SJ compiler to verify the key property of communication safety, meaning that parties engaged in a session only communicate messages, including higher-order communications via session delegation, that are compatible with the message types expected by the recipient. This paper presents current work on security aspects of the SJ Framework. Firstly, we discuss our implementation experience from improving the SJ Runtime platform with security measures to protect and augment communication safety at runtime. We implement a transport component for secure session execution that uses a modified TLS connection with authentication based on the Secure Remote Password (SRP protocol. The key technical point is the delicate treatment of secure session delegation to counter a previous vulnerability. We find that the modular design of the SJ Runtime, based on the notion of an Abstract Transport for session communication, supports rapid extension to utilise additional transports whilst separating this concern from the application-level session programming task. In the second part of this abstract, we formally prove the target security properties by modelling the extended SJ delegation protocols in the pi-calculus.

  12. Undergraduate Researchers and the Poster Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gail; Green, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates presented original research in classroom poster sessions open to students, faculty, and friends. We assessed the reaction of the students to the experience and their reported change in their interest in presenting at conferences. Students enjoyed the poster session experience and indicated they preferred this method over other…

  13. Multiparty session types as coherence proofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Curry–Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof nor...

  14. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  15. Summary of the session on other effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this workshop is to discuss the effects of foreign particles on the native beam in a storage ring. This paper summarizes the session on effects not covered in sessions on fast ion instability, electron cloud instability, and cures. The topics discussed are the beam, the foreign particle, how are foreign particles trapped, and how do foreign particles and beam couple

  16. Ann Arbor Session I: Breaking Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the first session of the National Symposium on the Applications of Psychology to the Teaching and Learning of Music held at Ann Arbor from October 30 to November 2, 1978. Sessions concerned auditory perception, motor learning, child development, memory and information processing, and affect and motivation. (SJL)

  17. BILATERAL SINGLE SESSION URETEROSCOPY FOR URETERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety and success rate of bilateral single session rigid retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) for bilateral ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent bilateral single session ureteroscopic calculus removal. Results: Out of 70 renal units in 35 patients treated, ...

  18. Summary of Technical Sessions - Summary and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Technical Session 1 - Development achievements of BEPU methods and State of the Art: The objective of this session was to present the different approaches dealing with Best Estimate codes and uncertainties evaluations. Existing methods were summarized and different papers were focused on specific methods stressing their bases, peculiarities, advantages and limitations. As a result of the session a picture of the current State of the Art was obtained. The session comprised six papers. Technical Session 2 - International comparative activities: This session had as a main objective to review the activities launched in the past and present from the NEA in connection with BEPU methods, with focus on the applicability of conclusions derived from former benchmarks like UMS, the main outcomes of the recently finished BEMUSE project, and the objectives and relevance of UAM and PREMIUM projects. The session comprised four papers. Technical Session 3 - Applications: Licensing, safety analysis support, regulatory body views and industry activities: This session focused on the application of current methods in safety analyses. Contributions from industry, technical safety organizations and regulatory bodies were provided. As a result, a view of the penetration of BEPU methods in current safety analyses was obtained, as well as an indication of the evolution in the near future. Elements such as licensing practices, assessment process, etc. were considered. The session comprised nine papers. Technical Session 4. BEPU methods extension to new fields The session addressed the extension of BEPU methods beyond their current use. By now such methods are mainly applied to classic deterministic environment but it is believed that their benefits could be extended to other fields. Seven papers were presented in the session dealing with subjects that fit in the objectives established in the workshop programme. The papers cover areas like: extension to CFD, quantification of global safety

  19. Using session types as an effect system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orchard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Side effects are a core part of practical programming. However, they are often hard to reason about, particularly in a concurrent setting. We propose a foundation for reasoning about concurrent side effects using sessions. Primarily, we show that session types are expressive enough to encode an effect system for stateful processes. This is formalised via an effect-preserving encoding of a simple imperative language with an effect system into the pi-calculus with session primitives and session types (into which we encode effect specifications. This result goes towards showing a connection between the expressivity of session types and effect systems. We briefly discuss how the encoding could be extended and applied to reason about and control concurrent side effects.

  20. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  1. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C; Tessitore, A; Gasperi, L; Gomez, Mar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (session) categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m -2 ) were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts) during 15 (66 individual) training sessions (80±26 minutes). Edwards' HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL); the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards' ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards' and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P session durations (session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  2. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (< and ≥ 80 minutes and workout typology (reduced and high warm-up, conditioning, technical, tactical, game portions within a single session categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m-2 were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts during 15 (66 individual training sessions (80±26 minutes. Edwards’ HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards’ ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards’ and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P < .001, player’s sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P < .001, session durations (< 80 minutes: r = .67, P < .001; ≥ 80 minutes: r = .75, P < .001, and workout portions (r range = .78 - .89, P range = .002 - < .001. The findings indicated that coaches of youth basketball players can successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  3. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Zach; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Bradley, Dan; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Tannenbaum, Todd; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  4. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  5. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sfiligoi, Igor, E-mail: zmiller@cs.wisc.ed [Fermi National Acceleartor Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  6. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor

    2010-04-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  7. Ethics case reflection sessions: Enablers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Molewijk, Bert; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2018-03-01

    In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions. The aim of this study was to explore conditions for clarifying perspectives during ECR sessions. Data were collected from observations and interviews and the results emerged from an inductive analysis using grounded theory. Participants and research context: Six observations during ECR sessions and 10 interviews were performed with healthcare professionals working in childhood cancer care and advanced paediatric homecare. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Participants were informed about their voluntary involvement and that they could withdraw their participation without explaining why. Two categories emerged: organizational enablers and barriers and team-related enablers and barriers. Organizational enablers and barriers included the following sub-categories: the timing of the ECR session, the structure during the ECR session and the climate during the ECR session. Sub-categories to team-related enablers and barriers were identified as space for inter-professional perspectives, varying levels of ethical skills and space for the patient's and the family's perspectives. Space for inter-professional perspectives included the dominance of a particular perspective that can result from hierarchical positions. The medical perspective is relevant for understanding the child's situation but should not dominate the ethical reflection. Conditions for ECR sessions have been explored and the new knowledge can be used when training

  8. Teaching Students about Research: Classroom Poster Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Long, Kathleen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Finds that undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class acquired more favorable attitudes toward research as a result of their active participation in the creation and presentation of a poster that illustrates their independent work. Appends poster session instructions. (RS)

  9. Work session on the SAR. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper contains the tables of the contribution of K. Burkart 'Work Session on the SAR' to the IAEA Interregional Training Course held in Sept/Oct. 1980 at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. (RW)

  10. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented

  11. Summary of the relativistic heavy ion sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions span four orders of magnitude in energy in the laboratory and a few more in theory. In the two years since the last Intersections conference, experiments in the field of very high energy heavy ion research have begun at CERN and Brookhaven. The prime motivation for these experiments is the possibility of forming quark matter. This paper is a review of the topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

  12. Assessing treatment integrity in cognitive-behavioral therapy: comparing session segments with entire sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Stangier, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment integrity (therapist adherence and competence) is a necessary condition to ensure the internal and external validity of psychotherapy research. However, the evaluation process is associated with high costs, because therapy sessions must be rated by experienced clinicians. It is debatable whether rating session segments is an adequate alternative to rating entire sessions. Four judges evaluated treatment integrity (i.e., therapist adherence and competence) in 84 randomly selected videotapes of cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis (from three different treatment outcome studies). In each case, two judges provided ratings based on entire therapy sessions and two on session segments only (i.e., the middle third of the entire sessions). Interrater reliability of adherence and competence evaluations proved satisfactory for ratings based on segments and the level of reliability did not differ from ratings based on entire sessions. Ratings of treatment integrity that were based on entire sessions and session segments were strongly correlated (r=.62 for adherence and r=.73 for competence). The relationship between treatment integrity and outcome was comparable for ratings based on session segments and those based on entire sessions. However, significant relationships between therapist competence and therapy outcome were only found in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Ratings based on segments proved to be adequate for the evaluation of treatment integrity. The findings demonstrate that session segments are an adequate and cost-effective alternative to entire sessions for the evaluation of therapist adherence and competence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 47 CFR 97.513 - VE session manager requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VE session manager requirements. 97.513 Section... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.513 VE session manager requirements. (a) A VE session manager may be selected by the VE team for each examination session. The VE session...

  14. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-17

    To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions.

  15. Multiparty Session Types as Coherence Proofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Curry-Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof...... normalisation to executing communications. Our key contribution is generalising duality, from CLL, to a new notion of n-ary compatibility, called coherence. Building on coherence as a principle of compositionality, we generalise the cut rule of CLL to a new rule for composing many processes communicating...... in a multiparty session. We prove the soundness of our model by showing the admissibility of our new rule, which entails deadlock-freedom via our correspondence....

  16. Intersections and Unions of Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşku Acay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior work has extended the deep, logical connection between the linear sequent calculus and session-typed message-passing concurrent computation with equi-recursive types and a natural notion of subtyping. In this paper, we extend this further by intersection and union types in order to express multiple behavioral properties of processes in a single type. We prove session fidelity and absence of deadlock and illustrate the expressive power of our system with some simple examples. We observe that we can represent internal and external choice by intersection and union, respectively, which was previously suggested by Padovani for a different language of session types motivated by operational rather than logical concerns.

  17. Instruments for documentation of music therapy sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    It is an important part of the clinical music therapy work to document the daily sessions. For the clinician it is necessary to have a brief overview of each session in order to assess the methods and the process, and not least to be able to give clear reports of these issues to other health care...... professionals at staff meetings, conferences, etc. For music therapists with many clients there is not time enough during a working day to provide comprehensive process descriptions in the music therapy log. Therefore instruments that help the clinician in reducing and structuring this information are needed....... Danish and Norwegian music therapist have collaborated on developing a one page sheet with a structured form where they after each music therapy session document their use of methods and techniques in individual music therapy with persons with dementia. With this instrument therapists have easy access...

  18. Poster session in instructional technology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina; Wulan Febriana, Beta; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia

    2017-12-01

    Instructional technology course must be studied by students in order to 1) understand the role of technology in learning, 2) capable of analyzing advantages and disadvantages of using technology in teaching, 3) capable of performing technology in teaching. A poster session in instructional technology course was performed to 1) enhance students' interest in this course and develop students' creativity. The step of this research includes: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The result showed that students' responses towards poster session in instructional technology course were good.

  19. Summary of Session 2 "Machine Studies"

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the talks and discussion that took place in the second session of the Chamonix 2012 workshop concerning results from machine studies performed in 2011. The session consisted of the following presentations: “LHC experience with different bunch spacings” by G. Rumolo; “Observations of beam-beam effects in MDs in 2011” by W. Herr; “Beam-induced heating/ bunch length/RF and lessons for 2012” by E. Metral; “Lessons in beam diagnostics” by R. Jones; “Quench margins” by M. Sapinski; “First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS)” by S. Fartoukh.

  20. Summary of Session 2 'Machine Studies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, R W; Papotti, G [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes the talks and discussion that took place in the second session of the Chamonix 2012 workshop concerning results from machine studies performed in 2011. The session consisted of the following presentations: “LHC experience with different bunch spacings” by G. Rumolo; “Observations of beam-beam effects in MDs in 2011” by W. Herr; “Beam-induced heating/ bunch length/RF and lessons for 2012” by E. Metral; “Lessons in beam diagnostics” by R. Jones; “Quench margins” by M. Sapinski; “First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeeze (ATS)” by S. Fartoukh. (author)

  1. Undergraduate Seminars: The Poster Session Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Douglas L.; Bank, Barry

    1983-01-01

    A good alternative to the undergraduate psychology seminar is the poster session. During the course each student wrote a review paper. For use in his/her class presentation, the student provided the following information on poster paper: title, author, abstract, a few graphs or illustrations from the literature, conclusions, and references. (RM)

  2. IAEA General Conference begins annual session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document gives general information about the opening and the programme of the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference (17-21 September 2001, Austria Center Vienna). The conference is attended by ministers and high-level governmental representatives from 132 Member States of the IAEA

  3. IAEA General Conference begins annual session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives general information about the opening and the programme of the 44th regular session of the IAEA General Conference (18 -22 September 2000, Austria Center Vienna). The conference is attended by ministers and high-level governmental representatives from 130 Member States of the IAEA

  4. Declarative interpretations of session-based concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Mauricio; Rueda, Camilo; López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Session-based concurrency is a type-based approach to the analysis of communication-intensive systems. Correct behavior in these systems may be specified in an operational or declarative style: the former defines how interactions are structured; the latter defines governing conditions...

  5. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry

  6. 9. Biennial session of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    As every two years the 9th biennial session of nuclear physics shall try to make a survey of the recent experimental developments as well as the evolution of the theoretical ideas in Nuclear Physics. Communications are indexed and analysed separately

  7. Summary of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-07-01

    This paper briefly discusses the topics covered in the relativistic heavy ion in sessions. The prime motivation for these investigations is the possibility of forming quark matter, therefore the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. Topics on suppression of J//psi/ production, th equation of state of nuclear matter, transverse energy distributions and two pion interferometry techniques are discussed. 38 refs

  8. An Erlang Implementation of Multiparty Session Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fowler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By requiring co-ordination to take place using explicit message passing instead of relying on shared memory, actor-based programming languages have been shown to be effective tools for building reliable and fault-tolerant distributed systems. Although naturally communication-centric, communication patterns in actor-based applications remain informally specified, meaning that errors in communication are detected late, if at all. Multiparty session types are a formalism to describe, at a global level, the interactions between multiple communicating entities. This article describes the implementation of a prototype framework for monitoring Erlang/OTP gen_server applications against multiparty session types, showing how previous work on multiparty session actors can be adapted to a purely actor-based language, and how monitor violations and termination of session participants can be reported in line with the Erlang mantra of "let it fail". Finally, the framework is used to implement two case studies: an adaptation of a freely-available DNS server, and a chat server.

  9. Posters. [Poster Session at AHRD Conference, 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    The first of the papers in this poster session, "Developing the Employment Brand: Targeting MBA Campus Hires" (Diane M. Bergeron), posits that employment branding benefits both individuals and organizations. It functions as a campus recruiting tool in a competitive labor market and communicates the organization's values and work…

  10. Session-RPE for quantifying load of different youth taekwondo training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Capranica, Laura; Cortis, Cristina; Guidotti, Flavia; Bianco, Antonino; Tessitore, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) proved to be a valuable method to quantify the internal training load (ITL) in taekwondo. However, no study validated this method in youth taekwondo athletes performing different training sessions. Thus this study aimed at evaluating the reliability of the session-RPE to monitor the ITL of prepubescent taekwondo athletes during pre-competitive (PC) and competitive (C) training sessions. Five female (age: 12.0±0.7 y; height: 1.54±0.08 m; body mass: 48.8±7.3 kg) and four male (age: 12.0±0.8 yrs; height: 1.55±0.07 m; body mass: 47.3±5.3 kg) taekwondo athletes were monitored during 100 individual sessions (PC: N.=33; C: N.=67). The Edwards' HR method was used as reference measure of ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered at 1- and 30-minutes from the end of each session. No difference for gender emerged. The ITLs of C (Edwards: 228±40 arbitrary units, AU) resulted higher than that of PC (192±26 AU; P=0.04). Although all training typologies and data collections achieved significant correlations between Edwards' and session-RPE methods, a large relationship (r =0.71, Psessions evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phases. Findings support coaches of prepubescent taekwondo athletes to successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL of different training typologies. However, PC training evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phase represents the best condition for a highly reliable ITL perception.

  11. Poster Sessions in Marketing Education: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Poster sessions provide a creative and stimulating alternative to traditional assessment methods in marketing. Poster sessions, as a means of assessment, have long been used in science fields. This article presents the successful implementation of poster sessions as a means of assessment in a postgraduate unit of study. Poster sessions in…

  12. Graph Transformation for Consolidation of Creativity Sessions Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Graph transformation approach for consolidation of creativity sessions results is part of the FP7 EU/IST project idSpace: Tooling of and training for collaborative, distributed product innovation. The goal of graph transformation approach is to provide a tool for merging results of various sessions...... (such as brainstorming sessions), which are represented as graphs, when the session participants- are physically distributed....

  13. Messengers of the universe: Session IV Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, Elisa; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2013-01-01

    Being stable, light and neutral weakly interacting particles, neutrinos are ideal messengers of the deep universe and a channel of choice in particular to explore the very high energy Galactic and Extragalactic sky, playing a synergic role most notably with gamma-ray observations. Neutrino astronomy—long after the SN1987A detection in the MeV range—is mature enough for decisive tests of astrophysical paradigms. Its current status constitutes one of the two big pillars of the “Messengers of the universe” session of the Neutrino Oscillation Workshop 2012. Neutrinos may also play a role in some cosmological contexts, such as the early universe and the dark matter problem. We review both aspects in this session summary report

  14. Buffered Communication Analysis in Distributed Multiparty Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Yoshida, Nobuko

    Many communication-centred systems today rely on asynchronous messaging among distributed peers to make efficient use of parallel execution and resource access. With such asynchrony, the communication buffers can happen to grow inconsiderately over time. This paper proposes a static verification methodology based on multiparty session types which can efficiently compute the upper bounds on buffer sizes. Our analysis relies on a uniform causality audit of the entire collaboration pattern - an examination that is not always possible from each end-point type. We extend this method to design algorithms that allocate communication channels in order to optimise the memory requirements of session executions. From these analyses, we propose two refinements methods which respect buffer bounds: a global protocol refinement that automatically inserts confirmation messages to guarantee stipulated buffer sizes and a local protocol refinement to optimise asynchronous messaging without buffer overflow. Finally our work is applied to overcome a buffer overflow problem of the multi-buffering algorithm.

  15. Parameterized Concurrent Multi-Party Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Charalambides

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Session types have been proposed as a means of statically verifying implementations of communication protocols. Although prior work has been successful in verifying some classes of protocols, it does not cope well with parameterized, multi-actor scenarios with inherent asynchrony. For example, the sliding window protocol is inexpressible in previously proposed session type systems. This paper describes System-A, a new typing language which overcomes many of the expressiveness limitations of prior work. System-A explicitly supports asynchrony and parallelism, as well as multiple forms of parameterization. We define System-A and show how it can be used for the static verification of a large class of asynchronous communication protocols.

  16. Electron and muon physics sessions: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, H.E.

    1988-06-01

    The electromagnetic interaction needs no introduction as a probe of the structure of systems on many scales. The continued use of this technique dominated the sessions on Electron and Muon Physics at the Samoset Meeting. The experimental results continue to stimulate large numbers of theorists and the results on polarized deep inelastic muon scattering and their various interpretations permeated beyond these sessions. The breadth of physics attacked with electrons and muons makes a summary such as this rather peculiar. As one of my nuclear physics friends (I think) commented after my summary, ''it was interesting to see Nuclear Physics from a long distance with the telescope inverted.'' The comment may well be applied to this written version of the summary talk. 21 refs

  17. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  18. Robust and Scalable DTLS Session Establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Tiloca, Marco; Gehrmann, Christian; Seitz, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol is highly vulnerable to a form of denial-of-service attack (DoS), aimed at establishing a high number of invalid, half-open, secure sessions. Moreover, even when the efficient pre-shared key provisioning mode is considered, the key storage on the server side scales poorly with the number of clients. SICS Swedish ICT has designed a security architecture that efficiently addresses both issues without breaking the current standard.

  19. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in April

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in April. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Biocell Training 26-APR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 26-APR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French Conduite de plates-formes élévatrices mobiles de personnel (PEMP) 28-APR-11 to 29-APR-11 (08.00 – 17.30) in French* Sécurité chimique – Introduction 29-APR-11 (09.00 – 11.30) in French (*) session in French with the possibility of receiving the documentation in English   By Isabelle Cusato (H...

  20. Moderator report on workshop session 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    While much in Stakeholder confidence work is focused on the periods of project conceptualization, siting, and development, eventually a successful waste programme will result in a set of facilities with visual, aesthetic, and other physical impacts on the host community. This most interesting and interactive session explored both the artistic and aesthetic aspects of the waste management process and the relationship among the stakeholders, particularly the affected local communities and those who might help develop both the products and processes associated with implementation. Two insightful presentations were made, followed by a lively panel discussion and interactions with the broader FSC participants. (author)

  1. Parallel Monitors for Self-adaptive Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coppo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a data-driven model of self-adaptivity for multiparty sessions. System choreography is prescribed by a global type. Participants are incarnated by processes associated with monitors, which control their behaviour. Each participant can access and modify a set of global data, which are able to trigger adaptations in the presence of critical changes of values. The use of the parallel composition for building global types, monitors and processes enables a significant degree of flexibility: an adaptation step can dynamically reconfigure a set of participants only, without altering the remaining participants, even if the two groups communicate.

  2. Summary of Session 4 "Beam Energy"

    CERN Document Server

    Siemko, A

    2011-01-01

    In this session, the possible scenarios for the beam energy in the LHC 2011 run were discussed. The benefits for the physics reach for physics operations at s larger than 7 TeV were reviewed. The main goal was, however, to establish the necessary information for a sound risk analysis by assessing the probability of thermal runaway and evaluating the consequences of a hypothetical incident. A new technique to improve the knowledge of joint resistances of the cooper busbars and therefore the reliability of the risk analysis has also been discussed.

  3. Summary of the electron accelerators session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1988-10-01

    Since the last High Energy Physics Symposium, there has been considerable progress in the field of polarized electron accelerators. Projects well into construction include the SLC, HERA, and LEP. The status of polarized beams for these projects is discussed in this session. Semiclassical and quantum mechanical calculations of polarizing and depolarizing effects are discussed, for both linear colliders and for storage rings. Substantial progress is continuing in the understanding of depolarizing mechanisms for circular machines. Modelling of these machines is underway. Activities with polarized electron beams at Novosibirsk are described. 8 refs

  4. Innovative Software Algorithms and Tools parallel sessions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, Irwin

    2001-01-01

    A variety of results were presented in the poster and 5 parallel sessions of the Innovative Software, Algorithms and Tools (ISAT) sessions. I will briefly summarize these presentations and attempt to identify some unifying trends

  5. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a...), notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  6. Chapter II: Twenty Eighth General Assembly Business Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The President of the IAU, Prof. Robert Williams, welcomed the delegates and members to this first business session of the General Assembly. The President invited the General Secretary, Dr. Ian Corbett, to start the business session.

  7. Music Education and Music Therapy. Introduction to Plenary Session 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2002-01-01

    Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics......Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics...

  8. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in March

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in March. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Biocell Training 08-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 08-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 15-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 15-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 17-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 17-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English 22-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 22-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 24-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 24-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 29-MAR...

  9. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in May

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle Cusato (HSE Unit)

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in March. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year.   Biocell Training 10-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 10-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 12-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 12-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English 19-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 19-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 24-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 24-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English   Champs Magnétiques 13-MAY-11 (09.30 – 11.30) in French...

  10. Round table discussion during session 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the second session of the FSC Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Do local stakeholders have, internally or externally, all the expertise they need in order to address the issues raised by radioactive waste management projects? - Do institutional stakeholders have all the expertise they need to take local impacts into account? - What kinds of expert input are sought and attained by the different stakeholders? - Were any formal methods used to aid local partnerships perform technology assessments? Or other types of assessment? - How to maintain the knowledge and expertise achieved by the stakeholders? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. As in Session I, most of the round table discussion focussed specifically on the experience of the local partnerships. Many insights were shared about the nature and role of expertise in complex decision making. They are summarised below, on the basis of the feedback provided to the plenary by each round table. Some of these insights can be generalised to other contexts. All in all, a profile emerged of the local partnerships as a unique and effective tool to deal with knowledge issues in managing risk. (author)

  11. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  12. Asynchronous Session Types – Exceptions and Multiparty Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2009-01-01

    Session types are a formalism for structuring communication based on the notion of session: the structure of a conversation is abstracted as a type which is then used as a basis of validating programs through an associated type discipline. While standard session types have proven to be able to ca...

  13. Working through: In-Session Processes that Promote Between-Session Thoughts and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether clients' ratings of the working alliance as well as their perception of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques (delivered by therapists who used both) were associated with clients' intersession processes (i.e., their thoughts about therapy and therapeutic activity between sessions).…

  14. Session A5: hadron spectroscopy, experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports 55 contubutions made by mini-rapporteurs and individual contributors are assembled. It is clear, from the contributions made to this session, that there has been steady progress in solving the problem of the hadron spectroscopy of the old style. The picture on the scalar mesons has become clearer. Among the vector meson group, we started to understand Q mesons, though the situation with A 1 is still not clear. Mesons with higher spin have been found and, in some cases, confirmed. In a sense, the jigsaw puzzle on the mesons is gradually being completed while more complex features are found. The same can be said on the baryons. An active study is in progress in the experiment on the exotic states such as narrow baryonium and dibaryon states. However, owing to the difficulty of such experiments and interpretation of the data, a definitive result is yet to come. 94 references

  15. Session Report - F. Boydon (UK-ONR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydon, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises presentations nationally (France, Switzerland, Canada) and identify specific areas of interest followed by general comments observations out of all the presentations in this session about the challenges to the Regulator and the Implementer preparing for construction and operation of geological repositories: stepwise phased approach, early engagement with regulators, the need for regulators to be clear about their expectations including any R and D requirements especially on how to deal with ageing effects, information management both in terms of volume and format, importance of the organisational structure of the license applicant (this structure is likely to evolve with time from that of a design organisation to one of a constructor/contractor to an operator (and constructor combined)), importance for regulators to consider in advance what the challenges of a DGR are and to implement suitable recruitment and training processes for its staff

  16. Report on session 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    During this session the centre changed ownership, so that as from 1st October 1985 it will be operated by Edinburgh, Glasgow and Strathclyde Universities. Aberdeen and St. Andrews are associate members for access to the isotope geology facilities. Other Universities will use the centre on a commercial basis. The research activities are summarized; these are divided into reactor related activities with brief outlines of the projects undertaken in radiochemistry and physics, health physics and nuclear medicine and engineering. The number of analyses undertaken in isotope Geology increased to over 4,000. Sulphur isotope techniques were introduced during the year. The work at the NERC radiocarbon laboratory is also described. The teaching aspects of the reactor and its operation during the year are recorded. There were no problems with the reactor operation and it achieved its highest energy output of 232.5MWH. (U.K.)

  17. Ecole de Physique des Houches: session 96

    CERN Document Server

    Huard, Benjamin; Schoelkopf, Robert; Cugliandolo, Leticia F; Quantum Machines : Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems

    2014-01-01

    This book gathers the lecture notes of courses given at the 2011 summer school in theoretical physics in Les Houches, France, Session XCVI. What is a quantum machine? Can we say that lasers and transistors are quantum machines? After all, physicists advertise these devices as the two main spin-offs of the understanding of quantum mechanical phenomena. However, while quantum mechanics must be used to predict the wavelength of a laser and the operation voltage of a transistor, it does not intervene at the level of the signals processed by these systems. Signals involve macroscopic collective variables like voltages and currents in a circuit or the amplitude of the oscillating electric field in an electromagnetic cavity resonator. In a true quantum machine, the signal collective variables, which both inform the outside on the state of the machine and receive controlling instructions, must themselves be treated as quantum operators, just as the position of the electron in a hydrogen atom. Quantum superconducting...

  18. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigger type is expected. The latter preciseness is based on the denotation of a type which is a mathematical object that describes the meaning of the type in accordance with the denotations of other expressions from the language. The result of this paper is the operational and denotational preciseness of the subtyping for a synchronous multiparty session calculus. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of characteristic global types to prove the operational completeness.

  19. Summary of session C1: experimental gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laemmerzahl, C

    2008-01-01

    The fact that gravity is a metric theory follows from the Einstein equivalence principle. This principle consists of (i) the universality of free fall, (ii) the universality of the gravitational redshift and (iii) the local validity of Lorentz invariance. Many experiments searching for deviations from standard general relativity test the various aspects of the Einstein equivalence principle. Here we report on experiments covering the whole Einstein equivalence principle. Until now all experiments have been in agreement with the Einstein equivalence principle. As a consequence, gravity has to be described by a metric theory. Any metric theory of gravity leads to effects such as perihelion shift, deflection of light, gravitational redshift, gravitational time delay, Lense-Thirring effect, Schiff effect, etc. A particular theory of that sort is Einstein's general relativity. For weak gravitational fields which are asymptotically flat any deviation from Einstein's general relativity can be parametrized by a few constants, the PPN parameters. Many astrophysical observations and space experiments are devoted to a better measurement of the effects and, thus, of the PPN parameters. It is clear that gravity is best tested for intermediate ranges, that is, for distances between 1 m and several astronomical units. It is highly interesting to push forward our domain of experience and to strengthen the experimental foundation of gravity also beyond these scales. This point is underlined by the fact that many quantum gravity and unification-inspired theories suggest deviation from the standard laws of gravity at very small or very large scales. In this session summary we briefly outline the status and report on the talks presented in session C1 about experimental gravitation

  20. Detailed session outputs by the groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Session 1 (What are we trying to look at and when should we do it?) discussed the following points: - What are the key characteristics of safety culture that we should look at as nuclear regulators? - Should/can the regulator look at attitudes, values and behaviours as well as processes and documents? - Can safety culture be regarded as a separate topic or is it best considered as part of other regulatory areas e.g. safety management? - When do we/should we gather information about safety culture? Session 2a (How do we gather and interpret data? Tools, methods, resources and competencies needed to gather safety culture data) discussed the following points: - What methods can/do we use to gather data on licensee safety culture? What are their advantages and disadvantages? - How do we ensure that regulatory staff carrying out safety culture interventions are competent to do so - and what knowledge/skills and training are needed? - Who should gather safety culture data for regulatory use - regulators? Specialist contractors or others? Session 2b (How to gather and interpret the data? How to interpret data and codify it, qualitative versus quantitative data) discussed the following points: - How do we make a judgement on licensee safety culture? Do we have adequate indicators/criteria? - Can we meaningfully extrapolate from a finding on one part of plant to the whole organisation? If not, what should we conclude? - Is it meaningful to rate/score licensee safety culture numerically? - Are safety cultures methods mature enough to numerically score? What are the risks of this approach? Session 3 (How can we use the data?) discussed the following points: - How can safety culture data collection be built into existing regulatory activities? - How do we engage with licensees so that they accept and act on safety culture findings? - How do we expect licensees to respond to issues raised? - Is interaction with licensees on safety culture compatible with other regulatory

  1. Evaluation of a mock interview session on residency interview skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kelsey; Karr, Samantha; Nisly, Sarah A; Kelley, Kristi

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of student pharmacist participation in a mock interview session on confidence level and preparation regarding residency interview skills. The study setting was a mock interview session, held in conjunction with student programming at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Annual Meeting. Prior to the mock interview session, final year student pharmacists seeking residency program placement were asked to complete a pre-session survey assessing confidence level for residency interviews. Each student pharmacist participated in up to three mock interviews. A post-session survey evaluating confidence level was then administered to consenting participants. Following the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Pharmacy Resident Matching Program (RMP), a post-match electronic survey was sent to study participants to determine their perception of the influence of the mock interview session on achieving successful interactions during residency interviews. A total of 59 student pharmacists participated in the mock interview session and completed the pre-session survey. Participants completing the post-session survey (88%, n = 52) unanimously reported an enhanced confidence in interviewing skills following the session. Thirty responders reported a program match rate of 83%. Approximately 97% (n = 29) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the questions asked during the mock interview session were reflective of questions asked during residency interviews. Lessons learned from this mock interview session can be applied to PGY1 residency mock interview sessions held locally, regionally, and nationally. Students participating in the ACCP Mock Interview Session recognized the importance of the interview component in obtaining a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Session II-H. Regulatory implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzin, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    During FY 1981, the program concepts for implementing the NRC and EPA regulations were formed. These concepts consist of: review and critique of proposed rules; interpretation of rules into practical performance objectives; and planning to achieve compliance of total system performance with the rules. Although still flexible because of the lack of final rules, notable advances in implementation of these concepts were achieved in FY 1981. Technically, proposed and draft rules were evaluated and resulting radionuclide release limits were compared for consistency. For issue identification and resolution activity, six LTR's were initiated, and other topics were identified. In activities leading to total system compliance with regulations, planning and implementation efforts were more clearly defined and integrated. Papers reported in this session are: (1) regulatory implementation concepts and program overview; (2) licensing issue resolution; (3) status of NEPA activities in the NNWSI Program; (4) status of NEPA activities in the ONWI Program; (5) NWTS approach to site characterization reporting; and (6) quality assurance perspectives relative to licensing needs

  3. General Report on the Technical Sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carré, Frank

    2013-01-01

    General Remarks: • Research & Projects on Fast Neutron Reactors & related Fuel Cycles remain at sustained level worldwide; • Active participation in Technical Oral & Poster Sessions & Sustained exchanges; • Emphasis on Safety in the aftermath of Fukushima accident: → Gen-IV initiative on “Common design/safety criteria” in relation with the IAEA; • Diversity & Complementarity of National Projects of near term large power Fast Reactors & Technology Demonstrators of Next Generation Fast Reactors: – Ambitious SFR deployment scenarios of Russia, India, China…; – Near term Demonstrators of LFR technology in Russia; – Active research, promising innovations and plans for demonstrations in all major nuclear countries on SFRs but also LFR, GFR, MSFR… • Continuing improvements & Search for breakthroughs: two approaches with their own rationale & timeline that may complement each other in a global international roadmap. Key role of operating FRs for feedback & testing; • Increasing importance of numerical simulation and basic research; • Attractiveness of Gen-IV systems for Nuclear Education & Training

  4. Session II-J. Sociopolitical initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The following papers were presented in this session: (1) state interactions in the NWTS Program; (2) state legislation on nuclear waste disposal; (3) federal legislation - United States House of Representatives; (4) federal legislation - United States Senate; (5) policy aspects of federal-state relations; (6) inplementing a federal-state partnership on repository siting. In the first paper the project manager for the ONWI contractor for sociopolitical research activities discusses the status of state interactions in all of the states covered by the program, including those states where activities are being conducted on federal reservations of the Department of Energy. In the second paper, the legal staff of the Battelle Project Management Division reports on legislative developments affecting the NWTS Program in various states where activities are under way and in states where legislation of interest has been enacted even though there may not be a program presence at this time. Various bills now before Congress and trends in the congressional mood or developing concepts are discussed in papers 3 and 4 by two key members of the Congressional committee. The policy aspects of federal-state relationships as viewed from the general perspective of the National Governors Association are discussed in the fifth paper. The final paper is a discussion on the real-world implementation of federal-state interactions on repository siting, particularly from the state perspective

  5. Summary Of Session 5: How Should We Handle Safety?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, M.; Roy, G

    2001-07-01

    This session was originally titled 'Safety: Who cares?' in a fairly provocative way. A clear conclusion of this session and discussions that were held at the workshop is that there is a wide concern for safety among the people in charge of control room operations. This was shown as well by the quality of the seven talks presented in this session on subjects ranging from safety standards to a practical case of a safety incident. (author)

  6. ECG changes after a session of regional intraarterial hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobchenko, Z.A.; Livshits, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    ECG changes after a session of regional intraarterial hyperglycemia (RIH) in 13 patients (the mean age of 49 years) with locally advanced cancer of the tongue, oral mucosa and oropharynx were presented. Taking into account the mean age of patients and the negative ECG time course after a RIH session, the necessity of patients' examination (including ECG after a RIH session and, when indicated, a consultation by a cardiologist) was emphasized

  7. Summary Of Session 5: How Should We Handle Safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.; Roy, G.

    2001-01-01

    This session was originally titled 'Safety: Who cares?' in a fairly provocative way. A clear conclusion of this session and discussions that were held at the workshop is that there is a wide concern for safety among the people in charge of control room operations. This was shown as well by the quality of the seven talks presented in this session on subjects ranging from safety standards to a practical case of a safety incident. (author)

  8. Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amer, Mildred

    2005-01-01

    "Secret" or "closed door" sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate are held periodically to discuss business, including impeachment deliberations, deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy...

  9. Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amer, Mildred

    2004-01-01

    Secret or closed door sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate are held periodically to discuss business, including impeachment deliberations, deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy...

  10. Research on design of dialogue session concerning nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karikawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Yagi, Ekou; Toba, Tae; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    Toward resolving nuclear conflict, deep dialogue sessions among stakeholders having different opinions concerning nuclear technology are strongly required. In order to realize a fair and constructive dialogue session, it is necessary to pay attention to the design of the dialogue session, e.g., participant selection, agenda setting, facilitation, and rules of dialogue. The basic requirements for a dialogue session have been proposed in this study based on theoretical and empirical analyses of previous dialogue sessions on nuclear issues. The theoretical analysis has been performed based on various aspects concerning defects in nuclear communication mentioned in science and technology studies. The empirical analysis has been performed by analyzing participants' responses and by systematizing practical findings of previous dialogues. The proposed requirements for a dialogue session were utilized for the design and operation of a preliminary attempt of a dialogue session named 'Open Forum for Nuclear Communication.' Through the analysis of data, such as minutes and recorded conversations collected after the session, it has been confirmed that the prespecified requirements have been satisfied. In addition, the participants' responses have shown a high acceptance for an open forum. According to these results, the basic validity and effectiveness of the proposed requirements in the design of a dialogue session have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  11. Round table discussion during session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, M.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the first session of the Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Accepting or refusing a person, an institution or a grouping as a legitimate Stakeholder who makes the decision and how? - How are the local partnerships built and organised? - How to obtain community support for the partnership's legitimate decisions/findings? - Experience teaches that no decision is reached solely by formal and legal processes. What role do informal processes play? - How can the informal procedures be accepted? Do they need to be made explicit? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. After the discussion, each table's findings were reported to the plenary. Most of the discussion concerned the local partnerships. Important findings were that the statutes for the partnerships were developed by the partnerships themselves and there were no legally binding rules handed down by the federal level. The partnerships are part of an informal process. A legally binding participation (i.e. within the EIA) will be initiated at a later stage. As the partnerships function outside of the formal legal procedure, they can function in a more flexible way. It was noted that the partnerships make recommendations, but it is not clear what the government will do with these recommendations. It was also argued that the process may cause conflicts between neighboring communities. As in other contexts visited by the FSC, the importance of the right of veto of the community was stressed, although this may cause a conflict between technical suitability and social acceptance. Access of the community to the local partnership is necessary. Finally it was accepted that time is needed to explain the recommendations to the broader community before any decisions are taken. (author)

  12. CBiOS Science Sessions - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alexandre Rodrigues Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CBiOS Science Sessions - 2013 - Nutrition: pregnancy counselling website (http://nutricao.ulusofona.pt Nutrição: website de aconselhamento durante a gravidez, Nelson Alexandre Rodrigues Tavares; Relationship between daily water intake and skin physiology, Impacto Cutâneo do consumo dietário de água, Maria Lídia Laginha Mestre Guerreiro da Palma; Development of different types of nanosystems: polymeric, lipid-based and metallic nanoparticles. Desenvolvimento de diferentes tipos de nanosistemas: poliméricos, lipid-based e de nanoparticulas metálicas, Catarina Silva, Patrícia Rijo, Catarina Reis; Interaction between propofol and HES 130/0.4: Chemical, physiological and toxicological. Interação entre Propofol e HES 130/0.4: Química, Fisiológica e Toxicológica, Aura Silva, Ana Ortiz, Carlos Venâncio, Rui Silva, Joaquim Mendes, Paula Guedes, Helena Vala, David Ferreira; Study the potential applicability of the by-products of the Prunus cerasus in promoting health and skin care. Estudo da aplicabilidade dos sub-produtos de Prunus cerasus na promoção de saúde cutânea, Elisabete Maurício, Catarina Rosado, Diaz Diaz Lanza; Cell migration and adhesion - impact of ROS in tumour metastasis Migração celular e adesão - impacto de ROS na metástase tumural, Nuno Saraiva; Bioactive and Non-Conventional Photoprotection Fotoproteção Bioactiva e Não-Convencional, André Rolim Baby.

  13. 76 FR 50224 - Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...] Medicare Program; Accountable Care Organization Accelerated Development Learning Sessions; Center for... (CMS). This two-day training session is the second Accelerated Development Learning Session (ADLS.... Through Accelerated Development Learning Sessions (ADLS), the Innovation Center will test whether...

  14. Energy and the public: public awareness workshop and plenary session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This publication of these two sessions of the conference on February 22 and 23, 1979 was prepared from a verbatim record made by a reporting firm. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seventeen papers of the public awareness workshops and of the six papers of the plenary session.

  15. Quality Assurance of Assessment and Moderation Discourses Involving Sessional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Adie, Lenore; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is a major agenda in tertiary education. The casualisation of academic work, especially in teaching, is also a quality assurance issue. Casual or sessional staff members teach and assess more than 50% of all university courses in Australia, and yet the research in relation to the role sessional staff play in quality assurance of…

  16. Speed Posters: An Alternative to Traditional Poster and Podium Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnes, Lisa D

    2016-08-01

    Speed posters were used as an alternative concurrent session option during a national nursing education conference. The session format was received positively by both participants and presenters, and, as a result, recommendations for use were developed by the conference planners. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(8):344-346. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  18. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera setting during briefing and training session as technician looks on. The session was conducted in the JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The IMAX camera will be used onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, during the STS-32 mission.

  19. Summary of Session 5 and 6 'Long Shutdown 1'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordry, F; Foraz, K [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarizes the sessions devoted to Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in the LHC, injectors and experiments. The time frame and start date were discussed, with the main activities from powering tests prior to warm-up up to physics were presented. The session finished with a discussion on the maximum reasonable energy. (author)

  20. 76 FR 42112 - Specialty Crop Committee Stakeholder Listening Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Specialty Crop Committee Stakeholder Listening Sessions AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder listening sessions. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App 2, the United States Department of Agriculture announces two stakeholder...

  1. Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    that "this extension has not taken place in the form of a full and mechanical trans- plant of those rules to internal conflict; rather, the general...firmly im- planted in the international legal mind-set. NIAC jus in bello governs armed conflicts above either the first or the second threshold...hand, and those of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro ), on the other.96 Yet, the majority of the Chamber (Judges Stephen and

  2. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  3. 76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... ECFS ( http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/ecfs/ ). Documents will be available electronically in ASCII, Word 97... afford better access to television programs for individuals who are blind or visually impaired, enabling...\\ Motion Picture Ass'n of America, Inc. v. Federal Communications Comm., 309 F.3d 796 (D.C. Cir. 2002). \\5...

  4. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brasier, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    ...), the European Union (EU) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), upon completing their membership obligations will enhance stability and security within the European continent. The U.S...

  5. Global Security in the Twenty First Century - The Challenge to International Organizations, Alliances and Coalitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seymour, N

    1999-01-01

    ... for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Naturally, it would be too simplistic for the answer to be either one or the other; the probable solution is more likely to be a hybrid that embodies the strengths of both, not to mention the UN.

  6. Toward the Twenty-first Century: Air Command and Staff College Curriculum from Theory to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen L.

    Responding to a perceived need resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union, the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, and the end of the Cold War, the Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) at Maxwell Air Force Base (Alabama) revised its curriculum. Data for the descriptive study were gathered through interviews of the leadership of the school and…

  7. STAR 21. Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    lightness and strength of silk or Kevlar-like fibers with the sheet characteristics (for imperviousness) of rubber- like compounds. Pores for heat and...analytical methods for determining the detailed structure of biomolecules; biophysics and chemistry of molecular biopolymer synthesis; and the

  8. Education Governance for the Twenty-First Century: Overcoming the Structural Barriers to School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul, Ed.; McGuinn, Patrick, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    America's fragmented, decentralized, politicized, and bureaucratic system of education governance is a major impediment to school reform. In this important new book, a number of leading education scholars, analysts, and practitioners show that understanding the impact of specific policy changes in areas such as standards, testing, teachers, or…

  9. Projected Heat Wave Characteristics over the Korean Peninsula During the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongsoo; Olson, Roman; An, Soon-Il

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperatures globally, and consequently more frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves are likely to occur. Ambiguity in defining heat waves appropriately makes it difficult to compare changes in heat wave events over time. This study provides a quantitative definition of a heat wave and makes probabilistic heat wave projections for the Korean Peninsula under two global warming scenarios. Changes to heat waves under global warming are investigated using the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 30 coupled models participating in phase five of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project. Probabilistic climate projections from multi-model ensembles have been constructed using both simple and weighted averaging. Results from both methods are similar and show that heat waves will be more intense, frequent, and longer lasting. These trends are more apparent under the RCP8.5 scenario as compared to the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, typical heat waves are projected to become stronger than any heat wave experienced in the recent measurement record. Furthermore, under this scenario, it cannot be ruled out that Korea will experience heat wave conditions spanning almost an entire summer before the end of the 21st century.

  10. Disease emergence in birds: Challenges for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; McLean, R.G.; Dein, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in naïve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna.For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health (Guralnik 1982); that is, dysfunction contributing to physiological, physical, reproductive, behavioral, or other impairment that reduces the probability of survival of individuals. If enough individuals are affected, the collective effects can reduce the sustainability of the population. Although disease can result from exposure to a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological agents and other conditions, we focus this paper on microbes and parasites and to overt mortality caused by them. Thus, disease effects presented only represent the proverbial “tip of the iceberg” relative to the challenges wild avifauna face from disease. Our perspective of disease emergence expands the earlier definitions of emerging diseases by others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994, Morse 1995) to include all species. Our comments are defined by the context of disease occurrences that have increased within the past three decades, or threaten to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographic distribution, or magnitude of effects.

  11. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  12. From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was…

  13. Conflict in the Middle East: A Twentieth Century Legacy and a Twenty-First Century Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-12

    of efforts to reshape it in the social, cultural , and political image of Europe. 3 The Crossroads Of History In...a departure from the traditional reluctance of the Government of India to assume further territorial responsibilities, urged that the Mesopotamian ...unrest in Palestine all came when Britain was in the grip of an economic crisis and profound social and politica change at home . Though there appeared

  14. Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

  15. Democracy and Education in the Twenty-First Century: Deweyan Pragmatism and the Question of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…

  16. US Policies toward Tehran: Redefining Counterproliferation for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    latent weapons power, purposefully not constructing an explicit, fully weaponized arsenal, but rather cultivating and maintaining a hedged nuclear...decisively dropping the popular but empirically dubious assump­ tion that Iran’s primary intent is to put mushroom clouds over Tel Aviv and Washington as

  17. Simulating care: technology-mediated learning in twenty-first century nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Elizabeth; Hobbs, Nelda

    2012-01-01

    The increased reliance on simulation classrooms has proven successful in learning skills. Questions persist concerning the ability of technology-driven robotic devices to form and cultivate caring behaviors, or sufficiently develop interactive nurse-client communication necessary in the context of nursing. This article examines the disconnects created by use of simulation technology in nursing education, raising the question: "Can learning of caring-as-being, be facilitated in simulation classrooms?" We propose that unless time is spent with human beings in the earliest stages of nursing education, transpersonal caring relationships do not have space to develop. Learning, crafting, and maturation of caring behaviors threatens to become a serendipitous event or is no longer perceived as an essential characteristic of nursing. Technology does not negate caring-the isolation it fosters makes transpersonal caring all the more important. We are called to create a new paradigm for nursing education that merges Nightingale's vision with technology's promise. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

  19. The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Audrey

    In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

  20. On Strategy: Integration of DIME in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-12

    over time. Israel 12 destroyed Egypt’s capacity to wage war which along with other factors led to the peace treaty signed at Camp David . But hearts...description of its effectiveness and how the Sister Cities concept works see, Rolf Cremer , Anne De Bruin and Ann Dupuis, “International Sister-Cities

  1. Aerospace Power in the Twenty-First Century: A Basic Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Linebacker geared up. The Navy started to mine Haiphong harbor under Operat ion Pocket Money . If that operat ion succeeded, then suppl ies would...for Galilee, 243 Pocket Money , 143 Pointblank, 93–94 Satura te , 137–38 S e e l ö w e (Sea Lion), 79–82, 86 Strangle, 133, 135–37 Vittles, 27, 191

  2. Worldwide Test Reviewing at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets the stage for the description of a variety of approaches to test reviewing worldwide. It describes the importance of test reviewing as a protection of the public and of society and also the benefits of this activity for test users, who must choose measures to use in particular situations with particular clients at a particular…

  3. A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-12

    Width: 52mm Weight: 265g Filler: Composition B Characteristics Color: Black or varnished brown Length: 102mm Width: 61mm Weight: 773g Filler...Nitrogen dioxide Ethylene oxide Carbon monoxide Phosphine Fluorine Carbonyl sulfide Phosphorus oxychloride Formaldehyde Chloroacetone Phosphorus

  4. Turning the world upside down: the search for global health in the twenty-first century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crisp, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    ... all. It is based on the authors journey from running the largest health system in the world to working in some of the poorest countries and draws on his experiences to explore new ideas and innovations from around the world...

  5. Twenty-first Century Managers and Intuition: An Exploratory Example of Pedagogic Change for Business Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A.; Holtham, C.; Rich, M.; Dove, A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, business organizations have been subject to and have contributed to enormous changes in the way they work and the situations with which they have to deal, from revolutionary technology developments to the changing competitive environment. Since 2007, business has changed following the financial crisis. Management…

  6. An experimental public: heterogeneous groups defining embodiment in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laki, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I take a look at certain forms of contemporary art as practices that allow meanings within biomedical science and medical practice to emerge in novel ways. I claim that conceptual art and biological art are two unique spaces within which the understanding of embodiment and disease comes to be shaped actively and reflexively, sometimes on the very level of the materiality of the body, sometimes through the articulation and representation of medical images and technologies. I link these developments to Paul Rabinow's notion of biosociality and argue that the molecularization and geneticization of the medical gaze, conjoined with certain social and cultural shifts, results in the formation of an experimental public of artists, scientists and lay people, all invested in actively shaping the conceptualization of bodies and diseases. This will take me to a consideration of the intertwining of art and medicine beyond the domain of the visual.

  7. Leadership Competence Educational Model for a Twenty-First Century Nursing Doctoral Education in Contemporary Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a nursing education model about leadership that can be used to improve the leadership skills of nursing doctoral students. This model is developed at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. In developing this model, the author had the opportunity to observe the University of Michigan, School of Nursing…

  8. Detached concern?: Emotional socialization in twenty-first century medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Early works in medical sociology have been pivotal in the development of scholarly knowledge about emotions, emotional socialization, and empathy within medical training, medical education, and medical contexts. Yet despite major shifts in both medical education and in medicine writ-large, medical sociologists' focus on emotions has largely disappeared. In this paper, we argue that due to recent radical transformations in the medical arena, emotional socialization within medical education should be of renewed interest for sociologists. Developments in medical education such as increased diversity among enrollees, the rise of patient health movements, and curricular transformation have made this context a particularly interesting case for sociologists working on a variety of questions related to structural, organizational, and cultural change. We offer three areas of debate within studies in medical education that sociologists may be interested in studying: 1) gendered and racialized differences in the performance of clinical skills related to emotion, 2) differences in self-reported empathy among subspecialties, and 3) loss of empathy during the third year or clinical year of medical school. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Untying the Mediterranean Gordian Knot: A Twenty First Century Challenge for Fisheries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vielmini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of fisheries in the Mediterranean basin has often been described as a unique and complex challenge, due to their multi-specificity, the diversity of gear-types, and the number of nations involved. This perspective has gone hand-in-hand for decades with a lack of strong political will from decision-makers, who have been unwilling to put Mediterranean fisheries management high on their agendas. Over time, exploitation rates of demersal stocks have increased and in 2016, 97% of shared stocks assessed in the Mediterranean were reported to be overfished. An alarm bell about the chronic overfishing of Mediterranean fish stocks was rung by European policy makers in 2015, exactly 20 years after the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization mandated that states should ensure the sustainable use of fishery resources. In this perspective, we: (i review the context of fisheries management in the Mediterranean; (ii identify the potential factors that may have hindered management and; (iii discuss how the reformed European Union Common Fisheries Policy and the binding commitments laid down in its text may lead to knock-on effects for fisheries management in the international Mediterranean context, if properly implemented. In this line, we also present the example of demersal fisheries management in the Strait of Sicily, which may represent a starting point for science-based management in the Mediterranean.

  10. Reindustrialization: A Challenge to the Economy in the First Quarter of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyński Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The weakening EU and US economies in the aftermath of the global crisis of 2007 need an impulse to act for the improvement of their condition. The analysis of the history of the GDP of selected world economies suggests that a remedy for it may be the strengthening of the industrial sector. By strengthening, we mean its growth, that is, building and developing manufacturing plants. Large multinationals have generally been relocating their production to China, where labor costs have traditionally been a couple of times lower than in the US or the EU. However, over the past years, the pay gap between the US and China has narrowed, and transport prices have gone up. These are the reasons why numerous large American companies decided to transfer part of their business processes back to the homeland. Also, the EU has been taking account of the benefits of a stable industry. Therefore, it has launched the strategy of “European industry rebirth” that entails a growth of the industry’s share in the GDP up to the level of 20%. In order for EU countries to be able to attain it, the paper raises the issue of the Industrie 4.0 methodology, premises and guidelines may, to a large extent, contribute to success. The paper also takes an in-depth look at Industrie 4.0 and discusses its pros and cons. We attempt to provide an answer to the question of whether Industrie 4.0 may be a tool for reindustrialization.

  11. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, James C; Fabry, Victoria J; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C; Feely, Richard A; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Gruber, Nicolas; Ishida, Akio; Joos, Fortunat; Key, Robert M; Lindsay, Keith; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Matear, Richard; Monfray, Patrick; Mouchet, Anne; Najjar, Raymond G; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Rodgers, Keith B; Sabine, Christopher L; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Schlitzer, Reiner; Slater, Richard D; Totterdell, Ian J; Weirig, Marie-France; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Yool, Andrew

    2005-09-29

    Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean-carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a 'business-as-usual' scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously.

  12. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-09-27

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO(2) rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified.

  13. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds…

  14. A Communitarian Critique of the Warfare State: Implications for the Twenty-First-Century University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul; Knotwell, Jim

    2007-01-01

    This article contends that the relatively recent academic movement known as communitarianism can serve as a policy guide that could work catalytically on American cultural development of the sort that would loosen the tight military-industrial connection and in so doing aid the dismantling of the "warfare state." After chronicling the development…

  15. About energy vision in the twenty first century and the role of ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2010-01-01

    It is now frequently recommended, that only ecological resources can save us and keep for the mankind more or less contemporary way of living for future. During such consideration it is obviously forgotten that ecological wind and sun have occasional character and that still we do not know how to store great amount of energy. It is also not easy to estimate, what is the maximal capacity of such resources, supposing that we want all such energy use. Work estimate one special case in which all ecological resources are fully correlated-the same wind or sun on all places of local power stations-typically one state or economy. (Author)

  16. The African Diaspora and Africa's Development in the Twenty-first

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-12-26

    Dec 26, 2007 ... complex issues of national sovereignty, integrity and interventionism, the paper explores ... 'interference' in African internal business; who should set the agenda for their ..... Through the activities of diaspora blacks such as William .... material and moral support to the liberation struggles that were still being.

  17. morality and war: can war be just in the twenty-first century?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    At the conceptual level, Fisher recognises the importance of different streams of ... to the strategic success of military campaigns”7 as demonstrated in America's ... other things, Fisher offers an extended analysis of the Gulf wars, discusses.

  18. Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,…

  19. Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…

  20. Development of a Formal Army Officer Mentorship Model for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harney, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses the role of formal mentoring processes in the U.S. Army. Specifically, this study examines which formal mentoring model should the Army adopt and implement as part of its overall officer development process...

  1. Computational Thinking and Media & Information Literacy: An Integrated Approach to Teaching Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretter, Sarah; Yadav, Aman

    2016-01-01

    Developing students' 21st century skills, including creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving, has been a prevailing concern in our globalized and hyper-connected society. One of the key components for students to accomplish this is to take part in today's participatory culture, which involves becoming creators of knowledge rather than…

  2. Twenty-First Century Energy Policy Making in New Hampshire: Lessons for Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Henry Phillip

    In this thesis I investigate the organizational field that is New Hampshire's energy policy-making community as it engages with the state regulatory institution, the Public Utilities Commission, to grapple the challenges of designing a 21st century electricity marketplace. The Public Utilities Commission structure and function are evolving. Historically, the Commission has used adjudicative proceedings to carry out a ratemaking function for monopoly utilities. The Commission's adjudicative process is evolving to become increasingly collaborative as it begins to carry out its new function of 21st century electricity market design. I analyze both the new structure (collaboration) and the new function (21 st century electricity market design) of the Commission through three in-depth case studies of dockets (policy-making processes): Energy Efficiency Resource Standard, Electric Grid Modernization, and Net Metering. My findings identify ways in which the Public Utilities Commission structure for making energy policy decisions is flexible and may be shaped by stakeholders engaging in policy processes. Stakeholders have the power to collectively design regulatory proceedings to incorporate greater opportunities for collaboration to better suit the challenges posed by a 21st century electricity sector. I provide recommendations on how that redesign should occur.

  3. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

  4. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1966, Twenty First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-09-30

    Federation of Malaysia . . . . 24 24 11 - - - - 13 - - - - - - Greece ....••...... 2,2Z7 1,798 30 109 443 405 - 811 429 - 54 84 145 146 DOWNGRADED AT 12 YEAR...Termination of Indefinite Enlistments Early Release for Chirstmas Obesity Early Separation from Extension of Enlistment Resignation Unconditional

  5. Military Culture and Counterinsurgency in the Twenty First Century: Defeating Boko Haram in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Leone and Una Osili, War and Stature: Growing Up During the Nigerian Civil War, The Centre for Market and Public Organization, http...Mercia." Early Medieval Europe 15, no. 1 (February 2007): 53-85. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 16, 2012) Binding Prometheus: How...Sailors and the Impressment Paradox." Journal Of Early Modern History 14, no. 1/2 (March 2010): 9-44. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed

  6. Are hamburgers harmless? : the Big Mac Index in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2016-01-01

    We make use of The Economist’s Big Mac Index (BMI) to investigate the Law of One Price (LOP) and whether the BMI can be used to predict future exchange rate and price changes. Deviations from Big Mac parity decay quickly, in approximately 1 year. The BMI is a better predictor of relative price changes than of exchange rate changes, and performs best when predicting a depreciation of a currency relative to the US dollar. Convergence to Big Mac parity occurs more rapidly for currencies with som...

  7. Radiation epidemiology: the 'past is prologue' to the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Although the latter part of the twentieth century has seen major advances in the understanding of radiation effects, there are many questions which remain unanswered. This paper notes the recent advances in radiation epidemiology and discusses the health effects of ionizing radiation from certain occupations, from nuclear exposures (the A-bomb and nuclear accidents), from medical procedures, from radon gas and from environmental radiation. It concludes with a forward look at what the new millennium may bring in terms of improved understanding and clarification of radiation risks, particularly in key areas such as susceptibility and interaction. (author)

  8. A Painter's View of the Cosmos In the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cro-Ken, K.

    2016-01-01

    I am an ecosystem artist who uses paint to bring nature's “invisible forces” into view. My eco-sensitive palette recreates the push-pull forces that shape and mold all things. As a result, I create microscopic and telescopic views of earth and places scattered throughout our universe. Self-similarity led me to realize that if I want my mind to wonder into the far reaches of the universe, I must draw closer to nature. I show how space looks and appears and, more importantly, how it moves. My speed element palette is a portal through which I peer into the universe at scales great and small using paint as my lens. Microscopes, telescopes, the Internet, and even eyeglasses are portals through which technology affords us the ability to see that which is unseen to the unaided eye. Rather than see the world and then paint, the opposite is true for me. My work is revelatory, not representational and, as such, seeks similar occurrences in nature. Just as a planet's surface is a visual record of past events, so too do speed element experiments reveal traces of the past. It would be more accurate to call a painting that comes to rest a “painted.” It is video that captures images that eluded capture by the canvas and could more accurately be called a “painting. ” Simply put, I manipulate space, time, and matter—and the matter is never just paint.

  9. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  10. The Humanities Are Not a Luxury: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha Nell

    2011-01-01

    The humanities are at the heart of knowing about the human condition; they are not a luxury. The erosion of support for the humanities and the perennial anxiety about the state of the humanities are systemic. The author contends that until people acknowledge this fact, they will keep lurching from one point to another, unable to recognize the…

  11. U.S. Foreign Assistance: Creating a Toolbox for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephens, Connie L

    1999-01-01

    .... Throughout the Cold War, foreign assistance -- defined here as government resources provided to foreign governments, groups, or individuals to promote the donor's national interest -- was viewed...

  12. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, J. C.; Fabry, V. J.; Aumont, O.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Feely, R. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gruber, N.; Ishida, A.; Joos, F.; Key, R. M.; Lindsay, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Matear, R.; Monfray, P.

    2005-01-01

    Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pHand carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms such as corals and some plankton will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean carbon cycle to assess calcium carb...

  13. The changing face of government information providing access in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Suhasini L

    2006-01-01

    Learn what innovative changes lie in the future of government information The Changing Face of Government Information comprehensively examines the way government documents' librarians acquire, provide access, and provide reference services in the new electronic environment. Noted experts discuss the impact electronic materials have had on the Government Printing Office (GPO), the reference services within the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), and the new opportunities in the transition from paper-based information policy to an electronic e-government. This source reveals the latest changes in the field of government documents librarianship and the knowledge and expertise needed to teach users how to access what they need from this enormous wealth of government information. Major changes have taken place in the way government information is created, disseminated, accessed, and preserved. The Changing Face of Government Information explains in detail the tremendous change taking place in libraries and ...

  14. Beyond Sputnik U.S. science policy in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Homer A; McCormick, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Science and technology are responsible for almost every advance in our modern quality of life. Yet science isn't just about laboratories, telescopes and particle accelerators. Public policy exerts a huge impact on how the scientific community conducts its work. Beyond Sputnik is a comprehensive survey of the field for use as an introductory textbook in courses and a reference guide for legislators, scientists, journalists, and advocates seeking to understand the science policy-making process. Detailed case studies---on topics from cloning and stem cell research to homeland security and science education---offer readers the opportunity to study real instances of policymaking at work. Authors and experts Homer A. Neal, Tobin L. Smith, and Jennifer B. McCormick propose practical ways to implement sound public policy in science and technology and highlight how these policies will guide the results of scientific discovery for years to come.

  15. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-first Century

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Selective Adaptation of WTO Transparency Norms and Local Practices in ..... the WTO in light of good governance principles and make recommendations ...... and Policy Options (Penang, Malaysia: Third World Network [TWN], 2000). ...... efforts in relation to taxation or the European arrest warrant; see Philippart, above n 78.

  16. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  17. The Best Aircraft for Close Air Support in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    movement of those forces.”8 In addition to CAS, the Air Force em - ploys its aircraft to perform a myriad of roles during combat operations, such as offen...distance to bombing ranges, and so forth.14 Once these figures are accumulated for each major com- mand’s fleet, the second step is developing a CPFH...the GBU-39 small diameter bomb and the AGM-176 Griffin missile, it is still in operational test and development.26 The new squadron (replacement

  18. National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

  19. The water framework directive - a directive for the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsson, Henrik; Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Denne artikel omhandler vandrammedirektivet og den retlige norm "god økologisk tilstand", som henviser til strukturen og funktionaliteten af økosystemer. Begreberne god struktur og funktionalitet afspejler et robust økosystem med et højt niveau af adaptiv kapacitet. De retlige bestemmelser i vand...

  20. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  1. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  2. Coaxing the Peace: Reassurance Strategy in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    held by Mexico and Spain between 1848 and 1898, and come to a rational conclusion that Canada’s greatest threat in 1920 was from its Southern...Licenses to Spain. El Pais, 26 July 2006, supplied by EFE, Spanish Newsw Services. Obtained from http://www.elpais.com/articulo/ economia /UE/Marrueco

  3. Makerspace in STEM for Girls: A Physical Space to Develop Twenty-First-Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Rachel; Koul, Rekha; Blackley, Susan; Maynard, Nicoleta

    2017-01-01

    "Makerspace" has been lauded as a new way forward to create communities, empower students and bring together enthusiasts of all ages and skill levels "to tinker" and create. Makerspace education has been touted as having the potential to empower young people to become agents of change in their communities. This paper examines…

  4. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, K A; Coad, L; Taylor, G; Lee, M E; Maisels, F

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem.

  6. Material challenges for solar cells in the twenty-first century: directions in emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamarre, Amaury; Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Cojocaru, Ludmila; Giteau, Maxime; Behaghel, Benoit; Julian, Anatole; Ibrahim, Camille; Tatry, Léa; Wang, Haibin; Kubo, Takaya; Uchida, Satoshi; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoya; Tamaki, Ryo; Shoji, Yasushi; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Ahsan, Nazmul; Watanabe, Kentaro; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Hamamura, Tomofumi; Toupance, Thierry; Olivier, Céline; Chambon, Sylvain; Vignau, Laurence; Geffroy, Camille; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Rale, Pierre; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane; Gibelli, François; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Aureau, Damien; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan–French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies. The cooperation was focused on efficient photovoltaic devices, such as multijunction, ultrathin, intermediate band, and hot-carrier solar cells, and on printable solar cell materials such as colloidal quantum dots. PMID:29707072

  7. NATO-Russia Relations in the Twenty-First Century: Obstacles and Opportunities for Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    88 Duncan, Contemporary Russian Identity between East and West, 283–86. 39 with a few alterations in lyrics . Both Yeltsin and his successor, Putin...polluted source,” Byzantium, which led to its isolation from the West. Ultimately, his essay started a controversy that has never ceased since then

  8. Landmarks in the historical development of twenty first century food processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, N N; Koubaa, Mohamed; Roohinejad, Shahin; Juliano, Pablo; Alpas, Hami; Inácio, Rita S; Saraiva, Jorge A; Barba, Francisco J

    2017-07-01

    Over a course of centuries, various food processing technologies have been explored and implemented to provide safe, fresher-tasting and nutritive food products. Among these technologies, application of emerging food processes (e.g., cold plasma, pressurized fluids, pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, radiofrequency electric fields, ultrasonics and megasonics, high hydrostatic pressure, high pressure homogenization, hyperbaric storage, and negative pressure cavitation extraction) have attracted much attention in the past decades. This is because, compared to their conventional counterparts, novel food processes allow a significant reduction in the overall processing times with savings in energy consumption, while ensuring food safety, and ample benefits for the industry. Noteworthily, industry and university teams have made extensive efforts for the development of novel technologies, with sound scientific knowledge of their effects on different food materials. The main objective of this review is to provide a historical account of the extensive efforts and inventions in the field of emerging food processing technologies since their inception to present day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global citizenship and the role of education in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to define concepts such as ‘citizenship’ and ‘global citizenship’ in a democracy and what it means to be ‘a good citizen’. It also seeks to explain that every individual can be ‘a good citizen’ in different situations and scenarios. Of the many agents responsible for the development of an individual, education, together with the home environment and culture, play an important part. Education is also the key to liberty and freedom, while the media is the key to accessing a ...

  10. Coal utilization in the twenty-first century: How much and for how long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is projected that coal usage in the US will increase at approximately the historic rate as electricity consumption increases. Because the life expectancy of powerplants and coal mines is in the tens of years, the electricity to be produced from coal in 2001 will be generated in plants currently on line or under construction, and almost all of the coal consumed will come from existing mines. Coal produces two-thirds of the world's electricity and, on a worldwide basis, will continue to be a major source of energy for the remainder of this century and for some time to come. It is the longer term projections of coal utilization, beyond the next few decades, that remain much more difficult to predict. Fossil fuels are present in the Earth in finite amounts and are not renewable on the human scale of existence. Therefore, a shift to other sources of energy must occur eventually. A doubling of population will create a demand for greatly increased energy production. Historically, a 1% increase in world domestic product has been accompanied by a 1% increase in energy consumption. In most regions of the world, coal could supply a major portion of the increased energy and could do so without requiring major technological advances in coal mining and coal utilization technologies. The large, extensive, and accessible resources of coal, the ability to utilize it, and the demand pressures from an expanding population all bode well for the future of coal. However, there are also factors that may contribute to limiting the future use of coal. They include environmental concerns (acid rain, air toxics, and global warming) and the rate at which nonfossil-fuel sources (perhaps solar and nuclear) are developed. Although many of the decisions that will influence the future use of coal will be based on economic and environmental considerations, it is more than likely that politics will also play an important role in all of those decisions

  11. The U.S. Nuclear Data Network: Summary of the twenty-first meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The following progress reports and related documents from the members of the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN) are included at attachments: INEL Decay Data and Mass-chain Evaluation Project; Decay-data Evaluation Project; Isotopes Project Report; Report on High-spin Data Evaluations; The NNDC Activity Report, Parts A and B; Nuclear Science References (NSR) Task Force Report; Status of Mass Chains A = 1 to 266; Nuclear Data Project Activity Report; and TUNL Nuclear Data Evaluation Project Report; The progress report of the Center for Nuclear Information Technology; An Overview of the USNDN; Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File-Status; Report on High-spin Evaluations for ENSDF since November 1994; The High-spin Data and the Workshop on Data Analysis; Decay Data Evaluation Project; Compilation of High Energy Heavy-ion and Electron Interaction Data; Dissemination/code development update; 8th Edition of the Table of Isotopes/VuENSDF; Bits of Power-Issues in the Transborder Flow of Scientific and Technical Data; Data activities at the Center for Nuclear Information Technology (CNIT), San Jose State University; The Agenda and the Minutes of the Formats and Procedures Subcommittee of the NSDD; A status report on the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN); Coordination/Cooperation and Communication as applied to the USNDN; Nuclear Structure Data Evaluations: Issues/Concerns; Electronic Publishing of Nuclear Data; The status of the Nuclear Astrophysics Data Project; and Nuclear Astrophysics Data needs for A=3-20/Possible contributions by TUNL. The attendees formed the three Discussion Groups. The charge to these Discussion Groups was how to achieve the goal of the USNDN to make the ENSDF and the NSR the best nuclear structure and bibliographic databases available, while maintaining a proper balance between evaluations and data dissemination

  12. Risk, security and technology: governing football supporters in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically examines the security and risk management technologies that are being used to conduct and pre-empt the behaviour of football supporters. It is shown how, in the Netherlands, pre-emptive risk management in the governing of football supporters involves a dispersed and fragmented

  13. Health and social organization: towards a health policy for the twenty-first century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blane, David; Brunner, Eric

    1996-01-01

    ...: economic growth, income distribution, consumption, work organization, unemployment and job insecurity, social and family structure, education and deprivation, and they are all aspects of 'social organization...

  14. Radiochemistry and associated nuclear chemistry in the beginning of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de

    2002-01-01

    In many countries radiochemistry and associated nuclear chemistry are facing decreasing attention in scientific and technological education and training. In addition, research facilities involving radioactivity are dealing with growing difficulties, e.g. in respect to finances, staff, public support, and legislation. Quite often it is suggested that radiochemistry has matured and does not need any further development. Moreover, it is stated that radiochemical methods are out-run by new, non-nuclear methods, and thus have actually lost their raison d'etre. Altogether this leads to a situation where radioactivity and radiochemistry are partly vanishing both as a science and as a tool. This situation calls for a closer examination for areas where radiochemistry may continue to play a useful, if not a decisive role, and some guidelines were presented how to proceed in the near future. For that purpose a definition of radiochemistry is given to demarcate it from other areas. Nuclear chemistry as an adjacent field is strongly connected with radiochemistry, and in the frame of the presentation a relevant part of it is considered here as integrated in radiochemistry. The various areas of radiochemistry may be classified into three categories, which partly overlap. The first category is the field of the fundamental aspects of radiochemistry itself. This category covers among others nuclear reaction cross-sections, production routes with associated yields and radionuclidic impurities, decay schemes of radionuclides, radiochemical separations, recoil and hot-atom chemistry, isotope effects and fractionation, and interaction of radiation with matter and detection. The second category covers fields where radioactivity is inextricably bound to the subject involved. This holds e.g. for the entire nuclear fuel cycle, study of the very heavy elements (Z > 100), primordial radioactivity on earth, cosmogenic radioactivity in atmosphere and cosmos, and radionuclides for dating. The third category involves radioactivity as an essential part of a technique. Here two different lines are present. First, radioactivity as a source of ionising radiation to alter material characteristics, e.g. for food conservation, polymerisation and crosslinking of plastics, sterilisation, radiotherapy and pain palliation for patients. The other line is the use of radioactivity to get information on systems and materials, for instance radiotracer methods and nuclear reaction or activation techniques. Quite often these nuclear analytical methods may provide unique information, which cannot be obtained or at least not so easily via other non-nuclear techniques. However, quite often it turns out that these nuclear analytical techniques are not sufficiently used, and when used, they are not exploited to the full extent of their potentials. Additional weak point in studies involving nuclear analytical methods is that the line of approach is too much focussed on the results provided by nuclear analytical technique alone, instead of the actual problem at hand. Necessary additional, mostly non-nuclear techniques, to solve the problem at hand adequately are frequently lacking and/or scientific input from experts from the fields involved is often meagre or even absent. Suggestions are given to improve this situation. (author)

  15. Trauma and Memory in Recent Mexican Narrative of the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the representation of historical events in contemporary narratives. I offer a psychoanalytical approach to the understanding of a history that reappears in the present. I argue that the return of history to consciousness is itself the awakening of a traumatic loss. In the novels examined, history emerges from the ashes of a forgotten past manifesting a return to a wounded memory. My concern with the study of history and trauma is situated in a particular tim...

  16. Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2003-12-15

    The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have learned and what they are designed to understand.

  17. Moltke’s Mission Command Philosophy in the Twenty-First Century: Fallacy or Verity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    amount of literature and doctrinal writings published in the Anglo - Saxon environment provides a significant amount of information to study the elements of...led by General Karl Herwarth von Bittenfeld, would have to defeat the Saxon army and then join Prussia’s First Army, commanded by the nephew of King...Northern Army stood in shock, totally disorganized and demoralized. Moreover, this army contained multiple ethnicities (Hungarians, Saxons , Bohemians, etc

  18. Global Curricular Legacies and Challenges for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to examine the evolution of what has become a near global and conventional school curriculum, the forces behind its development and the purposes of education, its sponsors and controllers espouse, and to set it against the massive and urgent challenges of the 21st century. This century looks to be a unique one in that it could be the tipping point between human and environmental survival, and disaster on a massive scale. The argument is that this near global view of the purpose of education is misconceived and dangerous unless there is rapid and fundamental change in the purposes of educating the young. Those older than 10 are mostly already 'lost'. In search of a more appropriate purpose and structure of curriculum, the work of a prominent few who are not yet 'lost' is drawn upon, especially that of George Martin. founder of the Oxford Martin School. The purpose of education must now, and urgently, be the survival of the human species and the planet, not only in basic terms but also in terms of controlling increasingly powerful and sophisticated computer technologies known as the Singularity that could spiral out of control.

  19. The nature of intractable conflict: Resolution in the twenty-first century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    man's violent aggressive nature which could result in warlike actions and responses. Using examples from primatology, Mitchell is able to suggest how environments impact on later human behaviour. Chapter two explains, using Johan Galtung's triangular model of conflict structure. (a constant theme throughout the book), ...

  20. Post-Enlightenment theorising and global polity in the twenty-first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Power without control is indeed nothing and it may actually be ... African indigenous knowledge systems, the main postulations in this paper would not have ..... the difference between the dialogical and anti-dialogical human relationships:.

  1. Methane hydrates. A possible energy source in the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorassi, S.

    1998-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of particular crystal structures, to be found in nature both in arctic and Antarctic regions and under seas and oceans, and consisting of water and gas molecules, the so-called 'gas hydrates', are dealt with. Technical problems related to gas recovery (methane in particular) from hydrates, above all under sea level, mainly due to their reduced stability, are examined. On the ground of these considerations, various gas recovery methods from hydrate fields are described. An overall evaluation of methane availability as hydrates all over the world, as well as a comparison between extraction costs from hydrate and well as a comparison between extraction costs from hydrate and conventional fields, are made. Finally, short-term programmes on research and development of methane hydrate fields in some areas of the Earth are described [it

  2. The aging population in the twenty-first century: statistics for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilford, Dorothy M

    1988-01-01

    ... on Statistics for an Aging Population Sam Shapiro, Chair Committee on National Statistics Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative...

  3. Leading Change: Jesuit Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdon, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of possible future scenarios for Jesuit higher education in the United States by the year 2030. This study focused on two questions, (a) How do leaders perceive the future of Jesuit higher education? and (b) What key factors identified by these leaders will lead to the most desirable outcome for Jesuit higher…

  4. Educational Psychology in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges for Our Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical time for the field of educational psychology. As the roles of colleges and schools of education are being examined, the specific relevance of our research also may be questioned. In this article, I argue that educational psychologists need to engage in specific types of outreach activities so that our research can truly impact…

  5. Reproductive medicine: the ethical issues in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2002-02-01

    Reproductive medicine has developed to such an extent that numerous moral questions arise about the boundaries of applications of new reproductive technology. It is possible to imagine a future in which 'designer babies' are created and in which cloning, sex selection and male pregnancy become the instruments of individual desire or social policy. In this article, the concept of 'natural' is explored but rejected as an insufficient moral criterion for deciding these complex questions. A case is made for the criterion of welfare of the child and for the concept of the child as gift rather than product.

  6. "Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom:…

  7. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st [twenty-first] century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Quality of Health Care in America; Institute of Medicine Staff; Iom; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    .... This book recommends a sweeping redesign of the American health care system and provides overarching principles for specific direction for policymakers, health care leaders, clinicians, regulators...

  8. Music Education for Life: Building Inclusive, Effective Twenty-First-Century Music Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines how to make music programs more inclusive and therefore enable music teachers to compete more effectively for enrollment. Fortunately, music affords teachers many compelling options to win the hearts and minds of students, and thereby to create a more musically literate and supportive public. The author suggests that music…

  9. Making Twenty-First-Century Strategy. An Introduction to Modern National Security Processes and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    of the same Greek root word connotes “great importance” or the “highest level.” In the resulting confusion, which continues to this day even among...battlefield strategy may puzzle some readers. We chose to use battlefield strategy to emphasize the connection between decisions made in the marble -lined

  10. Studies on the Chinese in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Hui Kian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michael D. Barr and Zlatko Skrbis, Constructing Singapore; Elitism, ethnicity and the nation-building project. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 978877694028, price GBP 50.00 (hardback; 9788776940294, GBP 16.99 (paperback. Marleen Dieleman, The rhythm of strategy; A corporate biography of the Salim Group of Indonesia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2007, 205 pp. [ICAS Publications Series, Monograph 1.] ISBN 9789053560334. Price: EUR 29.50 (paperback. Kristina Goransson, The binding tie; Chinese intergenerational relations in modern Singapore. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2009, x + 191 pp. ISBN 9780824832599, price USD 57.00 (hardback; 9780824833527, USD 26.00 (paperback. Chang-Yau Hoon, Chinese identity in post-Suharto Indonesia; Culture, politics and media. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2008, xi + 230 pp. ISBN 9781845192686. Price: GBP 49.95 (hardback. Leo Suryadinata, Understanding the ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007, x + 310 pp. ISBN 9789812304377. Price: USD 21.90 (paperback. Sikko Visscher, The business of politics and ethnicity; A history of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Singapore: NUS Press, 2007, xviii + 372 pp. ISBN 97899713657. Price: USD 32.00 (paperback. Voon Phin Keong (ed., Malaysian Chinese and nation-building; Before Merdeka and fifty years after. Vol. 2. Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies, 2008. ISBN 9789833808066 (hardback; 9789833908059 (paperback.

  11. Twenty-first century relevance of Soyinka's A dance of the forests : a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of Theatre and Media Arts. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1-2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Catholic school governance in the twenty-first century: continuity, incongruity and challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Storr, Christopher John

    2007-01-01

    This study has two main aspects: first, it reports the results of a survey of ninety nine governors working in Roman Catholic primary and secondary schools situated in four English Catholic dioceses, and publishes hitherto unknown information about them; and, second, it examines how, in seeking to maintain a distinctive educational ethos, these governors are responding both to the legislative changes of the last twenty years, and to changes in English social and cultural attitudes. It shows h...

  13. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Blockades and Seapower: Strategies and Counter-Strategies, 1805-2005, (London and New York: Routledge, 2006). 101 See, for example, Gabriel B. Collins ...The Domestic Politics of Military Spending (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014) 165 See Jim Garamone, “Greenert Details Navy’s Fiscal 2014

  14. Gravity's ghost and big dog scientific discovery and social analysis in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog brings to life science's efforts to detect cosmic gravitational waves. These ripples in space-time are predicted by general relativity, and their discovery will not only demonstrate the truth of Einstein's theories but also transform astronomy. Although no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected, the previous five years have been an especially exciting period in the field. Here sociologist Harry Collins offers readers an unprecedented view of gravitational wave research and explains what it means for an analyst to do work of this kind.

  15. The U.S. Nuclear Data Network: Summary of the twenty-first meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The following progress reports and related documents from the members of the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN) are included at attachments: INEL Decay Data and Mass-chain Evaluation Project; Decay-data Evaluation Project; Isotopes Project Report; Report on High-spin Data Evaluations; The NNDC Activity Report, Parts A and B; Nuclear Science References (NSR) Task Force Report; Status of Mass Chains A = 1 to 266; Nuclear Data Project Activity Report; and TUNL Nuclear Data Evaluation Project Report; The progress report of the Center for Nuclear Information Technology; An Overview of the USNDN; Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File-Status; Report on High-spin Evaluations for ENSDF since November 1994; The High-spin Data and the Workshop on Data Analysis; Decay Data Evaluation Project; Compilation of High Energy Heavy-ion and Electron Interaction Data; Dissemination/code development update; 8th Edition of the Table of Isotopes/VuENSDF; Bits of Power-Issues in the Transborder Flow of Scientific and Technical Data; Data activities at the Center for Nuclear Information Technology (CNIT), San Jose State University; The Agenda and the Minutes of the Formats and Procedures Subcommittee of the NSDD; A status report on the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN); Coordination/Cooperation and Communication as applied to the USNDN; Nuclear Structure Data Evaluations: Issues/Concerns; Electronic Publishing of Nuclear Data; The status of the Nuclear Astrophysics Data Project; and Nuclear Astrophysics Data needs for A=3-20/Possible contributions by TUNL. The attendees formed the three Discussion Groups. The charge to these Discussion Groups was how to achieve the goal of the USNDN to make the ENSDF and the NSR the best nuclear structure and bibliographic databases available, while maintaining a proper balance between evaluations and data dissemination.

  16. Climate Change driven evolution of hazards to Europe's transport infrastructure throughout the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, Christoph; Hollósi, Brigitta; Andre, Konrad; Gringinger, Julia; Chimani, Barbara; Namyslo, Joachim; Fuchs, Tobias; Auerbach, Markus; Herrmann, Carina; Sladek, Brigitte; Berghold, Heimo; Gschier, Roland; Eichinger-Vill, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Road authorities, freight, and logistic industries face a multitude of challenges in a world changing at an ever growing pace. While globalization, changes in technology, demography, and traffic, for instance, have received much attention over the bygone decades, climate change has not been treated with equal care until recently. However, since it has been recognized that climate change jeopardizes many business areas in transport, freight, and logistics, research programs investigating future threats have been initiated. One of these programs is the Conference of European Directors of Roads' (CEDR) Transnational Research Programme (TRP), which emerged about a decade ago from a cooperation between European National Road Authorities and the EU. This paper presents findings of a CEDR project called CliPDaR, which has been designed to answer questions from road authorities concerning climate-driven future threats to transport infrastructure. Pertaining results are based on two potential future socio-economic pathways of mankind (one strongly economically oriented "A2" and one more balanced scenario "A1B"), which are used to drive global climate models (GCMs) producing global and continental scale climate change projections. In order to achieve climate change projections, which are valid on regional scales, GCM projections are downscaled by regional climate models. Results shown here originate from research questions raised by European Road Authorities. They refer to future occurrence frequencies of severely cold winter seasons in Fennoscandia, to particularly hot summer seasons in the Iberian Peninsula and to changes in extreme weather phenomena triggering landslides and rutting in Central Europe. Future occurrence frequencies of extreme winter and summer conditions are investigated by empirical orthogonal function analyses of GCM projections driven with by A2 and A1B pathways. The analysis of future weather phenomena triggering landslides and rutting events requires downscaled climate change projections. Hence, corresponding results are based on an ensemble of RCM projections, which was available for the A1B scenario. All analyzed risks to transport infrastructure are found to increase over the decades ahead with accelerating pace towards the end of this century. Mean Fennoscandian winter temperatures by the end of this century may match conditions of rather warm winter season experienced in the past and particularly warm future winter temperatures have not been observed so far. This applies in an even more pronounced manner to summer seasons in the Iberian Peninsula. Occurrence frequencies of extreme climate phenomena triggering landslides and rutting events in Central Europe are also projected to rise. Results show spatially differentiated patterns and indicate accelerated rates of increases.

  17. Virtual Libraries and Education in Virtual Worlds: Twenty-First Century Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lori; Lindbloom, Mary-Carol; Peters, Tom; Pope, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    As the use of the Internet and time spent on the Internet by individuals grows, and the use of virtual worlds like Active Worlds and Second Life increases, the library needs to have an interactive place and role in these worlds as well as a bricks and mortar space. This article provides an overview of what some libraries are doing in these worlds,…

  18. Abstracts and abstracting a genre and set of skills for the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Koltay, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Despite their changing role, abstracts remain useful in the digital world. Highly beneficial to information professionals and researchers who work and publish in different fields, this book summarizes the most important and up-to-date theory of abstracting, as well as giving advice and examples for the practice of writing different kinds of abstracts. The book discusses the length, the functions and basic structure of abstracts, outlining a new approach to informative and indicative abstracts. The abstractors' personality, their linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge and skills are also discu

  19. Combatting Domestic Terrorism: A Strategic Approach for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sienrukos, John

    1999-01-01

    .... In order to reach sound, strategic recommendations for combating terrorism, the author will begin with some background on terrorism, review the various definitions as defined by the Department...

  20. The Interactive Urban Model: Histories and Legacies Related to Prototyping the Twenty-First Century City

    OpenAIRE

    Verebes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article surveys the theoretical and historical legacies of mass production and standardization, and the cultural issues associated with globalization, in the most prolific era ever of urbanization. Situated at the intersection of scholarly writing on history, current conditions, and a speculative future, this article focuses on themes related to design research on computation, fabrication, and the city. Given the ongoing transition of industrial paradigm from Modernism’s dependency upon ...

  1. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  2. Twenty-first century quantum mechanics Hilbert space to quantum computers mathematical methods and conceptual foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Fano, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed to make accessible to nonspecialists the still evolving concepts of quantum mechanics and the terminology in which these are expressed. The opening chapters summarize elementary concepts of twentieth century quantum mechanics and describe the mathematical methods employed in the field, with clear explanation of, for example, Hilbert space, complex variables, complex vector spaces and Dirac notation, and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. After detailed discussion of the Schrödinger equation, subsequent chapters focus on isotropic vectors, used to construct spinors, and on conceptual problems associated with measurement, superposition, and decoherence in quantum systems. Here, due attention is paid to Bell’s inequality and the possible existence of hidden variables. Finally, progression toward quantum computation is examined in detail: if quantum computers can be made practicable, enormous enhancements in computing power, artificial intelligence, and secure communication will result...

  3. Is the Current US Navy Pacific Basing Structure Adequate for the Twenty-First Century?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alinio, Domingo B

    2006-01-01

    .... Despite its unresolved issues with Taiwan, territorial disputes in the South and East China Seas, and its ambiguous reaction to North Korea, China continues with its significant naval modernization...

  4. Medical Therapy for Cushing's Syndrome in the Twenty-first Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Biller, Beverly M K

    2018-06-01

    Medical therapy has a useful adjunctive role in many patients with Cushing's syndrome. Patients with pituitary corticotroph adenomas who have received radiation therapy to the sella require medical therapy until the effects of radiation therapy occur. In addition, patients with Cushing's syndrome who cannot undergo surgery promptly, including those who are acutely ill and cannot safely undergo tumor resection, may benefit from medical therapy as a bridge to surgery. Other possible candidates for medical therapy are those with unresectable tumors or those whose tumor location remains unknown despite adequate diagnostic evaluation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

    This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

  6. Desirable properties of wood for sustainable development in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Theodore H. Wegner; Ted Bilek; Charles H. Michler

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified desirable properties for wood based on current market-based trends for commercial uses (Wegner et al. 2010). World business models increasingly incorporate the concept of social responsibility and the tenets of sustainable development. Sustainable development is needed to support an estimated 9 billion people by 2050 within the carrying...

  7. Pacific Utopias and National Identities in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Va'ai

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Literary representations of the Pacific invariably present images of peaceful utopias/paradises especially in tourist brochures aimed at garnering the tourist dollar. These utopias are far removed from the tensions of a world haunted by the threat of terrorist activities and destruction which undermine global peace and security, especially since September 11th 2001. However, an examination of recent creative writing from writers of Oceania illustrate that these universal pressures and fears are evident in the local setting as well. Their fiction is full of the same angst, frustrations and dilemmas regarding cultural identities and cultural nationalism as those from their metropolitan neighbours in New Zealand and Australia. This essay will examine and analyse selected fiction from two such writers with a view to highlighting the conflicts emerging, especially in regards to the issues of political and cultural identities, indigeneity and the Pacific Paradise which is so much a part of the discourse of tourism, a major money earner for Pacific economies.

  8. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment. (letter)

  9. SBWR design update: Passively safe, nuclear power generation for the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, H.A.; Torbeck, J.E.; Billig, P.F.; Duncan, J.D.; Herzog, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of design, development and testing of a new generation of Boiling Water Reactors, the SBWR. The SBWR is a plant that will be significantly simpler to build, operate and maintain compared to operating plants. In this paper, the design and performance of the reference 670 MWe SBWR is summarized, the economics of SBWR power generation is addressed and the current developments in component testing and integrated system testing are given. This paper specifically discusses the current innovations and key reference design features of the SBWR including the RPV, depressurization system, pressure suppression system, flammability control system (based on passive autocatalytic recombiners), gravity driven cooling system, the passive containment cooling system, isolation condenser system and other unique engineered safety features that rely on gravity or stored energy to ensure core cooling, decay heat removal, and ATWS mitigation. The component and integrated system development testing summarized includes key results of recently concluded PANTHERS condenser tests conducted at SIET in Italy, GIRAFFE non-condensable gas testing by Toshiba in Japan, and the ongoing testing at the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland

  10. "Frankenstein" for the Twenty-First Century: An Exploration of Contemporary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Eileen A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley and how it might be used in secondary English classes as a means of investigating contemporary issues of technology and morality. Describes how one teacher asked students to identify a social issue from the novel and investigate it in today's news media. (HB)

  11. Nuclear power in the twenty-first century : a reality check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper's task is to project 100 years into the future. As the end of the 20th century approaches it is tempting to look ahead to the 21st , and to gaze into the proverbial crystal ball. What emerges from reviewing data is that the near term and the long term future for nuclear power appear reasonably clear, whereas it is the mid-term that is uncertain. By near term it is meant the period to the year 2010, the midterm to 2050, and the long term to the end of the 21st century and beyond. Population growth and socioeconomic factors are the primary drivers of energy demand. All others, such as economic growth, urbanization and electrification flow from these

  12. Artificial intelligence as a reflection of reality in the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev S. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses artificial intelligence (AI at the present stage of development, as a way of presenting and understanding AI as the mechanisms of computers. Features a large bunch of some algorithmic procedures for the solution by computer of a specific task, an example of which can serve as an attempt of modeling of biological neural networks.

  13. Minimalism and Beyond: Second Language Acquisition for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a general overview of two books--"The Second Time Around: Minimalism and Second Language Acquisition" and "Second Language Syntax: A Generative Introduction--and shows how the respond to key issues in second language acquisition, including the process of second language acquisition, access to universal grammar, the role of…

  14. The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty First Century Russian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Deyermond, Ruth Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Russian foreign policy demonstrates a dual approach to state sovereignty, using a Westphalian model of sovereignty outside the former Soviet region and a post-Soviet model inside it. This approach performs three functions in contemporary Russian foreign policy: securing Russian national interests at domestic, regional, and international levels; balancing against the United States; and acting as a marker of ‘non-Western’ power identity in an emergent multipolar order. The conflict...

  15. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st [twenty-first] century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Quality of Health Care in America; Institute of Medicine Staff; Iom; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    Second in a series of publications from the Institute of Medicine's Quality of Health Care in America project Today's health care providers have more research findings and more technology available...

  16. Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B. (eds.)

    1987-05-01

    This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately.

  17. DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE ARMED FORCES IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY CASE STUDIES OF NEW DEMOCRACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Cristiana (Cris MATEI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of thecontemporary value for democracy of the relationship between elected leadersand the armed forces. Hence, it focuses on the military effectiveness dimension ofthe CMR. It discusses why it is important and what newer democracies can do tosuccessfully develop effective armed forces. The article provides “lessons learned/best practices” of achieving effectiveness from three developing democracies - Chile,Hungary, and, Mongolia.

  18. The role of nuclear science and engineering in the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro

    1998-01-01

    For the sustainable development of the world and the welfare of mankind in the 21st century, nuclear energy and radiation including particle and photon beams must play an important role, although there is a large negative side in them. As in the 20th century, the activities of both research and education in Nuclear Science and Engineering (NSE) should be positively promoted and enhanced for safer nuclear energy and wider utilization of radiation and various beams and for the diminishment of their negative side. In this paper, a brief history of NSE in the 20th century and its implications are given first. As an example, the NSE activity in the 100 years' history of Kyoto University is shown. And then the 40 years' development of NSE in Japan is briefly introduced. Finally, presented is the way that the research and education in NSE in the 21st century should be. (author)

  19. Challenges, Capability and Will: Is NATO Relevant in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    Heads of State and Government at the NATO Summit in Lisbon November 19-20, 2010, 33. 18 Europe Field Study Notes, September 11, 2014. 19 Martin L. Cook ...has caused schizophrenia among policy makers in our country. Some say we are covered, and some say we are not, so we don’t put all our eggs in one...Documents 33, i.22 (June 2, 1997): 780- 782. Cook , Martin L. The Moral Warrior: Ethics and Service in the US Military. Albany, NY: State

  20. Material challenges for solar cells in the twenty-first century: directions in emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosni, Samy; Delamarre, Amaury; Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Cojocaru, Ludmila; Giteau, Maxime; Behaghel, Benoit; Julian, Anatole; Ibrahim, Camille; Tatry, Léa; Wang, Haibin; Kubo, Takaya; Uchida, Satoshi; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoya; Tamaki, Ryo; Shoji, Yasushi; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Ahsan, Nazmul; Watanabe, Kentaro; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Hamamura, Tomofumi; Toupance, Thierry; Olivier, Céline; Chambon, Sylvain; Vignau, Laurence; Geffroy, Camille; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Rale, Pierre; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane; Gibelli, François; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Aureau, Damien; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan-French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies. The cooperation was focused on efficient photovoltaic devices, such as multijunction, ultrathin, intermediate band, and hot-carrier solar cells, and on printable solar cell materials such as colloidal quantum dots.